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# July – 2007

14. [J-2007]
15. [J-2007]
18. [J-2007]
19. [J-2007]
26. [J-2007]
27. [J-2007]
31. [J-2007]

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
1. If
(
¸
(

¸
+ +
=
6 0
3 y 2 x
A is a scalar matrix then find the values of x and y. [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. Find the values of x and y by Cramer‟s rule given 1 y x & 7 y 3 x 2 = ÷ = + [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

3. Solve by matrix method: 1 z y x , 3 z 2 y x 3 , 1 z y x ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ + = ÷ + [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

4. Prove that
3
) c b a ( 9
b 3 a 3 c b 4 a 4
c 4 a 3 c 3 b a 4
c 4 b 4 c 3 b 3 a
+ + =
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
[J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

5. Find
3
A using Cayley-Hamilton theorm given
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
1 5
2 3
A . [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

6. If
(
¸
(

¸

= ÷
(
¸
(

¸
÷
= +
2 4 3
1 3 2
A B &
4 3 2
3 1 1
A B then the matrix A. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

7. If I
2 1
0 x
. 2
5 y
0 1
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
(
¸
(

¸

where I is the identity matrix then find x and y. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

8. If 0
z 1 1 1
1 y 1 1
1 1 x 1
=
+
+
+
wher 0 y , 0 x = = and 0 z = then prove that 0
x
1
1 = +
¿
[M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

9. Solve by Cramer‟s rule 8 y x 7 & 5 y 3 x 2 = ÷ = ÷ . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n
2 8 y x 7 and 1 5 y 3 x 2 are equations given Two > ÷÷ ÷ = ÷ > ÷÷ ÷ = ÷
19 24 5
1 8
3 5
Δ 19 21 2
1 7
3 2
Δ
1
= + ÷ =
÷
÷
= = + ÷ =
÷
÷
=
1
19
19
y and 1
19
19
x
19 35 16
8 7
5 2
2 1
2
÷ =
÷
=
A
A
= = =
A
A
=
÷ = ÷ = = A

10. If
(
¸
(

¸

=
3 7
4 2
A then find the inverse of A by using Cayeley-Hamilton theorem. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

11. If
(
¸
(

¸

+ ÷
+
1 x 3 x 2
2 x 4
is a symmetric matrix then find the value of x. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Given (
¸
(

¸

+ ÷
+
1 x 3 x 2
2 x 4
is a symmetric matrix
. 5 x 3 2 x x 2 2 x 3 x 2 = ¬ + = ÷ ¬ + = ÷ ¬
12. Without actual expansion show that . 0
2 3 17
4 7 35
6 1 43
=
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Let,
2 3 17
4 7 35
6 1 43
Δ =
0
2 3 3
4 7 7
6 1 1
2 3 14 17
4 7 28 35
6 1 42 43
Δ C 7 C ' C
3 1 1
= =
÷
÷
÷
= ¬ ÷ = [ Because
2 1
C & C are identical].

13. Solve the linear equations by using matrix method. 4 z y 2 x ; 3 z y 3 x 2 ; 3 z 2 y x 3 = + + ÷ = ÷ ÷ = + +

[J-2008,M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
The three given equations are 1 3 z 2 y x 3 > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + +
3 4 z y 2 x and 2 3 z y 3 x 2 > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ =
4
3
3
D and
1 2 1
1 3 2
2 1 3
A

8 14 3 3 ) 7 ( 2 ) 3 ( 1 ) 1 ( 3 | A |
) 3 4 ( 2 ) 1 2 ( 1 ) 2 3 ( 3
2 1
3 2
. 2
1 1
1 2
. 1
1 2
1 3
. 3
1 2 1
1 3 2
2 1 3
| A |
= + ÷ ÷ = + ÷ ÷ =
+ + + ÷ + ÷ =
÷
+
÷
÷
÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ =

Now the minors and cofactors are A are

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷ ÷
=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
÷
÷
÷ ÷
+
÷ + ÷
÷
+
÷
÷
÷ ÷
+
11 7 5
5 1 3
7 3 1
3 2
1 3
1 2
2 3
1 3
2 1
2 1
1 3
1 1
2 3
1 2
2 1
2 1
3 2
1 1
1 2
1 2
1 3

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷
÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷ ÷
=
11 5 7
7 1 3
5 3 1
11 7 5
5 1 3
7 3 1
) A ( adj , Now
T

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷
÷
= =
÷
11 5 7
7 1 3
5 3 1
.
8
1
| A |
1
A
1

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ +
+ ÷ ÷
+ ÷ ÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷
÷
= =
÷
1
2
1
8
16
8
.
8
1
44 15 21
28 3 9
20 9 3
.
8
1
4
3
3
.
11 5 7
7 1 3
5 3 1
.
8
1
D . A X
1

Hence, 1 z and 2 y , 2 x ÷ = = =

14. Show that
2 2 2
2
2 2
2 2
c b a 4
2 b a ab ca
bc a c ab
ac ab c b
=
+
+
+
. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
2 2
2 2
2 2
b a cb ca
bc a c ba
ac ab c b
LHS
+
+
+
=
) R R ( R ' R
3 2 1 1
+ ÷ = gives
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
a c b b
a c b a
a b 0
. 2
a c b b
a c b a
a 2 b 2 0
+
+ ÷ =
+
+
÷ ÷

Now,
1 3 3 1 2 2
R R ' R & R R ' R ÷ = ÷ = then we get
2 2
2 2
2 2
c 0 b
0 c a
a b 0
. 2 ÷ =
. RHS ch b a 4 )] c b 0 .( a ) 0 c a .( b .[ 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
= = ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ =

15. For the matrix
(
¸
(

¸

÷
=
θ cos θ sin
θ sin θ cos
A verify that ' AA is symmetric. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Given
(
¸
(

¸

÷
=
θ cos θ sin
θ sin θ cos
A
,
(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
θ cos θ sin
θ sin θ cos
' A
Now,
(
¸
(

¸

+ + ÷
+ ÷ +
=
(
¸
(

¸
÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
=
θ cos θ sin θ sin θ cos θ cos θ sin
θ cos θ sin θ cos θ cos θ sin θ cos
θ cos θ sin
θ sin θ cos
.
θ cos θ sin
θ sin θ cos
' A .
2 2
2 2

(
¸
(

¸

=
1 0
0 1
which is a symmetric matrix.
16. Solve by Cramer‟s ri;e 10 y x 2 = ÷ and 2 y 2 x = ÷ . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Two given equations are
10 y x 2 = ÷ and 2 y 2 x = ÷ .

2
3
6
Δ
Δ
y , 6
3
18
Δ
Δ
x
6 10 4
2 1
10 2
Δ , 18 2 20
2 2
1 10
Δ , 3 1 4
2 1
1 2
Δ
2 1
2 1
=
÷
÷
= = =
÷
÷
= =
÷ = ÷ = = ÷ = + ÷ =
÷
÷
= ÷ = + ÷ =
÷
÷
=

17. Prove that ) a c )( c b )( b a ( 2
ab c c 1
ca b b 1
bc a a 1
2
2
2
÷ ÷ ÷ =
+
+
+
. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

18. If
(
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
3 0
8 y 2 x 5
A is a scalar matrix then find the values of x and y. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Given, (
¸
(

¸
÷ ÷
=
3 0
8 y 2 x 5
A is a scalar matrix.

19. Evaluate :
2010 2007
2004 2001
. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
6 6
2004 2001
R R ' R , Take
1 2 2
¬ ÷ =

. 18 ) 3 ( 6 ] 2004 2001 [ 6 ) 6 ( ) 2004 ( ) 6 ( 2001 ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
02. Prove that ) a c )( c b )( b a ( 2
1 c ab c
1 b ca b
1 a bc a
2
2
2
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
+
+
+
. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
1 c ab c
1 b ca b
1 a bc a
LHS
2
2
2
+
+
+
=
Now
3 2
'
2 2 1
'
1
R R R and R R R ÷ = ÷ =

1 c ab c
0 c b ) ab ca ( ) c b (
0 b a ) ca bc ( ) b a (
1 c ab c
0 c b ab c ca b
0 b a ca b bc a
2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
+
÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ + ÷
=
+
÷ ÷ ÷ +
÷ ÷ ÷ +

1 c ab c
0 c b ) c b ( a ) c b )( c b (
0 b a ) b a ( c ) b a )( b a (
1 c ab c
0 c b ) b c ( a ) c b )( c b (
0 b a ) a b ( c ) b a )( b a (
2 2
+
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ +
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷
=
+
÷ ÷ + ÷ +
÷ ÷ + + ÷
=

1 c ab c
0 c b ) a c b )( c b (
0 b a ) c b a )( b a (
2
+
÷ ÷ + ÷
÷ ÷ + ÷
=
Now taking (a-b) and (b-c) outside from the frist rwo and second rwo respectively we get
1 c ab c
0 1 ) a c b (
0 1 ) c b a (
). c b )( b a (
2
+
÷ +
÷ +
÷ ÷

| |
. RHS ) a c )( c b )( b a ( 2 ) c a )( c b )( b a ( 2 ) c 2 a 2 )( c b )( b a (
] a c b c b a ).[ c b )( b a (
) a c b ( 1 ) 1 ).( c b a ( ). c b )( b a (
0
1 ab c
0 a c b
1
1 c
0 1
) c b a ( ). c b )( b a (
2
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ =
= + ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

+
+
÷ +
÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =

21. Find the values of x and y according to Cremer‟s rule: 2 y 5 x 4 & 7 y 2 x = ÷ = + . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Two given equations are 2 2 y 5 x 4 and 1 7 y 2 x > ÷÷ ÷ = ÷ > ÷÷ ÷ = +

. 2
13
26
y and 3
13
39
x
26 28 2
2 4
7 1
& 39 4 35
5 2
2 7
13 8 5
5 4
2 1
2 1
2 1
=
÷
÷
=
A
A
= =
÷
÷
=
A
A
=
÷ = ÷ = = A ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
÷
= A ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
÷
= A

22. If
(
¸
(

¸

=
5 2
3 2
A then find the inverse of A by using Cayley-Hamilton theorem. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Given matrix is (
¸
(

¸

=
5 2
3 2
A

0
0 0
0 0
4 0
0 4
35 14
21 14
31 14
21 10
4 0
0 4
35 14
21 14
25 6 10 4
15 6 6 4
1 0
0 1
. 4
5 2
3 2
. 7
5 2
3 2
.
5 2
3 2
I 4 A 7 A
1 0 I 4 A 7 A
0 4 7 0 6 5 2 10
0 6 ) 5 ).( 2 ( 0
5 2
3 2
0 | I A |
5 2
3 2
0
0
5 2
3 2
1 0
0 1
.
5 2
3 2
5 2
3 2
I A
2
2
2 2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
+ +
=
(
¸
(

¸

+
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

= + ÷ ¬
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + ÷ ¬
= + ì ÷ ì ¬ = ÷ ì + ì ÷ ì ÷ ¬
= ÷ ì ÷ ì ÷ ¬ =
ì ÷
ì ÷
¬ = ì ÷
(
¸
(

¸

ì ÷
ì ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

ì
ì
÷
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

ì ÷
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

= ì ÷

Hence, A satisfies its characteristic equation. Now multiplying (1) by
1
A
÷

(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

= ÷ = ¬
= + ÷ ¬ = + ÷ ¬
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
2 2
3 5
.
4
1
A , Hence
2 2
3 5
5 2
3 2
7 0
0 7
A I 7 A 4
0 A 4 I 7 A 0 A . I 4 A . A 7 A . A
1 1
1 1 1 1 2

23. Evaluate:
4324 4323
4322 4321
. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
1 2 2
R R ' R ÷ = gives

2 ) 1 ( 2 ] 4322 4321 [ 2 ) 2 ( 4322 ) 2 ( 4321
2 2
4322 4321
÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ¬
24. Find the characteristic roots of the square matrix
(
¸
(

¸

2 3
4 1
. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

26. Prove that
2 3
2
2
2
) 1 a (
1 a a
a 1 a
a a 1
÷ = . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

27. If the matrix
(
¸
(

¸
÷
x 3
2 x 6
is singular then find the value of x. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
x 3
2 x 6
A , Let . Given A is a singular matrix means 0 | A | =

0 6 x 3 x 6 0 ) 2 x ( 3 x 6 0
x 3
2 x 6
= + ÷ ¬ = ÷ ÷ ¬ =
÷
¬
. 2
3
6
x 0 6 x 3 ÷ = ÷ = ¬ = + ¬ . 2
3
6
x 0 6 x 3 ÷ = ÷ = ¬ = + ¬

28. Evaluate :
2
2
2
c bc ac
bc b ab
ac ab a
÷
÷
÷
[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
ly respective C and C , C from c , b , a side out taking Now
c c c
b b b
a a a
abc Δ
3 2 1
÷
÷
÷
=

1 1 1
1 1 1
1 1 1
) abc ).( abc (
÷
÷
÷
= Now taking a,b,c from first, second and third rows respectively then
we get
| |
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
c b a 4 2 2 0 c b a
1 1
1 1
1
1 1
1 1
1
1 1
1 1
1 c b a = + + =
(
¸
(

¸
÷
+
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ =

29. Find the values of x and y if
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸
÷
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
0 3 1
16 5 19
3 3 5
3 0 2
5 2 4
2 1 3
.
1 1 1
2 y 5
3 2 x
. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

30. Solve by Cramer‟s rule 10 y x 2 = ÷ and 2 y 2 x = ÷
[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

31. Using Cayley-Hamilton theorem, find the inverse of the matrix
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
1 3
2 1
A . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
Given equation is
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
1 3
2 1
A

0
0 0
0 0
5 0
0 5
2 6
4 2
7 6
4 7
5 0
0 5
2 6
4 2
1 6 3 3
2 2 6 1
1 0
0 1
. 5
1 3
2 1
. 2
1 3
2 1
.
1 3
2 1
I 5 A 2 A
1 0 I 5 A 2 A 0 5 2 0 6 2 1
0 6 ) 1 ( 0
1 3
2 1
0 | I A |
1 3
2 1
0
0
1 3
2 1
1 0
0 1
.
1 3
2 1
I A
2
2 2 2
2
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
+ +
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

= ÷ ÷
> ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ¬ = ÷ ì ÷ ì ¬ = ÷ ì ÷ ì + ¬
= ÷ ì ÷ ¬ =
ì ÷
ì ÷
¬ = ì ÷
(
¸
(

¸

ì ÷
ì ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

ì
ì
÷
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

ì ÷
(
¸
(

¸

= ì ÷

Hence, A satisfies its characteristic equation. Now multiplying (1) by
1
A
÷

(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

= ÷ = ¬
= ÷ ÷ ¬ = ÷ ÷ ¬
÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
1 3
2 1
.
5
1
A , Hence
1 3
2 1
2 0
0 2
1 3
2 1
1 0
0 1
. 2
1 3
2 1
I 2 A A 5
0 A 5 I 2 A 0 A . I 5 A . A 2 A . A
1
1
1 1 1 1 2

32. If the matrix
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
4 3 0
1 1 4
x 2 3
has no inverse then find the value of x. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
4 3 0
1 1 4
x 2 3
A , Let Given A is a singular matrix.

12
11
x 0 11 x 12 0 ) 0 12 ( x ) 0 16 ( 2 ) 3 4 ( 3
0
3 0
1 4
x
4 0
1 4
2
4 3
1 1
3 0
4 3 0
1 1 4
x 2 3
0 | A | . e , i
= = ÷ ¬ = ÷ + + ÷ + ¬
= +
÷
÷
÷
¬ = ÷ ¬ =

33. Solve by using Cramer‟s rule 8 y 2 x 3 = + and 5 y 3 x 4 = ÷ . [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Two given equations are 1 8 y 2 x 3 > ÷÷ ÷ = + and 2 5 y 3 x 4 > ÷÷ ÷ = ÷

1
17
17
y 2
17
34
x
17 32 15
5 4
8 3
34 10 24
3 5
2 8
17 8 9
3 4
2 3
2 1
2 1
=
÷
÷
=
A
A
= =
÷
÷
=
A
A
=
÷ = ÷ = = A ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
÷
= A ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
÷
= A

34. Prove that
2 2 2
2
2
1
c b a 1
1 c bc ac
bc 1 b ab
ac ab 1 a
+ + + =
+
+
+
. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
1 c bc ac
bc 1 b ab
ac ab 1 a
LHS
2
2
2
+
+
+
=
Multiplying and dividing first row by a, second row by b and third row by c then we get

) 1 c ( c bc ac
c b ) 1 b ( b ab
c a b a ) 1 a ( a
.
abc
1
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
+
+
+
=
Taking a,b,c outside from the first column , second column and third column respectively
then we get
) 1 c ( c c
b ) 1 b ( b
a a ) 1 a (
) 1 c ( c c
b ) 1 b ( b
a a ) 1 a (
.
abc
abc
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
+
+
+
=
+
+
+

Now,
3 2 1
1
R R R 1 R + + =

1 c c c
b 1 b b
c b a 1 c b a 1 c b a 1
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
+
+
+ + + + + + + + +

Taking
2 2 2
c b a 1 + + + outside from
1
R we get
1 c c c
b 1 b b
1 1 1
). c b a 1 (
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
+
+ + + +
Now,
3 2
1
2 2 1
1
C C C & C C 1 C ÷ = ÷ = then we get
1 c 1 0
b 1 1
1 0 0
). c b a 1 (
2
2 2 2 2
+ ÷
÷ + + +
. RHS ) c b a 1 ( ) 1 ).( c b a 1 (
1 0
1 1
. 1 0 0 ). c b a 1 (
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
= + + + = + + + =
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
+ ÷ + + +

35. State Cayley-Hamilton therorem. Verify the Cayley-Hamilton theorem for the matrix
(
¸
(

¸

=
4 3
2 1
A

[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Given matrix is (
¸
(

¸

=
4 3
2 1
A

(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

= ÷
λ 4 3
2 λ 1
λ 0
0 λ
4 3
2 1
1 0
0 1
. λ
4 3
2 1
I λ A

. equation stic characteri as known is This
1 0 2 5 . e , i
0 6 ) 4 ).( 1 ( 0
4 3
2 1
0 | I A |
. equation stic characteri the is 0 | I A | , Hence
2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ì ÷ ì
= ÷ ì ÷ ì ÷ ¬ =
ì ÷
ì ÷
¬ = ì ÷
= ì ÷

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸

= =
(
¸
(

¸

=
22 15
10 7
4 3
2 1
.
4 3
2 1
A . A A then
4 3
2 1
A , Now
2

.
1 3
2 4
.
2
1
A
1 3
2 4
5 0
0 5
4 3
2 1
I 5 A A 2 0 A 2 I 5 A . e , i
A . 0 I A 2 A . A 5 A . A A by ) 2 ( g Multiplyin
2 0 I 2 A 5 A , where A find to Now
. equation stic characteri the satisfies A
0 0
0 0
2 0
0 2
20 15
10 5
22 15
10 7
1 0
0 1
2
4 3
2 1
. 5
22 15
10 7
I 2 A 5 A , Now
1
1 1
1 1 1 1 2 1
2 1
2
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

= ÷ = ¬ = ÷ ÷
= ÷ ÷ ¬
> ÷÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷

(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
(
¸
(

¸

= ÷ ÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷

36. If
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ ÷
=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷ =
5 x 3 2 3
3 1 4
B &
1
2
3
3
1
4
A and ' A B= then find the value of x. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

37. Solve the equations by Cramer‟s rule 9 y 5 x 3 & 1 y 3 x 5 ÷ = + = + . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Two given equations are 2 9 y 5 x 3 and 1 1 y 3 x 5 > ÷÷ ÷ ÷ = + > ÷÷ ÷ = +

3
16
48
y 2
16
32
x
48 3 45
9 3
1 5
32 27 5
5 9
3 1
16 9 25
5 3
3 5
2 1
2 1
÷ = ÷ =
A
A
= = =
A
A
=
÷ = ÷ ÷ =
÷
= A = + =
÷
= A = ÷ = = A

38. If
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷
=
1 2 0
0 3 1
2 2 1
÷ : Sol
n
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷
=
1 2 0
0 3 1
2 2 1
A
Minors and co-factors of A are

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
÷
÷
÷
÷
+
÷
÷
÷
+
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
+
÷
÷
÷
+
5 2 2
2 1 1
6 2 3
5 2 6
2 1 2
2 1 3
5 2 6
2 1 2
2 1 3
3 1
2 1
0 1
2 1
0 3
2 2
2 0
2 1
1 0
2 1
1 2
2 2
2 0
3 1
1 0
0 1
1 2
0 3
T

39. Given
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
2 1
1 2
A then by using Cayley-Hamilton theorem P.T. 0 I 3 A 4 A
2
= + ÷ .[J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

40. Prove that ) c b a )( a c )( c b )( b a (
ab c 1
ca b 1
bc a 1
2
2
2
+ + ÷ ÷ ÷ = . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
ab c 1
ac b 1
bc a 1
LHS
2
2
2
=

ab c 1
) c b ( a ) c b )( c b ( 0
) b a ( c ) b a )( b a ( 0
ab c 1
) b c ( a ) c b )( c b ( 0
) a b ( c ) b a )( b a ( 0
ab c 1
ab ac c b 0
ac bc b a 0
R R ' R and R R 1 R , take Now
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
3 2 2 2 1
'
÷ ÷ ÷ +
÷ ÷ + ÷
= ÷ ÷ +
÷ + ÷
=
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
¬ ÷ = ÷ =

Now taking (a-b) and (b-c) outside from the first and second columns respectively,

ab c 1
a c ) a c ( 0
c ) b a ( 0
). c b )( b a (
ab c 1
a c ) b a c b ( 0
c ) b a ( 0
). c b )( b a (
R R ' R Now
ab c 1
a ) c b ( 0
c ) b a ( 0
). c b )( b a (
2 2
1 2 2
2
÷ ÷
÷ +
÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ +
÷ +
÷ ÷ ¬
÷ = ÷ +
÷ +
÷ ÷ =

Now taking (c-a) out side from the second column then

ab c 1
1 1 0
c ) b a ( 0
). a c )( c b )( b a (
2
÷ +
÷ ÷ ÷ ¬

| |
RHS ) c b a )( a c )( c b )( b a (
) 1 0 ( c ) 1 0 )( b a ( ). a c )( c b )( b a (
c 1
1 0
c
ab 1
1 0
). b a ( 0 ). a c )( c b )( b a (
ab c 1
1 1 0
c ) b a ( 0
). a c )( c b )( b a (
2
2
= + + ÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ +
÷ ÷ ÷ ¬

41. If
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
3
4
B &
2 1
3 4
A then find the value of AB. [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

42. Without expansion find the value of
2 12 10
1 x sin x cos
1 x cos x sin
2 2
2 2
÷
. [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

43. If
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷
10
0
30
z
y
x
.
3 2 1
1 4 3
5 6 7
then find the values of x,y and z by using Cramer‟s rule. [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

44. Using
(
(
(
¸
(

¸
÷
=
1 0 0
0 x cos x sin
0 x sin x cos
) x ( A find )] x ( A [ adj . Prove that )] x ( A [ )] x ( A [ adj ÷ = . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

ELEMENTS OF NUMBER THEORY AND CONGRUENCES
1. Find the least positive integer x satisfying ) 4 )(mod 3 x ( ) 1 x ( 3 + ÷ + [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. If b | a and c | a then prove that cy bx | a + where x and y are any tow integers. [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

3. Find the number of positive divisors & sum of all positive divisors of 30400. [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

4. Find the positive remainder obtained when
31
2 is divided by 7 using the method of congruence.
[J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

5. If a|b and b|c then prove that a|c. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

6. Find the sum of all positive divisors of 72. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

7. Find the G.C.D of 506 and 1155 and express it in the form of b 1155 a 506 + where a and b are
the integers. Also show that the expression is not unique. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

8. Find the number of incongruence solutions of the equation ) 6 (mod 2 x 2 ÷ . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

9. Find the least positive remainder when
30
7 is divided by 5. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

10. If ) m (mod b a ÷ and n is a positive divisor of m, then prove that ) n (mod b a ÷ . [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

11. Find the G.C.D of 495 and 675 using Euclid algorithm. And also express it in the form of
y 675 x 495 + where x & y are two integers. Also P.T. this expression is not unique.[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
495 ) 675 ( 1
495
------
180 180 = 675 – 1 x 495
180 ) 495 ( 2
360
------
135 135 = 495 – 2 x 180
135 ) 180 ( 1
135
------
45 45 = 180 – 1 x 135
45 ) 135 ( 3
135
------
0. Hence, G.C.D is 45.

3 y & 4 x , Hence y 675 x 495 45
3 x 675 4 x 495 45
495 x 4 675 x 3 45
495 x 1 495 x 3 675 x 3 45
495 x 1 ) 495 x 1 675 ( x 3 45
495 x 1 180 x 3 180 x 2 495 x 1 180 45
) 180 x 2 495 ( x 1 180 135 x 1 180 45
= ÷ = + =
+ ÷ =
÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ = + ÷ =
÷ ÷ = ÷ =

12. ) 6 (mod 2 x 3 ÷ has no solution why ? [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

13. If ) m (mod cb ca ÷ and c and m are relatively prime numbers then prove that ) m (mod b a ÷ .
[J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

14. Define G.C.D of two integers a and b. Find the G.C.D of 275 and 726. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
The G.C.D of the two integers a and b (both of them are not zero) is a unique positive
integer d such that
i. d is the common divisor of both a and b. i,e. . b | d and a | d
ii. every common divisor of a and b divides d. i,e. . d | x b | x and a | x ¬

275 & 726

275 ) 726 ( 2
550
-------
176
176 ) 275 ( 1
176
------
99
99 ) 176 ( 1
99
-----
77
77 ) 99 ( 1
77
----
22
22 ) 77 ( 3
66
----
11

11 ) 22 ( 2
22
----
0
Hence, G.C.D is 11.

15. Find the number of positive divisors of 252 by writing it as the product of primes. [J-2009]

252
÷ : Sol
n
2 126 Hence,
1 2 2
7 x 3 x 2 252 =
2 63 7 p , 3 p , 2 p and 1 a , 2 a , 2 a
3 2 1 3 2 1
= = = = = =
3 21 ) a 1 ).( a 1 ).( a 1 ( ) 252 ( T ) a ( T
3 2 1
+ + + = =
3 7 . 18 2 x 3 x 3 ) 1 1 ).( 2 1 ).( 2 1 ( = = + + + =
7 1

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
+ + + +
1 p
1 p
1 p
1 p
.
1 p
1 p
.
1 p
1 p
) a ( S
n
1 a
n
3
1 a
3
2
1 a
2
1
1 a
1
n 3 2 1

728 8 x 13 x 7
6
48
.
2
26
. 7
6
1 49
.
2
1 27
.
1
1 8
6
1 7
.
2
1 3
.
1
1 2
1 7
1 7
.
1 3
1 3
.
1 2
1 2
) 252 ( S ) a ( S
2 3 3 1 1 1 2 1 2
= = =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
= =
+ + +

16. If ) 7 (mod a 135 x 3 x 2
12 150
÷ find the least positive remainder when a is divided by 7. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

17. Find the least positive integer x satisfying ) 5 (mod 4 x 5 x 2 + ÷ + . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

18. The relation “congruence modulo m” is an equivalence relation on Z or prove that ) m (mod b a ÷
is an equivalence relation on Z. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

19. Find the number of all positive divisors and the sum of all positive divisors of 39744. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
39744
2 19872 Hence,
1 3 6
23 x 3 x 2 39744 =
2 9936 23 p , 3 p , 2 p and 1 a , 3 a , 6 a
3 2 1 3 2 1
= = = = = =
2 4968 ) a 1 ).( a 1 ).( a 1 ( ) 39744 ( T ) a ( T
3 2 1
+ + + = =
2 2484 . 56 2 x 4 x 7 ) 1 1 ).( 3 1 ).( 6 1 ( = = + + + =
2 1242
2 621
3 207
3 69
3 23
23 1
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
+ + + +
1 p
1 p
1 p
1 p
.
1 p
1 p
.
1 p
1 p
) a ( S
n
1 a
n
3
1 a
3
2
1 a
2
1
1 a
1
n 3 2 1

121920 24 x 40 x 127
22
528
.
2
80
. 127
22
1 529
.
2
1 81
.
1
1 128
22
1 23
.
2
1 3
.
1
1 2
1 23
1 23
.
1 3
1 3
.
1 2
1 2
) 39744 ( S ) a ( S
2 4 7 1 1 1 3 1 6
= = =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
= =
+ + +

20. Find the digit in the unit place of
123
7 . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

21. Find the number of incongruent solutions of ) 30 (mod 21 x 9 ÷ . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

22. Find the G.C.D or 352 and 891. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
352 ) 891 ( 2
704
------
187
187 ) 352 ( 1
187
-------
165
165 ) 187 ( 1
165
-------
22
22 ) 165 ( 2
154
-------
11
11 ) 22 ( 2
22
------
00 Hence, G.C.D is 11.

23. Find the number of positive divisors and sum of all such positive divisors and sum of all such
positive divisors of 756. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
756
2 378 Hence,
1 3 2
7 x 3 x 2 756 =
2 189 1 a , 3 a , 2 a and 7 p , 3 p , 2 p
3 2 1 3 2 1
= = = = = =
3 63 ) 1 1 ).( 3 1 ).( 2 1 ( ) a 1 ).( a 1 ).( a 1 ( ) 756 ( T ) a ( T
3 2 1
+ + + = + + + = =
3 21 24 ) 2 ).( 4 .( 3 = =
3 7
7 1

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
+ + + +
1 p
1 p
1 p
1 p
.
1 p
1 p
.
1 p
1 p
) a ( S
n
1 a
n
3
1 a
3
2
1 a
2
1
1 a
1
n 3 2 1

1960 7 . 40 . 7
6
1 49
.
2
1 81
.
1
1 8
6
1 7
.
2
1 3
.
1
1 2
1 7
1 7
.
1 3
1 3
.
1 2
1 2
) 756 ( S ) a ( S
2 4 3 1 1 1 3 1 2
= =
÷ ÷ ÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
= =
+ + +

24. If a|bcand (a,b) = 1 then prove that a|c. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

25. Find the remainder when
202
2 is divided by 11 ( least positive remainder). [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

26. Find the integer x, satisfying the congruence ) 13 (mod 4 x 5 ÷ . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

27. If ) m (mod b a ÷ and n > 1 is a positive divisor of m, then prove that ) n (mod b a ÷ . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

28. Find the G.C.D of 408 and 1032 using Euclidean algorithm. Express it in the form of
n 1032 m 408 + where m and n are the two integers. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
408 ) 1032 ( 2
816
-------
216 216 = 1032 – 2 x 408
216 ) 408 ( 1
216
-------
192 192 = 408 – 1 x 216
192 ) 216 ( 1
192
------
24 24 = 216 – 1 x 192
24 ) 192 ( 8
192
-------
0 Hence, G.C.D is 24.

2 n & 5 m , Hence n 1032 m 408 24
2 x 1032 5 x 408 24
408 x 5 1032 x 2 24
408 x 1 408 x 4 1032 x 2 24
408 x 1 ) 408 x 2 1032 ( x 2 24
408 x 1 216 x 2 24
216 x 1 408 x 1 216 24
) 216 x 1 408 ( x 1 216 192 x 1 216 24
= ÷ = + =
+ ÷ =
÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ =
+ ÷ =
÷ ÷ = ÷ =

29. Find the number of incongruent solutions for ) 15 (mod 3 x 6 ÷
[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

30. If a|b and a|c then prove that c b | a + . [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

31. Find the number of all positive divisors and the sum of all such positive divisors of 432.[M-2006]
432
÷ : Sol
n
2 216 Hence,
3 4
3 x 2 432 =
2 108 3 p , 2 p and 3 a , 4 a
2 1 2 1
= = = =
2 54
2 27 ) a 1 ).( a 1 ( ) 432 ( T ) a ( T
2 1
+ + = =
3 9 . 20 4 x 5 ) 3 1 ).( 4 1 ( = = + + =
3 3
3 1

(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
=
+ + + +
1 p
1 p
1 p
1 p
.
1 p
1 p
.
1 p
1 p
) a ( S
n
1 a
n
3
1 a
3
2
1 a
2
1
1 a
1
n 3 2 1

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
= =
+ +
2
1 3
.
1
1 2
1 3
1 3
.
1 2
1 2
) 432 ( S ) a ( S
4 5 1 3 1 4

1240 40 x 31
2
80
. 31
2
1 81
.
1
1 32
= = =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
=

31. Find the remainder when 75 x 73 x 71 is divided by 23. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

32. Find the digit in the unit place of
12
3 . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

33. If (c,a) = 1 and c|ab then prove that c|b. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

34. Find the G.C.D of 252 and 595 and express it in the form of b 595 a 252 + where a and b are the
integers. Also show that this expression is not unique. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
252 ) 595 ( 2
504
------
91 91 = 595 – 2 x 252
91 ) 252 ( 2
182
------
70 70 = 252 – 2 x 91
70 ) 91 ( 1
70
-----
21 21 = 91 – 1 x 70
21 ) 70 ( 3
63
-----
7 7 = 70 – 3 x 21
7 ) 21 ( 3
21
----
0 Hence, G.C.D is 7.

11 b & 26 a , Hence b 595 a 252 7
11 x 595 26 x 252 7
595 x 11 252 x 26 7
252 x 22 595 x 11 252 x 4 7
) 252 x 2 595 ( x 11 252 x 4 7
91 x 11 252 x 4 7
91 x 3 91 x 8 252 x 4 7
91 x 3 ) 91 x 2 252 ( x 4 7
91 x 3 70 x 4 7
70 x 3 91 x 3 70 7
) 70 x 1 91 ( x 3 70 7
21 x 3 70 7
÷ = = + =
÷ + =
÷ =
+ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ =
+ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ =

2263 ' b & 621 ' a , Where ' xb 595 ' xa 252 7
) 252 11 ( x 595 ) 595 26 ( x 252 7
595 x 252 595 x 252 595 x 11 252 x 26 7
÷ = = + =
+ ÷ + =
÷ + ÷ =

Hence, the expression b 595 a 252 + is not unique.

35. If ) 10 (mod x 3
127
÷ then find the value of x. [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

36. If ) m (mod b a ÷ and n|m where n is an integer then prove that ) n (mod b a ÷ . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

37. Find the G.C.D of 48 and 18. If n 18 m 48 6 + = then find the values of m and n.
Solve ) 7 (mod 32 x 51 ÷ . Write the solution set. [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
18 ) 48 ( 2
36
-----
12 12 = 48 -2 x 18
12 ) 18 ( 1
12
-----
6 6 = 18 – 1 x 12
6 ) 12 ( 2
12
-----
0 Hence, G.C.D is 6.

. 3 n & 1 m , Hence n 18 m 48 6
3 x 18 1 x 48 6
48 x 1 18 x 3 6
18 x 2 48 x 1 18 6
) 18 x 2 48 ( x 1 18 6
12 x 1 18 6
= ÷ = + =
+ ÷ =
÷ =
+ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ =

GROUP THEORY
1. On the set of all integers a binary operation * is defined by 5 b a b * a + + = , then find the identity
element. [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. In a group (G,*) prove that the identity element is unique. [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

3. If
+
Q is the set of all positive rational numbers and a binary operation * is defined on
+
Q by

3
ab 2
b * a = for all
+
eQ b , a , prove that
+
Q is an abelian group with respect to *. [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

4. Find the identity element in the set of all positive rationals
+
Q , * is defined by
2
ab
b * a =
for all
+
eQ b , a . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

5. Write the composition table for G = {2,4,6,8} under the multiplication modulo 10 and also
find the identity element. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

6. Prove that the set M of all 2 x 2 matrices with the elements of real numbers form an abelian
group with respect to the addition of matrices. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

7. Define a sub-group. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

8. If G = {0,1,2,3} under the multiplication modulo 4 a group ? Give reason. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

9. On the set of real numbers the binary operation * is defined by
2 2
b a b * a + = for all R b , a e
then prove that * is both commutative and associative also find the identity element. [M-2009]
. e associativ an is . c ) b a ( ) c b ( a , Hence
c b a c b a c ) b a ( c b a
) c b ( a c b a ) c b ( a b a b a : Sol
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 n
- - - = - -
+ + = - + = - - + + =
+ + = + - = - - + = - ÷

10. If a is the element of the group (G,*) then prove that a ) a (
1 1
=
÷ ÷
. [M-2008,2009]
. a ) a ( a x . e , i
a is x of inverse the that means This
e x a a x
] law inverse by [ e a a x a
] law inverse by [ e a a a x consider Now : oof Pr
1 1 1
1
1
= ¬ =
= - = -
= - = -
= - = - ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷

11. On the set of integers Z an operation * is defined by
b
a b * a = for all I b , a e . Then examine * is
binary operation or not on the set of integers I. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

12. Define semi group. Examine whether {1,2,3,4} is a semi group under addition modulo 5.
[J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

13. On
+
Q the set of all positive rational numbers an operation * is defined by
+
e ¬ = Q b , a ,
3
ab
b * a .
Find the identity element and inverse of a in
+
Q . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

14. Prove that a non-empty subset H of a group G is a subgroup of G, if H b , a e ¬ . Hence prove that
if H and K are subgroups of a group G then prove that K H· is a subgroup of G. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

15. If
7
ab 3
b * a = then prove that * is associative. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Associative law:- For all . c * ) b * a ( ) c * b ( * a , then Q c , b , a = e
Q b , a .
7
ab 3
b a , Given e ¬ = -

7
bc 3
x , where x a
Q
7
bc 3
c b
7
bc 3
a ) c b ( a
= - =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
e = - - = - -
+

. good holds law e associativ , Hence
c ) b a ( ) c b ( a ) 2 ( and ) 1 ( from , Hence
2
49
abc 9
7
c
7
ab 3 . 3
7
yc 3
7
ab 3
y , where c y c
7
ab 3
c ) b a (
1
49
abc 9
7
7
bc 3
. a 3
7
ax 3
- - = - - ¬
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = = =
= - = - = - -
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = = =

16. If in a group (G,*) for all G ae , a a
1
=
÷
then prove that (G,*) is an abelian group. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

25. Prove that the set } x : 4 , 2 , 1 { H
7
= is a sub group of the group } x : 6 , 5 , 4 , 3 , 2 , 1 { G
7
= .[M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

17. Prove that the identity element of a group is unique. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
If possible let there be two identity elements ' e and e in a group ) , G ( -
Since e is an identity element, 1 ' e ' e e e ' e > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = - = -
Since ' e is an identity element, 2 e e ' e ' e e > ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = - = -
Now from the two equations 1 and 2 we have ' e e =
Hence, the identity element in a group is unique. I,e. there is only one identity element in a
group.

18. In a group ) 6 obd , z (
6
+ find the value of
1
6
1
6
3 4 2
÷ ÷
+ + . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

19. Prove that a group of order three is abelian. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

20. Prove that the set of integers Z is an abelian group under the binary operation * defined by
Z b , a 3 b a b * a e ¬ + + = . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

21. On the set of integers Z if * is defined by 1 b a b * a + + = for all Z b , a e , then find the identity
element. [M-2207]
÷ : Sol
n
By the given data, . Z b , a , 1 b a b a e ¬ + + = -
Let 2 c 1 c 2 c 1 1 c ) 1 c ( that such be , Z c + = - ¬ + = + + = - e
2 c c 1 c 2 1 c 1 ) c 1 ( Again + = - ¬ + = + + = -
Hence, one acts as the identity element in Z with respect to „ - ‟

22. Define the binary operation on the non-empty set S. Given an example to show that on Z the
operation * defined by
b
a b * a = is not binary. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
Let S be a non – empty set. An operation - (star) is called as a binary operation on S if
for all S b , a e . I.e. the operation - is a rule by which every pair of elements a and b of S can be
combined to get an unique element c. I.e. . S b a c e - =
A binary operation is also called as binary composition.

23. Given that H is a non-empty subset of a set G and (G,*) is a group. If for all H b , a e , H b * a
1
e
÷

Then prove that (H,*) is a sub-group of the group (G,*). [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

24. If in a group G, every element is its own inverse then prove that G is an abelian group.[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

25. In a group G = {1,2,3,4} under the multiplication modulo 5 then find the value of
1 1
) 4 x 3 (
÷ ÷
.
[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

26. Prove that H = {0,3} is a sub-group of the group G = {0,1,2,3,4,5} under the addition modulo 6.
[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

27. If
+
Q is the set of all positive rationals, then prove that ,*) Q (
+
is an abelian group. Where * is
defined by
3
ab 2
b * a = . [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

28. If the binary operation * on the set of integers Z is defined by 5 b a b * a + + = then find the
identity element. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

29. Prove that in a group (G,*) prove that G b , a a * b ) b * a (
1 1 1
e ¬ =
÷ ÷ ÷
. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

30. Prove that } real is θ | θ sin i θ {cos G + = is an abelian group under multiplication. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

31. In a group (G,*), if e x * a = for all G ae , then find x. [J-2007]
32. If
+
Q is the set of all positive rational numbers with respect to * defined by
3
ab 2
b * a = for all
+
eQ b , a . Find the identity element and inverse of a under the binary operation *.
[A-2007,J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
1. Closure law :-
+
e ¬ = - Q b , a .
3
ab 2
b a . As a and b are the two positive
rational numbers, then
3
ab 2
is also a positive rational number.

+
e = - Q
3
ab 2
b a Hence, the closure law holds good.
2. Associative law:-
+
e ¬ = - Q b , a .
3
ab 2
b a

3
bc 2
x , where x a
Q
3
bc 2
c b
3
bc 2
a ) c b ( a
= - =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
e = - - = - -
+

. good holds law e associativ , Hence
c ) b a ( ) c b ( a ) 2 ( and ) 1 ( from , Hence
2
9
abc 2
3
c
3
ab 2
3
yc
3
ab 2
y , where c y c
3
ab 2
c ) b a (
1
9
abc 2
3
3
bc 2
. a
3
ax
- - = - - ¬
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = = =
= - = - = - -
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = = =

3. Existance of identity :- Let e be the identity element.

. element identity the
2
3
Hence
Q
2
3
e a
3
ae 2
3
ae 2
e a But a a e e a
+
e = ¬ =
= - = - = -

4. Existance of inverse :- a of inverse the be a Let
1 ÷

3
a . a 2
a a But . 3 e a a
1
1 1
÷
÷ ÷
= - = = -

+
+ ÷
÷
e
e = ¬ = ¬
Q
a 2
9
is a of Inverse
. Q
a 2
9
a 3
3
a . a 2
1
1

5. Commutative law :-

. group abelian an is ) , Q ( . e commutativ is , Hence
a b b a , a . b b . a and a b b a , Since
3
ba 2
a b and
3
ab 2
b a
- -
- = - = + = +
= - = -
+

33. Prove that the set } 5 , 5 , 5 , 5 , 5 , 5 , 5 { G
3 2 1 0 1 2 3
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷
is an abelian group under the usual
multiplication. [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

VECTORS
1 Find the unit vector in the direction of the vector
÷ ÷ ÷
+ = j 4 i 3 a [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. If
÷
a is the unit vector and 8 ) a x ).( a x ( = + ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
then find the value of
÷
x [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

3. Show that the points A(2,3-1) , B(1,-2,3) , C(3,4,-2) and D(1,-6,6) are coplanar. [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

4. Find the unit vector perpendicular to both
÷
a and
÷
b given . k j 3 i 2 b & k 2 j i 3 a ÷ + = ÷ + =
÷ ÷

[J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

5. Prove by vector method that the angle in a semicircle is equal to
0
90 [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

6. Let
÷
a ,
÷
b and
÷
c be any three vectors such that 4 | c | , 3 | b | , 2 | a | = = =
÷ ÷ ÷
and each vector is equal to
the sum of the other two vectors then find the value of | c b a |
÷ ÷ ÷
+ + [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

7. If the vectors k j i 2 a + + =
÷
and k j 4 i 3 b ÷ + =
÷
then find the value of
÷ ÷
b . a . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

8. Find the area of the triangle whose two adjacent sides are determined by the two vectors
k 3 j 5 i 4 & k 2 j 3 i 2 + + + + . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

9. Find the vector of magnitude 12 units which is perpendicular to both the vectors k 3 j i 4 a + ÷ =
÷

and k 2 j i 2 b ÷ + ÷ =
÷
. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

10. If k 3 j 2 i 5 a ÷ + =
÷
& k 5 j 2 i 4 b + + =
÷
are the vectors find the projection of
÷
a on
÷
b . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

11. Prove by vector method that B sin . A cos B cos . A sin ) B A sin( ÷ = ÷ [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

12. If 7 | c | , 5 | b | , 3 | a | & 0 c b a = = = = + +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
then find the angle between the vectors
÷
a &
÷
b [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

13. Find the direction cosines of the vector k 2 j 3 i 2 + ÷
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

14. Find the area of the parallelogram whose diagonals are given by the vectors
. k j 4 i 3 & k j i 2 ÷ + + ÷
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

15. Find the sine of the angle between the two vectors k 3 j 2 i + ÷ and k j i 2 + + . [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, k 3 j 2 i a + ÷ =
÷
and k j i 2 b + + =
÷
.

1 2
2 1
. k
1 2
3 1
. j
1 1
3 2
. i
1 1 2
3 2 1
k j i
b b b
a a a
k j i
b x a
3 2 1
3 2 1
÷
+ ÷
÷
= ÷ = =
÷ ÷

k 5 j 5 i 5 ) 4 1 .( k ) 6 1 .( j ) 3 2 .( i + + ÷ = + + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
3 5 3 x 25 25 25 25 ) 5 ( ) 5 ( ) 5 ( | b x a |
2 2 2
= = + + = + + ÷ =
÷ ÷

14 9 4 1 ) 3 ( ) 2 ( ) 1 ( | a |
2 2 2
= + + = + ÷ + =
÷

6 1 1 4 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( ) 2 ( | b |
2 2 2
= + + = + + =
÷

.
7 2
5
3 . 7 2
3 5
3 x 7 2
3 5
21 2
3 5
21 x 4
3 5
84
3 5
6 . 14
3 5
| b | . | a |
| b x a |
sin = = = = = = = = u
÷ ÷
÷ ÷

16. Prove that the vectors j 2 i & k 2 j 3 i , 2 j + ÷ ÷ ÷ + form the vertices of the vectors of an isosceles.
triangle. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

17. Prove that
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

+ + +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
c b a 2 a c c b b a
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

18. Show that
2 2 2 2
b . a b a a x a
(
¸
(

¸

÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
19. If k j 2 i & k 4 j 3 i 2 , k 2 j i λ ÷ + + ÷ + + are coplanar then find the value of λ . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, k j 2 i c , k 4 j 3 i 2 b , k 2 j i a ÷ + = + ÷ = + + ì =
÷ ÷ ÷

The condition for the three vectors, a,b,c to be coplanar is . 0 ) c x b .( a =
÷ ÷ ÷

0
2 1
3 2
. 2
1 1
4 2
. 1
1 2
4 3
. 0
1 2 1
4 3 2
2 1
) c x b .( a =
÷
+
÷
÷
÷
÷
ì ¬ =
÷
÷
ì
=
÷ ÷ ÷

4
5
20
20 5 0 20 5
0 14 6 5 0 ) 3 4 .( 2 ) 4 2 .( 1 ) 8 3 .(
=
÷
÷
= ì ¬ ÷ = ì ÷ ¬ = + ì ÷ ¬
= + + ì ÷ ¬ = + + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ì ¬

20. Given, k j 2 i b , k j i 2 a ÷ + = + + =
÷ ÷
, find the unit vector perpendicular to
÷
a and coplanar with
÷
a
and
÷
b . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

21. If 0 c b a = + +
÷ ÷ ÷
then prove that
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= = a x c c x b b x a . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

22. If
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ + = + + c b a c b a then find the angle between
÷ ÷
+ b a and
÷
c . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

23. Define co-planar vectors. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

24. If the vectors k j 2 i λ ÷ + and k 2 j 3 i + ÷ are orthogonal then find the value of λ . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, k j 2 i a ÷ + ì =
÷
and k 2 j 3 i b + ÷ =
÷

Condition for orthogonal is 0 b . a =
÷ ÷

0 ) 2 )( 1 ( ) 3 ( 2 ) 1 ( b . a = ÷ + ÷ + ì = ¬
÷ ÷

8 0 8 0 2 6 = ì ¬ = ÷ ì ¬ = ÷ ÷ ì ¬
26. If the vectors k 7 j 2 i 3 & k 14 j i 5 , k 9 j 2 i 4 , k λ j i + + + + + + + ÷ are the position vectors of the four
coplanar points then find the value of λ . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

27. Find the unit vector in the direction of k 2 j i 2 + ÷ . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

28. Prove by sine rule
C sin
c
B sin
b
A sin
a
= = by the vector method. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

29. If 24 b a , 19 b , 13 a = + = =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
then find the value of
÷ ÷
÷ b a . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

30. Find the position vector of the point P . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

31. Find the volume of parallelepiped whose co-terminus edges are the vectors k 3 j i 2 , k 2 j 3 i + ÷ + + ,
k j i + + . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, k j i c , k 3 j i 2 b , k 2 j 3 i a + + = + ÷ = + + =
÷ ÷ ÷

Volume =
1 1
1 2
. 2
1 1
3 2
. 3
1 1
3 1
. 1
1 1 1
3 1 2
2 3 1
c c c
b b b
a a a
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
÷
÷ ÷
÷
= ÷ =
. units cubic 7 7 6 3 4 ) 3 ( 2 ) 1 ( 3 ) 4 ( 1 ) 1 2 ( 2 ) 3 2 ( 3 ) 3 1 ( 1 = ÷ = ÷ + ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
32. If k 2 j 3 i c & k j i 2 b , k 3 j 2 i a ÷ + = ÷ + = ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷
then find the unit vector perpendicular to
÷
a in the
same plane on
÷
b and
÷
c . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

33. Find the area of parallelogram whose diagonals are the vectors k j i 2 + + and k 3 j 2 i + ÷ .[J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

34. Prove that
2
c b a a x c c x b b x a
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

35. If 0 c b a = + +
÷ ÷ ÷
and 7 c , 5 b , 3 a = = =
÷ ÷ ÷
then find the angle between
÷
a and
÷
b . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

36. If j 3 i 2 a + =
÷
and j 4 i 3 a + =
÷
then find the magnitude of
÷ ÷
+ b a . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

37. Find the angle between the vectors k j 2 i 2 + ÷ and k 2 j i 2 ÷ ÷ . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
k j 2 i 2 a + ÷ =
÷
& k 2 j i 2 b ÷ + =
÷

3 9 4 1 4 | b | & 3 9 1 4 4 | a |
. 0 2 2 4 ) 2 ( 1 ) 1 ( 2 ) 2 ( 2 ) k 2 j i 2 ).( k j 2 i 2 ( b . a
= = + + = = = + + =
= ÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ = ÷ + + ÷ =
÷ ÷
÷ ÷

If u is the angle between the two vectors
÷ ÷
b & a then
| b | . | a |
b . a
cos
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
= u
. 90 ) 0 ( cos 0
9
0
3 . 3
0
| b | . | a |
b . a
cos
0 1
= = u ¬ = = = = u
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷

38. By using vector method, find the area of the triangle whose vertices are ) 4 , 2 , 1 ( , ) 1 , 1 , 2 ( , ) 3 , 2 , 1 ( ÷ ÷ .
[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
Let
). 4 , 2 , 1 ( C , ) 1 , 1 , 2 ( B , ) 3 , 2 , 1 ( A ÷ ÷
. k 4 j 2 i OC , k j i 2 OB , k 3 j 2 i OA ÷ + = + ÷ = + + =
÷ ÷ ÷

k 2 j 3 i k 3 j 2 i k j i 2 ) k 3 j 2 i ( k j i 2 OA OB AB ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ = + + ÷ + ÷ = ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷

k 7 k 3 j 2 i k 4 j 2 i ) k 3 j 2 i ( k 4 j 2 i OA OC AC ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + = + + ÷ ÷ + = ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷

j 7 i 21 ) 0 0 .( k ) 0 7 .( j ) 0 21 .( i
0 0
3 1
. k
7 0
2 1
. j
7 0
2 3
. i
7 0 0
2 3 1
k j i
AC x AB
+ = ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷
+
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
=
÷
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷
10 7 490 49 441 | AC x AB | = = + =
÷ ÷

Area of triangle =
2
10 7
10 7 x
2
1
| AC x AB | x
2
1
= =
÷ ÷
sq units.
39. Find the volume of the parallelepiped whose coterminous edges are given by the vectors
k 3 j 3 i & k 2 j 2 i 3 , k j i 2 ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, . k 3 j 3 i c & k 2 j 2 i 3 b , k j i 2 a ÷ ÷ = + ÷ = ÷ + =
÷ ÷ ÷

Volume =
3 1
2 3
. 1
3 1
2 3
. 1
3 3
2 2
. 2
3 3 1
2 2 3
1 1 2
c c c
b b b
a a a
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
=
÷ ÷
÷
÷
=
. units cubic 42 7 11 24 ) 7 ( 1 ) 11 ( 1 ) 12 ( 2 ) 2 9 ( 1 ) 2 9 ( 1 ) 6 6 ( 2 = + + = ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
40. Prove by vector method that the medians of a triangle are concurrent. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

41. If the vectors k 2 j i 3 a ÷ + =
÷
and k 3 j λ i b ÷ + =
÷
are perpendicular then find λ . [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, k 2 j i 3 a ÷ + =
÷
and k 3 j i b ÷ ì + =
÷

0 ) 3 ).( 2 ( ) ).( 1 ( ) 1 ).( 3 ( 0 b . a b a = ÷ ÷ + ì + ¬ = ¬ ±
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

. 9 0 9 0 6 3 ÷ = ì ¬ = + ì ¬ = + ì + ¬
42. Find the volume of the parallelepiped whose coterminous edges are k 3 j 2 i a + + =
÷
, k j 2 i b + ÷ =
÷

and k j 2 i 3 c + + =
÷
. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, . k j 2 i 3 c & k j 2 i b ,. k 3 j 2 i a + + = + ÷ = + + =
÷ ÷ ÷

Volume =
2 3
2 1
. 3
1 3
1 1
. 2
1 2
1 2
. 1
1 2 3
1 2 1
3 2 1
c c c
b b b
a a a
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
÷
+ ÷
÷
= ÷ =
. units cubic 24 24 4 4 ) 8 ( 3 ) 2 ( 2 ) 4 ( 1 ) 6 2 ( 3 ) 3 1 ( 2 ) 2 2 ( 1 = + + ÷ = + ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =

43. IF k j i a + + =
÷
, k 3 j 2 i b + + =
÷
and k 4 j i 2 c + + =
÷
then find unit vector in the direction of
) c x b ( x a
÷ ÷ ÷
. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

44. If α cos , β cos and γ cos are the direction cosines of the vector k 2 j i 2 ÷ + then prove that
1 γ cos β cos α cos
2 2 2
= + + . [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

45. Prove that
2
c b a b x a , a x c , c x b
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

46. Find the direction cosines of the vector k 2 j 6 i 3 + ÷ . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

47. Find the volume of parallelepiped whose coterminous edges are k 4 j 3 i ÷ ÷ , k j i 3 + ÷ and k 3 i 2 + .
[J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, . k 3 i 2 c & k j i 3 b ,. k 4 j 3 i a + = + ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷

Volume =
0 2
1 3
. 4
3 2
1 3
. 3
3 0
1 1
. 1
3 0 2
1 1 3
4 3 1
c c c
b b b
a a a
3 2 1
3 2 1
3 2 1
÷
÷ +
÷
= ÷
÷ ÷
=
. units cubic 10 8 21 3 ) 2 ( 4 ) 7 ( 3 ) 3 ( 1 ) 2 0 ( 4 ) 2 9 ( 3 ) 0 3 ( 1 = ÷ + ÷ = ÷ + ÷ = + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =

48. Prove that
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
¸
(

¸

+ + +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
c b a . 2 a c , c b , b a
[J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

49. Find the sine of the angle between the vectors k j 2 i a + ÷ =
÷
and k 6 j 3 i 2 b + ÷ =
÷
. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, k 6 j 3 i 2 b . & k j 2 i a + ÷ = + ÷ =
÷ ÷

3 2
2 1
. k
6 2
1 1
. j
6 3
1 2
. i
6 3 2
1 2 1
k j i
b b b
a a a
k j i
b x a
3 2 1
3 2 1
÷
÷
+ ÷
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ = =
÷ ÷

k j 4 i 9 ) 4 3 .( k ) 2 6 .( j ) 3 12 .( i + ÷ ÷ = + ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
Now, 2 7 98 1 16 81 ) 1 ( ) 4 ( ) 9 ( | b x a |
2 2 2
= = + + = + ÷ + ÷ =
÷ ÷

7 49 36 9 4 ) 6 ( ) 3 ( ) 2 ( | b |
2 2 2
= = + + = + ÷ + =
÷

3
1
3 . 2
2
6
2
6 . 7
2 7
| b | . | a |
| b x a |
sin = = = = = u
÷ ÷
÷ ÷

50. If k 3 j 2 i a ÷ ÷ =
÷
, k j i 2 b ÷ + =
÷
and k 2 j 3 i c ÷ + =
÷
then find a unit vector perpendicular to
÷
a and
the same plane as
÷
b and
÷
c . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

51. Find the value of ) k 2 j i ( x ) k 3 j ( + ÷ ÷ . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

52. Prove by vector method that B sin . A cos B cos . A sin ) B A sin( + = + . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS
1. Find the value of
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
4
3
tan sin
1
[J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. If
2
π
y sin x sin
1 1
= +
÷ ÷
then prove that 1 y x
2 2
= + . [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n
2
π
y sin x sin E . G
1 1
= + =
÷ ÷

θ
2
π
x sin
2
π
θ x sin E . G
x θ sin then θ x sin , Let
1 1
1
÷ = ¬ = + =
= =
÷ ÷
÷

1 y x y 1 x sides both on Squaring
y 1 sin 1 x . e , i cos x
2 2 2 2
2 2
= + ¬ ÷ = ¬
÷ = u ÷ = u =

4. Evaluate :
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
5
4
cos
2
1
sin
1
[M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n
5
4
θ cos then θ
5
4
cos Let
1
= =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷

10
1
2
sin , Hence
10
1
2
5
1
2
5
4
1
2
cos 1
2
sin cos
2
sin 2 1
2
sin
5
4
cos
2
1
sin E . G
2 2
1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦u
= =
÷
=
u ÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦u
u =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦u
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦u
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
÷

5. Prove that
2
π
5
12
tan
5
1
tan 2
1 1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

6. If π z cos y cos x cos
1 1 1
= + +
÷ ÷ ÷
then prove that . 1 xyz 2 z y x
2 2 2
= + + + [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n
A cos x A ) x ( cos , Let
1
= ¬ =
÷

2 2 1 1 1
1
1
x 1 A cos 1 A sin ) z ( cos ) y ( cos ) x ( cos , Given
C cos z C ) z ( cos and
B cos y B ) y ( cos , Let
÷ = ÷ = t = + +
= ¬ =
= ¬ =
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷

2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
y x y x 1 xyz 2 z y x . e , i
) y 1 ).( x 1 ( ) z xy ( sides both on squaring Now
y 1 . x 1 z xy z y 1 . x 1 xy . e , i
C cos B sin . A sin B cos . A cos . e , i
) C cos( ) B A cos( Now
y 1 B cos 1 B sin C B A C B A . e , i
+ ÷ ÷ = + +
÷ ÷ = + ¬
÷ ÷ = + ¬ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ = ÷
÷ t = +
÷ = ÷ = ÷ t = + ¬ t = + +

1 xyz 2 z y x
2 2 2
= + + +
7. Find the value of
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
) 1 ( cos .
2
1
sin
1
. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
. 1 .
2
1
sin ) 1 ( cos .
2
1
sin
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

t =
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷

8. Solve :
6
π 5
x tan 2 x cot
1 1
= +
÷ ÷
. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Given, 1
6
5
x tan 2 x cot
1 1
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
t
= +
÷ ÷

W.K.T. 2
2
x tan x cot
1 1
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
t
= +
÷ ÷

3
3
tan x
3 6
2
6
3 5
2 6
5
x tan
6
5
x tan
2 6
5
x tan x tan x cot
1
1 1 1 1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
= ¬
t
=
t
=
t ÷ t
=
t
÷
t
= ¬
t
= +
t
¬
t
= + +
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

9. If π z tan y tan x tan
1 1 1
= + +
÷ ÷ ÷
then prove that . 0 xyz z y x = ÷ + +
[M-2009,J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n
π z tan y tan x tan , Given
1 1 1
= + +
÷ ÷ ÷

. xyz z y x 0 xyz z y x . e , i
xyz z y x 0 )]. zx yz xy ( 1 [ 0
) zx yz xy ( 1
xyz z y x
0 π tan
) zx yz xy ( 1
xyz z y x
π
) zx yz xy ( 1
xyz z y x
tan . e , i
1
= + + = ÷ + +
÷ + + = + + ÷ ¬ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + ÷
÷ + +
¬
= =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + ÷
÷ + +
¬ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + ÷
÷ + +
÷

10. Evaluate : )] 130 [sin( sin
0 1 ÷
. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

11. Solve :
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
÷ ÷ ÷
3
1
cot
2
1
sin x tan
1 1 1
[J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

12. If
2
π
z sin y sin x sin
1 1 1
= + +
÷ ÷ ÷
then prove that 1 xyz 2 z y x
2 2 2
= + + + . [J-2009,M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
A sin x A ) x ( sin , Let
1
= ¬ =
÷

1 xyz 2 z y x y x y x 1 xyz 2 z y x . e , i
) y 1 ).( x 1 ( ) z xy ( sides both on squaring Now
y 1 . x 1 z xy z xy y 1 . x 1 . e , i
C sin B sin . A sin B cos . A cos . e , i C
2
π
cos ) B A cos( Now
y 1 B sin 1 B cos C
2
π
B A
2
π
C B A . e , i
x 1 A sin 1 A cos
2
π
) z ( sin ) y ( sin ) x ( sin , Given
C sin z C ) z ( sin and
B sin y B ) y ( sin , Let
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2
2 2 1 1 1
1
1
= + + + + ÷ ÷ = + +
÷ ÷ = + ¬
÷ ÷ = + ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = +
÷ = ÷ = ÷ = + ¬ = + +
÷ = ÷ = = + +
= ¬ =
= ¬ =
÷ ÷ ÷
÷
÷

13. Find the value of )} 2 {sec( sec ) 3 tan(tan
1 1
÷ +
÷ ÷
. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
. 5 2 3 ] 2 [sec sec ) 3 tan(tan )] 2 [sec( sec ) 3 tan(tan
1 1 1 1
= + = + = ÷ +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

14. Find the value of x if
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
÷ ÷ ÷
2 2
1 3
cos
2
1
sin x tan
1 1 1
. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
. 1
4
tan x
4 12
3
12
2
12 6
x tan
1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
= ¬
t
=
t
=
t + t
=
t
+
t
=
÷

15. Prove that 0
ab
) c b a ( c
tan
ca
) c b a ( b
tan
bc
) c b a ( a
tan
1 1 1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
÷ ÷ ÷
. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
z
ab
) c b a ( b
tan , y
ca
) c b a ( b
tan , x
bc
) c b a ( a
tan Let
1 1 1
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
÷ ÷ ÷

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + ÷
÷ + +
= + + =
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
) zx yz xy ( 1
xyz z y x
tan z tan y tan x tan
ab
) c b a ( b
tan
ca
) c b a ( b
tan
bc
) c b a ( a
tan LHS
1 1 1 1
1 1 1

ca . bc . ab
) c b a ( abc
ab
) c b a ( c
ca
) c b a ( b
bc
) c b a ( a
xyz z y x , Now
3
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +
+
+ +
= ÷ + +
. RHS 0
abc
) c b a ( c b a
c b a
abc
c b a
ab
c
ca
b
bc
a
c b a
abc
c b a
ab
c
ca
b
bc
a
c b a
= =
(
¸
(

¸
+ + ÷ + +
+ + =
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
÷ + + + + =
(
¸
(

¸

+ +
÷ + + + + =

16. Find the value of )] 330 [sin( cos
0 1 ÷
. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
2
1
cos ] 30 sin [ cos )] 30 360 [sin( cos ) 330 (sin cos
1 0 1 0 0 1 0 1

3
π 2
3
π
π
2
1
cos π
1
= ÷ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ =
÷

17. If
2
π
z tan y tan x tan
1 1 1
= + +
÷ ÷ ÷
then prove that 1 zx yz xy = + + . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
2
π
z tan y tan x tan , Given
1 1 1
= + +
÷ ÷ ÷

0 ) xyz z y x ( 0 ) zx yz xy ( 1
0
1
) zx yz xy ( 1
xyz z y x
2
cos
2
sin
2
tan
) zx yz xy ( 1
xyz z y x
2 ) zx yz xy ( 1
xyz z y x
tan . e , i
1
= ÷ + + = + + ÷ ¬ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + ÷
÷ + +
¬
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + ÷
÷ + +
¬
t
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + ÷
÷ + +
÷

1 zx yz xy 0 ) zx yz xy ( 1 . e , i = + + ¬ = + + ÷

18. Prove that
2 1
x 1
x 1
x 1
tan 2 sin ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷
÷
. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

19. Find the value of
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
÷
2
3
sin
2
π
sin
1
. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

20. Prove that
2
π
5
3
sin
2
1
tan 2
1 1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
5
3
θ sin then θ
5
3
sin Let
1
= =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷

. RHS
2 3
4
cot
3
4
tan
4
3
tan
3
4
tan
4
3
tan
4
3
1
tan
4
3
tan
4
1
1
2
1
. 2
tan
4
3
tan
2
1
tan 2
5
3
sin
2
1
tan 2 LHS
4
3
tan
5
3
sin
4
3
tan
4
3
tan , figure the From
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
1 1 1
=
t
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= u
= u
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷

21. If 0 x > and 0 y > then prove that ] x 1 y y 1 x [ sin y sin x sin
2 2 1 1 1
÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n 2 2 1
x 1 A sin 1 A cos x A sin A ) x ( sin Let ÷ = ÷ = = ¬ =
÷

) B A sin( , consider Now
y 1 B sin 1 B cos y B sin B ) y ( sin Let
2 2 1
÷
÷ = ÷ = = ¬ =
÷

| |
2 2 1
2 2 2 2
x 1 y y 1 x sin ) B A (
x 1 y y 1 x y . x 1 y 1 . x
B sin . A cos B cos . A sin ) B A sin( . e , i
÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷
÷

(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ 2 2 1 1 1
x 1 y y 1 x sin ) y ( sin ) x ( sin , Hence
22. Find the value of ) 2 ( sec
1
÷
÷
. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
3
2
3 2
1
cos
2
1
cos ) 2 ( sec
1 1 1
t
=
t
÷ t =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ t =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷

. 1 x 1 x 2 x 2 . e , i
2
x
2
2
) x 1 ( 1
2
. e , i
) 2 ( tan
) x 1 )( x 1 ( 1
x 1 x 1
tan ) 2 ( tan ) x 1 ( tan ) x 1 ( tan
] 2006 M [ ) 2 ( tan ) x 1 ( tan ) x 1 ( tan ). 23
2 2
2 2
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1
± = = ¬ =
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
¬ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ + ÷
÷ + +
¬ = ÷ + +
÷ = ÷ + +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷

25. Find the value of
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
÷
2
1
sin
3
π
sin
1
. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
1
2
sin
6
3
sin
6 3
sin
2
1
sin
3
sin
2
1
sin
3
sin
1 1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
=
(
¸
(

¸
t
+
t
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
t
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
t
÷ ÷

26. If
4
π
y tan x tan
1 1
= +
÷ ÷
then prove that 1 xy y x = + + . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
4
π
y tan x tan Given
1 1
= +
÷ ÷
1
4
π
tan
xy 1
y x
4
π
xy 1
y x
tan . e , i
1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
÷
+
¬ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
÷

O M
P
4
3
X
Y
5
1 xy y x xy 1 y x 1
xy 1
y x
. e , i = + + ¬ ÷ = + ¬ =
÷
+

÷ : Sol
n
2 x 3 ] x cos x sin[sin ) 2 x 3 ( sin x cos x sin
1 1 1 1 1
÷ = ÷ ¬ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

2
1
x or 1 x 0 1 x 2 or 0 1 x
0 ) 1 x 2 )( 1 x ( 0 1 x x 2 x 2 0 1 x 3 x 2
x B cos B x cos Let and 2 x 3 ) x 1 ( x
x A sin A x sin , Let 2 x 3 x 1 . x 1 x . x
2 2
1 2 2
1 2 2
= = ¬ = ÷ = ÷ ¬
= ÷ ÷ ¬ = + ÷ ÷ ¬ = + ÷ ¬
= ¬ = ÷ = ÷ ÷ ¬
= ¬ = ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ¬
÷
÷

2
1
) 60 cos( ) 60 90 sin( ) 150 sin(
6
π 5
sin
6
π 2 π 3
sin
3
π
2
π
sin
2
3
sin
2
π
sin
2
3
sin
2
π
sin
] 07 A [
2
3
sin
2
π
sin ). 28
1 1
1
= = + = =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
(
¸
(

¸
+
=
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
÷

29. If 0 x sin x cos
1 1
= ÷
÷ ÷
then prove that
2
1
x = . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

30. If
2
π
y tan x tan
1 1
= +
÷ ÷
then prove that 1 xy = . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

31. Prove that
2 2
2
1
2
1
x 1
x 2
x 1
x 1
cos .
2
1
x 1
x 2
sin .
2
1
tan
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷ ÷
. [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
=
÷ ÷
2
2
1
2
1
x 1
x 1
cos
2
1
x 1
x 2
sin
2
1
tan E . G
x tan θ θ tan x Put
1 ÷
= ¬ =

2 2
1 1
2
2
1
2
1
x 1
x 2
tan 1
tan 2
) 2 tan( 2 .
2
1
2 .
2
1
tan
] 2 [cos cos
2
1
] 2 [sin sin .
2
1
tan
tan 1
tan 1
cos
2
1
tan 1
tan 2
sin
2
1
tan E . G
÷
=
u ÷
u
= u =
(
¸
(

¸

u + u =
(
¸
(

¸

u + u =
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
u +
u ÷
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
u +
u
=
÷ ÷
÷ ÷

GENERAL SOLUTIONS
1. Find the general solution of . 1 x tan x 2 tan = + [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. Find the general solution for the trigonometric equation 0 x 3 cos x 2 cos x cos = + + [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

3. Find the general solution of the equation 2 θ 2 cos θ cos
2
= + [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

4. Find the general solution of 2 x sin ) 1 3 ( x cos ) 1 3 ( = + + ÷ . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n
| | | | 1 2 x sin . 1 3 x cos . 1 3 is equation Given > ÷÷ ÷ = + + ÷
| | | |
| | | |
2
1
2 2
2
x sin .
2 2
1 3
x cos .
2 2
1 3
get we then 2 2 8 1 3 1 3 by ) 1 ( equation dividing Now
2 c and 1 3 b , 1 3 a Now
2 2
= =
+
+
÷
= = + + ÷
= + = ÷ =

I n :
12
5
3
n 2 x I n : 75
3
n 2 x
3
n 2 75 x . e , i
3
cos
2
1
) 75 x cos(
2
1
x sin . 75 sin x cos . 75 cos . e , i
0 0
0 0 0
e
t
+
t
± t = ¬ e +
t
± t =
t
± t = ÷
t
= = ÷ ¬ = +

5. Find the general solution of the equation x 2 cot x 4 tan = . [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Given equation is
x 2 cot x 4 tan =

x 2 sin
x 2 cos
x 4 cos
x 4 sin
x 2 cot x 4 tan = ¬ =
I n :
12 3
n
x I n :
2
n 2 x 6
2
) 0 ( cos x 6 0 x 6 cos
0 x 2 sin . x 4 sin x 2 cos . x 4 cos x 2 cos . x 4 cos x 2 sin . x 4 sin
1
e
t
±
t
= ¬ e
t
± t =
t
= = = ¬
= ÷ ¬ = ¬
÷

6. Find the general solution of the equation 1 θ sec 2 θ tan 3 ÷ = . [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Givenequation is
1 θ sec 2 θ tan 3 ÷ =
1 2 sin 3 cos cos 2 sin 3
1
cos
2 sin 3
1
cos
2
cos
sin 3
1
cos
2
cos
sin 3
1
cos
1
. 2
cos
sin
. 3
> ÷÷ ÷ = u + u ¬ u ÷ = ÷ u ¬
÷ =
u
÷ u
¬ ÷ =
u
÷
u
u
¬
÷
u
=
u
u
¬ ÷
u
=
u
u
¬

Now dividing equation nor (1) by 2 4 1 3 = = + then we get

2
1
3
cos
2
1
3
sin . sin
3
cos . cos
2
1
2
3
. sin
2
1
. cos
2
1
2
2
2
sin 3
2
cos
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
÷ u ¬ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
u +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
u ¬
= u + u ¬ = =
u
+
u
¬

I n :
4
n 2
3 4
2
1
cos
3
1
e
t
± t =
t
÷ u ¬
t
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
÷ u ¬
÷

I n :
3 4
n 2 e
t
+
t
± t = u ¬
This is the general solution.

7. Find the general solution of the equation 1 x tan . x 2 tan = . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

8. Find the general solution of the equation ) θ sin θ .(cos 2 θ 2 cos ÷ = . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

9. Find the general solution of the equation 2 θ sin ) 1 3 ( θ cos ) 1 3 ( = ÷ + + . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Given equation is 1 2 x sin ) 1 3 ( x cos ) 1 3 ( > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ + +
| | | |
| | | |
2
1
2 2
2
x sin .
2 2
1 3
x cos .
2 2
1 3
get we then 2 2 8 1 3 1 3 by ) 1 ( equation dividing Now
2 c and 1 3 b , 1 3 a Now
2 2
= =
÷
+
+
= = ÷ + +
= ÷ = + =

I n :
12 3
n 2 x I n : 15
3
n 2 x
4
n 2 15 x . e , i
4
cos
2
1
) 15 x cos(
2
1
x sin . 15 sin x cos . 15 cos . e , i
0 0
0 0 0
e
t
+
t
± t = ¬ e +
t
± t =
t
± t = ÷
t
= = ÷ ¬ = +

10. Find the general solution of the equation
4
5
θ 2 cos θ sin
2
= ÷ . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Given equation is
4
5
x 2 cos x sin
2
= ÷ .

2 I n :
3
. ) 1 ( n x or 1 I n :
3
. ) 1 ( n x
3 2
3
sin x or
3 2
3
sin x
2
3
sin or
2
3
x sin
2
3
4
3
x sin
4
3
12
9
x sin 9 x sin 12
0 5 4 x sin 12 5 ) 1 x sin 3 ( 4
4
5
x sin 2 1 x sin
4
5
) x sin 2 1 ( x sin
4
5
x 2 cos x sin
n n
1 1
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2
> ÷÷ ÷ e
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
÷ ÷ + t = > ÷÷ ÷ e
t
÷ + t = ¬
t
÷ =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷ =
t
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= ¬
÷ = = ¬
± = = ¬ = = ¬ = ¬
= ÷ ÷ ¬ = ÷ ¬ = + ÷ ¬
= ÷ ÷ ¬ = ÷
÷ ÷

Equations (1) and (2) are the general solutions.
11. Find the general solution of the equation 0 θ 3 sin θ 2 sin θ sin = + + . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Given equation 0 θ 3 sin θ 2 sin θ sin = + + .

2
1
x sin or 0 ) 0 ( sin x 2
0 1 x sin 2 or 0 x 2 sin 0 ) 1 x sin 2 .( x 2 sin
0 x 2 sin x sin . x 2 sin 2 0 x 2 sin
2
x x 3
cos .
2
x x 3
sin 2
0 x 2 sin ) x sin x 3 (sin 0 x 3 sin x 2 sin x sin
1
÷ = = = ¬
= + = ¬ = + ¬
= + ¬ = +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
¬
= + + ¬ = + +
÷

2 I n :
6
. ) 1 ( n x or
I n :
6
. ) 1 ( n x or 1 I n :
2
n
x
6 2
1
sin x or I n : 0 . ) 1 ( n x 2
n
n
1 n
> ÷÷ ÷ e
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
÷ ÷ t =
e
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
÷ ÷ + t = > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ e
t
= ¬
t
÷ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = e ÷ + t = ¬
÷

Equations (1) and (2) are the general solutions.

12. Find the general solution of the equation x 4 sin x 7 cos x cos = ÷ . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
Given equation is
x 4 sin x 7 cos x cos = ÷
.

0 1 x 3 sin 2 or 0 x 4 sin
0 ) 1 x 3 sin 2 ( x 4 sin 0 x 4 sin x 3 sin . x 4 sin 2
x 4 sin
2
x 6
sin .
2
x 8
sin 2 x 4 sin
2
x 6
sin .
2
x 8
sin 2
x 4 sin
2
x 7 x
sin .
2
x 7 x
sin 2 x 4 sin x 7 cos x cos
= ÷ = ¬
= ÷ ¬ = ÷ ¬
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
¬ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ¬
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
÷ ¬ = ÷

2
1
x 3 sin or 0 ) 0 ( sin x 4
1
= = = ¬
÷

6 2
1
sin x 3 or 1 I n : 0 . ) 1 ( n x 4
1 n
t
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= > ÷ ÷ e ÷ + t = ¬
÷

2 I n :
18
. ) 1 (
3
n
x
I n :
6
. ) 1 ( n x 3
n
n
> ÷ ÷ e
t
÷ +
t
=
e
t
÷ + t =

Equation (1) and (2) are the general solutions of the given equation.

13. Find the general solution of the equation 2 x sin x cos 3 = + . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

14. Find the general solution of the equation 1 x 2 tan . x 3 tan = . [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Given equation is
1 x 2 tan . x 3 tan =

. solution general the is I n :
2
π
π n 2 x , Hence
2
π
) 0 ( cos x 0 x cos
0 ) x 2 x 3 cos( 0 x 2 sin . x 3 sin x 2 cos . x 3 cos . e , i
x 2 cos . x 3 cos x 2 sin . x 3 sin 1
x 2 cos . x 3 cos
x 2 sin . x 3 sin
1
x 2 cos
x 2 sin
.
x 3 cos
x 3 sin
. e , i
1
e ± =
= = = ¬
= ÷ ¬ = ÷
= ¬ = ¬ =
÷

15. Find the general solution of the equation 1 θ 2 sin 3 θ 2 cos = + . [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Given equation is 1 1 2 sin 3 2 cos > ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = u + u

Now dividing equation nor (1) by 2 4 3 1 ) 3 ( ) 1 ( b a
2 2 2 2
= = + = + = +

I n :
6 6
n
I n :
3 3
n 2 2 I n :
3
n 2
3
2
3 2
1
cos
3
2
2
1
3
2 cos
2
1
2 sin .
3
sin 2 cos .
3
cos
2
1
2 sin
2
3
2 cos
2
1
1
e
t
+
t
± t = u ¬
e
t
+
t
± t = u ¬ e
t
± t =
t
÷ u ¬
t
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
t
÷ u ¬ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
÷ u ¬
= u
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
+ u
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
¬ = u + u
÷

16. Find the general solution of the equation 3 x cot ecx cos 2 = + . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Given equation 3 x cot ecx cos 2 = + .

1 2 x sin 3 x cos x sin 3 x cos 2
3
x sin
x cos 2
3
x sin
x cos
x sin
2
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ¬ = + ¬
=
+
¬ = + ¬

Now dividing equation nor (1) by 2 4 3 1 = = +

I n :
3 4
3
n 2 x I n :
4
3
n 2
3
x
4
3
4
2
1
cos
2
1
cos
3
x
2
1
3
x cos
2
1
3
sin . x sin
3
cos . x cos
2
1
x sin
2
3
x cos
2
1
2
1
2
2
2
x sin 3
2
x cos
1 2 x sin 3 x cos x sin 3 x cos 2
3
x sin
x cos 2
3
x sin
x cos
x sin
2
1 1
e
t
÷
t
± t = e
t
± t =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+ ¬
t
=
t
÷ t =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ t =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+ ¬
÷ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+ ¬ ÷ =
t
÷
t
¬
÷ = ÷ ¬ ÷ = ÷ = ÷ ¬
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ¬ = + ¬
=
+
¬ = + ¬
÷ ÷

17. Find the general solution of the equation 0 5 x sec 4 x tan
2
= + ÷ . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Given equation is 0 5 x sec 4 x tan
2
= + ÷

I n :
3
n 2
3 2
1
cos
2
1
cos 2 sec 0 2 sec
0 ) 2 (sec 0 4 sec 4 sec
0 5 sec 4 1 sec 0 5 sec 4 tan
1
2 2
2 2
e
t
± t = u ¬
t
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= u ¬
= u ¬ = u ¬ = ÷ u ¬
= ÷ u ¬ = + u ÷ u ¬
= + u ÷ ÷ u ¬ = + u ÷ u
÷

18. Find the general solution of the equation nx tan mx tan = . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
Given equation is nx tan mx tan =

0
nx cos
nx sin
mx cos
mx sin
0 nx tan mx tan = ÷ ¬ = ÷
0 nx sin . mx cos nx cos . mx sin 0
nx cos . mx cos
nx sin . mx cos nx cos . mx sin
= ÷ ¬ =
÷
¬
. I n : n
) n m (
1
x I n : 0 . ) 1 ( n x ) n m ( . e , i
0 ) 0 ( sin x ) n m ( 0 x ) n m sin(
0 ) nx mx sin( 0 nx sin . mx cos nx cos . mx sin
n
1
e t
÷
= e ÷ + t = ÷
= = ÷ ¬ = ÷ ¬
= ÷ ¬ = ÷ ¬
÷

19. Find the general solution of the equation 3 x tan x sec ÷ = ÷ . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

COMPLEX NUMBERS
1. Find the amplitude of the complex number
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
3
π
cos i
3
π
sin . [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. Express the complex number i 2 2+ in the polar form. [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

4. Find the cube roots of 3 i 1+ and find the continued product of the roots. [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, 3 i 1 z + =

Modulus = . 2 4 3 1 ) 3 ( ) 1 ( | z | 3 i 1 z
2 2
= = + = + = + =
.
3
π
) 3 ( tan
1
3
tan
x
y
tan ) z ( amp
1 1 1
= = = =
÷ ÷ ÷

Polar form of the complex number 3 i 1 + is
(
¸
(

¸

+ = +
3
π
sin i
3
π
cos . 2 ) θ sin i θ .(cos r
2 , 1 , 0 n :
3
n 2 sin i
3
n 2 cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 (
3
sin i
3
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 (
3
sin i
3
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 (
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+ t +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+ t = + ¬
(
¸
(

¸
t
+
t
= + ¬
(
¸
(

¸
t
+
t
= +

(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
= + =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
= + =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
= + =
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t + t
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t + t
= + ¬
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+ t +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+ t = + ¬
9
13
sin i
9
13
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 ( , then 2 n If
9
7
sin i
9
7
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 ( , then 1 n If
9
sin i
9
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 ( , then 0 n If
2 , 1 , 0 n :
9
n 6
sin i
9
n 6
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 (
2 , 1 , 0 n :
3
n 2
3
1
sin i
3
n 2
3
1
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 (
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1

To represent the cube roots of a complex number
3 i 1 + in an Argand diagram a circle is drawn
with O as the centre and radius
3
1
2 .From the centre
O the lines are drawn so that they make the angles

9
π 13
,
9
π 7
,
9
π
with the x-axis. The lines cut the circle
at P,Q,R. Then P,Q,R represent the cube roots of
the given complex number in the Argand diagram.
P,Q,R are the vertices of an equilateral triangle.

R
Q
P
Y
X

3 i 1
2
3
i
2
1
2
3
π
sin i
3
π
cos . 2
3
π 7
sin i
3
π 7
cos 2
9
π 21
sin i
9
π 21
cos . 2
9
π 13
9
π 7
9
π
sin i
9
π 13
9
π 7
9
π
cos 2 3 i 1 of product Continued
3
3
1
+ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= +

5. Find the amplitude of ) θ sin i θ cos 1 ( + + [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, θ sin i θ cos 1 z + + =

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
+ = + = + + + = + + =
2
θ
cos 2
2
θ
cos 4
2
θ
cos 2 . 2
) θ cos 1 ( 2 θ cos 2 2 θ sin θ cos 2 θ cos 1 ) θ (sin ) θ cos 1 ( | z |
2 2
2 2 2 2

2
θ
2
θ
tan tan
2
θ
cos
2
θ
sin
tan
2
θ
cos 2
2
θ
cos .
2
θ
sin 2
tan
θ cos 1
θ sin
tan
x
y
tan ) z ( amp
1 1
2
1 1 1
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
+
= =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

Polar form of the complex number is
2
θ
cis .
2
θ
cos 2 θ cis . r ] θ sin i θ .[cos r
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= = +

6. If θ 4 sin i θ 4 cos x + = then prove that θ 2 cos 2
x
1
x = + . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

8. Find the cube roots of the complex number i 3 ÷ and represent them in the Argand diagram.
[M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

9. Find the cube roots of the complex number 3 i 3 ÷ and find their continued product.[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, 3 i 3 z ÷ =
Modulus = 3 2 12 3 9 ) 3 ( ) 3 ( | z |
2 2
= = + = ÷ + =

6
π
3
1
tan
3
1
tan
3 . 3
3
tan
3
3
tan
x
y
tan ) z ( amp
1 1 1 1 1
÷ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ =
÷
÷ =
÷
÷ =
÷
÷ = ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

Polar form of the complex number 3 i 3 ÷ is
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = +
6
π
sin i
6
π
cos . 3 2 ] θ sin i θ .[cos r

(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = ÷
6
π
sin i
6
π
cos . 3 2 3 i 3 , Hence

3
1
3
1
3
1
6
π
sin i
6
π
cos . ) 3 2 ( ) 3 i 3 ( , Hence
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = ÷

(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦÷
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦÷
= ÷ =
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
= ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
= ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = ÷
18
π 23
sin i
18
π 23
cos . ) 3 2 ( ) 3 i 3 ( then 2 n If
18
π 11
sin i
18
π 11
cos . ) 3 2 ( ) 3 i 3 ( then 1 n If
18
π
sin i
18
π
cos . ) 3 2 ( ) 3 i 3 ( then 0 n If
2 , 1 , 0 n :
18
π π n 12
sin i
18
π π n 12
cos . ) 3 2 ( ) 3 i 3 (
2 , 1 , 0 n :
6
π π n 12
3
1
sin i
6
π π n 12
3
1
cos . ) 3 2 ( ) 3 i 3 (
2 , 1 , 0 n :
6
π
π n 2
3
1
sin i
6
π
π n 2
3
1
cos . ) 3 2 ( ) 3 i 3 (
2 , 1 , 0 n :
6
π
π n 2 sin i
6
π
π n 2 cos . ) 3 2 ( ) 3 i 3 (
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1

To represent the cube roots of a complex number
3 i 3 ÷ in an Argand diagram a circle is drawn
with O as the centre and radius 3 2 .From the centre O the lines are drawn so that they make the angles
18
π 23
,
18
π 11
,
18
π
÷ with the x-axis. The lines cut the circle at P,Q,R. Then P,Q,R represent the cube roots of
the given complex number in the Argand diagram. P,Q,R are the vertices of an equilateral triangle.
. 3 i 3
2
1
. i
2
3
. 3 2 )] 330 sin( i ) 330 .[cos( 3 2
6
π 11
sin i
6
π 11
cos . 3 2
18
π 33
sin i
18
π 33
cos . 3 2
18
π 23
18
π 11
18
π
sin i
18
π 23
18
π 11
18
π
cos . ) 3 2 (
3 i 3 of product Continued
0 0
3
3
1
÷ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ = + =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + ÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + ÷
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= ÷

10. If
2
ω , ω , 1 are the cube roots of unity then find the value of
6 2
) ω ω 1 + ÷ . [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

11. Find the least positive integer n for which . 1
i 1
i 1
n
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Given
. 1
i 1
i 1
n
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+

4 n i 1 i 1
i 1
i 1
, Given
i
2
i 2
1 1
i 2 1 1
) i 1 ).( i 1 (
) i 1 (
i 1
i 1
.
i 1
i 1
i 1
i 1
4 n
n
2
= = ¬ = = ¬ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
= =
+
+ ÷
=
÷ +
+
=
+
+
÷
+
=
÷
+

12. If 0 γ cos 3 β cos 2 α cos = + + and 0 γ sin 3 β sin 2 α sin = + + then prove that
R
Q
P
Y
X
i. ) γ β α cos( 18 γ 3 cos 27 β 3 cos 8 α 3 cos + + = + +
ii. ) γ β α sin( 18 γ 3 sin 27 β 3 sin 8 α 3 sin + + = + +
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Given, 2 0 γ sin 3 β sin 2 α sin and 1 0 γ cos 3 β cos 2 α cos > ÷÷ ÷ = + + > ÷ ÷ = + +

Now multiplying equation (2) by i and adding it to the first equation then we get

)]. γ β α sin( i ) γ β α .[cos( 18
γ 3 sin 27 i γ 3 cos 27 β 3 sin i 8 β 3 cos 8 α 3 sin i α 3 cos . e , i
). γ β α ( cis . 18 ) γ 3 sin i γ 3 (cos 27 ) β 3 sin i β 3 (cos 8 α 3 sin i α 3 cos . e , i
). γ β α ( cis . 18 ) γ sin i γ (cos 27 ) β sin i β (cos 8 ) α sin i α (cos . e , i
γ cis . β cis . α cis . 18 γ cis 3 . β cis 2 . α cis . 3 ) γ cis 3 ( ) β cis 2 ( ) α cis ( . e , i
. xyz 3 z y x then 0 z y x if t . k . W
0 z y x . e , i 0 γ cis 3 β cis 2 α cis then
z γ cis 3 and y β cis 2 , x α cis , Let
0 ] γ sin 3 i γ cos 3 [ ] β sin 2 i β cos 2 [ ] α sin i α [cos . e , i
0 ] γ sin 3 β sin 2 α [sin i ] γ cos 3 β cos 2 α [cos
3 3 3
3 3 3
3 3 3
+ + + + + =
+ + + + +
+ + = + + + + +
+ + = + + + + +
= = + +
= + + = + +
= + + = + +
= = =
= + + + + +
= + + + + +

Now equating real and imaginary parts then we get

). γ β α cos( 18 γ 3 sin 27 β 3 sin 8 α 3 sin
and ) γ β α cos( 18 γ 3 cos 27 β 3 cos 8 α 3 cos
+ + = + +
+ + = + +

13. Find the least positive integer n for which 1
i 1
i 1
n
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

14. Show that the real and imaginary parts of
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷
3
4
tan i
1
e 5 are 3 and 4 respectively. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

15. Using D M Theoremit prove that
θ 5 tan i
1 z
1 z
10
10
=
+
÷
if θ sin i θ cos z + = . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

16. Find the fourth roots of
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2
π
cos . 16 . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

17. Write the multiplicative inverse of i. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

16. Prove that e e e
3
π i
1
3
π i
1
= +
÷
+
. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

18. Find the cube roots of the complex number i 1+ and represent them in the Argand diagram.
[M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, i 1 z + =
Modulus = 2 1 1 ) 1 ( ) 1 ( | z |
2 2
= + = + =
.
4
π
) 1 ( tan
1
1
tan
x
y
tan ) z ( amp
1 1 1
= = = =
÷ ÷ ÷

Polar form of the complex number ( i 1+ ) is
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= +
4
π
sin i
4
π
cos . 2 ) θ sin θ .(cos r
Hence,
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= +
4
π
sin i
4
π
cos . 2
4
π
sin i
4
π
cos . 2 i 1
2 , 1 , 0 n :
4
π
π n 2 sin i
4
π
π n 2 cos . ) 2 (
4
π
sin i
4
π
cos . ) 2 ( ) i 1 (
3
1
6
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= +

(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= + =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= + =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= + =
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
= +
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
= +
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ = +
12
π 17
sin i
12
π 17
cos . ) 2 ( ) i 1 ( , then 2 n If
12
π 9
sin i
12
π 9
cos . ) 2 ( ) i 1 ( , then 1 n If
12
π
sin i
12
π
cos . ) 2 ( ) i 1 ( , then 0 n If
2 , 1 , 0 n :
12
π π n 8
sin i
12
π π n 8
cos . ) 2 ( ) i 1 (
2 , 1 , 0 n :
4
π π n 8
3
1
sin i
4
π π n 8
3
1
cos . ) 2 ( ) i 1 (
2 , 1 , 0 n :
4
π
π n 2
3
1
sin i
4
π
π n 2
3
1
cos . ) 2 ( ) i 1 (
6
1
3
1
6
1
3
1
6
1
3
1
6
1
3
1
6
1
3
1
6
1
3
1

To represent the cube roots of a complex number 3 i 1 ÷ ÷ in an Argand diagram acircle is drawn
with O as the centre and radius
3
1
2 . From the centre O the lines are drawn so that they make the
angles
9
π 10
,
9
π 4
,
9
π 2 ÷
with the x-axis. The lines cut the circle at P,Q,R. Then P,Q,R represent the cube
roots of the given complex number in the Argand diagram. P,Q,R are the vertices of an equilateral
triangle. Hence P,Q,R are the vertices of an equilateral triangle.
Their continued product =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= +
12
π 17
12
π 9
12
π
sin i
12
π 17
12
π 9
12
π
cos . ) 2 ( ) i 1 (
3
6
1

| | ) 405 sin( i ) 405 cos( . 2
12
π 27
sin i
12
π 27
cos . ) 2 (
12
π 17
12
π 9
12
π
sin i
12
π 17
12
π 9
12
π
cos . ) 2 ( ) i 1 (
0 0
2
1
3
6
1
+ =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= +

| | | |
. i 1
2
i 1
. 2
2
1
. i
2
1
. 2
) 45 sin( i ) 45 cos( . 2 ) 45 360 sin( i ) 45 360 cos( . 2
0 0 0 0 0 0
+ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ =
+ = + + + =

19. If
2
ω , ω , 1 are the cube roots of unity then find the value of
2 2
) ω ω 1 ( ÷ + . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
) ω .( ) 2 ( ) ω 2 ( ) ω ω ( ) ω ω 1 ( LHS ÷ ÷ = ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ + =
. RHS ω . 4 ) ω . ω .( 4 ω . 4
3 4
= = = =
20. If 0 γ cos β cos α cos = + + and 0 γ sin β sin α sin = + + then prove that
0 γ 2 cos β 2 cos α 2 cos = + + and 0 γ 2 sin β 2 sin α 2 sin = + + also
2
3
γ cos β cos α cos
2 2 2
= + + and
2
3
γ sin β sin α sin
2 2 2
= + + . [J-2008,J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n
Given, 0 z y x and γ sin i γ cos z , β sin i β cos y , α sin i α cos x = + + + = + = + =
R
Q
P
Y
X

0 0 0 0 . i 0 ) γ sin β sin α (sin i ) γ cos β cos α (cos
) γ sin i γ (cos ) β sin i β (cos ) α sin i α (cos
z
1
y
1
x
1
, Now
) γ sin β sin α (sin 0 ) γ cos β cos α (cos , Hence
0 ) γ sin β sin α (sin i ) γ cos β cos α (cos
0 ) γ sin i β sin i α sin i ( ) γ cos β cos α (cos
0 ) γ sin i γ (cos ) β sin i β (cos ) α sin i α (cos gives 0 z y x , Now
= ÷ = ÷ = + + ÷ + + =
÷ + ÷ + ÷ = + +
+ + = = + +
= + + + + +
= + + + + +
= + + + + + = + +

0 ) γ 2 sin β 2 sin α 2 (sin i ) γ 2 cos β 2 cos α 2 (cos . e , i
0 ) γ 2 sin i γ 2 (cos ) β 2 sin i β 2 (cos ) α 2 sin i α 2 (cos . e , i
0 ) γ sin i γ (cos ) β sin i β (cos ) α sin i α (cos . e , i
0 z y x ) 0 ( 2 z y x ) 0 (
) zx yz xy ( 2 z y x ) z y x ( , consider Now
0 zx yz xy . e , i
2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2
= + + + + +
= + + + + +
= + + + + +
= + + ¬ + + + =
+ + + + + = + +
= + +

Now equating real and imaginary parts then we get
0 γ 2 cos β 2 cos α 2 cos = + +

3 γ cos 2 β cos 2 α cos 2 0 3 γ cos 2 β cos 2 α cos 2 . e , i
0 1 γ cos 2 1 β cos 2 1 α cos 2 . e , i
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
= + + ¬ = ÷ + +
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷

2
3
γ cos β cos α cos 3 ] γ cos β cos α [cos 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
= + + = + +

2
3
γ sin β sin α sin 3 ] γ sin β sin α [sin 2
3 γ sin 2 β sin 2 α sin 2 0 3 γ sin 2 β sin 2 α sin 2 . e , i
0 γ sin 2 1 β sin 2 1 α sin 2 1 . e , i
0 γ 2 sin β 2 sin α 2 sin , Now
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2
= + + = + +
÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ¬ = + ÷ ÷ ÷
= ÷ + ÷ + ÷
= + +

21. Prove that i 16 16 ) i 1 (
9
÷ = ÷ . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

22. Find the cube roots of a complex number i 3 ÷ and represent them in the Argand diagram.
[J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

23. Find the modulus of the complex number
i 5
i 2÷
. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

24. If γ sin i γ cos z & β sin i β cos y , α sin i α cos x + = + = + = then prove that ) α 2 β 3 cos( 2
y
x
x
y
3
2
2
3
÷ = + .
[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
Given, β sin i β cos y and α sin i α cos x + = + =

) α 2 β 3 cos( . 2 ) α 2 β 3 sin( i ) α 2 β 3 cos( ) α 2 β 3 sin( i ) α 2 β 3 cos(
y
x
x
y
) α 2 β 3 sin( i ) α 2 β 3 cos(
y
x
) α 2 β 3 sin( i ) α 2 β 3 cos(
α 2 sin i α 2 cos
β 3 sin i β 3 cos
x
y
α 2 sin i α 2 cos ) α sin i α (cos x then α sin i α cos x If
β 3 sin i β 3 cos ) β sin i β (cos y then β sin i β cos y If
3
2
2
3
3
2
2
3
2 2
3 3
÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ÷ = +
÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ + ÷ =
+
+
=
+ = + = + =
+ = + = + =

25. Find all the cube roots of the complex number i 3 + . Represent them in the Argand diagram
Also find their continued product. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, i 3 z + =
Modulus = 2 4 1 3 ) 1 ( ) 3 ( | z |
2 2
= = + = + =

6
π
3
1
tan
x
y
tan ) z ( amp
1 1
= = =
÷ ÷

Polar form of the complex number i 3 + is
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= +
6
π
sin i
6
π
cos . 2 ] θ sin i θ .[cos r

(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= +
6
π
sin i
6
π
cos . 2 i 3 , Hence

2 , 1 , 0 n :
6
π π n 12
3
1
sin i
6
π π n 12
3
1
cos . 2 ) i 3 (
2 , 1 , 0 n :
6
π
π n 2 sin i
6
π
π n 2 cos . 2 ) i 3 (
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
= + ¬
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ = + ¬

(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= + =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= + =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= + =
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
= + ¬
18
π 25
sin i
18
π 25
cos . 2 ) i 3 ( then 2 n If
18
π 13
sin i
18
π 13
cos . 2 ) i 3 ( then 1 n If
18
π
sin i
18
π
cos . 2 ) i 3 ( then 0 n If
2 , 1 , 0 n :
18
π π n 12
sin i
18
π π n 12
cos . 2 ) i 3 (
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1

To represent the cube roots of a complex number
i 3 + in an Argand diagram a circle is drawn
with O as the centre and radius 1 .From the centre
O the lines are drawn so that they make the
angles
18
π 25
,
18
π 13
,
18
π
with the x-axis. The lines cut the circle at P,Q,R. Then P,Q,R represent the cube
roots of the given complex number in the Argand diagram. P,Q,R are the vertices of an equilateral
triangle.
their continued product is
R
Q
P
Y
X

(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸
t
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+
t
+
t
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+
t
+
t
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
= +
18
39
sin i
18
39
cos . 2
18
25
18
13
18
sin i
18
25
18
13
18
cos . 2
18
25
sin i
18
25
cos .
18
13
sin i
18
13
cos .
18
sin i
18
cos . ) 2 ( i 3
3
3
1

| |
| |
| | . i 3
2
i 3
. 2
2
1
. i
2
3
. 2 ) 30 sin( i ) 30 cos( . 2
) 30 360 sin( i ) 30 360 cos( . 2
) 390 sin( i ) 390 cos( . 2
6
13
sin i
6
13
cos . 2
0 0
0 0 0 0
0 0
+ =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
+ = + =
+ + + =
+ =
(
¸
(

¸

(
¸
(

¸
t
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
=

26. Express
i 3
) i 1 (
2
÷
+
in the form of iy x + . [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
5
3
. i
5
1
10
6
. i
10
2
10
i 6 2
1 9
2 i 6
i 3
i 3
.
i 3
i 2
i 3
i 2
i 3
i 2 1 1
i 3
) i 1 (
2
+ ÷ = + ÷ =
+ ÷
=
+
÷
=
+
+
÷
=
÷
=
÷
+ ÷
=
÷
+

27. Show that
) θ n tan( i 1
) θ n tan( i 1
θ tan i 1
θ tan i 1
n
÷
+
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
=
θ n sin i θ n cos
θ n sin i θ n cos
θ sin i θ cos
θ sin i θ cos
θ cos
θ sin i θ cos
θ cos
θ sin i θ cos
θ cos
θ sin
i 1
θ cos
θ sin
i 1
θ tan i 1
θ tan i 1
LHS
n
n n
n

Now dividing both numerator and denominator by θ n cos then we get
. RHS
θ n tan i 1
θ n tan i 1
θ n cos
θ n sin
i
θ n cos
θ n cos
θ n cos
θ n sin
i
θ n cos
θ n cos
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+

28. Find the fourth roots of the complex number 3 i 1+ ÷ and represent them in the Argand
diagram. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, 3 i 1 z + ÷ =
Modulus = . 2 4 3 1 ) 3 ( ) 1 ( | z |
2 2
= = + = + ÷ =

3
π 2
3
π
π ) 3 ( tan π 3 tan π
1
3
tan π
x
y
tan π ) z ( amp
1 1 1 1
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
÷
÷ = ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

Polar form of ( 3 i 1 + ÷ ) is
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= +
3
π 2
sin i
3
π 2
cos . 2 ) θ sin i θ .(cos r
Hence,
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= + ÷
3
π 2
sin i
3
π 2
cos . 2 3 i 1

(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= + ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= + ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= + ÷ =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= + ÷ =
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
= + ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
= + ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
= + ÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ = + ÷
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= + ÷
12
π 20
sin i
12
π 20
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 ( then 3 n If
12
π 14
sin i
12
π 14
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 ( then 2 n If
12
π 8
sin i
12
π 8
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 ( then 1 n If
12
π 2
sin i
12
π 2
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 ( then 0 n If
3 , 2 , 1 , 0 n :
12
π 2 π n 6
sin i
12
π 2 π n 6
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 (
3 , 2 , 1 , 0 n :
3
π 2 π n 6
4
1
sin i
3
π 2 π n 6
4
1
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 (
3 , 2 , 1 , 0 n :
3
π 2 π n 6
sin i
3
π 2 π n 6
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 (
3 , 2 , 1 , 0 n :
3
π 2
π n 2 sin i
3
π 2
π n 2 cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 (
3
π 2
sin i
3
π 2
cos . 2 ) 3 i 1 (
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1
4
1

To represent the fourth roots of a given complex number in an Argand
diagram, a circle is drawn with O as centre and radius
4
1
2 . From O, the lines are drawn so that they
make the angles
12
π 20
,
12
π 14
,
12
π 8
,
12
π 2
with the x-axis. These lines cut the circle at P,Q,R and S. Then
P,Q,R and S represent the fourth roots of the given complex number is the Argand diagram. The points
P,Q,R and S form a square.

. 3 i 1
2
3 i 1
. 2
2
3
. i
2
1
. 2 )] 60 sin( i ) 60 .[cos( 2
)] 60 720 sin( i ) 60 720 .[cos( 2 )] 660 sin( i ) 660 .[cos( 2
3
π 11
sin i
3
π 11
cos . 2
12
π 44
sin i
12
π 44
cos . 2
12
π 20
12
π 14
12
π 8
12
π 2
sin i
12
π 20
12
π 14
12
π 8
12
π 2
cos . ) 2 ( product Continued
0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
4
4
1
÷ =
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷
=
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷ = ÷ =
÷ + ÷ = + =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + + +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + +
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=

29. Find the amplitude of
2
3
i
2
1
+ ÷ . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Let,
2
3
i
2
1
z + ÷ =

S
R
Q
P
Y
X

3
π 2
3
π
π ) 3 ( tan π 3 tan π
2
1
2
3
tan π
x
y
tan π ) z ( amp
1 1 1 1
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
÷
÷ = ÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

because
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
÷ =
2
3
,
2
1
) y , x ( lies in the second quadrant.

30. If ω is an imaginary cube root of unity, then P.T. 32 ) ω ω 1 ( ) ω ω 1 (
5 2 5 2
= ÷ + + + ÷ . [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Given
5 2 5 2
) ω ω 1 ( ) ω ω 1 ( ÷ + + + ÷

. RHS 32 ) 1 .( 32 ) ω ω .( 32 ω . ω . 32 ω . ω . 32 ) ω .( ) 2 ( ω . ) 2 (
) ω 2 ( ) ω 2 ( ) ω ω ( ) ω ω (
) ω ω 1 ( ) ω ω 1 ( ) ω ω 1 ( ) ω ω 1 (
2 9 2 3 10 5 5 5
5 2 5 5 2 2 5
5 2 5 2 5 2 5 2
= = ÷ ÷ = + ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ =
÷ + ÷ = ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ =
÷ + + ÷ + = ÷ + + + ÷

31. State and prove the De Moiver‟s theorem.
[J-2006,M-2008,J-2009,M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n
Statement:- If n is an integer, (+ve or -ve) then . θ n sin i θ n cos ) θ sin i θ (cos
n
+ = + If n is a
fraction, (+ ve or - ve), then one of the values of . θ n sin i θ n cos ) θ sin i θ (cos
n
+ = +

Proof : Case I:- Let n be a positive integer. To prove by mathematical induction
that 1 θ n sin i θ n cos ) θ sin i θ (cos
n
> ÷÷ ÷ + = +
The statement (1) is true for n = 1.
Because u + u = u + u = u + u sin i cos 1 sin i 1 cos ) sin i (cos
1

Let the statement (1) be true for some value of n say n = m.
Where m is a positive integer.
θ m sin i θ m cos ) θ sin i θ (cos
m
+ = +
Now multiplying both the sides by ) θ sin i θ (cos + then we get
θ ) 1 m sin( i θ ) 1 m cos( ) θ θ m sin( i ) θ θ m cos(
) θ sin . θ m cos θ cos . θ m (sin i ) θ sin . θ m sin θ cos . θ m (cos
θ sin . θ m sin i θ sin . θ m cos i θ sin . θ m sin i θ cos . θ m cos ) θ sin i θ (cos
) θ sin i θ )(cos θ m sin i θ m (cos ) θ sin i θ .(cos ) θ sin i θ (cos
2 1 m
m
+ + + = + + + =
+ + ÷ =
+ + + = +
+ + = + +
+

Hence the statement (1) is true for 1 m n + =
Hence by the method of mathematical induction on n, for all the positive integral
Values of n. Hence, . θ n sin i θ n cos ) θ sin i θ (cos
n
+ = +
Case II:- Let n be the negative integer.
, Then . eger int positive a is m where m n Put ÷ =
. θ n sin i θ n cos ) θ sin i θ (cos then , ve is n if Hence
] n m [ θ n sin i θ n cos ) θ m sin( i ) θ m cos( θ m sin i θ m cos
θ m sin i θ m cos
θ m sin θ m cos
θ m sin i θ m cos
θ m sin i θ m cos
θ m sin i θ m cos
.
θ m sin i θ m cos
1
θ m sin i θ m cos
1
θ sin i θ cos
1
θ sin i θ cos θ sin i θ cos
n
2 2
m
m n
+ = + ÷
= ÷ + = ÷ + ÷ = ÷ =
÷ =
+
÷
=
÷
÷
+
=
+
=
+
= + = +
÷

Case III:- Let n be a fraction, (positive or negative)
Let
q
p
n = where p is any integer & q is a positive integer. Since q is a +ve integer,

| |
q
p
p
th
p
q
θ sin i θ cos of values the of one is θ
q
p
sin i θ
q
p
cos
get we the roots q the taking Now
) θ sin i θ (cos θ p sin i θ p cos θ
q
p
q sin i θ
q
p
q cos θ
q
p
sin i θ
q
p
cos
+ +
+ = + = + = +

Because
th
q root of a quantity has q distinct values
Hence one of the values of θ
q
p
sin i θ
q
p
cos is θ sin i θ cos
q
p
+ +
Since n
q
p
= one of the values of ). θ n sin i θ n (cos is ) θ sin i θ (cos
n
+ +
Hence the value or one of the values of ). θ n sin i θ n (cos is ) θ sin i θ (cos
n
+ +
According as n is an integer or fraction.

32. Find the amplitude of 4 i 2 ÷ . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

33. Find the fourth roots of the complex number
3
) i 3 ( ÷ and also find their continued product.

[J-2007
÷ : Sol
n

CIRCLES
1. Find the length of tangent to the circle 0 1 y 3 x 3 y x
2 2
= + + ÷ + from the point (1,2). [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. Find the equation of the circle passing through the ends of the diameter whose end points are
(2,3) and (3,2). [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

3. Derive the equation of tangent to the circle 0 c fy 2 gx 2 y x
2 2
= + + + + at the point ) y , x (
1 1
on it.
[J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

4. Find the radical centre of the circles 0 y 6 x 2 y x
2 2
= + ÷ + , 0 6 y 2 x 4 y x
2 2
= + ÷ ÷ + and
0 30 y 2 x 12 y x
2 2
= + + ÷ + . [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

5. Find the length of the chord intercepted by the circle 0 12 y 6 x 4 y x
2 2
= ÷ + + + and the line
0 2 y 4 x 3 = ÷ + [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

6. Find the values of h and k for the equation 0 7 y 3 x 2 y 4 hxy 2 kx
2 2
= ÷ + ÷ + + to represent a circle.
[M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

7. Show that the two circles 0 13 y 8 x 2 y x & 0 1 y 2 x 6 y x
2 2 2 2
= + ÷ + + = + ÷ ÷ + touch each other
Externally. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n
The two given circles are 1 0 1 y 2 x 6 y x
2 2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + ÷ ÷ +

and 2 0 13 y 8 x 2 y x
2 2
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + ÷ + +

2 4 13 16 1 r is ) 2 ( of Radius
and 3 9 1 1 9 r is ) 1 ( of Radius
) 4 , 1 ( ) f , g ( B is ) 1 ( of centre 13 c , 4 f , 1 g ) 2 ( From
) 1 , 3 ( ) f , g ( A is ) 1 ( of centre 1 c , 1 f , 3 g ) 1 ( From
2
1
= = ÷ + =
= = ÷ + =
÷ = ÷ ÷ = = ÷ = =
= ÷ ÷ = = ÷ = ÷ =

5 25 9 16 ) 4 1 ( ) 1 3 ( AB and 5 3 2 r r Now
2 2
2 1
= = + = ÷ + + = = + = +
Hence, sum of radii of the two circles is equal to distance between their centres.
Hence the two circles touch each other externally.

8. Find the radical axis of the two circles 0 1 y 6 x 9 y 3 x 3
2 2
= ÷ + ÷ + and 0 3 y 16 x 8 y 2 x 2
2 2
= ÷ + ÷ + .
[M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

9. Find the equation of the chord of the circle 0 9 y 6 x 4 y x
2 2
= ÷ ÷ + + bisected at (0,1). [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

10. If the radius of the circle 0 k y 2 x 4 y x
2 2
= ÷ ÷ + + is 4 units, then find the value of k. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Equation of the circle is 1 0 k y 2 x 4 y x
2 2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ + +
k c & 1 f , 2 g ÷ = ÷ = =

11 5 16 k
16 k 5 4 k 5 4 k 1 4 c f g Radius
2 2
= ÷ = ¬
= + ¬ = + ¬ = + + = ÷ + =

12. Derive the condition for the circles 0 c y f 2 x g 2 y x
1 1 1
2 2
= + + + + and 0 c y f 2 x g 2 y x
2 2 2
2 2
= + + + +
to cut orthogonally. [M-2009,J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

The two given circles are 1 0 c y f 2 x g 2 y x
1 1 1
2 2
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + + +
and 2 0 c y f 2 x g 2 y x
2 2 2
2 2
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + + +
Let A and B be the centres of the two circles (1) and (2) and let P be a point of intersection.
) f , g ( B and ) f , g ( A
2 2 1 1
÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
AP = Radius of the first circle =
1
2
1
2
1
c f g ÷ +
And BP = Radius of the second circle =
2
2
2
2
2
c f g ÷ +
Now by distance formula
2
2 1
2
2 1
) f f ( ) g g ( AB ÷ + ÷ =
If the two circles cut orthogonally, then . 90 APB
0
= Z

2 2 2
) BP ( ) AP ( ) AB ( + = ) c f g ( ) c f g ( ) f f ( ) g g (
2
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1
2
2 1
÷ + + ÷ + = ÷ + ÷ ¬
A B
P

2 1 2 1 2 1
2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1
2
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
2
1 2 1
2
2
2
1 2 1
2
2
2
1
2
2
2
2
2 1
2
1
2
1
2
2 1
2
2 1
c c f f 2 g g 2
c c f f 2 g g 2 0 c c f f 2 g g 2
0 c f g c f g f f 2 f f g g 2 g g
) c f g ( ) c f g ( ) f f ( ) g g (
+ = + ¬
÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ¬ = + + ÷ ÷ ¬
= + ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ ÷ + + ÷ + ¬
÷ + + ÷ + = ÷ + ÷ ¬

13. Show that the radical axis of the two circles 0 1 y 3 x 2 y 2 x 2
2 2
= + ÷ + + & 0 2 y x 3 y x
2 2
= + + ÷ +
is perpendicular to the line joining the centres of the circles. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Two given circles are 1 0
2
1
y
2
3
x y x
2 2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + ÷ + +
and 2 0 2 y x 3 y x
2 2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + ÷ +
Now from the first circle
2
1
c &
4
3
f ,
2
1
g = ÷ = =
A
4
3
,
2
1
) f , g ( Centre =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = ÷ ÷ = .
Now from the second circle 2 c &
2
1
f ,
2
3
g = = ÷ = , B
2
1
,
2
3
) f , g ( Centre =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = ÷ ÷ =

1
m
8
5
2
4
5
2
1
2
3
4
3
2
1
is Slope = ÷ =
÷
=
+
÷ ÷

Radical axis of first and second circles is 0 2 y x 3 y x
2
1
y
2
3
x y x
2 2 2 2
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ÷ + +
2 0 3 y 5 x 8 0
2
3
y
2
5
x 4 > ÷÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ¬ = ÷ ÷
Slope of (2) is
2
m
5
8
5
8
= =
÷
÷
Hence, 1
5
8
.
8
5
m . m
2 1
÷ = ÷ =
Hence the radical axis of the two given circles are perpendicular to their centres.

14. Find the length of the chord of the circle 0 5 y 2 x 6 y x
2 2
= + ÷ ÷ + intercepted by the line
. 0 1 y x = + ÷
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

15. Given two circles with radii
2 1
r & r respectively and having d as the distance between their
centres. Write the condition for them to touch each other externally. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

16. Find the equation of the circumcircle of the triangle formed by the points (0,0) , (3,0) , (0,4).
[J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

18. (1,2) is the radical centre of three circles. One of the circles is 0 y 3 x 2 y x
2 2
= + ÷ + . Examine
whether the radical centre lies inside or outside all the three circles. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

19. Given the circles 0 10 y 4 x 12 ) y x ( 2
2 2
= + ÷ ÷ + and 0 16 y 13 x 5 y x
2 2
= + ÷ + + , find the length of
their common chord. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

20. Write the condition for the circle 0 c fy 2 gx 2 y x
2 2
= + + + + to touch both the axes. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

21. Find the area of the circle whose parametric equations are θ sin 2 1 y & θ cos 2 3 x + = + = .
[M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

22. Find the equation of the circle which cuts the two circles 0 1 y 6 y x
2 2
= + ÷ + & 0 1 y 4 y x
2 2
= + ÷ +
Orthogonally and whose centre lies on the line 0 5 y 4 x 3 = + + . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Let equation of the circle be 1 0 c fy 2 gx 2 y x
2 2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + + +
The two given circles are 2 0 1 y 16 y x
2 2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + ÷ +
and 3 0 1 y 4 y x
2 2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + ÷ +
Given line is 4 0 5 y 4 x 3 > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + +
From the first circle, c c and f f , g g
1 1 1
= = =
From the second circle, 1 c , 8 f , 0 g
2 2 2
= ÷ = =
Equation (1) and (2) cut orthogonally, then . c c f f 2 g g 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
+ = +
5 1 c f 16 1 c ) 8 .( f 2 ) 0 ( g 2 > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + = ÷ ¬ + = ÷ +
From the first circle, c c and f f , g g
1 1 1
= = =
From the second circle, 1 c , 2 f , 0 g
2 2 2
= ÷ = =
Equation (1) and (2) cut orthogonally, then . c c f f 2 g g 2
2 1 2 1 2 1
+ = +
6 1 c f 4 1 c ) 2 .( f 2 ) 0 ( g 2 > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + = ÷ ¬ + = ÷ +
Now solving the equations (5) and (6) then we get . 1 c and 0 f ÷ = =
Radius of the circle (1) is c f g
2 2
÷ +
Now length of perpendicular from the centre (-g , -f) to the line is equal to radius.
c f g
5
5 f 4 g 3
c f g
16 9
5 ) f ( 4 ) g ( 3
2 2 2 2
÷ + =
+ ÷ ÷
¬ ÷ + =
+
+ ÷ + ÷

Now put 1 c and 0 f ÷ = =
25 g 25 g 30 g 9 25 1 g
5
g 3 5
2 2 2
+ = ÷ + ¬ + =
÷

8
15
g or 0 g 0 ) 15 g 8 ( g
0 g 15 g 8 0 g 30 g 16
2 2
÷ = = ¬ = + ¬
= + ¬ = ÷ ÷ ¬

Taking 1 c and 0 f , 0 g ÷ = = = then equation of the circle is 0 1 y x
2 2
= ÷ +
Taking 1 c and 0 f ,
8
15
g ÷ = = ÷ = then equation of the circle is . 0 4 x 15 y 4 x 4
2 2
= ÷ ÷ +

23. Find the equation of the circle having (4,2) and (-5,7) as end points of the diameter. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
) y , x ( ) 7 , 5 ( B and ) y , x ( ) 2 , 4 ( A Let
2 2 1 1
= ÷ = = =

0 ) 7 y )( 2 y ( ) 5 x )( 4 x ( . e , i
0 ) y y )( y y ( ) x x )( x x ( is circle the of equation quired Re
) y , x ( ) 7 , 5 ( B and ) y , x ( ) 2 , 4 ( A Let
2 1 2 1
2 2 1 1
= ÷ ÷ + + ÷
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷
= ÷ = = =

0 14 y 2 y 7 y 20 x 4 x 5 x
2 2
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷ ÷ + ¬
. circle the of equation is Which . 0 34 y 9 x y x
2 2
= ÷ ÷ + + ¬

24. Find the length of the chord intercepted by the circle 0 y 6 x 8 y x
2 2
= ÷ ÷ + & the line 0 8 y 7 x = ÷ ÷ .
[M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

25. Find the equation of the circle whose centre is (a,0) and touching the y-axis. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

27. Find the equation of tangent to the circle 0 4 y 4 x 2 y x
2 2
= ÷ ÷ ÷ + which are perpendicular to the
given line 0 6 y 4 x 3 = + ÷ . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

28. Find the equation of the circle passing through the origin having its centre on the line y = x and
cutting orthogonally the circle 0 10 y 6 x 4 y x
2 2
= + ÷ ÷ + . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

29. Write the condition in terms of g,f,c under which 0 c fy 2 gx 2 y 2 x
2 2
= + + + + becomes a point
circle. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

30. Examine whether the point (1,5) lies outside, inside or on the circle 0 3 y 2 x 4 y x
2 2
= + + + + .
[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
Equation of the circle is ). 5 , 1 ( ) y , x ( and 1 0 3 y 2 x 4 y x
1 1
2 2
= > ÷÷ ÷ = + + + +
. Positive 43 3 40 3 10 4 25 1 : ) 5 , 1 ( P = = + = + + + +
Hence ) 5 , 1 ( P lies outside the circle.
31. Fid the equation of the circle which passes through the point (2,3), has its centre on the line
4 y x = + and cuts orthogonally the circle 0 3 y 2 x 4 y x
2 2
= ÷ + ÷ + . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

32. Find the radical centre of the circles 0 4 x 2 y x
2 2
= ÷ + + , 0 4 y 4 y x
2 2
= ÷ + + , 0 5 x 2 y x
2 2
= ÷ ÷ +

[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

33. Find the centre of the circle 0 1 y 2 x 4 y 4 x 4
2 2
= + + + + . [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Given equation of the circle is 1 0 1 y 2 x 4 y 4 x 4
2 2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + + +
Now dividing equation nor (1) by 4 then we get
2 0
4
1
y
2
1
x y x
2 2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + + +
Now comparing equation nor (2) with 0 c fy 2 gx 2 y x
2 2
= + + + + then we get
.
4
1
c and
4
1
f
2
1
f 2 ,
2
1
g 1 g 2 = = = = =
Now .
4
1
,
2
1
) f , g ( centre
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
34. Find the value of k for which the circles 0 7 y 6 x 18 y 2 x 2
2 2
= ÷ + ÷ + and 0 3 ky x 4 y 3 x 3
2 2
= + + + +
Intersect orthogonally. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Two given circles are 1 0 7 y 6 x 18 y 2 x 2
2 2
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ +
And 2 0 3 ky x 4 y 3 x 3
2 2
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + + +
Now dividing equation nor (1) by 2 then we get 3 0
2
7
y 3 x 9 y x
2 2
> ÷÷ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ +
Now dividing equation nor (2) by 3 then we get 4 0 1 y
3
k
x
3
4
y x
2 2
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + + +
From the third equation
2
7
c ,
2
3
f ,
2
9
g
1 1 1
÷ = = ÷ =
Now from the fourth equation 1 c ,
6
k
f ,
3
2
g
2 2 2
= = =

. 7 k 12 5 k 5 k 12
2
5
2
k 12
2
2 7
2
k
6
1
2
7
6
k
2
3
2
3
2
2
9
2 c c f . f 2 g . g 2 is Condition
2 1 2 1 2 1
= + ÷ = ÷ = + ÷ ¬
÷
=
+ ÷

+ ÷
= + ÷ ¬
+ ÷ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ¬ + = +

35. Find the equation of tangent to the circle 0 c fy 2 gx 2 y x
2 2
= + + + + at the point ) y , x (
1 1
on it.
[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Equation of the given circle is 1 0 c fy 2 gx 2 y x
2 2
> ÷÷ ÷ = + + + +
Let A be the centre of the circle and
) y , x ( P
1 1
be the point on the circle
Now join AP. Now from the point P
Draw PB perpendicular to AP. Then
PB is the tangent to the circle at the
point ) y , x ( P
1 1
.

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
+
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
=
g x
f y
) g ( x
) f ( y
AP of Slope
1
1
1
1

Since PB is perpendicular to AP.
m
f y
g x
PB of Slope
1
1
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
+
÷ =
Now equation of the tangent PB is ) x x ( m ) y y (
1 1
÷ = ÷
) x x .(
f y
g x
) y y ( . e , i
1
1
1
1
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
+
÷ = ÷

1 1
2
1
2
1 1 1
1 1 1 1
fy gx y x fy gx yy xx . e , i
0 ) y y ).( f y ( ) x x ).( g x (
+ + + = + + +
= ÷ + + ÷ +

1 1
+ + to both the sides then we get

2 c fy 2 gx 2 y x c ) y y ( f ) x x ( g yy xx . e , i
c fy gx fy gx y x c fy gx fy gx yy xx . e , i
1 1
2
1
2
1 1 1 1 1
1 1 1 1
2
1
2
1 1 1 1 1
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + + + + = + + + + + +
+ + + + + + = + + + + + +

Since, ) y , x (
1 1
lies on the circle i,e. get we then ) 1 ( equation in y y & x x
1 1
= =
3 0 c fy 2 gx 2 y x
1 1
2
1
2
1
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + + +
Now using this in (2) then we get 0 c ) y y ( f ) x x ( g yy xx
1 1 1 1
= + + + + + +
Which is known as equation of the tangent to the circle 0 c fy 2 gx 2 y x
2 2
= + + + +
at the point ) y , x (
1 1
on it.
36. Find the equation of the circle two of whose diameters 6 y x = + and 4 y 2 x = + and whose radius
is 10 units. [M-2006,M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
2 4 y 2 x & 1 6 y x are diameters given Two > ÷÷ ÷ = + > ÷ ÷ = +
) 2 ( and ) 1 ( equations two the solving Now

0 32 y 4 x 16 y x . e , i
10 ) 2 y ( ) 8 x ( is circle the of Equation
) 2 , 8 ( centre the , Hence 8 x get we then ) 1 ( in 2 y Put
2 y 0 2 y 0 4 y 2 x 6 y x gives ) 2 ( ) 1 (
2 2
2 2 2
= ÷ + ÷ +
= ÷ + ÷
÷ = = ÷ =
÷ = = ÷ ÷ ¬ = + ÷ ÷ ÷ + ÷

) y , x ( p
1 1
A(-g,-f)
37. Find the radical axis of the circles 0 7 x 4 y x
2 2
= ÷ + + and 0 12 y 8 y x
2 2
= + + + . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

38. Find the equation of the circle having the centre at (6,1) and touching the straight line
0 3 y 12 x 5 = ÷ + . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

39. Derive an expression for the length of tangent form ) y , x (
1 1
to the circle 0 c fy 2 gx 2 y x
2 2
= + + + + .
[J-2006,J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Equation of the circle is 1 0 c fy 2 gx 2 y x
2 2
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + + +

Let A be the centre of the circle and l
Let ) y , x ( p
1 1
be any point out side the circle.
Now draw PT tangent to the circle and
join AP and AT.
AT = Radius of the circle = c f g
2 2
÷ + .
) y , x ( P and ) f , g ( A
1 1
= ÷ ÷ =
Now by distance formula
2
1
2
1
) f y ( ) g x ( AP + + + =
Since . 90 ATP
0
= Now by Pythagoras theorem
2 2 2
PT AT AP + =
Hence,
2 2 2
AT AP PT + =

. c fy 2 y gx 2 x PT
c f g fy 2 f y gx 2 g x PT
) c f g ( ) f y ( ) g x ( PT
c f g ) f y ( ) g x ( PT
1
2
1 1
2
1
2
2 2
1
2 2
1 1
2 2
1
2
2 2 2
1
2
1
2
2
2 2
2
2
1
2
1
2
+ + + + = ¬
+ ÷ ÷ + + + + + = ¬
÷ + ÷ + + + = ¬
(
¸
(

¸

÷ + ÷
(
¸
(

¸

+ + + = ¬

Hence, . c fy 2 y gx 2 x PT
1
2
1 1
2
1
+ + + + =
Hence, Length of tangent from the point ) y , x (
1 1
to the circle 0 c fy 2 gx 2 y x
2 2
= + + + +
is . c fy 2 y gx 2 x PT
1
2
1 1
2
1
+ + + + =

40. Find the value of λ for which the circles 0 1 y 8 x 2 y x
2 2
= + ÷ + + and 0 λ y x 6 y 2 x 2
2 2
= + + ÷ +
intersect orthogonally. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Two given circles are 1 0 1 y 8 x 2 y x
2 2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + ÷ + +
And 2 0 k y x 6 y 2 x 2
2 2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + ÷ +
Now dividing equation (2) by 2 then (2) becomes 3 0
2
k
2
y
x 3 y x
2 2
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + ÷ +
From (1) 1 c and 4 f , 1 g
1 1 1
= ÷ = = and from (3)
2
k
c and
4
1
f ,
2
3
g
2 2 2
= = ÷ =
Equation (1) and (3) cuts orthogonally then
2 1 2 1 2 1
c c f . f 2 g . g 2 + = +
. 12 k
2
k
1 2 3
2
k
1
4
1
). 4 .( 2
2
3
). 1 .( 2 ÷ = ¬ = ÷ ÷ ÷ ¬ + =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷

) y , x ( p
1 1
T
) f , g ( A ÷ ÷
41. Find the centre of the circle passing through the points (0,0) , (3,0) and (0,5). [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

CONIC SECTIONS
1. Find the eccentricity of the ellipse . 1
4
y
9
x
2 2
= + [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. Find the focus of the parabola 0 y 16 x
2
= + [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

3. Find the equation of the parabola having vertex at (3,5) and focus at (3,2). [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

4. Prove that the sum of the focal distances from any point on the ellipse ) b a ( 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
> = + is equal
to 2a. [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

6. Write the eccentricity of the conic section represented by the parametric equations

2
at x = and at 2 y = . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

7. Find the centre of the parabola 0 31 y 8 x 18 y 4 x 9
2 2
= ÷ ÷ + ÷ . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

8. Derive the condition for the line c mx y + = to be a tangent to the circle
2 2 2
a y x = + in the form
of ) m 1 .( a c
2 2 2
+ = . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

9. Find the equations of the parabolas whose directrix is 0 2 x = + , axis is y = 3 and the length of latus
rectum is 8 units. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

10. Define ellipse and derive its equation in the standard form . 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= + [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

11. Find the equation of the parabola if its focus is (2,3) and the vertex is (4,3). [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

12. Find the eccentricity of the ellipse (a>b) if the distance between the directrices is 5 and distance
between the foci is 4. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

13. Find the ends of the latus rectum & directrix of the parabola 0 4 x 10 y 4 y
2
= + ÷ ÷
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

14. Find the value of k such that the line 0 k y 2 x = + ÷ be a tangent to the ellipse . 12 y 2 x
2 2
= +

[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Vertices of the ellipse are ) 4 , 2 ( ' A and ) 2 , 2 ( A = ÷ =

Centre = Mid point of ) 1 , 2 (
2
4 2
,
2
2 2
' AA =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ + ÷ +
=
Length of the major axis is . 6 36 36 0 ) 4 2 ( ) 2 2 ( ' AA
2 2
= = + = ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
16. Find the sum of the focal distances of any point on 36 y 9 x 4
2 2
= + . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

17. Given the equation of the conic 0 11 y 16 x 18 y 4 x 9
2 2
= ÷ + ÷ + , find its centre and the area of its
auxiliary circle. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

18. Find the equation of the directrix of the parabola
2
t 2 x = and t 4 y = . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

19. Derive the condition for the line c mx y + = to be a tangent to the hyperbola 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= ÷ . Also
find the point of contact. Using the condition derived. Find the equations of tangents to the ellipse
1
12
y
16
x
2 2
= + which are parallel to the line 0 5 y x = + ÷ . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

20. Find the equations of the parabola having (1,5) & (1,1) as the ends of latus rectum. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

21. Find the co-ordinates of the end points of the latus rectum of the parabola x 12 y
2
= . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

22. Find the equation of the hyperbola in the form of 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= ÷ given that the transverse axis is 10
and eccentricity is 2. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

23. Find the condition for the line c mx y + = to be a tangent to the hyperbola 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= ÷ .[M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Equation of hyperbola is 1 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷
And the given line is 2 c mx y > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
Now assume that the line c mx y + = is a tangent to the hyperbola 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= ÷ at ) y , x (
1 1

Equation of the tangent at ) y , x (
1 1
to the hyperbola 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= ÷ is
) 3 ( 1
a
xx
b
yy
a
xx
1
b
yy
. e , i 1
b
yy
a
xx
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ¬ ÷ =
÷
= ÷
The equations (2) and (3) represent the same line. [i,e. the tangent at ) y , x (
1 1
]
So, the coefficients in the equations (2) and (3) must be proportional.

1
c
x
ma
y
b
,
1
c
a
x
m
b
y
1
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
1
÷ = = ¬
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦

Now taking second and third ratios then we get
c
ma
x or ma c x
2
1
2
1
÷ = ÷ =
Now taking the first and third ratios then we get

c
b
y b cy
2
1
2
1
÷
= ¬ ÷ =
Hence,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷ =
c
b
,
c
ma
) y , x (
2 2
1 1

Since, ) y , x (
1 1
lies on the hyperbola (1) then we get ) 4 ( 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
1
2
2
1
> ÷ ÷ = ÷
Now substituting the values of ) y , x (
1 1
in (4) then we get
1
b c
b
a c
a m
. 1
b
c
b
a
c
ma
2 2
4
2 2
4 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
= ÷ ¬ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷

. b m a c c b a m 1
c
b
c
a m
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2
2
2
2 2
÷ = ¬ = ÷ ¬ = ÷ ¬
This is the condition for the line c mx y + = to be a tangent to the hyperbola . 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= ÷
24. Find the focus of the parabola 0 32 x 8 y
2
= ÷ ÷ . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

25. Define an ellipse. Derive the equation of the ellipse in the standard form 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= + . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

26. Find the equation of directrix of the parabola ) 3 y ( 4 ) 1 x (
2
÷ ÷ = + . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

27. Find the focus and equation to the directrix of the ellipse 0 4 y 10 x 36 y 5 x 9
2 2
= ÷ + ÷ + .[J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

28. Find the equation to the hyperbola in the standard form 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= ÷ given that the length of latus
rectum is
3
14
and eccentricity is
3
4
. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

29. Find the area of the ellipse 144 y 16 x 9
2 2
= + . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

31. Find the equation of parabola whose focus is (3,2) and its directrix is x = 1. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

32. Find the equation of directrix of the parabola x 8 y
2
÷ = . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

33. The two ends of the major axis of an ellipse are (5,0) and (-5,0) . If the line 0 9 y 5 x 3 = ÷ ÷ is a
focal chord, then find the eccentricity of the ellipse. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

34. Find the centre and the eccentricity of the hyperbola 0 11 y 6 x 4 y 3 x
2 2
= ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

35. Find the equation of the parabola with vertex (-4,2), axis y = 2 and passing through the point (0,6).
[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

36. Define ellipse as the locus of the point. Derive the equation of ellipse in the form of 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= +

[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

37. If the line 0 2 y x = + + touches the parabola x 8 y
2
= then find the point of contact. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

38. Find the eccentricity of the ellipse if the minor axis is equal to the distance between foci.[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

39. Find the eccentricity & equations to directrices of ellipse 0 4 y 36 x 8 y 4 x 4
2 2
= + + ÷ + .[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

40. Find the equations of the asymptotes of the hyperbola 36 y 4 x 9
2 2
= ÷ . A-lso find the angle
between them. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

41. Define ellipse and derive the standard equation to the ellipse 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= + .
[M-2006.2007,M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Ellipse is the locus of the point which moves such that the ratio of its distance from the
focus to its distance from the directrix is less than one.

42. If in the parabola kx 8 y
2
= the length of the latus rectum is 4, then fin d the value of k.[J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

43. Find the length of latus rectum of the ellipse 0 4 y 36 x 8 y 9 x 4
2 2
= + ÷ ÷ +
[J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

44. Derive the condition for the straight line c mx y + = to be a tangent to the parabola ax 4 y
2
= .
[J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Equation of the parabola is 1 ax 4 y
2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = and
Equation of the line is 2 c mx y > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + =
Now we assume that the line (2) is a tangent to the parabola (1) at the point ) y , x (
1 1

Now equation of the tangent at ) y , x (
1 1
to the parabola ax 4 y
2
= is
3 ax 2 ax 2 ) x x ( a 2 yy
1 1 1
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + = + =
Now equation (2) and (3) are representing the same line. [The tangent at the point ) y , x (
1 1
].
Hence the coefficients in the two equations (2) and (3) are proportional.
1 1
ax 2
c
a 2
m
y
1
= = Now taking the first two ratios then we get
m
a 2
y a 2 my
a 2
m
y
1
1 1
1
= ¬ = ¬ =
Now taking the second and third ratios then we get
m
c
x c mx ac 2 amx 2
ax 2
c
a 2
m
1 1 1
1
= = ¬ = ¬ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
m
a 2
,
m
c
) y , x (
1 1
.
Since ) y , x (
1 1
lies on the parabola (1) : ) 1 ( in y y , x x put
1 1
= = then we get
m
a
c c
m
a
m
ac 4
m
a 4
m
c
a 4
m
a 2
) 4 ( in
m
a 2
y &
m
c
x put Now 4 ax 4 y
2
2
2
1 1 1
2
1
= = ¬ = ¬
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= = > ÷ ÷ =

This is the condition for the line c mx y + = to be a tangent to the parabola ax 4 y
2
= .
45. Find the equation of the ellipse in the form of 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= + given that the distance between the
directrices is 2 10 and the eccentricity is
2
1
. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Given, 2 5 2 a 2 5
2
1
a
2 5
e
a
2 10
e
a 2
= ¬ = ¬ = ¬ =

2 a 2 a
2
= = ¬
1
2
1
. 2
2
1
1 . 2 ) e 1 ( a b
2
1
e
2 2 2 2
= =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = ÷ = ¬ =
Equations of ellipse is . 1
1
y
2
x
2 2
= +
45. Define hyperbola as a locus and derive the standard equation of the hyperbola in the form of
1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= ÷ . [J-2006,2008,2010,M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Hyperbola is the locus of the point which moves so that the ratio of its distance from the
focus to its distance from the directrix is greater than one.

Let S be the focus and l be the directrix. Draw SZ perpendicular to the directrix l. On SZ, mark
the two points A and A‟ such that
1
e
Z A
SA
AZ
SA
'
'
= = .
Now taking the I and III ratios then we get 1 AZ . e SA
1
e
AZ
SA
> ÷÷ ÷ = ¬ =
' Z
P(x,y)
'
Y
'
S
'
A
M
'
X
l
a a
K
X
Y
N
A
Z S
C
Now taking the II and III ratios then we get 2 Z ' A . e ' SA
1
e
Z ' A
' SA
> ÷÷ ÷ = ¬ =
Bisect ' AA at C. Take C as the origin, CS produced as x-axis and CY perpendicular to CS as y-
axis. Let ) y , x ( P be any point on the hyperbola. Now join PS. Draw PM perpendicular to the
directrix and draw PN perpendicular to the x-axis.
Now take . a ' CA CA = =
Now adding equations (1) and (2) then we get ) Z ' A AZ ( e Z ' eA eAZ ' SA SA + = + = +
) ' AA .( e ) ' CA CS ( ) CA CS ( = + + ÷ ¬
. ae CS a 2 . e CS 2 ' AA . e CA CS CA CS = ¬ = ¬ = + + ÷ ¬
This means that the co-ordinates of S are ). 0 , ae ( Hence, ). 0 , ae ( S =
Now (2) – (1) gives ) AZ Z ' A .( e eAZ Z ' eA SA ' SA ÷ = ÷ = ÷

e
a
CZ CZ 2 . e a 2 )] CZ CA ( ) ' CA CZ .[( e ' AA = = ¬ ÷ ÷ + = ¬
This means that the co-ordinates of Z are
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
0 ,
e
a
. Hence,
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= 0 ,
e
a
Z

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= = 0 ,
e
a
Z and ) y , x ( P
Now by distance formula,
2 2 2 2
y ) ae x ( ) 0 y ( ) ae x ( PS + ÷ = ÷ + ÷ =
From the figure,
e
a
x PM
e
a
x CZ CN NZ PM ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = =
Since, P is a point on the hyperbola, by definition, PM . e PS e
PM
PS
= ¬ =
.
e
a
x . e ) 0 y ( ) ae x (
2 2
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ = ÷ + ÷
a ex y ) ae x (
2 2
÷ = + ÷ ¬ Now squaring on both the sides then we get

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
e a a y x e x 0 aex 2 a x e y aex 2 e a x
aex 2 a x e y aex 2 e a x ) a ex ( y ) ae x (
÷ = + ÷ ¬ = + ÷ ÷ + ÷ + ¬
÷ + = + ÷ + ¬ ÷ = + ÷

1 ) e 1 ( a y ) e 1 ( x
2 2 2 2 2
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + ÷ ¬
Now multiplying equation nor (1) by -1 then we get
) 1 e ( a y ) 1 e ( x ) e 1 ( a y ) e 1 ( x
2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2
÷ = ÷ ÷ ¬ ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ ÷
Now dividing through out this equation by ) 1 e ( a
2 2
÷ then we get

] b ) 1 e ( a [ 1
b
y
a
x
1
) 1 e ( a
y
a
x
1
) 1 e ( a
y
a
x
) 1 e ( a
) 1 e ( a
) 1 e ( a
y
) 1 e ( a
) 1 e ( x
2 2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
= ÷ = ÷ ¬ =
÷
÷ ¬
=
÷
÷ ¬
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
÷
÷
¬

This is equation of hyperbola in the standard form.

46. Find the vertex of the parabola x 8 ) 2 y (
2
÷ = ÷ . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

47. Find the centre of the ellipse whose vertices are (2,-2) and (2,4). Also find the length of major axis.
[J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

48. Find the centre and foci of the ellipse 0 11 y 18 x 16 y 9 x 4
2 2
= ÷ ÷ + + . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

49. Find the focal distance of any point (x,y) on the parabola ax 4 y
2
= . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

50. Define director circle of a huperbola. Derive the equation of the director circle of hyperbola.
[J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

DERIVATIVES
1. Differentiate
x sin
e
e log with respect to x. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. Differentiate
x
a with respect to x from the first principles. [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

3. If 5 y x = + then find
dx
dy
at the point (4,9). [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

4. If
x cos m
1
e y
÷
= then prove that 0 y m xy y ) x 1 (
2
1 2
2
= ÷ ÷ ÷ . [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

5. If ÷· ÷ ÷ + + + = x sin x sin x sin y then prove that
1 y 2
x cos
dx
dy
÷
= [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

6. If
) x sin 1 (
e
e log y
+
= then find
dx
dy
. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

7. If
θ
a
y & θ a x = = then prove that 0
x
y
dx
dy
= + . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

8. Differentiate sinax with respect to x from the first principles. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n
1 ax sin y Let > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
Now changing ) y y ( by y and ) x x ( by x A + A + in equation nor (1)
2 ) x a ax sin( ) x x ( a sin y y > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ A + = A + = A +
Now (2) – (1) gives ax sin ) x a ax sin( y y y ÷ A + = ÷ A +
x sin a ) x a ax sin( y ÷ A + = A ¬
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷ +
= ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ ÷ A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ + A +
= A
2
D C
sin .
2
D C
cos 2 D sin C sin
2
x a
sin .
2
x a ax 2
cos 2
2
ax x a ax
sin .
2
ax x a ax
cos 2 y

Now dividing by x A then we get
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
=
A
A
x
2
x a
sin .
2
x a ax 2
cos 2
x
y

Now taking the limit 0 x ÷ A on both the sides then we get

(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
÷ A ÷ A ÷ A
2
x a
. 2
2
x a
sin .
2
x a ax 2
cos a 2
Lim
x
2
x a
sin .
2
x a ax 2
cos 2
Lim
x
y
Lim
0 x 0 x 0 x

¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
=
÷ A ÷ A
÷ A ÷ A
1
2
x a
2
x a
sin
Lim 1 .
2
2
x a ax 2
cos a 2
Lim
2
x a
2
x a
sin
Lim .
2
2
x a ax 2
cos a 2
Lim
0 x 0 x
0 x 0 x

ax cos a
2
ax 2
cos a 1 .
2
0 ax 2
cos a
dx
dy
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
=
. ax cos a ) ax (sin
dx
d
, Hence =

9. If
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
=
÷
x cos 1
x cos 1
tan y
1
then find
dx
dy
. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

10. If
x sin m
1
e y
÷
= then prove that 0 y m xy y ) x 1 (
2
1 2
2
= ÷ ÷ ÷ . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

11. If ) x sec ( log y
5
= then find
dx
dy
. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

12. Differentiate x sinh . 3
x
with respect to x. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

13. If
m 2
) x 1 x ( y + + = then prove that . 0 my
dx
dy
x 1
2
= ÷ +
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

14. Differentiate tanx with respect to x from the first principles. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
1 x tan y Let > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
Now changing ) y y ( by y and ) x x ( by x A + A + in equation nor (1)
2 ) x x tan( y y > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ A + = A +
Now (2) – (1) gives x tan ) x x tan( y y y ÷ A + = ÷ A + x tan ) x x tan( y ÷ A + = A ¬

)]. B A sin( B sin A cos B cos A sin [
x cos ). x x cos(
) x sin(
x cos ). x x cos(
) x x x sin(
x cos ). x x cos(
x sin ). x x cos( x cos ). x x sin(
x cos
x sin
) x x cos(
) x x sin(
y
÷ = ÷
A +
A
=
A +
÷ A +
=
A +
A + ÷ A +
= ÷
A +
A +
= A

Now dividing through out this equation by x A then we get

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A + A
A
=
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A
A +
A
=
A
A
x cos ). x x cos( . x
) x sin(
x
x cos ). x x cos(
) x sin(
x
y

Now taking limit as 0 x ÷ A on both the sides then we get

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A + A
A
=
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A
A +
A
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
÷ A ÷ A ÷ A
x cos ). x x cos( . x
) x sin(
Lim
x
x cos ). x x cos(
) x sin(
Lim
x
y
Lim
0 x 0 x 0 x

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A +
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
A +
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
÷ A ÷ A
÷ A ÷ A
x
x sin
Lim .
x cos ). x x cos(
1
Lim
x
x sin
.
x cos ). x x cos(
1
Lim
x
y
Lim
0 x 0 x
0 x 0 x

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A +
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A +
=
÷ A ÷ A
x cos ). x x cos(
1
Lim 1 .
x cos ). x x cos(
1
Lim
0 x 0 x

x sec
x cos
1
x cos . x cos
1
x cos ). 0 x cos(
1
dx
dy
2
2
= = =
+
=

Hence, x sec ) x (tan
dx
d
2
=

15. If
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
=
÷
2
2
1
x 2 3
x 3 2
tan y then prove that
4
x 1
x 2
dx
dy
+
=

[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

16. If ) x sin p cos( y
1 ÷
= then prove that 0 y p xy y ) x 1 (
2
1 2
2
= + ÷ ÷ . [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

17. If
n m n m
) y x ( y x
+
+ = then prove that
x
y
dx
dy
= . [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

18. Differentiate ) x 5 sec(
0
with respect to x. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

19. Given the function | x | ) x ( f = then find ) 0 ( ' f . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

20. If
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
=
÷ ÷
1 x
1 x
sec
1 x
1 x
sin y
1 1
then prove that 0
dx
dy
= . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

21. Differentiate x 2 sin with respect to x from the first principles. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

22. Differentiate
x log
) x (sin with respect to x. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

23. Differentiate ) x 3 x 4 ( cos
3 1
÷
÷
with respect to ) x 2 1 ( cos
2 1
÷
÷
. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

24. If ) x cos m sin( y
1 ÷
= then prove that 0 y m xy y ) x 1 (
2
1 2
2
= + ÷ ÷ . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

25. Define the differential coefficient of a continous function ) x ( f y = with respect to x. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

26. If 2
b
y
a
x
n n
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
then find
dx
dy
at the point (a,b). [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

27. Differentiate cosecax with respect to x from the first principles. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
1 ecax cos y Let > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
Now replacing x by ) x x ( by x A + and ) y y ( by y A + in equation nor (1) then we get
2 ) x a ax ( ec cos ) x x ( eca cos y y > ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ A + = A + = A +
Now (2) – (1) gives ecax cos ) x a ax ( ec cos y y y ÷ A + = ÷ A +
) x a ax sin( . ax sin
2
x a
sin .
2
x a ax 2
cos 2
) x a ax sin( . ax sin
2
x a
sin .
2
x a ax 2
cos 2
) x a ax sin( . ax sin
2
x a
sin .
2
x a ax 2
cos 2
) x a ax sin( . ax sin
2
x a ax ax
sin .
2
x a ax ax
cos 2
) x a ax sin( . ax sin
) x a ax sin( ax sin
ax sin
1
) x a ax sin(
1
ecax cos ) x a ax ( ec cos y
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
=
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
=
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A ÷ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A + +
=
A +
A + ÷
= ÷
A +
= ÷ A + = A ¬

Now dividing through out this equation by x A then we get

) x a ax sin( . ax sin . x
2
x a
sin .
2
x a ax 2
cos 2
x
y
A + A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
A
A

Now taking limit as x A tends to zero then we get

¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A +
A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
÷ A ÷ A
) x a ax sin( . ax sin .
2
x
2 a
2
x a
sin .
2
x a ax 2
cos a 2
Lim
x
y
Lim
0 x 0 x

¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
÷ A ÷ A
÷ A
2
x a
2
x a
sin
Lim .
) x a ax sin( . ax sin
2
x a ax 2
cos a
Lim
2
x a
). x a ax sin( . ax sin
2
x a
sin .
2
x a ax 2
cos a
Lim
0 x 0 x
0 x

Hence, a log . a ] a [
dx
d
x x
=

ecax cos . ax cot a
ax sin . ax sin
ax cos a
) 0 ax sin( . ax sin
2
0 ax 2
cos a
) x a ax sin( . ax sin
2
x a ax 2
sin a
Lim . a 1 .
) x a ax sin( . ax sin
2
x a ax 2
cos a
Lim
0 x 0 x
÷ =
÷
=
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
÷
=
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
÷ A ÷ A

Hence, ax cot . ecax cos a ) ecax (cos
dx
d
÷ =

28. Differentiate sinx with respect to logx. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

31. If
y x y x
e e e
+
= + then prove that
x y
e
dx
dy
÷
÷ = . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

29. If
t 1
t 1
tan x
1
+
÷
=
÷
and ) t 3 t 4 ( cos y
3 1
÷ =
÷
then prove that 6
dx
dy
= . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

30. If
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
=
÷
x 1
x 1
cot sin y
1 2
then prove that
2
1
dx
dy
÷ = . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

31. If x cos log y = then find
dx
dy
. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

32. Differentiate
x
a with respect to x from the first principles. [j-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
1 a y Let
x
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
Now changing ) 1 ( in ) y y ( by y and ) x x ( by x A + A + then we get
2 a . a a y y
x x x x
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = = A +
A A +

Now equation (2) – (1) gives
x x x
a a . a y y y ÷ = ÷ A +
A

) 1 a ( a a a . a y
x x x x x
÷ = ÷ = A ¬
A A
Now dividing by x A then we get

x
) 1 a ( a
x
y
x x
A
÷
=
A
A
¬
A
Now taking limit as 0 x ÷ A then we get

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
¬
A
÷ A ÷ A
x
) 1 a ( a
Lim
x
y
Lim
x x
0 x 0 x
Hence, a log . a
dx
dy
e
x
=

(
(
¸
(

¸

=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
÷
A
÷ A
a log
x
1 a
Lim
e
x
0 x

33. If
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
=
÷
2
1
x 4
x 4
tan y then prove that
2
x 4
4
dx
dy
+
=
[j-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

34. If
2 1 2 1
) x (cos ) x (sin y
÷ ÷
+ = then prove that 0 4 xy y ) x 1 (
1 2
2
= ÷ ÷ ÷ . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

35. If θ 2 cos 3 θ 3 cos 2 y & θ 3 sin 2 θ 2 sin 3 x ÷ = + = then prove that .
2
θ
tan
dx
dy
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ =
[J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

36. If
x x
x e y + = then find
dx
dy
. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

37. If
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
=
x cos 1
x cos 1
log y then prove that ecx cos 2
dx
dy
= . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

38. If
2
x 1 log y ÷ = then differentiate with respect to x. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

39. If
2
2
x
1
x ) x ( f + = then find the value of ) 1 ( ' f . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
2
2
x
1
x ) x ( f + =

3
3 1 2 2 2
2
2
x
2
x 2 x 2 x 2 x ). 2 ( x 2 x
dx
d
x
dx
d
x
1
x
dx
d
) x ( ' f ÷ = ÷ = ÷ + = + =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ =
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

0 2 2
) 1 (
2
) 1 ( 2 ) 1 ( ' f
3
= ÷ = ÷ =

40. If
x y
a x = then prove that
x log x
y a log x
dx
dy ÷
= . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

41. Differentiate
x log 4
a
a y = with respect to x. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

42. If x cosh . x y = then prove that . 0 x cosh 2 xy y 2 xy
1 2
= + ÷ ÷
[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

43. If ) θ cos 1 ( a y & ) θ sin θ ( a x ÷ = + = then find
dx
dy
and also
2
2
dx
y d
. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

44. Differentiate
x
e with respect to x from the first principles. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
1 e y Let
x
> ÷÷ ÷ =
Now changing ) 1 ( in ) y y ( by y and ) x x ( by x A + A + then we get
2 e . e e y y
x x x x
> ÷÷ ÷ = = A +
A A +

Now equation (2) – (1) gives
| | 1 e e y e e . e y y y
x x x x x
÷ = A ¬ ÷ = ÷ A +
A A

Now divding by x A then we get

| | | |
| | | |
¦
)
¦
`
¹
¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
÷
= =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
¬
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
¬
A
÷
=
A
A
A
÷ A
A
÷ A ÷ A
A
÷ A ÷ A
A
1
x
1 e
Lim e 1 . e
x
1 e
Lim . e
x
y
Lim
x
1 e e
Lim
x
y
Lim
x
1 e e
x
y
x
0 x
x x
x
0 x
x
0 x
x x
0 x 0 x
x x

Hence,
x x
e ] e [
dx
d
=

45. Differentiate ) x (log log
10
with respect to x. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

46. If
x cos
1
x y
÷
= then differentiate with respect to x. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

47. Differentiate x sin
2
with respect to x from the first principles. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
1 x sin y Let
2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
Now changing ) 1 ( in ) y y ( by y and ) x x ( by x A + A + then equation (1) becomes
2 ) x x ( sin y y
2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ A + = A +
Now (2) – (1) gives x sin ) x x ( sin y y y
2 2
÷ A + = ÷ A +

)] B A sin( ). B A sin( B sin A sin [ ) x x x sin( ). x x x sin( y
x sin ) x x ( sin y
2 2
2 2
÷ + = ÷ ÷ A + + A + = A
÷ A + = A

) x sin( ). x x 2 sin( y A A + = A
Now dividing this equation by x A then we get
x
) x sin( ). x x 2 sin(
x
y
A
A A +
=
A
A

Now taking limit as x A tends to zero then we get

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A A +
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
÷ A ÷ A
x
) x sin( ). x x 2 sin(
Lim
x
y
Lim
0 x 0 x

x cos . x sin 2 x 2 sin ) 0 x 2 sin(
dx
dy
1 )]. x x 2 [sin( Lim
x
) x sin(
Lim )]. x x 2 [sin( Lim
x
y
Lim
0 x 0 x 0 x 0 x
= = + =
A + =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
A + =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
÷ A ÷ A ÷ A ÷ A

48. If
· ÷
÷
÷
÷
=
x
x
x y then find
dx
dy
. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

49. If
2 1
) x (sinh y
÷
= then prove that 0 2 xy y ) x 1 (
1 2
2
= ÷ + +
[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

50. If ) θ cos 1 ( a y & ) θ sin θ ( a x ÷ = + = then prove that
dx
dy
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
2
θ
tan . [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

51. If
x 5
5 . x y = then find
dx
dy
. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

52. If
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
=
÷
2
2
1
x 1
x 1
cos y then prove that
2
x 1
2
dx
dy
+
= . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

53. Differentiate
ax
e with respect to x from the first principles. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
1 e y Let
ax
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
Now changing ) 1 ( in ) y y ( by y and ) x x ( by x A + A + then we get
2 e y y
) x x ( a
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = A +
A +

Now equation (2) – (1) gives
ax ) x x ( a
e e y y y ÷ = ÷ A +
A +

) 1 e ( e e e . e e e y
x a x a x a x a x a x a ) x x ( a
÷ = ÷ = ÷ = A
A A A +

Now dividing by x A then we get
x
) 1 e ( e
x
y
x a x a
A
÷
=
A
A
A

Now taking limit as x A tends to zero then we get

ax
x a
0 x
ax
x a
0 x
ax
0 x
x a x a
0 x
x a x a
0 x 0 x
e . a
dx
dy
1
x . a
) 1 e (
Lim 1 . e . a
x . a
) 1 e (
Lim e . a
x
y
Lim
x . a
) 1 e ( e . a
Lim
x
) 1 e ( e
Lim
x
y
Lim
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
A
÷ A
A
÷ A ÷ A
A
÷ A
A
÷ A ÷ A

Hence,
ax ax
e . a ] e [
dx
d
=

54. Differentiate x sinh
1 ÷
with respect to
2
x 1+ . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

55. If ) x sin(log b ) x cos(log a y + = then prove that 0 y xy y x
1 2
2
= + + . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

56. If
y x y x
e e e
+
= + then proe that
x y
e
dx
dy
÷
÷ = . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

57. If
x
3 y
÷
= then find
dx
dy
. [J-2007]
30. Differentiate cosec4x with respect to x from the first principles. [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
1 x 4 ec cos y Let > ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ =
Now replacing x by ) x x ( by x A + and ) y y ( by y A + in equation nor (1) then we get
2 ) x 4 x 46 ( ec cos ) x x ( 4 ec cos y y > ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ A + = A + = A +
Now (2) – (1) gives x 4 ec cos ) x 4 x 4 ( ec cos y y y ÷ A + = ÷ A +
) x 4 x 4 sin( . x 4 sin
2
x 4
sin .
2
x 4 ) x 4 ( 2
cos 2
) x 4 x 4 sin( . x 4 sin
2
x 4
sin .
2
x 4 ) x 4 ( 2
cos 2
) x 4 x 4 sin( . x 4 sin
2
x 4
sin .
2
x 4 ) x 4 ( 2
cos 2
) x 4 x 4 sin( . x 4 sin
2
x 4 x 4 x 4
sin .
2
x 4 x 4 x 4
cos 2
) x 4 x 4 sin( . x 4 sin
) x 4 x 4 sin( x 4 sin
x 4 sin
1
) x 4 x 4 sin(
1
x 4 ec cos ) x 4 x 4 ( ec cos y
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
=
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
=
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A ÷ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A + +
=
A +
A + ÷
= ÷
A +
= ÷ A + = A ¬

Now dividing through out this equation by x A then we get

) x 4 x 4 sin( . x 4 sin . x
2
x 4
sin .
2
x 4 ) x 4 ( 2
cos 2
x
y
A + A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
A
A

Now taking limit as x A tends to zero then we get

¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A +
A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
A
A
÷ A ÷ A
) x 4 x 4 sin( . x 4 sin .
2
x
) 2 ( 4
2
x 4
sin .
2
x 4 ) x 4 ( 2
cos ) 4 ( 2
Lim
x
y
Lim
0 x 0 x

¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
÷ A
2
x 4
). x 4 x 4 sin( . x 4 sin
2
x 4
sin .
2
x 4 ) x 4 ( 2
cos 4
Lim
0 x
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
÷ A ÷ A
2
x 4
2
x 4
sin
Lim .
) x 4 x 4 sin( . x 4 sin
2
x 4 ) x 4 ( 2
cos 4
Lim
0 x 0 x

) 0 x 4 sin( . x 4 sin
2
0 x 8
cos 4
) x 4 x 4 sin( . x 4 sin
2
x 4 ) x 4 ( 2
sin 4
Lim . 4 1 .
) x 4 x 4 sin( . x 4 sin
2
x 4 ) x 4 ( 2
cos 4
Lim
0 x 0 x
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
÷
=
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
A +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ A +
÷
=
÷ A ÷ A

x 4 ec cos . x 4 cot 4
x 4 sin . x 4 sin
x 4 cos 4
÷ =
÷
= Hence, x 4 cot . x 4 ec cos 4 ) x 4 ec (cos
dx
d
÷ =

40. If
(
¸
(

¸

÷
+
=
÷
x tan 2 5
x tan 5 2
tan y
1
then find
dx
dy
. [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES
1. Find the length of sub-tangent and sub-normal to the curve 11 x x y
2 3
÷ + = at (2,1). [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. Find the equation of normal to the curve 2 x 4 x y
2
+ ÷ = at the point (4,2). [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

3. Water is poured into an inverted conical vessel of which the radius of base is 6 cms and the height
is 12 cms at the rate of
2
1
5 c.c per second. At what rate is the water level rising at the instant.
When the depth is
2
1
3 cm ? Also find the rate of increase in the surface area of the water level at
the instant. [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

4. The sum of two numbers is 40. Then find the numbers when their product is maximum.
[J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

5. A particle is travelling in a straight line whose distance is given by 7 t t 6 t 4 s
2 3
÷ + ÷ = units.
Then find the velocity of the particle after t = 2 seconds. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

6. Find the angle between the two curves x 4 y
2
= and 3 y 2 x
2
÷ = at the point (1,2). [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

7. Find the length of sub-normal to the curve
5 2 3
a y x = at any point on it. And also prove that
length of sub-tangent varies directly as abscissa at that point. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

8. Show that the rectangle of maximum perimeter which can be inscribed in a circle of radius a is a
square of the side 2 a . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

9. S.T. for the curve
a
x
e . b y = the sub-normal varies as the square of the ordinate y. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Given curve is
a
x
be y = . Now D.w.r.t.x we get
a
y
a
1
. be be
dx
d
dx
dy
a
x
a
x
= = =

a
y
a
y
. y
dx
dy
. y N . S of Length
2
= = =
10. Find the equation of normal to the curve 2 x 7 x y
2
÷ + = at the point where it crosses the y-axis.
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

11. Find the angle between the curves
3
x y 4 = and
2
x 6 y ÷ = at (2,2). [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
Two given curves are 2 x 6 y and 1 x y 4
2 3
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = > ÷÷ ÷ =
Now differentiating equation nor (1) with respect to x then we get

1
) 2 , 2 (
2 3
m 4
4
) 4 ( 3
dx
dy
x 3
dx
dy
4 ) x (
dx
d
) y 4 (
dx
d
= = = = ¬ =
Now differentiating equation nor (2) with respect to x then we get

2
) 2 , 2 (
2
m 4 ) 2 ( 2
dx
dy
x 2
dx
dy
) x 6 (
dx
d
dx
dy
= ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ¬ ÷ =
.
11
7
tan
11
7
11
7
4 x 3 1
4 3
m m 1
m m
tan
1
2 1
2 1 ÷
= u =
÷
=
÷
+
=
+
÷
= u
12. The volume of the sphere is increasing at the rate of . sec / . c . c 4t Find the rate of increase of the
radius and its surface area when the volume of the sphere is . c . c 288t [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
At teme t, let V be the volume of a sphere of radius r and A be its surface area.

. sec / cms . sq
3
4
36
1
. 6 . 8 ] r 4 [
dt
d
dt
dA
then t . t . r . w ) 2 ( Diff
sec / cms
36
1
dt
dr
Hence
dt
dr
. 36 . 4 4
dt
dr
. r 4
dt
dr
. r 3 .
3
4
r
3
4
dt
d
dt
dV
then t . t . r . w ) 1 ( Diff
. cms 6 r , Hence 216
4
3
x 288 r
r
3
4
288 ) 1 ( from 288 V when
. cc 288 V when
dt
dA
and
dt
dr
find To . sec / c . c 4
dt
dV
, Given
2 r A and 1 r
3
4
V Then
2
2 2 3
3
3
2 3
t = t = t =
= t = t
t = =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
t =
= =
t
t =
t = t t =
t = t =
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ t = > ÷÷ ÷ t =

13. S.T. among all the rectangles of a given perimeter, the square has maximum area. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

14. At any point on the curve
n m n m
a y x
+
= show that the sub tangent varies as the abscissa of the
point. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

15. Show that the curves
2
x x 6 y ÷ + = and 2 x ) 1 x ( y + = ÷ touch each other at (2,4). [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

16. The volume of the sphere increases at the rate of π 4 cc./sec. Find the rate of increase of its radius
and surface area when its volume is π 288 c.c. Also find the change in volume in 5 seconds and
also find the rate of increase of volume with respect to the radius when the volume is π 288 c.c.
[J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

17. Among all right angled triangles of given hypotenuse show that the triangle which is isosceles has
maximum area. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

18. Find the length of the sub-tangent to the curve 13 y xy x
2 3
= + + at the point (1,3). [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Given curve is 1 13 y xy x
2 3
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = + + and ). 3 , 1 ( ) y , x (
1 1
=
D.w.r.t.x then we get 0 ) 13 (
dx
d
) y (
dx
d
) x (
dx
d
y ) y (
dx
d
x ) x (
dx
d
2 3
= = + + +

7
6
) 3 ( 2 1
) 3 3 (
dx
dy
, Now
y 2 x
) y x 3 (
dx
dy
y x 3 ) y 2 x (
dx
dy
y x 3
dx
dy
. y 2
dx
dy
. x 0
dx
dy
. y 2 y
dx
dy
. x x 3
) 3 , 1 (
2
2
2 2
÷ =
+
+
÷ =
+
+
÷ = ¬ ÷ ÷ = + ¬
÷ ÷ = + ¬ = + + + ¬

Now length of sub-tangent is .
2
7
2
7
6
21
7
6
3
dx
dy
y
= ÷ = ÷ =
÷
=
19. Prove that the greatest size rectangle that can be inscribed in a circle of radius a is a square.
[M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

Let x and y be the length and breadth of the
rectangle inscribed In a right angled triangle OMQ

1 a 4 y x a
4
y
4
x
a
2
y
2
x
2 2 2 2
2 2
2
2 2
> ÷ ÷ = + = + ¬ = +
Given that xy is maximum. Let 2 A xy > ÷÷ ÷ =
From the two equations (1) and (2) we get
2 2
x a 4 x A ÷ =
Differentiating this with respect to x then we get

2 2
2 2
2 2
2 2 2
2 2
2 2
x a 4
) x a 2 ( 2
x a 4
x a 4 x
x a 4
x a 4 2
) x 2 ( 1
. x
dx
dA
÷
÷
=
÷
÷ + ÷
= ÷ +
÷
÷
= .
Q
P
M
x
a
O
y
For A to be maximum, 2 a x a 2 x 0
dx
dA
2 2
= = ¬ =
y x 2 a y then 2 a x When = = =
This means that the rectangle is a square.

20. Prove that in the curve
a
x
e y = the sub normal varies as the square of the ordinate and sub tangent
is constant. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Given curve is
a
x
e y = . Now D.w.r.t.x we get
a
y
a
1
. e e
dx
d
dx
dy
a
x
a
x
= = =

a
y
a
y
. y
dx
dy
. y N . S of Length . t tan Cons a
a
y
y
dx
dy
y
T . S of Length
2
= = = = = = =
21. Find the point on the curve x y
2
= the tangent at which makes an angle of
0
45 with the x-axis.
[J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
Given curve is 1 x y
2
> ÷÷ ÷ = Differentiating (1) with respect to x then we get

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= ¬ = ¬ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
¬ =
= ¬ = ¬ = ¬ = =
= = = ¬ = ¬ =
4
1
,
2
1
) y , x (
4
1
x x
2
1
) 1 ( in
2
1
y Put
2
1
y 1 y 2 1
y 2
1
1 ) 45 tan( m
m Slope
y 2
1
dx
dy
1
dx
dy
y 2 ) x (
dx
d
) y (
dx
d
2
0
2

22. The surface area of the sphere is increasing at the rate of 8 sq cm/sec. Find the rate at which the
radius and the volume of the sphere are increasing when the volume of the sphere is
3
π 500
c.c.
[J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

23. The sum of the lengths of a hypotenuse and another side of a right angled triangle is given. Show
that the area of the triangle is maximum when the angle between these sides is
3
π
. [J-2008]

÷ : Sol
n
Let 1 k y x and x Bc and y AC > ÷÷ ÷ = + = =
Area of the triangle ABC is given by

) x y ( x
4
1
A and x y x
2
1
AB . BC
2
1
A
2 2 2 2 2 2
÷ = ÷ = =
] kx 2 k [ x
4
1
] x ) x k .[( x
4
1
A
2 2 2 2 2
÷ = ÷ ÷ =
Let, ] kx 2 k x [
4
1
A z
3 2 2 2
÷ = =
B
x
y
A
C

3
k
x or 0 x min or max for 0 ) x 3 k )( kx 2 (
4
1
)] x 3 ( k 2 xk 2 .[
4
1
dx
dz
2 2
= = = ÷ = ÷ =
0 x = is not admissible hence
3
k
x =
For this x, 0 ) k 2 (
4
1
]
3
k
. k 12 k 2 [
4
1
] kx 12 k 2 [
4
1
dx
z d
2 2 2
2
2
< ÷ = ÷ = ÷ =
Hence, z is maximum and hence A is maximum when
3
k
x =
Also,
3
k 2
3
k
k x k = ÷ = ÷ =
3
π
C
2
1
3
k 2
3
k
y
x
C cos = ¬ = = =

24. Find the length of the sub-tangent to the curve 1 x x y
2
+ + = at the point ) 3 , 1 ( on it.[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
Given curve is 1 1 x x y
2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + + = ) 3 , 1 ( ) y , x (
1 1
=
D.w.r.t.x then we get
1 x x 2
1 x 2
) 1 x x (
dx
d
.
1 x x 2
1
1 x x
dx
d
dx
dy
2
2
2
2
+ +
+
= + +
+ +
= + + =

2
3
3 2
3
1 1 1 2
1 2
dx
dy
) 3 , 1 (
= =
+ +
+
=
Length of sub-tangent is . 2
3
3 2
2
3
3
dx
dy
y
= = =
25. Prove that the function
x
x has minimum value at
e
1
x = . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n x
x y Let =
) x log 1 ( x
dx
dy
, Hence x log 1 x log
x
1
. x
dx
dy
y
1
x log . x y log
x
+ = + = + = ¬ =

e
1
x at imum min is y , Hence
0 x log 1 , Because ve 0
e
1
e ) e (
dx
y d
and
0 ) 1 1 ( ) e ( ) e log 1 ( ) e (
dx
dy
then e
e
1
x When
) x log 1 (
x
1
. x )} x log 1 ( x ).{ x log 1 (
x
1
. x
dx
y d
1
1 1
2
2
e 1 1 e 1 1
2 x x x
2
2
1 1
=
= + + =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ =
= ÷ = + = = =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ + = + + + =
÷
÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷

26. A stone is through up vertically and the height x feet reached by it in time “t” seconds is given by
2
t 16 t 80 x ÷ = . Find the time for the stone to reach its maximum height. Also find the maximum
height reached by the stone. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n 2
t 16 t 80 s ÷ =
t 32 80 ) t (
dt
d
. 16 ) t (
dt
d
80 ) t 16 (
dt
d
) t 80 (
dt
d
dt
ds
v
2 2
÷ = ÷ = ÷ = =
= velocity of the stone after „t‟ seconds.
At maximum height . s sec
2
5
32
80
t 80 t 32 0 t 32 80 0
dt
ds
= = ¬ = ¬ = ÷ ¬ =
Stone reaches the maximum height after
2
5
seconds.
. 100 100 200
4
25
. 16 200
2
5
. 16
2
5
. 80 s
2
= ÷ = ÷ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
Maximum height reached by the stone is 100 ft.
27. A man 6 feet tall moves away from a source of light 20 feet above that ground level and his rate of
walking being 4 miles/hour. At what rate, is the length of shadow changing?. At what rate is the
tip of the shadow moving ? [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

28. Show that ) x cos 1 .( x sin y + = is maximum when
3
π
x = . [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

29. Show that the curves x 5 x y 2
3
+ = and 1 x 2 x y
2
+ + = touch each other at the point (1,3). Also
find the equation of the common tangent. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
The two given curves are 1 x 5 x y 2
3
> ÷÷ ÷ + = and 2 1 x 2 x y
2
> ÷÷ ÷ + + =
Diff (1) with respect to x then we get

1
) 3 , 1 (
2
2
m 4
2
5 3
dx
dy
2
5 x 3
dx
dy
5 x 3
dx
dy
2 = =
+
= ¬
+
= ¬ + =
Differentiate (2) with respect to x then we get

2
) 3 , 1 (
m 4 2 2
dx
dy
2 x 2
dx
dy
= = + = ¬ + =

2 1
m m = Hence, the two curves touch each other at (1,3).
Equation of common tangent is . 0 1 y x 4 ) 1 x ( 4 3 y = ÷ ÷ ¬ ÷ = ÷
30. An inverted circular cone has depth 12 cms and base radius 9 cms. Water is poured into it at the
rate of
2
1
1 cc/sec. Find the rate of rise of water level and the rate of increase of the surface area
when the depth of water is 4 cms. [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Given, base radius = CB = 9 and depth = OC = 12
Let V,r,A be the volume, radius and area of the water cone OPQR at any instant t.
Given,
2
3
dt
dv
= Required to find . cms 4 h when
dt
dA
and
dt
dh
=
Now from the similar triangles OPQ and OBC

4
h 3
r h
12
9
r
9
r
12
h
BC
PQ
OC
OQ
= ¬ = ¬ = ¬ =

16
h 3
h
r
h 3
3
1
h r
3
1
V
2
2
2
t
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
t = t =

dt
dh
. h 3 .
16
3
dt
dv
2
t
=
When h = 4 then
dt
dh
. 4 . 3 .
16
3
2
3
2
t
=
sec / cm
16
1
16 . 3 . 3 . 2
16 . 3
dt
dh
=
t
= ¬

2
2
2
h
16
9
4
h 3
r A
t
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
t = t =

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
=
dt
dh
. h 2 .
16
9
dt
dA

When h = 4 then sec / cm . sq
4
3
6
1
. 4 . 2 .
16
9
dt
dA
=
t
t
=

31. A right circular cone has the depth of 12 cms and a base radius of 9 cms. Water is poured into it
at the rate of
2
1
1 cc/sec. Find the rate of rise of water level and the rate of increase of water
surface when the depth of water level of 4cms. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

32. Show that in the parabola ax 4 y
2
= the sub-tangent at any point is twice the abscissa.[J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Given curve is ax 4 y
2
= . Now differentiating this with respect to x we get

y
a 2
dx
dy
a 4
dx
dy
y 2 ] ax 4 [
dx
d
] y [
dx
d
2
= = ¬ =
x 2
a 2
ax 4
a 2
y
y
a 2
y
dx
dy
y
T . S of Length
2
= = = = =
Hence, the sub-tangent is double the abscissa of the point.
33. Product of two numbers is 16. Find the numbers when their sum is minimum. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

34. Show that the curves
2 2 2
a 2 y x = + and
2
a xy = touch each other at the point (a,a). [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

35. A point moves on a straight line. Its distance S feet from a fixed point on the line at a time t is
t 2 cos 5 S = . Find its acceleration in terms of S. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Given, t 2 cos 5 s =
C
O
R P
B
Q

. s 4 t 2 cos 5 . 4 a
t 2 cos . 20 t 2 cos 2 . 10 ) t 2 (sin
dt
d
. 10 ) t 2 sin 10 (
dt
d
dt
dv
a
t 2 sin 10 ) t 2 sin 2 .( 5 ) t 2 (cos
dt
d
. 5 ) t 2 cos 5 (
dt
d
v
÷ = ÷ =
÷ = ÷ = ÷ = ÷ = =
÷ = ÷ = = =

36. Prove that
x
x is minimum at
e
1
x = . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

37. A circular blot of ink in a blotting paper increases in area in such a way that the radius r cm at
time t seconds is given by
4
t
t 2 r
3
2
÷ = . Find the rate of increase of area when t = 2. [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

38. Show that the height of a right circular cylinder of the greatest volume which is inscribed in a
3
a 2
. Then find the radius of the right circular cylinder. [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

INDEFINITE INTEGRALS
1. Evaluate :
}
dx . x log . x [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. Evaluate :
}
+ x cos 4 5
dx
[J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

3 Evaluate : dx .
x tan 1
x tan 1
}
+
÷
[J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

4. Evaluate :
}
+ + 9 x 4 x
dx
2
[J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

5. Evaluate :
}
dx .
x
x log
2
. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

6. Evaluate : dx .
e
) x tan 1 .( x sec
x
}
÷
+
[M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

8. Evaluate :
}
+ x cos 12 13
dx
. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

9. Evaluate :
}
÷ ÷
2
x 9 x 6 8
dx
[M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

10. Evaluate : dx . ) x 2 ( sec
3
}
[M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

11. Evaluate : dx .
x 2 cos 1
x 2 cos 1
}
+
÷
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
c ) x log(sec dx . x tan dx . x tan dx .
x cos 2
x sin 2
dx .
x 2 cos 1
x 2 cos 1
2
2
2
+ = = = =
+
÷
} } } }

12. Evaluate : dx .
x cos
x tan 3
e
x
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
}
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

13. Evaluate :
}
÷ ÷
2
x x 6 7
dx
. [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ ÷ = ÷ + ÷ = ÷ ÷
2 2
2 2
6 .
2
1
7 6 .
2
1
x . 1 ] 7 x 6 x [ x x 6 7
| | | | | |
2 2 2 2 2 2
) 3 x ( 4 4 ) 3 x ( . 1 16 ) 3 x ( . 1 9 7 ) 3 x ( . 1 + ÷ = ÷ + ÷ = ÷ + ÷ = ÷ ÷ + ÷ =
c
x 1
7 x
log .
8
1
c
) 3 x ( 4
) 3 x ( 4
log .
4 . 2
1
) 3 x ( 4
dx
x x 6 7
dx
I
2 2 2
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
= +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ ÷
+ +
=
+ ÷
=
÷ ÷
=
} }

14. Evaluate :
}
+ dx )]. x cos(log ) x [sin(log
[J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

15. Evaluate : dx .
) 1 x ( x
1
2
}
+
[J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

16. Evaluate : dx .
x cos 4 x sin 3
x cos 18 x sin
}
+
+
[J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

17. Evaluate : dx .
x 1
x 1
}
+
÷
. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

18. Evaluate : dx .
x sin
x cos 1
2
}
÷
. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

19. Evaluate : dx .
x cos x sin
1
2 2
}
[M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
dx .
x cos . x sin
x cos
dx .
x cos . x sin
x sin
dx .
x cos . x sin
x cos x sin
dx .
x cos . x sin
1
2 2
2
2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2 } } } }
+ =
+
=

c x cot x tan c ) x cot ( x tan
dx . x ec cos dx . x sec dx
x sin
1
dx
x cos
1
2 2
2 2
+ ÷ = + ÷ + =
+ = + =
} } } }

20. Evaluate : dx .
x sin 1
x sin
}
+
. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
dx
x sin 1
1
x sin 1
x sin 1
dx
x sin 1
1 x sin 1
dx
x sin 1
x sin
} } }
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
+
+
=
+
÷ +
=
+

c x sec x tan x c ] x sec x [tan x
dx ]. x tan . x sec x [sec x dx
x cos . x cos
x sin
x cos
1
x dx
x cos
x sin 1
x
dx
x sin 1
x sin 1
x dx
x sin 1
x sin 1
.
x sin 1
1
x dx
x sin 1
1
dx . 1
2
2 2
2
+ + ÷ = + ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ÷ =
÷
÷ =
÷
÷
÷ =
÷
÷
+
÷ =
+
÷ =
} } }
} } } }

21. Evaluate : dx .
4 x sin 3 x sin 2
x cos
2
}
+ +
. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

22. Evaluate : dx .
4 x
x
2 }
÷
. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

23. Evaluate :
}
dx . x tan
4
[M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
} } }
÷ = = dx ). 1 x .(sec x tan dx . x tan . x tan dx . x tan
2 2 2 2 4

c x x tan
3
) x (tan
c x x tan
3
t
dx . 1 dx . x sec dt . t
dt dx . x sec then x tan t put dx ). 1 x (sec dx . x sec . x tan
dx . x tan dx . x sec . x tan dx ]. x tan x sec . x [tan
3 3
2 2
2 2 2 2
2 2 2 2 2 2
+ ÷ ÷ = + ÷ ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
= = ÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
} } }
} }
} } }

24. Evaluate : dx .
x tan 2 1
x tan 3 2
}
+
÷
. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

25. Evaluate : dx .
) e 1 ).( e 1 (
1
x x
}
÷
÷ +
[J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

26. Evaluate : dx .
x cos
x tan 1
. e
x
}
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ +
[J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

27. Evaluate : dx . ) x 3 ( cos
4
}
[J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

28. Evaluate :
}
dx . x cos . x 3 sin
[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
} }
+ = dx )]. x 2 sin( ) x 4 [sin(
2
1
dx . x cos . x 3 sin
c
2
x 2 cos
4
x 4 cos
2
1
dx . x 2 sin dx . x 4 sin
2
1
+
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
} }

29. Evaluate : dx .
1 x
1 x
2
2
}
+
÷
[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

30. Evaluate : dx
) x 2 (
x 1
. e
2
x
}
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
+
[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
dx .
) x 2 (
1
x 2
1
. e dx .
) x 2 (
1 ) x 2 (
. e dx .
) x 2 (
x 1
e
2
x
2
x
2
x
} } } (
¸
(

¸

+
÷
+
+
=
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷ +
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
+

c
x 2
e
c
x 2
1
. e c ) x ( f . e dx )]. x ( ' f ) x ( f .[ e
x
x x x
+
+
= +
+
= + = + =
}

31. Evaluate : dx . x . 4
2 x
3
}
[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
3
dt
dx . x dt dx . x 3 x t put
2 2 3
= ¬ = ¬ =
c
4 log 3
4
c
4 log 3
4
c
4 log
4
.
3
1
dt . 4 .
3
1
3
dt
. 4
3
x t t
t t
+ = + = + = =
} }

32. Evaluate :
}
dx . x sin . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

33. Evaluate : dx .
x cos x sin
x cos
}
+
[J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

34. Evaluate : dx .
x cos 1
x sin 1
. e
x
}
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
+
[J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
} } (
¸
(

¸

+
+
+
=
+
+
dx
x cos 1
x sin
x cos 1
1
e dx
x cos 1
) x sin 1 ( e
x
x

dx
2
x
tan
2
x
sec
2
1
e dx
2
x
cos 2
2
x
cos
2
x
sin 2
2
x
cos 2
1
e
2 x
2 2
x
} } (
¸
(

¸

+ =
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
c
2
x
tan . e c ) x ( f . e dx )] x ( ' f ) x ( f [ e
) x ( ' f dx
2
x
sec
2
1
. e , i
2
x
tan ) x ( f dx
2
x
sec
2
1
2
x
tan e
x x x
2 2 x
+ = + = + =
= =
(
¸
(

¸

+ =
}
}

35. Evaluate : dx .
1 e 5
1
x 3
}
+

[J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

36. Prove that
} }
÷ = dx '. vu uv dx '. uv . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

38. Evaluate : dx .
x 1
x sin . x
2
1
}
÷
÷

[J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

39. Evaluate : dx .
x 4 x 4 1
1
2 }
÷ ÷

[J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

DEFININTE INTEGRALS
1. Evaluate :
}
4
π
0
dx . x tan . x sec [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. Evaluate :
}
4
π
0
2
dx . x sec [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

3. Evaluate : dx .
x tan x sec
x tan x
π
0
}
+
[M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

4. Evaluate : dx . x log
e
1
e
}
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

5. Evaluate : dx .
x 5 2 x
2 x
3
0
}
÷ + +
+
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

6. Evaluate : dx .
x x 2
x
2
0
}
+ ÷
. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

7. Evaluate : dx .
x sin 1
x cos . x sin
2
π
0
4
}
+
. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

8. Evaluate :
}
4
π
0
3
dx . x cos . x sin . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

9. Evaluate : dx .
6 x 4 x
1 x
2
}
+ ÷
+
[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

10. Evaluate : dx .
) x 1 (
e . x
2
x
}
+
[M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

11. Evaluate :
}
÷
1
0
3
dx . ) 1 x 3 (
[J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

12. Evaluate : dx . x 2 cos 1
2
π
0
}
÷

[J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
dx . x sin 2 dx . x sin 2 1 1 dx . ] x sin 2 1 [ 1 dx . x 2 cos 1
2
π
0
2
2
π
0
2
2
π
0
2
2
π
0
} } } }
= + ÷ = ÷ ÷ = ÷
| | 2 ) 0 cos(
2
π
cos 2 x cos 2 dx . x sin 2 dx . x sin . 2
2
π
0
2
π
0
2
π
0
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷ = ÷ = = =
} }

PROPERTIES OF DEFININTE INTEGRALS
1. Prove that
} }
÷ =
a
0
a
0
dx ). x a ( f dx ). x ( f . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
dt dx
dx
dt
1 , t x a put dx ). x a ( f RHS
a
0
÷ = = ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
}

)] 4 ( prop [ . LHS dx ). x ( f
0 t then a x when )] 2 ( prop [ dt ). t ( f
a t then 0 x when dt ). t ( f ) dt ).( t ( f
a
0
a
0
0
a
0
a

= =
= = =
= = ÷ = ÷ =
}
}
} }

Hence,
} }
÷ =
a
0
a
0
dx ). x a ( f dx ). x ( f .
i,e. the value of a definite integral is not altered if we change x to (upper limit –x) provided the
lower limit is zero.
2. 2 log
8
dx ). x tan 1 log( . T . P
4
0
t
= +
}
t
[M-2006,2009]
÷ : Sol
n
1 dx ). x tan 1 log( I , Let
4
0
> ÷÷ ÷ + =
}
t

dx .
x tan .
4
tan 1
x tan
4
tan
1 log dx . x
4
tan 1 log dx ). x tan 1 log( I
4
0
4
0
4
0
} } }
t t t
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

¦
¦
)
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
t
+
÷
t
+ =
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
t
+ = + =

} } }
t t t
(
¸
(

¸

+
=
(
¸
(

¸

+
÷ + +
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
+ =
4
0
4
0
4
0
dx .
x tan 1
2
log dx .
x tan 1
x tan 1 x tan 1
log dx .
x tan 1
x tan 1
1 log I
get we ) 2 ( and ) 1 ( adding Now 2 dx ). x tan 1 log( dx . 2 log I
4
0
4
0
> ÷÷ ÷ + ÷ =
} }
t t

| | . 2 log .
8
I . 2 log
4
0
4
2 log x . 2 log I 2
dx . 1 2 log dx . 2 log dx ). x tan 1 log( dx . 2 log dx ). x tan 1 log( I 2
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
t
=
t
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
t
= =
= = + ÷ + + =
t
t t t t t
} } } } }

3. Evaluate :
}
÷
+
4
π
4
π
dx ). x cos x 3 (sin
[J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

4. Prove that
ab 2
π
x sin b x cos a
xdx
2
2
π
0
2 2 2 2
=
+
}
. [J-2007,2009]
÷ : Sol
n
1
x sin b x cos a
dx . x
I , Let
π
0
2 2 2 2
> ÷÷ ÷
+
=
}

2
x sin b x cos a
dx ). x π (
) x π ( sin b ) x π ( cos a
dx ). x π (
I
π
0
2 2 2 2
π
0
2 2 2 2
> ÷÷ ÷
+
÷
=
÷ + ÷
÷
=
} }

Now adding the two equations (1) and (2) then we get

} }
t t
+
÷ t
+
+
= +
0
2 2 2 2
0
2 2 2 2
x sin b x cos a
dx ). x (
x sin b x cos a
dx . x
I I
dx .
x sin b x cos a
dx .
x sin b x cos a
) x ( x
I 2
0
2 2 2 2
0
2 2 2 2
} }
t t
+
t
=
+
÷ t +
=
Now dividing both numerator and denominator by x cos
2
then we get
dx .
x tan b a
x sec
2 dx .
x tan b a
x sec
dx .
x cos
x sin
b
x cos
x cos
a
x cos
I 2
2
0
2 2 2
2
0
2 2 2
2
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
} } }
t
t t
+
t =
+
t =
+
t
=

· =
t
= = =
= =
t then
2
x when and 0 t then o x when
dt dx . x sec b then t x tan b put Now
2

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
t t
= ÷ ·
t
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦ t
=
+
t =
÷ ÷
·
÷
·
}
0
2 ab
2
)] 0 ( tan ) ( [tan
ab
2
a
t
tan .
a
1
b
2
t a
b
dt
2 I 2
1 1
0
1
0
2 2

ab 2
I , Hence
ab 2 ab
2
I 2
2 2
t
=
t
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t t
=

5. Prove that
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
+
=
+
}
1 2
1 2
log .
2
1
x cos x sin
dx
2
π
0
. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

6. Evaluate :
}
÷
1
0
7
dx . ) x 1 .( x . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

7. Prove that
3 3
π
dx .
x cos x sin 1
x cos
2
π
0
2
=
+
}
. [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
1 dx .
x cos . x sin 1
x cos
I , Let
2
0
2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+
=
}
t

2 dx .
x sin . x cos 1
x sin
dx .
x
2
cos . x
2
sin 1
x
2
cos
I
2
0
2
2
0
2
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
t
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
t
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
t
=
} }
t t

Now adding the two equations (1) and (2) then we get
dx .
x cos . x sin 1
1
dx .
x cos . x sin 1
x cos x sin
dx .
x cos . x sin 1
x sin
dx .
x cos . x sin 1
x cos
I 2
2
0
2
0
2 2
2
0
2
2
0
2
} } } }
t t t t
+
=
+
+
=
+
+
+
=
Now dividing numerator and denominator by x cos
2
then we get
dx .
1 x tan x tan
x sec
dx .
x tan x sec
x sec
I 2
2
0
2
2
2
0
2
2
} }
t t
+ +
=
+
=
dt dx . x sec then x tan t Put
2
= = · =
t
= = = t ,
2
x If , 0 t , 0 x If

·
÷
· ·
¦
¦
¦
)
¦
¦
¦
`
¹
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
+
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
=
+ +
=
} }
0
1
0
2
2
0
2
2
3
2
1
t
tan .
2
3
1
2
3
2
1
t
dt
1 t t
dt
I 2

3 3
I
3
.
3
2
6 2
3
2
3
1
tan ) ( tan
3
2
I 2
1 1
t
= ¬
t
=
(
¸
(

¸
t
÷
t
=
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ · =
÷ ÷

} } }
}
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
(
¸
(

¸

÷ = > ÷ ÷ = ÷
÷ ÷ =
2
π
0
2
π
0
2
π
0
n
2
π
0
dx ). x log(cos dx . x
2
π
sin log I 1 dx ). x log(sin I , Let : Sol
] 2007 M [ 2 log .
2
π
dx ). x log(sin . T . P . 8

Now adding the two equations (1) and (2) then we get
} } }
t t t
+ = + =
2
0
2
0
2
0
dx )]. x log(cos ) x [log(sin dx ). x log(cos dx ). x log(sin I 2
} } }
t t t
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
= =
2
0
2
0
2
0
dx .
2
x 2 sin
log dx .
2
x cos . x sin 2
log dx ). x cos . x log(sin I 2
2 dx . 1 2 log I dx . 2 log dx ). x 2 log(sin I 2
2
0
1
2
0
2
0
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = ÷ =
} } }
t t t

t =
t
= = =
= = = =
t then
2
x When and 0 t then 0 x When
2
dt
dx dx 2 dt
dx
dt
2 , t x 2 Put I For
1

Now consider, = =
}
t
2
0
1
dx ). x 2 log(sin I
}
t
0
dt ). t log(sin
)] 7 ( prop [ dt ). t log(sin dt ). t log(sin 2 .
2
1
2
0
2
0

} }
t t
= =
2 log .
2
I 2 log .
2
I I 2 ) 2 ( From I dx ). x log(sin I
2
0
1
t
÷ =
t
÷ = ¬ = =
}
t

9. Evaluate :
}
t
+
2
0
n n
n
dx .
x cos x sin
x sin
[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Let, 1 dx .
x cos x sin
x sin
I
2
0
n n
n
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
+
=
}
t

) 2 ( & ) 1 ( adding Now
2 dx .
x sin x cos
x cos
dx .
x
2
cos x
2
sin
x
2
sin
I
2
0
n n
n
2
0
n n
n
> ÷÷ ÷
+
=
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
t
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
t
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷
t
=
} }
t t

| | . RHS
4
I
2
0
2
x I 2
dx . 1 dx .
x cos x sin
x cos x sin
dx .
x cos x sin
x cos
dx .
x cos x sin
x sin
I 2
2
0
2
0
2
0
n n
n n
2
0
n n
n
2
0
n n
n
=
t
=
t
= ÷
t
= =
=
+
+
=
+
+
+
=
t
t t t t
} } } }

10. Evaluate : dx .
x a
x a
a
a
}
÷
+
÷
[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
Let dx .
x a
x a
dx .
) x a ).( x a (
) x a )( x a (
I 1 dx .
x a
x a
I
a
a
2 2
a
a
a
a
} } }
+
÷
+
÷
+
÷
÷
÷
=
+ ÷
÷ ÷
= > ÷÷ ÷
+
÷
=

a
2
. a 2 )] 0 ( sin ) 1 ( .[sin a 2 0
a
x
sin . a 2 I
fun odd an is
x a
x
and fun even is
x a
1
0 dx .
x a
1
a 2 I
dx .
x a
x
dx .
x a
a
dx .
x a
x
x a
a
I
1 1
a
0
1
2 2 2 2
a
0
2 2
a
a
2 2
a
a
2 2
a
a
2 2 2 2
t =
t
= ÷ = ÷
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ÷
÷
÷
=
÷
÷
÷
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
÷
÷
=
÷ ÷ ÷
+
÷
+
÷
+
÷
+
÷
}
} } }

.
4 ) x 1 )( x 1 (
dx . x
. T . P . 12
0
2
t
=
+ + }
·
[J-200,2010]

2
then x When and 0 then 0 x When
dx d . sec then tan x put
) x 1 )( x 1 (
dx . x
I , Let
2
0
2
t
= u · = = u =
= u u u =
+ +
=
}
·

) 2 ( & ) 1 ( Adding 2 d .
cos sin
cos
d .
2
sin
2
cos
2
sin
I
1 d .
sin cos
sin
d .
cos
sin cos
cos
sin
d .
cos
sin
1
cos
sin
d .
cos
sin
1
cos
sin
I
tan 1
d . tan
sec ). tan 1 (
d . sec . tan
) tan 1 ).( tan 1 (
d . sec . tan
) x 1 )( x 1 (
dx . x
I , Let
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
2
2
0
2
2
0
2
> ÷÷ ÷ u
u + u
u
= u
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
u ÷
t
+
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
u ÷
t
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
u ÷
t
=
> ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ u
u + u
u
= u
u
u + u
u
u
= u
u
u
+
u
u
= u
u
u
+
u
u
=
u +
u u
=
u u +
u u u
=
u + u +
u u u
=
+ +
=
} }
} } } }
} } } }
t t
t t t t
t t t
·
| |
4
I
2
0
2
I 2
x d . 1 d .
cos sin
cos sin
d .
cos sin
cos
d .
sin cos
sin
I 2
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
t
=
t
= ÷
t
=
= u = u
u + u
u + u
= u
u + u
u
+ u
u + u
u
=
t
t t t t
} } } }

13. Prove that
}
t
=
+
+
1
0
2
. 2 log .
8
dx .
x 1
) x 1 log(
[M-2006]
Let,
} +
+
=
1
0
2
dx .
x 1
) x 1 log(
I Put x tan tan x
1 ÷
= u ¬ u =
Then
}
t
u +
u u u +
=
4
0
2
2
tan 1
d . sec ). tan 1 log(
I and 0 then 0 x When = u =

}
t
u
u u u +
=
4
0
2
2
sec
d . sec ). tan 1 log(
I
4
then 1 x when
t
= u =
} } }
} } }
t t t
t t t
u
(
¸
(

¸

u +
u ÷ + u +
= u
(
¸
(

¸

u +
u ÷
+ = u
(
¸
(

¸

u +
u ÷
+ =
u
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

u
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
+
u ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦t
+ = u
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
u ÷
t
+ = u u + =
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
d .
tan 1
tan 1 tan 1
log d .
tan 1
tan 1
1 log d .
tan . 1 1
tan 1
1 log I
d .
tan .
4
tan 1
tan
4
tan
1 log d .
4
tan 1 log d ). tan 1 log( I

} } }
t t t
u u + ÷ = u
(
¸
(

¸

u +
= u
(
¸
(

¸

u +
+
=
4
0
4
0
4
0
d )]. tan 1 log( 2 [log d .
tan 1
2
log d .
tan 1
1 1
log I
. 2 log .
8
I , 2 log .
4
0
4
. 2 log d . 1 2 log I 2 I d . 1 2 log I
d ). tan 1 log( d . 2 log I d )]. tan 1 log( 2 [log I
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
4
0
t
=
t
=
(
¸
(

¸

÷
t
= u = ¬ ÷ u =
u u + ÷ u = ¬ u u + ÷ =
} }
} } }
t t
t t t

APPLICATIONS OF DEFINITE INTEGRALS
2. Find the area of the circle 6 y x
2 2
= + by the method of integration. [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

3. Find the area between the curves x 6 y
2
= and y 6 x
2
= using integration. [M-2009,J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n
2 y 6 x and 1 x 6 y are curves given Two
2 2
> ÷÷ ÷ = > ÷÷ ÷ =

get we then ) 1 ( nor equation in
6
x
y Put
2
=
{ } x 6 y x 6 y dx . x 6 dx . x 6 dx . y A
is a x and 0 x ordinates the and axis x , ) 2 ( between Area
6 x or 0 x 0 6
36
x
x 0 x 6
a
x
x 6
36
x
2
6
0
2
1 6
0
b
a
1
3
2
4 4
= ¬ = = = =
= = ÷
= = ¬ =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
÷ ¬ = ÷ ¬ =
} } }

| |
is 6 x and 0 x ordinates the
and axis x , ) 2 ( between Area
units . sq 24
3
72
3
6 . 2
6 6 . 6
3
2
x x 6
3
2
6 a x
3
2
6
2
3
x
2
6
0
6
0
6
0
2
3
= =
÷
= = = =
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
(
(
(
(
¸
(

¸

=

| |
. units . sq 12
3
36
3
36
24 A A A
. units . sq
3
36
x
) 6 ( 3
1
3
x
6
1
dx .
6
x
dx . y A
2 1
6
0
3
6
0
3
6
0
2
b
a
2
= = ÷ = ÷ = =
= =
(
(
¸
(

¸

= = =
} }

6. Find the area of the circle 6 y x
2 2
= + by the method of integration. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

7. Find the area of the ellipse 1
9
y
25
x
2 2
= + by the method of integration. [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

8. Find the area bounded by the curves x 9 y 4
2
= and y 16 x 3
2
= . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

9. Find the area bounded between the curves y x
2
= and 2 x y + =
[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

10. Find the area of the ellipse 1
b
y
a
x
2
2
2
2
= + by the method of integration. [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
1
b
y
a
x
is ellipse an of Equation
2
2
2
2
= +
) x a (
a
b
y
a
x a
a
x
1
b
y
1
b
y
a
x
dx
a
x a b
4
dx . y 4 a x , 0 x , axis x , 1
b
y
a
x
by bounded Area 4
) CAB of Area ( 4 is 1
b
y
a
x
ellipse an of Area
2 2
2
2
2
2
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
a
0
2 2
a
0
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
÷ = ¬
÷
= ÷ = ¬
= +
÷
=
= = = ÷ = + =
= +
}
}
dx d . cos a sin a x put x a
a
b
y dx . x a
a
b
. 4
2 2
a
0
2 2
= u u u = ÷ = ÷ =
}

x 6 y
2
=
' Y
Y
' X
X
O
6 x =
y 6 x
2
=
2
a x & , 0 , 0 x when d . cos a . sin a a
a
b 4
2
0
2 2 2
t
= u ¬ = = u ¬ = u u u ÷ =
}
t

. units . sq ab 0
2
. ab 2
2
2 sin
ab 2 d ). 2 cos 1 ( ab 2
d .
2
2 cos 1
ab 4 d . cos ab 4
d . cos a
a
b 4
d . cos a . cos a
a
b 4
d . cos a . cos . a
a
b 4
d . cos a . ) sin 1 ( a
a
b 4
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
0
2
2
0
2 2
2
0
2
0
2 2
2
0
2 2
t =
(
¸
(

¸

÷
t
=
(
¸
(

¸
u
+ u = u u + =
u
u +
= u u =
u u = u u u =
u u u =
u u u ÷ =
t
t
t t
t t
t
t
}
} }
} }
}
}

1. Find the area enclosed between the parabolas ax 4 y
2
= and ay 4 x
2
= . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

DIFFERENTIAL EQUAIOTNS
1. Form the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constant from ax 4 y
2
= . [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

2. Solve the differential equation 0 dy . x sin e dx . x cos ) 1 e (
y y
= + + [J-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

3. Find the order and degree of the differential equation
2
3
2
2
2
dx
dy
1
dx
y d
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ = . [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

Y
' Y
' X X
0 x =
a x =
C
4. Solve by the method of separation of variables . e . x x
dx
dy
. e
y 2 2 y
= + [M-2010]
÷ : Sol
n

5. Find the order and degree of the differential equation
2
2 2
3
2
dx
y d
dx
dy
1 =
(
(
¸
(

¸

+
[M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

6. Solve the differential equation ) y x sin( ) y x sin(
dx
dy
. y tan ÷ + + = . [M-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

7. Form the differential equation of the family of circles touching y-axis at the origin. [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

8. Find the particular solution of 1 y
dx
dy
) x 1 ( xy
2 2
= ÷ + given that when 0 y , 1 x = = . [J-2009]
÷ : Sol
n

9. Form the differential equation by eliminating the parameter c , c y sin x sin
1 1
= +
÷ ÷
.[M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n
1 c y sin x sin is equation Given
1 1
> ÷÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ = +
÷ ÷

2
2
2 2
x 1
y 1
dx
dy
. 0
dx
dy
y 1
1
x 1
1
get we then x to respect with ) 1 ( equation ating Differenti
÷
÷
÷ = ¬ =
÷
+
÷

10. Solve the differential equation
2
) 1 y x (
dx
dy
÷ + = . [M-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

11. Find the general solution of the differential equation ) x x 1 (
x 1
y 1
dx
dy
xy
2
2
2
+ +
+
+
= . [J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

12. Form the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constant ) 1 x ( a 4 ) 2 y (
2
+ = ÷ .[J-2008]
÷ : Sol
n

13. Form the differential equation of the family of straight lines passing through the origin of
Cartesian plane. [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
Family of straight lines passing through the origin is mx y =
y
dx
dy
. x
x
y
m
dx
dy
= ¬ = = which is the differential equation.

14. Find the general solution of the differential equation 0 dy ydx log . x log y = + . [M-2007]
÷ : Sol
n
c dy .
y
1
.
y log
1
dx . x log . 1 0 dy
y log y
1
dx . x log = + ¬ = + ¬
} }

c ) y log(log x x log . x c t log dx . 1 x log . x
dt dy
y
1
t y log , where c dt
t
1
dx
x
1
. x x log . x
= + ÷ ¬ = +
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ¬
= ¬ = = +
(
¸
(

¸

÷ ¬
}
} }

15. Find the order and degree of the differential equaiotn
2
2 4
3
2
dx
y d
. k
dx
dy
1 =
(
(
¸
(

¸

)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+ . [M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n

16. Solve the differential equation 0 dy ). x x ( dx ). y y (
2 2
= + + +
[M-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
0
) 1 y ( y
1
dx
) 1 x ( x
1
=
+
+
+

) 1 y )( 1 x ( c xy or c log
1 y
y
log
1 x
x
log . e , i
c log ) 1 y log( y log ) 1 x log( x log
c log 0 dy .
1 y
1
y
1
dx
1 x
1
x
1
+ + = =
+
+
+
= + ÷ + + ÷
= =
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷ +
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
÷
} } }

17. Solve the differential equation
y x
xe 6 1
dx
dy
÷
+ = . [J-2006]
÷ : Sol
n
u y x put xe 6 1
dx
du
1
u
= ÷ + = ÷

c x 3 e c x 3 e
c x 3 e dx . x 6 du . e
dx
dy
dx
du
1 dx . x 6 e
dx
du
dx
dy
1 xe 6
dx
du
2 x y 2 ) y x (
2 u u
u
u
+ = ¬ + = ¬
+ = ¬ = ÷
= ÷ = ÷
= ÷ = ÷
÷ + ÷
÷ ÷
÷
} }

18.- Form the differential equation for the equation 0 ky 2 y x
2 2
= + + [J-2007]

2 2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2 2
2 2
2 2
y x
xy 2
x y
xy 2
dx
dy
xy 2 ) y x y 2 (
dx
dy
0
dx
dy
). y x (
dx
dy
y 2 xy 2
0 0
y
dx
dy
). y x (
dx
dy
. y 2 x 2 . y
Diff
0 k 2
y
y x
0 ky 2 y x
÷
=
÷
÷
= ¬
÷ = ÷ ÷ ¬
= + ÷ + ¬
= +
+ ÷
)
`
¹
¹
´
¦
+
¬
= +
+
¬ = + +

19. Solve the differential equation ). y x ( tan
dx
dy
2
+ =

[J-2007]
20. Form the differential equation for the equation 0 ky 2 y x
2 2
= + + . [J-2007]
÷ : Sol
n

MATRICES AND DETERMINANTS
 x  2 y  3 If A   is a scalar matrix then find the values of x and y. 6   0  Soln :  2. Find the values of x and y by Cramer‟s rule given 2x  3y  7 & x  y  1

1.

[J-2010]

[J-2010] [J-2010]

Soln :  3. Solve by matrix method: x  y  z  1 , 3x  y  2z  3 , x  y  z  1 n Sol :  a  3b  3c 4b 4c 4a b  3c  3a 4c  9(a  b  c) 3 4. Prove that 4a 4b c  3a  3b

[J-2010]

Soln : 
  3 2 Find A 3 using Cayley-Hamilton theorm given A   .   5 1 Soln :  1  1 3 2 3 1  6. If B  A    & B  A  3 4 2 then the matrix A. 2 3 4   

5.

[J-2010]

[M-2010]

Soln : 
 1 0 x 0  If    2.1  2  I where I is the identity matrix then find x and y. y 5   n Sol :  1 x 1 1 1 y 1  0 wher x  0 , y  0 and z  0 then prove that 1  8. If 1 1 1 1 z

7.

[M-2010]

x 0
1

[M-2010]

Soln :  9. Solve by Cramer‟s rule 2x  3y  5 & 7x  y  8 . Soln :  Two given equations are 2x  3y  5    1 2 3 5 3 Δ  2  21  19 Δ1   5  24  19 7 1 8 1
2  x  2 5  16  35  19 7 8  1 19  1  19 and y

[M-2010]

and

7x  y  8    2

 2  19   1  19

2 If A   7 n Sol :   4 11. If   2x  3

10.

4 then find the inverse of A by using Cayeley-Hamilton theorem. 3 

[M-2010]

x  2 is a symmetric matrix then find the value of x. x  1  x  2  4 Soln :  Given   is a symmetric matrix  2x  3 x  1   2x  3  x  2  2x  x  2  3  x  5. 43 1 6 12. Without actual expansion show that 35 7 4  0.
17 3 2 43 1 6

[M-2009]

[M-2009]

Sol : 
n

Let, Δ  35 7

4 17 3 2 43  42 1 6 1 1 6 

Δ  35  28 7 4  7 7 4  0 [ Because C1 & C2 are identical]. 17  14 3 2 3 3 2 13. Solve the linear equations by using matrix method. 3x  y  2z  3 ; 2x  3y  z  3 ; x  2y  z  4 [J-2008,M-2009] n Sol :  The three given equations are 3x  y  2z  3      1
2x  3y  z  3      2 and x  2y  z  4      3

C1 '  C1  7C3

3  A  2 1  3 | A | 2 1

2   3  1 2 1  1

and

 3    D    3  4   

1 2  3 1 2 1 2 3  3  1  3.  1.  2.  3( 3  2)  1( 2  1)  2(4  3) 2 1 1 1 1 2 2 1

| A |  3( 1)  1( 3)  2(7)  3  3  14  8

Now the minors and cofactors are A are

Two given equations are 2x  y  10 and x  2y  2 . y  2 and z  1 5   1  3 7   1 3 3    3 1 Now .    sin θ cos θ  sin2 θ  cos2 θ  sin θ cos θ    sin θ cos θ  cos θ sin θ  16.A'   [J-2009]  cos θ sin θ  cos θ  sin θ  cos2 θ  sin2 θ  cos θ cos θ  sin θ cos θ . R 2 '  R 2  R 1 & R 3 '  R 3  R 1 then we get  2. n 1 0   which is a symmetric matrix. 16    2  8 8 8  7  5  11  4  21  15  44   8  1          Hence.  9  3  28   . . [J-2009] Sol :  . 3   2  1   2   1   3 1 2 1 2  3    1 1 1 1 2   1  3 7  2 3 2 3 1      1 5  3 1 1 1 1 2  5 7  11  2 3 2 3 1      1 2 1 2  3 T 1 5   1 3 1 1  A  . b2  c2 Show that ab ca n ab c  a2 2 ac bc a  b2 2  4a 2 b 2 c 2 .[ b 2 .  cos θ sin θ  For the matrix A    verify that AA' is symmetric. 15.( 0  b 2 c 2 )]  4a 2 b 2 ch  RHS . a 2 c2  a2 b2 b2 b2  c2 b2 b2 c2 0 a2 0 c2 a2 a2 c2  a2 0 Now. 0 1 Solve by Cramer‟s ri.(a 2 c 2  0)  a 2 .D  .   Now. adj ( A )   1 5 7    5  7  5  11 7  11     14. 3  . ac bc 2 a  b2 [M-2009] ab 2 Sol :  b2  c2 LHS  ba ca ab c  a2 cb 0 2 R 1 '  R 1  ( R 2  R 3 ) gives a b2  2b 2 b2  c2 b2  2a 2 0 2 a  2.e 2x  y  10 and x  2y  2 . x  2 .  sin θ cos θ  cos θ sinθ  cos θ  sinθ Soln :  Given A    A'   sinθ cos θ   sinθ cos θ .  3 1 7   |A| 8  7  5  11   5  3   1 3   3  9  20   8  1 1    1   1     1 X  A .adj ( A )  .  3 1 7  . a 2 b2  2.

2 2 Δ2  2 10  4  10  6 1 2 17. R 2 '  R 2  R1  02. y 2  2 Δ 3 Δ 3 1 a a 2  bc Prove that 1 b b 2  ca  2(a  b )( b  c)( c  a ) . (b  c  a) 1 0 c 2  ab c 1 . A   3   0  [M-2008] 19. 1 c c 2  ab [J-2009] Soln :  18.Δ x 2 1  4  1  3. [M-2008] Soln :  2001 2004 6 6  2001(6)  (2004) (6)  6[2001  2004]  6(3)  18. 1 2 Δ1  10  1  20  2  18. Δ1  18 Δ 6  6. 3   0   5  x 2y  8  Soln :  is a scalar matrix. c 2  ab c 1 a 2  bc a 1 LHS  b 2  ca b 1 c 2  ab c 1 [M-2008] Soln :  Now R 1 '  R 1  R 2 and R 2 '  R 2  R 3 a 2  bc  b 2  ca a  b 0 (a 2  b 2 )  (bc  ca ) a  b 0 b 2  ca  c 2  ab b  c 0  (b 2  c 2 )  (ca  ab ) b  c 0 c 2  ab c 1 c 2  ab c 1 (a  b)(a  b)  c(b  a) a  b 0 c 2  ab (a  b )(a  b  c) a  b 0  (b  c)(b  c  a) b  c 0 c 2  ab c 1 c 1 (a  b)(a  b)  c(a  b) a  b 0 c 2  ab c 1  (b  c)(b  c)  a(c  b) b  c 0  (b  c)(b  c)  a(b  c) b  c 0 Now taking (a-b) and (b-c) outside from the frist rwo and second rwo respectively we get (a  b  c ) 1 0 (a  b )(b  c). a 2  bc a 1 Prove that b 2  ca b 1  2(a  b )( b  c)( c  a ) . Given.  5  x 2y  8  If A   is a scalar matrix then find the values of x and y. Take. Evaluate : 2001 2004 2007 2010 .

Now multiplying (1) by A 1   A 2 .(1)  1(b  c  a )  (a  b )(b  c). A  .  3 2 Soln :  [J-2008] .A 1  4I.  2 5  2 3 Soln :  Given matrix is A     2 5 3   2 3  2 3 1 0  2 3   0   2   A  I      2 5    . A satisfies its characteristic equation.A 1  7 A.  2 3 If A    then find the inverse of A by using Cayley-Hamilton theorem.( 5   )  6  0 2 5    10  2  5  2  6  0 A 2  7 A  4I  0      1 3 2   7. 0 1    2 5    0     2 5    2 5           2 3 | A  I | 0  0  ( 2   ). Two given equations are x  2y  7    1 1 2  5  8  13 4 5  1  39  3   13 and 1  y [M-2008] Soln :   x and 4x  5y  2    2 2  1 7  2  28  26 4 2 7 2  35  4  39 & 2 5  2  26   2. 5 0 21 14  31 14 0  1 21 4 0 0 0   0 35  0 4 0 0  2  7  4  0 [M-2008]  2 3  2 A 2  7 A  4I    .(a  b  c) 1 2  0 c 1 c  ab 1    (a  b )(b  c). Find the values of x and y according to Cremer‟s rule: x  2y  7 & 4x  5y  2 .  1 0 bca 0  (a  b )(b  c).  2 5  2  4  6 6  15  14 21 4    4  10 6  25  14 35  0 Hence.A 1  0  A  7I  4A 1  0  7 0   2 3  5  3 1  5  3 1 4 A 1  7I  A      Hence . 4323 4324 [J-2008] Soln :   R 2 '  R 2  R 1 gives 4321 4322  4321( 2)  4322( 2)  2[4321  4322]  2( 1)  2 2 2 24. 5 2 0 10  4 14 3 1   4.[a  b  c  b  c  a]   (a  b )(b  c)( 2a  2c)  2(a  b )(b  c)(a  c)  2(a  b )(b  c)(c  a )  RHS .(a  b  c). 21. 1 4 Find the characteristic roots of the square matrix  .   13 22. Evaluate: 4321 4322 .  4  2 2  0 7  2 5   2 2  23.

 1 2 Using Cayley-Hamilton theorem.26. 1 Prove that a 2 a a 1 a2 a2 a  (a 3  1) 2 . find the inverse of the matrix A   .  3 3x  6  0  x 6  2.4 2 5  19  5 16 . C 2 and C 3 respective ly a a a Sol :  Δ  abc b c 1 1 1 1 b b c c 1 1 1  (abc ). 3 1  1 2 Soln :   Given equation is A   3 1 . A   .(abc ) 1 1 Now taking a. Find the values of x and y if      1  1 1   2 0 3  1  3 0       n Sol :  30. 2 29.b. c from C1 . Solve by Cramer‟s rule 2x  y  10 and x  2y  2 [M-2007] [M-2007] [M-2007] Sol :  n 31. 1 [J-2008] Soln :  27. Given A is a singular matrix means | A |  0 x  3  6 x2 0 3 x [M-2007] Soln :    6x  3( x  2)  0  6x  3x  6  0  3x  6  0  x 6  2. b. 3 28.  a2 Evaluate : ab ac n ab  b2 bc ac bc  c2 [M-2007] Now tak ing out side a. second and third rows respectively then we get  1 1 1 1 1  1 2 2 2 2 2 2  a 2 b 2 c 2  1 1 1   a b c 0  2  2  4a b c 1 1 1 1 1 1   3 3  x 2  3  3  1 2  5 5 y  .  6 x  2 If the matrix  is singular then find the value of x.c from first. x  3   6 x  2 Let .

A  4 1  1 Given A is a singular matrix. [M-2006] Sol :   x 3 Two given equations are 3x  2y  8    1 and 4x  3y  5    2 2  9  8  17 y 1  8 2  24  10  34  2  3 8 4 5  15  32  17 4 3 5 3  1  34  2   17  2  17  1   17 34. A 1  . | A | 0 0 3 x 3 4  4 1 1  0 1 1 3 4 2 4 1 0 4 x 4 1 0 3 11 12 0  3(4  3)  2(16  0)  x(12  0)  0  12x  11  0 33. 3 1   5. Now multiplying (1) by A 1   A 2 .  5  3  1 3 2 x  32.   0 3 4    3 2 x  Soln :  Let. A satisfies its characteristic equation. Prove that ab ac bc c2  1 n [M-2006] Sol :  a2  1 ab 2 LHS  ab b 1 ac bc ac bc c2  1 Multiplying and dividing first row by a. n x  Solve by using Cramer‟s rule 3x  2y  8 and 4x  3y  5 .0 1   3  3 6  1    6 2  0 5 3 1             7 4   2 4  5 0 0 0     0  6 7   6 2 0 5 0 0 Hence. e.A 1  0  A  2I  5 A  1  0  1 2 1 0  1 2  2 0    1 2  5A 1  A  2I     2.      3 1 0 1  3 1   0 2  3  1 1  1 2  Hence . 0 1    3 1    0     3 1   3 1         1  2 | A  I |  0  0  (1   ) 2  6  0 3 1   1  2  2  6  0   2  2  5  0  A 2  2 A  5I  0    1  1 2  1 2  1 2 1 0  1  6 2  2  2 4   5 0 A 2  2 A  5I    .A 1  5I .2   1 2 1 0 1 2  0  1   A  I      . second row by b and third row by c then we get . 3 1   2. a1  1 ab ac 2 b 1 bc  1  a 2  b 2  c 2 .   0 3 4    [M-2006] 3 2 i . If the matrix 4 1  1 has no inverse then find the value of x.A 1  2 A.

R11  R 1  R 2  R 3 1  a2  b2  c2 1  a2  b2  c2 1  a2  b2  c2 b2 b2  1 b2 c2 2 2 2 c2 c2  1 1 1 b 1 2 1 b2 c2  1 1 b2 Taking 1  a  b  c outside from R 1 we get (1  a  b  c ).b. C1  C 1  C 2 & C 2  C 2  C 3 then we get (1  a  b  c ).0  0  1.A  3 4  1 2 1 2  7 10    . Verify the Cayley-Hamilton theorem for the matrix A     3 4 [M-2006]  1 2 Soln :  Given matrix is A     3 4 2   1 2 1 0 1 2 λ 0  1  λ A  λI     λ .(1)  (1  a  b  c )  RHS .    3 4  3 4 15 22  .   (1  a  b  c ). abc a(a 2  1) a 2b ab 2 b(b 2  1) ac 2 bc 2 a 2c b 2c c(c 2  1) a2 b2 (c 2  1) (a 2  1) a2  b2 (b 2  1) c2 c2 a2 b2 (c 2  1) Taking a. 0 1   3 4   0 λ    3 4  λ  3 4         Hence .( 4   )  6  0 i . b 2 2 2 2 c2 0 c2 0 1 Now.1  .  1 1 1 2 2 2 0  1 c2  1  1 1  2 2 2 2 2 2 (1  a 2  b 2  c 2 ).  1 2 State Cayley-Hamilton therorem. e. | A  I | 0 is the characteristic equation . second column and third column respectively abc .  1 2 2 Now . then we get abc (a 2  1) a2 b2 (b 2  1) c2 c2 Now. 2  5  2  0        1 This is known as characteristic equation . A    then A  A. 0  1  35. | A  I | 0  1  3 2 4 0  (1   ).c outside from the first column .

If A    and B  A' then find the value of x. A 2  5A  2I  0    2  A 2 .T.  . A  5I  2A 1  0  2A 1  A  5I       3 4 0 5  3  1 1  4 2   A 1  .[J-2006]  1 2  .A 1  1 2  5 0   4 2  i .   2 15 22   3 4 0  7 10   5 10   2    15 22  15 20  0  A satisfies the characteri stic equation .  2  1 2 Given A    then by using Cayley-Hamilton theorem P. Solve the equations by Cramer‟s rule 5x  3y  1 & 3x  5y  9 .   3 2 3x  5  3 1   n Sol :  37.A 1  5A. A  4A  3I  0 . 7 10   1 2 1 Now . Multiplying ( 2) by A 1 0  1 0  0 0  2  0 0    Now to find A 1 where . e. A 2  5A  2I     5. [J-2006] [J-2006] Sol :  n Two given equations are 5x  3y  1    1 5 3  25  9  16 3 5  1 32  2  16 y 1  1 3  5  27  32 9 5 and 2  3x  5y  9    2 5 1  45  3  48 3 9  x 2 48   3  16 38.A 1  2A 1 I  0. 2  3  1 3  4 4  1  3   1 2 & B   36. If A     0 2 1    n [J-2006] Sol :  2  2 1   A   1 3 0   0 2 1    Minors and co-factors of A are  3 0 1 0 1 3       0 1 0  2  2 1  3 1 2  2 2 1 2 1 2          2 1 2 0 1 0 2   2 1 6 2 5   2 2 1 2 1 2        1 0 1 3   3 0  3 1 2  3 2 6     Now adj ( A )   2 1 2  1 1 2 6 2 5  2 2 5     T 39. 2  2 1  1 3 0  then find adj(A).

0 (b  c  a  b ) c  a  (a  b )(b  c). c  1 ab 1 c2    (a  b )(b  c)(c  a ). 1 a2 Prove that 1 b 2 1 c2 bc ca  (a  b )( b  c)( c  a )( a  b  c) . R1  R 1  R 2 and R 2 '  R 2  R 3 0 (a  b )(a  b ) c(b  a) 1 c2 ab 0 (a  b )  c  (a  b )(b  c). 0 (b  c)  a 1 c2 ab   0 a2  b2 0 b2  c2 1 c2 bc  ac ac  ab ab 0 (a  b )(a  b )  c(a  b ) 1 c2 ab  0 (b  c)(b  c) a(c  b )  0 (b  c)(b  c)  a(b  c) Now taking (a-b) and (b-c) outside from the first and second columns respectively.Soln :  40. 1 2 3 n Sol :  sin2 x cos 2 x 1 42. [J-2007] [J-2007] Soln :  . ab bc ac ab [J-2006] Soln :  1 a2 LHS  1 b 2 1 c2 ' Now tak e.0  (a  b ). 0 1 1 2 1 c ab  0 1 0 1   (a  b )(b  c)(c  a ).  10 12 2 41. Now R 2 '  R 2  R 1 0 (a  b ) c 0 (a  b )  c (a  b )(b  c). (a  b )( 0  1)  c(0  1)  (a  b )(b  c)(c  a )(a  b  c)  RHS  4 3  4 If A    & B    then find the value of AB. Without expansion find the value of cos 2 x sin2 x 1 . 0 (c  a ) c  a 1 c2 ab 1 c2 ab Now taking (c-a) out side from the second column then 0 (a  b )  c  (a  b )(b  c)(c  a). 0 1 1 c 2 1 ab  0 (a  b )  c (a  b )(b  c)(c  a ).

[M-2010] n Sol :  7.y and z by using Cramer‟s rule.D of 506 and 1155 and express it in the form of 506a  1155b where a and b are the integers. [J-2007]    0 0 1   Soln :  1. ELEMENTS OF NUMBER THEORY AND CONGRUENCES Find the least positive integer x satisfying 3(x  1)  (x  3)(mod4) [J-2010] Soln :  2. Find the number of positive divisors & sum of all positive divisors of 30400. Also show that the expression is not unique. If  3  4 1  . Prove that adj[A(x)]  [A( x)] . [J-2010] n Sol :  5. [J-2007]      1 2  3  z  10      n Sol :  cos x  sin x 0 44. Find the G. Find the sum of all positive divisors of 72. y    0  then find the values of x. Using A( x)   sin x cos x 0 find adj[A(x)] .C. [M-2010] n Sol :  . [J-2010] Soln :  3. [M-2010] n Sol :  8. [M-2010] n Sol :  6. If a|b and b|c then prove that a|c. If a | b and a | c then prove that a | bx  cy where x and y are any tow integers.7 6  5  x   30 43. Find the number of incongruence solutions of the equation 2x  2(mod6) . Find the positive remainder obtained when 231 is divided by 7 using the method of congruence. [J-2010] n Sol :  4.

9.D of 275 and 726. Also P. d | a and d | b. every common divisor of a and b divides d.D is 45.C.e.C. Soln :  10. G.D of two integers a and b. [J-2009] n Sol :  The G. n [M-2009] [M-2009] Sol :  11. And also express it in the form of 495 x  675 y where x & y are two integers. [J-2009] n Sol :  14. Find the G. Hence. i.C. x  4 & y  3 3x  2(mod6) has no solution why ? [J-2009] Sol :  13. n 275 & 726 275 ) 726 ( 2 550 ------- . If ca  cb(modm) and c and m are relatively prime numbers then prove that a  b(modm) .C. Find the G.T.D of the two integers a and b (both of them are not zero) is a unique positive integer d such that i.e.D of 495 and 675 using Euclid algorithm. x | a and x | b  x | d. Find the least positive remainder when 7 30 is divided by 5.C. i.[M-2009] Soln :  495 ) 675 ( 1 495 -----180 180 ) 495 ( 2 360 -----135 135 ) 180 ( 1 135 -----45 45 ) 135 ( 3 135 -----0. If a  b(modm) and n is a positive divisor of m. 12. this expression is not unique. Define G. ii. 180 = 675 – 1 x 495 135 = 495 – 2 x 180 45 = 180 – 1 x 135 45  180  1x135  180  1x(495  2x180) 45  180  1x495  2x180  3x180  1x495 45  3x(675  1x495)  1x495 45  3x675  3x495  1x495 45  3x675  4x495 45  495x  4  675x3 45  495x  675y Hence. then prove that a  b(modn) . d is the common divisor of both a and b.

 . Find the number of all positive divisors and the sum of all positive divisors of 39744.  . a 3  1 and p 1  2 .   . p 3  7 2 63 T(a)  T( 252)  (1  a 1 ).( 1  a 2 ). If 2150 x 312 x135  a(mod 7) find the least positive remainder when a is divided by 7. [M-2008] n Sol :  19.(1  2).D is 11.  7 x 13 x 8  728 2 6  1  2  6  16. a 2  2 . G. [J-2009] Soln :  17. Find the least positive integer x satisfying 2x  5  x  4(mod5) .176 176 ) 275 ( 1 176 -----99 99 ) 176 ( 1 99 ----77 77 ) 99 ( 1 77 ---22 22 ) 77 ( 3 66 ---11 11 ) 22 ( 2 22 ---0 Hence.   p1  1   p 2  1   p 3  1   pn  1         2 2  1  1   3 2  1  1   7 1 1  1   2 3  1   3 3  1   7 2  1  S(a)  S( 252)   .C. 252  2 2 x 3 2 x 7 1 Sol :  a 1  2 . 7 1 a 1 a1  1 a 1  p1  pn a n  1  1  1  p 2 2  1  p 3 3  1 S(a)     . Find the number of positive divisors of 252 by writing it as the product of primes.   21   31   71   1   2   6  26 48  8  1   27  1   49  1   . [J-2009] 252 n 2 126 Hence. [M-2008] Soln :  18. [M-2008] .  .(1  1)  3 x 3 x 2  18.   7. . 15. . p 2  3 .( 1  a 3 ) 3 21 3 7  (1  2). The relation “congruence modulo m” is an equivalence relation on Z or prove that a  b(modm) is an equivalence relation on Z.

 . 2 22  1   2   22  20.C. .(1  3). Find the number of incongruent solutions of 9x  21(mod 30) .  . [J-2008] Soln :  22.C.   2  1   3  1   23  1   1   2   22  80 528  128  1   81  1   529  1    127 x 40 x 24  121920 .Soln :  2 2 39744 19872 9936 Hence. [J-2008] n Sol :  756 .( 1  a 2 ). 2 1242 2 621 3 207 3 69 3 23 23 1 a 1 a1  1 a 1  p1  pn a n  1  1  1  p 2 2  1  p 3 3  1 S(a)     . 23.(1  1)  7 x 4 x 2  56.   p1  1   p 2  1   p 3  1   pn  1         2 6  1  1   3 3 1  1   231 1  1   2 7  1   3 4  1   23 2  1  S(a)  S( 39744)   . 39744  2 6 x 3 3 x 231 a 1  6 . G.D is 11. p 3  23 T(a)  T( 39744)  (1  a 1 ). Find the digit in the unit place of 7123 . Find the number of positive divisors and sum of all such positive divisors and sum of all such positive divisors of 756. n Sol :  352 ) 891 ( 2 704 -----187 187 ) 352 ( 1 187 ------165 165 ) 187 ( 1 165 ------22 22 ) 165 ( 2 154 ------11 11 ) 22 ( 2 22 -----00 [J-2008] Hence.   . . a 3  1 and p 1  2 . [M-2008] n Sol :  21.  .( 1  a 3 ) 2 4968 2 2484  (1  6).   127. a 2  3 . p 2  3 . Find the G.D or 352 and 891.

[M-2007] n Sol :  28.(2)  24 3 7 7 1 a 1 a1  1 a 1  p1  pn a n  1  1  1  p 2 2  1  p 3 3  1 S(a)     .(4).2 2 378 189 Hence. Find the G. p 2  3 . If a  b(modm) and n > 1 is a positive divisor of m.D is 24. 756  2 2 x 3 3 x 7 1 p 1  2 . Soln :  26.  7 . Express it in the form of [M-2007] 408m  1032n where m and n are the two integers.  . Find the remainder when 2 202 is divided by 11 ( least positive remainder).( 1  1) 3 63 3 21  3. satisfying the congruence 5x  4(mod13) . G.   . 7  1960 1 2 6 24.b) = 1 then prove that a|c. . n Sol :  25.  . 40 .( 1  3).C.D of 408 and 1032 using Euclidean algorithm. [J-2008] [J-2008] [M-2007] Soln :  27. then prove that a  b(modn) . . Find the integer x.( 1  a 3 )  (1  2).   21   31   71   1   2   6  8  1 81  1 49  1  . a 2  3 . p 3  7 and a 1  2 .C.( 1  a 2 ). If a|bcand (a. .   p1  1   p 2  1   p 3  1   pn  1         2 2  1  1   3 3  1  1   71  1  1   2 3  1   34  1   7 2  1  S(a)  S(756)   . a 3  1 T(a)  T(756)  (1  a 1 ). n Sol :  408 ) 1032 ( 2 816 ------216 216 = 1032 – 2 x 408 216 ) 408 ( 1 216 ------192 192 = 408 – 1 x 216 192 ) 216 ( 1 192 -----24 24 = 216 – 1 x 192 24 ) 192 ( 8 192 ------0 Hence.

If (c. Find the number of all positive divisors and the sum of all such positive divisors of 432. [M-2006] [J-2006] Sol :  32. Find the G. [J-2006] n Sol :  252 ) 595 ( 2 504 -----91 91 = 595 – 2 x 252 91 ) 252 ( 2 182 -----70 70 = 252 – 2 x 91 . p 2  3 2 108 2 54 T(a)  T(432)  (1  a 1 ).   . 432  2 4 x 3 3 Sol :  a 1  4 . If a|b and a|c then prove that a | b  c .C. [M-2006] n Sol :  31.D of 252 and 595 and express it in the form of 252 a  595 b where a and b are the integers. Also show that this expression is not unique. a 2  3 and p 1  2 . Find the digit in the unit place of 312 . n Sol :  33. .( 1  a 2 ) 2 27 3 9  (1  4). n 24  408m  1032n Hence.[M-2006] 432 n 2 216 Hence. 2  1  2  31.(1  3)  5 x 4  20. [J-2006] n Sol :  34. 3 3 3 1 a 1 a1  1 a 1  p1  p a n  1  1  1  p 2 2  1  p 3 3  1 S(a)   .a) = 1 and c|ab then prove that c|b.24  216  1x192  216  1x(408  1x 216) 24  216  1x408  1x 216 24  2x 216  1x408 24  2x(1032  2x408)  1x408 24  2x1032  4x408  1x408 24  2x1032  5x408 24  408x  5  1032x 2 29. m  5 & n  2 Find the number of incongruent solutions for 6x  3(mod15) [M-2006] Sol :  30.  n      p1  1   p 2  1   p 3  1   pn  1        41 3 1 5 4  2  1  3  1  2  1  3  1 S(a)  S(432)   .   31. n Find the remainder when 71 x 73 x 75 is divided by 23.   21   31   1   2  80  32  1   81  1    31 x 40  1240 .

Soln :  18 ) 48 ( 2 36 ----12 12 = 48 -2 x 18 12 ) 18 ( 1 12 ----6 6 = 18 – 1 x 12 6 ) 12 ( 2 12 ----- [J-2007] .C.C.70 ) 91 ( 1 70 ----21 21 ) 70 ( 3 63 ----7 7 ) 21 ( 3 21 ---0 7  70  3x21 21 = 91 – 1 x 70 7 = 70 – 3 x 21 Hence. Find the G. n If 3127  x(mod 10) then find the value of x. 35. G.D is 7. Solve 51x  32(mod7) . If 6  48m  18n then find the values of m and n. a'  621 & b'  2263 Hence. the expression 252a  595b is not unique.D of 48 and 18. [J-2007] [J-2007] Sol :  36. If a  b(modm) and n|m where n is an integer then prove that a  b(modn) . n Sol :  37. 7  70  3x(91  1x70) 7  70  3x91  3x70 7  4x70  3x91 7  4x( 252  2x91)  3x91 7  4x252  8x91  3x91 7  4x252  11x91 7  4x252  11x(595  2x252) 7  4x252  11x595  22x252 7  26x252  11x595 7  252x26  595x  11 7  252a  595b Hence. Write the solution set. a  26 & b  11 7  26x252  11x595  252x595  252x595 7  252x( 26  595)  595x(11  252) 7  252xa'595xb' Where.

Define a sub-group.4. Find the identity element in the set of all positive rationals Q  . m  1 & n  3.D is 6. Prove that the set M of all 2 x 2 matrices with the elements of real numbers form an abelian group with respect to the addition of matrices. Write the composition table for G = {2. [M-2009] n Sol :  8. G. [M-2010] n Sol :  7. 6  18  1x12 6  18  1x(48  2x18) 6  18  1x48  2x18 6  3x18  1x48 6  48x  1  18x3 6  48m  18n Hence.2.1. then find the identity element. [M-2009] . [J-2010] 3 Soln :  ab 4. [J-2010] n Sol :  2.8} under the multiplication modulo 10 and also find the identity element. [M-2010] Soln :  5. prove that Q  is an abelian group with respect to *. * is defined by a * b  2  for all a. On the set of all integers a binary operation * is defined by a * b  a  b  5 . If G = {0. GROUP THEORY 1. [J-2010] n Sol :  3.C. In a group (G.3} under the multiplication modulo 4 a group ? Give reason. b  R then prove that * is both commutative and associative also find the identity element. If Q  is the set of all positive rational numbers and a binary operation * is defined on Q  by 2ab a*b  for all a.0 Hence. On the set of real numbers the binary operation * is defined by a * b  a2  b2 for all a. [M-2010] n Sol :  6. b  Q  .6. b  Q .*) prove that the identity element is unique. [M-2009] n Sol :  9.

13. 10. a 1  a then prove that (G. associative law holds good . e. b  H . [J-2009] n Sol :  3ab 15.Sol n :  a  b  a2  b2  a  (b  c )  a  b 2  c 2  a 2  ( b 2  c 2 ) 2  a2  b2  c2  (a  b )  c  a 2  b 2  c  a 2  b 2  c 2 Hence . from (1) and ( 2)  a  (b  c )  (a  b )  c Hence . b  Q 3bc   Q  b  c  7   3bc where . if  a. a.2. x  1  a  (a  1 )  1  a. b  I . 11. b. 7 3bc a  (b  c )  a  7 ax a. Prove that a non-empty subset H of a group G is a subgroup of G. a * (b * c)  (a * b) * c. [J-2009] n Sol :  14.2009] Pr oof :  [by inverse law ] a  x  a  a 1  e [by inverse law ] xa  ax  e This means that the inverse of x is a i . y  7 7 3. 3ax 7  9abc      1   7 7 49 3ab 3ab (a  b )  c  c yc where . On the set of integers Z an operation * is defined by a * b  ab for all a. Given .For all a. Then examine * is binary operation or not on the set of integers I. Examine whether {1. [M-2008] 7 Soln :  Associative law:. 16. Hence prove that if H and K are subgroups of a group G then prove that H  K is a subgroup of G.4} is a semi group under addition modulo 5. a  (b  c)  (a  b )  c. Now consider x  a  a  a  e 1 [M-2008. [M-2008] .   is an associativ e. x  7 3bc 3a.*) then prove that (a 1 ) 1  a . If a is the element of the group (G. On Q  the set of all positive rational numbers an operation * is defined by a * b  3  Find the identity element and inverse of a in Q . [J-2009] n Sol :  12.*) is an abelian group.3.3ab c 3yc 9abc 7         2 7 7 49 Hence . If in a group (G. b  Q  . [J-2009] n Sol :  ab .*) for all a G . If a * b  then prove that * is associative. Define semi group. a  b  3ab . c  Q then.

2. a. I. Prove that H = {0.6 : x7 } . the identity element in a group is unique.5. c  a  b S. Given an example to show that on Z the operation * defined by a * b  ab is not binary. b  Z .2.e.*) is a group.3} is a sub-group of the group G = {0. Prove that the set H  {1.[M-2008] n Sol :  17. Prove that the set of integers Z is an abelian group under the binary operation * defined by a * b  a  b  3  a.2.2. An operation  (star) is called as a binary operation on S if for all a. If for all a.4. On the set of integers Z if * is defined by a * b  a  b  1 for all a. the operation  is a rule by which every pair of elements a and b of S can be combined to get an unique element c. n a In a group ( z 6 .*). b  H .  obd 6 ) find the value of 2  6 4 1  6 3 1 .4 : x 7 } is a sub group of the group G  {1. [M-2006] n Sol :  23. Prove that the identity element of a group is unique.1. .[M-2007] n Sol :  25. [M-2007] n Sol :  24. Define the binary operation on the non-empty set S. [M-2008] n Sol :  If possible let there be two identity elements e and e' in a group (G . [M-2007] n Sol :  Let S be a non – empty set. [M-2207] n Sol :  By the given data. [J-2008] n Sol :  21. there is only one identity element in group. Given that H is a non-empty subset of a set G and (G. one acts as the identity element in Z with respect to „  ‟ 22.3. A binary operation is also called as binary composition. I. Let c  Z.) Since e is an identity element.3. Prove that a group of order three is abelian. then find the identity element. e'e  e  e'  e'      1 Since e' is an identity element. I.4.5} under the addition modulo 6.e. a * b 1  H Then prove that (H.4} under the multiplication modulo 5 then find the value of ( 3 x 41 )1 .e. b S . [J-2008] Sol :  19. [M-2006] n Sol :  26. b  Z . e  e'  e'e  e      2 Now from the two equations 1 and 2 we have e  e' Hence. 18. be such that (c  1)  c  1  1  c  2  c1  c  2 Again (1  c)  1  c  1  2  c  1 c  c  2 Hence.*) is a sub-group of the group (G.Soln :  25. a  b  a  b  1. In a group G = {1. every element is its own inverse then prove that G is an abelian group. [J-2008] n Sol :  20.3. If in a group G. b  Z.

Associative law:ab  . Prove that G  {cosθ  i sin θ | θ is real } is an abelian group under multiplication. Closure law :ab  . 2ae ae  ea  a But a  e  3 2ae 3  a  e   Q 3 2 3 Hence the identity element . Soln :  30. b  Q  . a.*) prove that (a * b ) 1  b 1 * a 1  a. a. b  G . 3 2ab ab   Q  Hence. If the binary operation * on the set of integers Z is defined by a * b  a  b  5 then find the identity element. then find x. [J-2006] Soln :  31. [J-2006] 27. y  3 3 2ab c yc 2abc 3         2 3 3 9 Hence . If Q  is the set of all positive rational numbers with respect to * defined by a * b  for all 3 a. ax 3  2abc      1   3 3 9 2ab 2ab (a  b )  c  c  yc where . x  3 2bc a. associative law holds good . Find the identity element and inverse of a under the binary operation *.If Q  is the set of all positive rationals. [A-2007. the closure law holds good. then prove that (Q  . Where * is 2ab defined by a * b  . [M-2006] 3 Soln :  28. if a * x  e for all a G .*) is an abelian group. 3.J-2007] 2ab Soln :  1. 3 2ab 2. In a group (G. b  Q  . b  Q  3 2bc 2bc   a  (b  c )  a   Q  b  c  3 3   2bc  ax where . Prove that in a group (G. Existance of identity :Let e be the identity element. then is also a positive rational number. As a and b are the two positive 3 2ab rational numbers.*). [J-2006] n Sol :  29. [J-2007] 2ab 32. 2 . from (1) and ( 2)  a  (b  c)  (a  b )  c Hence .

-2) and D(1. n Sol :      [J-2010] Find the unit vector perpendicular to both a and b given a  3i  j  2k & b  2i  3 j  k . a  b  b  a and a.4.51 . 3 2a 9 Inverse of a is Q 2a Commutative law :2ab 2ba ab  and b  a  3 3 Since. Find the area of the triangle whose two adjacent sides are determined by the two vectors 2i  3 j  2k & 4i  5 j  3k .(x  a )  8 then find the value of x [J-2010] Soln :  3.3-1) . Let a 1 be the inverse of a But a  a 1  2a.  (Q  . [J-2007] n Sol :  VECTORS 1 Find the unit vector in the direction of the vector a  3 i  4 j         [J-2010]  Soln :  2. Show that the points A(2.5 2 . b and c be any three vectors such that | a | 2 .   [M-2010] Sol :  8. Prove that the set G  {    5 3 . b . [M-2010] Soln :  . B(1.a 1 3 5. e 33. 6.-2. [J-2010] n Sol :  5. 2a.b  b.3) .50 .-6. If a is the unit vector and ( x  a ). a  b  b  a  Hence.6) are coplanar. n If the vectors a  2i  j  k and b  3i  4 j  k then find the value of a . Prove by vector method that the angle in a semicircle is equal to 90 0 [J-2010] n Sol :  4. C(3.a 1 9  3  a 1  Q .5 1 .5 3     } is an abelian group under the usual multiplication. n Let a .a. | b | 3 .  is commutativ .) is an abelian group. | c | 4 and each vector is equal to the sum of the other two vectors then find the value of | a  b  c |          [J-2010]   Sol :  7.5 2 . Existance of inverse : a  a 1  e  3.4.

If λi  j  2k . Find the area of the 2i  j  k & 3i  4 j  k . n         Show that  a x a   a b   a . Prove by vector method that sin(A  B)  sin A.       . | b | 5 . a. If a  b  c  0 & | a | 3 .(b x c )  0.(2  3)  j.  k. n If a  5i  2 j  3k & b  4i  2 j  5k are the vectors find the projection of a on b . triangle. [M-2009] n Sol :             17.9. 6  5 3 84  5 3 4 x 21  5 3 2 21  5 3 2 7x3  5 3 2 7. a  i  2 j  3k and b  2i  j  k . Prove that the vectors j  2 . b1 b 2 b 3 2 1 1  i. Soln :  Let. Prove that  a  b b  c c  a   2  a b c      [M-2009] Soln :  18. a  i  j  2k . b  2i  3 j  4k . 3  5 2 7 .    a x b  a1  i j a2 k i j k a 3  1  2 3  i.|b | 16.   [M-2010]  Sol :  10. b      2 2 2 2 [M-2009] [J-2009] Sol :  19. Find the direction cosines of the vector 2i  3 j  2k Sol :  14. | a |.c to be coplanar is a . i  3 j  2k &  i  2 j form the vertices of the vectors of an isosceles. sin B Sol :  n 12.b. n n parallelogram whose [M-2009] [M-2009] Sol :  15. cos B  cos A. Find the sine of the angle between the two vectors i  2 j  3k and 2i  j  k .(1  4)  5i  5 j  5k   2 3 1 3 1 2  j. | c | 7 then find the angle between the vectors a & b [M-2010] [M-2009] diagonals are given by the vectors          Soln :  13. c  i  2 j  k The condition for the three vectors. Soln :  Let.    [M-2010] [M-2010] Sol :  11.(1  6)  k . n Find the vector of magnitude 12 units which is perpendicular to both the vectors a  4i  j  3k and b  2i  j  2k . 1 1 2 1 2 1 | a x b | ( 5) 2  (5) 2  (5) 2  25  25  25  25 x 3  5 3 | a | (1) 2  ( 2) 2  ( 3) 2  1  4  9  14 | b | ( 2) 2  (1) 2  (1) 2  4  1  1  6      sin   | a xb |   5 3 14 . 2i  3 j  4k & i  2 j  k are coplanar then find the value of λ .

If a  13. If the vectors λi  2 j  k and i  3 j  2k are orthogonal then find the value of λ . Define co-planar vectors. 5  20  0    5  20    20 4 5   Given. [M-2008] Soln :  28. b  2i  j  3k . If a  b  c  0 then prove that a x b  b x c  c x a .(2  4)  2. b  i  2 j  k .   [M-2008] Soln :  30. If the vectors i  j  λk .(b x c )  2  3 4  0  . Soln :  Let. b  0       [M-2008] [M-2008]  a . a  2i  j  k . b  19 .(4  3)  0  5  6  14  0     1 2  20. a1 a2 a3 1 3 2 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 c1 c 2 c 3 1 1 1  1(1  3)  3(2  3)  2(2  1)  1(4)  3(1)  2(3)  4  3  6  7  7 cubic units. a  i  2 j  k and b  i  3 j  2k Condition for orthogonal is a .(3  8)  1. 0 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 1   . Find the position vector of the point P .  2. 4i  2 j  9k . n Sol :  22. sin A sin B sin C   [M-2008] Soln :  29. n Sol :  21. n Sol :  24. b   (1)  2( 3)  ( 1)(2)  0   62  0  8 0  8 26. 2i  j  3k . Find the volume of parallelepiped whose co-terminus edges are the vectors i  3 j  2k . [J-2008] n Sol :  31. a  b  24 then find the value of a  b . i  j k . Find the unit vector in the direction of 2i  j  2k .  2.3 4 2 4 2 3 a .  1. [M-2008] n Sol :  27. [J-2008] Soln :  Let. a  i  3 j  2k . If a  b  c  a  b  c then find the angle between a  b and c . c  i  j  k    1 3 2 3 2 1  3. Prove by sine rule   a b c   by the vector method.       [J-2009]          [J-2009]    [J-2009] Soln :  23. 5i  j  14k & 3i  2 j  7k are the position vectors of the four coplanar points then find the value of λ . Volume = b 1 b 2 b 3  2  1 3  1. find the unit vector perpendicular to a and coplanar with a  and b .

b  5 .( 2i  j  2k )  2( 2)  2(1)  1( 2)  4  2  2  0. 2 2 2 Find the volume of the parallelepiped whose coterminous edges are given by the vectors 2i  j  k . 0 0  0 3. (1. 0 7 0 7 0 0 0 0 7    i .4). b  2i  j  k & c  i  3 j  2k then find the unit vector perpendicular to a in the       same plane on b and c .   | a | 4  4  1  9  3 & | b | 4  1  4  9  3 If  is the angle between the two vectors a & b then cos       a . OA  i  2 j  3k .  j.3 9    cos 1 (0)  90 0 . 36. AB  OB OA  2i  j  k  (i  2 j  3k )  2i  j  k  i  2 j  3k  i  3 j  2k       AC  OC OA  i  2 j  4k  (i  2 j  3k )  i  2 j  4k  i  2 j  3k  7k    i j k 3 2 1 2 1 3 AB x AC  1  3  2  i . (2.2. B(2. .( 0  0)  21i  7 j | AB x AC | 441  49  490  7 10   1 1 7 10 x | AB x AC | x 7 10  sq units.32. OB  2i  j  k .3) .  k.1) .   [M-2007] [M-2007] Soln :   a  2i  2 j  k & b  2i  j  2k      a .2.3) . n Sol :  37. [M-2007] n Sol :  Let A(1. Find the area of parallelogram whose diagonals are the vectors 2i  j  k and i  2 j  3k . [J-2008] n Sol :  33. c  7 then find the angle between a and b . If a  i  2 j  3k . OC  i  2 j  4k .     n Sol :  2 [J-2008]   35. By using vector method.4) .[J-2008] Soln :             34. C(1.( 21  0)  j.b   | a |.( 7  0)  k . b  ( 2i  2 j  k ).2.1) . Find the angle between the vectors 2i  2 j  k and 2i  j  2k . Prove that  a x b b x c c x a    a b c  . If a  b  c  0 and a  3 .b    | a |.1. 3i  2 j  2k & i  3 j  3k . find the area of the triangle whose vertices are (1.1.|b | cos   a .2.         [J-2008] Soln :  If a  2i  3 j and a  3i  4 j then find the magnitude of a  b . [M-2007]   Area of triangle = 39.|b | 38.

.    1 1 3 1 3 1  3.  1.  [M-2006]   Soln :  Let.b  0  3 6  0          a1 a2 a3 2 1 1 [M-2006] Soln :   ( 3). [M-2007] n Sol :  41. Find the volume of parallelepiped whose coterminous edges are i  3 j  4k . Find the volume of the parallelepiped whose coterminous edges are a  i  2 j  3k . Volume = b 1 b 2 b 3  3  2 2  2. a x b    a b c  . n a1 a2 a3 1 2 3 IF a  i  j  k . 43. a  i  3 j  4k . b  3i  2 j  2k & c  i  3 j  3k . a  2i  j  k . b  i  2 j  3k and c  2i  j  4k then find unit vector in the direction of       a x( b x c ) .( )  ( 2). 2 [M-2006] [J-2006] Soln :  47. cos β and cos γ are the direction cosines of the vector 2i  j  2k then prove that cos 2 α  cos 2 β  cos 2 γ  1 .     n Sol :  46. If cos α . [M-2006] Soln :             45. c x a . b  i  2 j  k & c  3i  2 j  k . If the vectors a  3i  j  2k and b  i  λj  3k are perpendicular then find λ .Soln :  Let. 0 3 2 3 2 0 c1 c 2 c 3 2 0 3  1(3  0)  3(9  2)  4(0  2)  1(3)  3(7)  4(2)  3  21  8  10 cubic units. Prove by vector method that the medians of a triangle are concurrent. 2 1 3 1 3 2 c1 c 2 c 3 3 2 1  1(2  2)  2(1  3)  3(2  6)  1(4)  2(2)  3(8)  4  4  24  24 cubic units. b  i  2 j  k and c  3i  2 j  k .(3)  0 90    9. a  3i  j  2k and b  i  j  3k ab  a . a1 a2 a3 1 3 4 . a  i  2 j  3k . Volume = b 1 b 2 b 3  1  2 1  1. [M-2006] Sol :  44.  3. [J-2006] Soln :  Let. Prove that b x c . 40.. Let.  2 1 1 1 1 2  2. Find the direction cosines of the vector 3i  6 j  2k . Volume = b 1 b 2 b 3  3  1 1  1. 3i  j  k and 2i  3k .   42. 3 3 1 3 1 3 c1 c 2 c 3 1 3 3  2(6  6)  1(9  2)  1(9  2)  2(12)  1(11)  1(7)  24  11  7  42 cubic units.  4.    2 2 3 2 3 2  1. b  3i  j  k & c  2i  3k .(1)  (1).

(6  2)  k . Prove by vector method that sin(A  B)  sin A. cos B  cos A. Find the sine of the angle between the vectors a  i  2 j  k and b  2i  3 j  6k . n Sol :  1. 6   2 6  2 2. 3   1 3  | a |. 3 6 2 6 2 3 b1 b 2 b 3 2 3 6  i. b  2i  j  k and c  i  3 j  2k then find a unit vector perpendicular to a and   the same plane as b and c .  j. π then prove that x 2  y 2  1 . Let. sin x  θ then sin θ  x [J-2010] G. [J-2006] [J-2007] [J-2007] Soln :  52. a b c      [J-2006]   Sol :  49. 2 π Soln :  G .E  sin1 x  θ  x  cos  π π  sin1 x   θ 2 2 2 i . n Sol :  51. INVERSE TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS   3  Find the value of sintan1    4   If sin1 x  sin1 y  [J-2010] Soln :  2.|b |  50.48.(12  3)  j. b  2i  3 j  6k i j k i j k   2 1 1 1 1 2 a x b  a 1 a 2 a 3  1  2 1  i. n            Prove that  a  b . c  a   2.(3  4)  9i  4 j  k    [J-2006] Soln :    Now. If a  i  2 j  3k . sin B . | a x b | ( 9) 2  ( 4) 2  (1) 2  81  16  1  98  7 2 | b | ( 2) 2  ( 3) 2  (6) 2  4  9  36  49  7    sin   | a xb |   7 2 7. Find the value of ( j  3k ) x (i  j  2k ) . b  c . a  i  2 j  k & . x  1  sin   1  y 2  x2  y 2  1 Squaring on both sides  x 2  1  y 2 .  k. e.E  sin1 x  sin1 y  2 1 Let.

xy  1  x 2 .T. 2  2  5π Solve : cot 1 x  2 tan1 x  6 . x 2 y 2  z 2  2xyz  1  x 2  y 2  x 2 y 2  x 2  y 2  z 2  2xyz  1 7.   1. cos 1 ( x )  cos 1 ( y )  cos 1 ( z )   Now cos( A  B )  cos(   C) i . cos 1 ( 1) . cot 1 x  tan 1 x       2 2 5  5 cot 1 x  tan 1 x  tan 1 x    tan 1 x  6 2 6 5  5  3 2    tan 1 x       x  tan    3 6 2 6 6 3 3 9. e. cos ( x)  A Let .J-2010] Sol :  Given . 5. cos 1 ( 1)  sin . cos A. [M-2009] Soln :  8. 1  Find the value of sin . cot 1 x  2 tan 1 x  1 6  W. If cos 1 x  cos 1 y  cos 1 z  π then prove that x 2  y 2  z 2  2xyz  1. sin B   cos C i . e. cos B  sin A. [M-2010] [M-2010] Sol :  n Let .(1  y 2 ) i .K. e. n If tan 1 x  tan 1 y  tan 1 z  π then prove that x  y  z  xyz  0. [M-2009. 5 5 2 n Sol :  6. 1  4  Evaluate : sin cos1    5  2 4 4 Let cos 1    θ then cos θ  Soln :  5 5 1  4   G .E  sin cos 1     sin   5  2 2  1  2 sin 2    cos  2    1  cos   sin 2     2 2 1 4 1 5 5 1 2 2 10 [M-2010] 1  Hence . 1  y 2   z  xy  z  1  x 2 . [M-2009] 5 Soln :  Given. tan x  tan y  tan z  π 1 1 1 . A  B  C   1 1 1  x  cos A  y  cos B  z  cos C sin A  1  cos 2 A  1  x 2 sin B  1  cos 2 B  1  y 2 ABC Given .4. 2  1  1  sin . 1  y 2 Now squaring on both sides  ( xy  z ) 2  (1  x 2 ). e. sin   2 10 1  12  π Prove that 2 tan 1    tan 1    . cos ( y )  B and cos ( z )  C i .

0  x  y  z  xyz  1  ( xy  yz  zx )  10. cos A. e. tan 1  y .  3  1 1 Find the value of x if tan1 x  sin1    cos 1  . 1  y 2  ( xy  z ) 2  (1  x 2 ). [J-2009] Sol :  11. Soln :  Let . tan1  π    tan π  0  1  ( xy  yz  zx )   1  ( xy  yz  zx )   x  y  z  xyz     0  [1  ( xy  yz  zx )]. n  1  1 Solve : tan1 x  sin1    cot 1   3  2 If sin1 x  sin1 y  sin1 z  π then prove that x 2  y 2  z 2  2xyz  1 . e. 2  2 2  tan 1 x    2   3      6 12 12 12 4   x  tan    1. sin1 ( y )  B  y  sin B  z  sin C π 2 cos A  1  sin2 A  1  x 2 cos B  1  sin2 B  1  y 2 and sin1 ( z )  C Given . 1  x 2 . bc ca ab       Let tan 1 a(a  b  c) b( a  b  c ) b( a  b  c )  x. e. sin1 ( x)  sin1 ( y )  sin1 ( z )  i .(1  y 2 )  x 2  y 2  z 2  2xyz  1 [M-2008] 1 i . x  y  z  xyz  0  x  y  z  xyz. 2  x  sin A [J-2009] [J-2009. tan 1 z bc ca ab [M-2008] Soln :  LHS  tan 1 a(a  b  c) b( a  b  c ) b( a  b  c )  tan 1  tan 1 bc ca ab  x  y  z  xyz   tan 1 x  tan 1 y  tan 1 z  tan 1    1  ( xy  yz  zx )  . x 2 y 2  z 2  2xyz  1  x 2  y 2  x 2 y 2 Find the value of tan(tan 1 3)  sec1 {sec(2)} . sin1 ( x)  A Let. tan(tan 1 Sol :  14. e. e. n i . 3)  sec [sec(2)]  tan(tan 1 1 3)  sec [sec 2]  3  2  5. 1  y 2  xy  z  xy  z  1  x 2 . n i . 4 [M-2008] Soln :  15. A  B  C  π 2  AB  π C 2 π  Now cos(A  B )  cos  C 2  Now squaring on both sides 13. cos B  sin A.M-2006] Sol :  12. e. 1 0 Evaluate : sin [sin(130 )] .  a(a  b  c)   b(a  b  c)   c(a  b  c)  1 1 Prove that tan1    tan    tan    0. x  y  z  xyz   x  y  z  xyz  i . sin B  sin C i .

1 x   Soln :  π  3  19. Find the value of cos 1 [sin( 3300 )] . [J-2008] 2 π Soln :  Given. abc   16. [J-2008]  1 cos 1 (sin 3300 )  cos 1 [sin( 3600  30 0 )]  cos 1 [ sin 300 ]  cos 1     2 π 2π 1  π  cos 1    π   3 3 2 π 17. x  y  z  xyz     bc ca ab ab. e. Find the value of sin  sin1    .bc . 2  2    n Sol :  1 3 π 20. Prove that 2 tan 1    sin1    . tan1 x  tan1 y  tan1 z  2 Soln :   x  y  z  xyz   i. [J-2008] [M-2007] [M-2007] . tan 1    1  ( xy  yz  zx)  2  x  y  z  xyz  1    1  ( xy  yz  zx)  0  sin   x  y  z  xyz   2    tan     2  cos     1  ( xy  yz  zx)    2  1  ( xy  yz  zx)  0( x  y  z  xyz )  0 i. 2 5 2 3 3 Let sin1    θ then sin θ  Soln :  5 5 18. If tan1 x  tan1 y  tan1 z  then prove that xy  yz  zx  1 .ca  a  a b c a  b  c b c a  b  c  a  b  c         a  b  c  ca ab abc  ca ab abc   bc  bc  a  b  c  (a  b  c )   a  b  c   0  RHS .a(a  b  c) b(a  b  c) c(a  b  c) abc(a  b  c) 3 Now . e. 1  (xy  yz  zx)  0  xy  yz  zx  1  1 x  2 Prove that sin 2 tan1   1 x .

tan1    tan   1  4 1  xy 4  1  xy  4 25. e. 1  y 2  1  x 2 . tan   3 4 3 3 3    tan 1    sin 1    tan 1   4 5 4 1 3 1 3 LHS  2 tan 1    sin 1    2 tan 1    tan 1   2 5 2 4  1     2. sin(A  B) i.  sec1 ( 2)  cos 1    1  2 1  1      cos       2 3 3 2 [M-2006] Soln :  23). e. [J-2006]  2  3    1   1     3   Soln :  sin  sin1    sin  sin1    sin    sin   sin   1  2   2  3 6 6 2 3 3 π 26. [M-2007] Soln :  Let sin1 (x)  A  sin A  x  cos A  1  sin2 A  1  x 2  cos B  1  sin2 B  1  y 2 Let sin1 ( y )  B  sin B  y Now consider . If tan1 x  tan1 y  then prove that x  y  xy  1 . sin1 (x)  sin1 (y )  sin1 x 1  y 2  y 1  x 2      1 Find the value of sec ( 2) . [J-2006] 4  xy  π π xy  π Soln :  Given tan1 x  tan1 y  i. sinB  x. cos B  cos A. sin(A  B)  sinA. Hence . 2 x 2  2  x 2  1 2  22 x   x  1. e. e. 3 4 3 3 2 Y P 5 3 O 4 M X 21.From the figure . 2     1  1  3  1  1  1  3   tan    tan    tan    tan   1 3 4 4 1    4 4     4 3 4 4   tan 1    tan 1    tan 1    cot 1     RHS .y  x 1  y 2  y 1  x 2  ( A  B)  sin1 x 1  y 2  y 1  x 2   22. If x  0 and y  0 then prove that sin1 x  sin1 y  sin1[x 1  y 2  y 1  x2 ] .  1 x 1 x  1  tan1    tan ( 2)  1  (1  x)(1  x)  [M  2006] π  1  Find the value of sin  sin1   . tan1 (1  x)  tan1 (1  x)  tan1 ( 2) tan1 (1  x)  tan1 (1  x)  tan1 ( 2)   2 i . .  2 2   1  (1  x )  i .

1  x 2  3x  2 x 2  (1  x 2 )  3x  2 2x  3x  1  0 2  sin[sin1 x  cos 1 x]  3x  2  sin A  x cos B  x Let. sin1 x  A and Let cos 1 x  B  2  2x  2x  x  1  0   x1  0 or 2x  1  0 x  1 or ( x  1)(2x  1)  0 1 x 2 28). e. sin 1 [sin 2]  cos 1 [cos 2] 2 2  1 2 tan  2x 1   tan  . 2 n Sol :  2 1  1 2x 1  2x  1  1  x  31. π  3  sin  sin1    2  2    [ A  07] π π   3  3  1 sin  sin1      sin  sin    2 2  2   2      1 π π  3π  2π   5π   sin    sin   sin 6   sin(150)  sin(90  60)  cos(60)  2 2 3  6    1 29.   . xy  1  x  y  1  xy 1  xy  x  y  xy  1 Soln :      sin1 x  cos 1 x  sin1 ( 3x  2) x.E  tan sin    cos   2 2 1  x  2  1  x  2 Put x  tan θ  θ  tan 1 x [J-2007] [J-2007] [J-2007] n 1  1  tan 2     2 tan   1 G .2  .2  tan( 2)   2 2 2  1  tan  1  x 2  GENERAL SOLUTIONS 1. Prove that tan . sin  .i. cos    2 2 2 1  x  2  1  x  1  x 2 2  1 1  2x  1  1  1  x  Sol :  G .x  1  x 2 . If tan1 x  tan1 y  then prove that xy  1 .E  tan  sin 1   cos 1  2  2   1  tan   2 2  1  tan      1 1   tan  . n Sol :  [J-2010] . 2 Soln :  π 30. Find the general solution of tan 2x  tan x  1. If cos1 x  sin1 x  0 then prove that x  .

Find the general solution of the equation tan 2x. e. sin x   3  1   3  1  2  1 2 8  2 2 then we get 5. sin   2 3 3    1  1      cos   3   2 4    1 3 1 cos . Soln :  Givenequation is 3 tan θ  2 sec θ  1    3. cos x   3  1. Find the general solution of the equation tan 4x  cot 2x . cos x  2   3  1 . Find the general solution of ( 3  1) cos x  ( 3  1) sin x  2 . Find the general solution of the equation cos2 θ  cos 2θ  2 Soln :  4. cos 750 .  2 2 2  1  cos     3 2      2n  : n  I 3 4    :nI 4 3 This is the general solution. [J-2010] [M-2010] [M-2010] Sol :  n Given equation is  3  1 . n Sol :  Given equation is tan 4x  cot 2x sin4x cos 2x tan 4x  cot 2x   cos 4x sin 2x  sin 4x. cos 2x  sin 4x. cos    sin . sin 2x  cos 4x. x  750  2n   x  2n   750 : n  I  x  2n   :nI 3 3 3 12  3  1. n Sol :  [J-2009] .2. sinx   cos(x  750 )   cos 2 2 3    5 i. sin  1  2. Find the general solution for the trigonometric equation cos x  cos 2x  cos 3x  0 n Sol :  3.    2n  7. 1 cos  cos    3 sin  2  1 cos  cos  [M-2009] [M-2009] 3 sin  2   1 cos  cos  3 sin   2  1 cos  cos   3 sin   2    1 3  1  4  2 then we get 3 sin   2   cos   Now dividing equation nor (1) by    cos  3 sin  2 1    2 2 2 2   1 cos . cos x  sin750 . sin x  2    1 2  Now a  3  1 . tan x  1 .  sin . Find the general solution of the equation 3 tan θ  2 secθ  1 . b  3  1 and c  2 Now dividing equation (1) by 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1  i. e. cos 2x  cos 4x. sin 2x  0   cos 6x  0  6x  cos 1 (0)  2  n  6x  2n  : n  I  x   :nI 2 3 12 6.

Sol :  n Given equation is ( 3  1) cos x  ( 3  1) sin x  2      1 Now a  3  1 .   : n  I    2  3 [J-2008]   2x  n  ( 1) n . sin x  sin 2x  sin 3x  0     (sin 3x  sin x )  sin 2x  0   3x  x   3x  x  2 sin .0 : n  I x n :nI      1 2 or or or or 1 sin x   2  x  sin 1    1   2 6   x  n  ( 1) n . e.   : n  I  6  x  n  ( 1) n .  : n  I    2 6 Equations (1) and (2) are the general solutions. 5 . cos    sin 2x  0  2   2  sin 2x. sin x  2   i . Find the general solution of the equation sinθ  sin 2θ  sin 3θ  0 . Find the general solution of the equation sin2 θ  cos 2θ  2 Given equation is sin x  cos 2x  4 . 4 [J-2008] Soln :  5 sin 2 x  cos 2x     5 4  5 4 sin 2 x  (1  2 sin 2 x )   sin 2 x  9 3  12 4 5 4  12 sin 2 x  4  5  0 sin 2 x  1  2 sin 2 x  12 sin 2 x  9 sin x   4( 3 sin 2 x  1)  5  sin x  sin   3 3  4 2 11. Find the general solution of the equation ( 3  1) cos θ  ( 3  1) sin θ  2 . n Sol :  Given equation sinθ  sin 2θ  sin 3θ  0 . sin x   3  1   3  1 2 2  8  2 2 then we get 2 2 2 1  1 2 1 2  cos  4    :nI 3 12 i .(cos θ  sin θ) . n Find the general solution of the equation cos 2θ  2 .( 2 sin x  1)  0  sin 2x  0 2x  sin 1 (0)  0 or 2 sin 2x. cos 15 0 . 3 2   3   x  sin 1    3  2      x  n  ( 1) n .8. : n  I    1 or 3 Equations (1) and (2) are the general solutions. . cos x   3  1 . b  3  1 and c  2 Now dividing equation (1) by 2 2 2 2  3  1 . x  15 0  2n   x  2n   15 0 : n  I 4 3  cos( x  15 0 )   x  2n  10. e. [J-2009] [M-2008] Sol :  9. sin x  sin 2x  0 2 sin x  1  0 3 or 2    3   x  sin 1  or   2  3     x  n  ( 1) n . cos x  sin15 0 .

sin   sin 4x 2   2  2 sin 4x. : nI    2 3 18 Equation (1) and (2) are the general solutions of the given equation. Hence. n [J-2006] . n Sol :  14. n π : n  I is the general solution. sin 3x  sin 4x  0 sin 4x  0 or    x  7x   x  7x  2 sin . cos 2x cos 3x cos 2x cos 3x. 2 Find the general solution of the equation cos 2θ  3 sin 2θ  1 . Find the general solution of the equation 3 cos x  sin x  2 . n Sol :  Given equation is cos x  cos 7x  sin4x . tan 2x  1 . e. cos 2x  sin 3x. sin 2x  0  cos(3x  2x)  0 [M-2007] [M-2006]  cos x  0  x  cos 1 (0)  π 2 15. sin   sin 4x 2  2 [M-2007]  sin 4x( 2 sin 3x  1)  0 2 sin 3x  1  0 1  4x  sin1 (0)  0 or sin3x  2 1   4x  n  ( 1) n .12. cos 2  sin . e. sin 2x i . sin 2  2 3 3  1  2   cos 1    3 2 3  2  2n     :nI 3 3 16. : nI 6 n  x  ( 1) n . sin   sin 4x  2   2   8x   6x  2 sin . sin 2x  cos 3x. cos 2x i . Find the general solution of the equation tan 3x. 1   1  sin 3x. Sol :  Given equation 2 cos ecx  cot x  3 .0 : nI    1 or 3x  sin 1    2 6  3x  n  ( 1) n . n Sol :  Given equation is tan 3x. Find the general solution of the equation cos x  cos 7x  sin4x . cos 3x. x  2nπ  Given equation is cos 2  3 sin 2  1      1 a 2  b 2  (1) 2  ( 3 ) 2  1  3  4  2 [M-2006] Sol :  Now dividing equation nor (1) by 1 3 1 cos 2  sin 2  2 2 2      1  cos  2     3 2    2   2n  : n  I 3 3     n   : n  I 6 6 1   cos  . tan 2x  1 sin 3x sin 2x sin 3x. cos x  cos 7 x  sin 4x     8x    6x  2 sin . Find the general solution of the equation 2 cos ecx  cot x  3 . . 13.

cos nx  cos mx . e. cos  sin x. Find the general solution of the equation sec x  tan x   3 . n Sol :  Given equation is tanmx  tannx tan mx  tan nx  0    1    cos 1    2 3   2n  [J-2007]  sinmx . cos nx  cos mx . Find the general solution of the equation tan2 x  4 secx  5  0 . sinnx  0 sin(mx  nx)  0 1 i . Find the general solution of the equation tanmx  tannx . (m  n )x  n  ( 1) n . cos nx  cos mx .0 : n  I (m  n )x  sin (0)  0 1 x  n : n  I . Soln :  Given equation is tan2 x  4 secx  5  0 tan 2   4 sec   5  0     sec2   1  4 sec   5  0 (sec   2) 2  0  cos    :nI 3 1 2 sec2   4 sec   4  0  sec   2  0  [J-2006] sec   2  18. cos nx sin mx . sin   3 3 2  1   3  1  1  1   x    cos       cos     3 4 4 2    2  3 3   :nI  x  2n   :nI  x    2n  3 4 4 3  17.  2 cos x   3 sin x sin x 2  cos x  3 sin x   2  cos x  3 sin x cos x  3 sin x   2    1 Now dividing equation nor (1) by       2 cos x   3 sin x sin x 2  cos x  3 sin x 1 3  4  2   2  cos x  3 sin x 1 3 1 cos x  sin x   2 2 2  1  cos  x     3 2  cos x  3 sin x   2    1   cos x 3 sin x 2 1    2 2 2 2   1 cos x. n Sol :  [J-2007] . sinnx 0 cos mx . sin nx  0 sin(m  n )x  0  sinmx sinnx  0 cos mx cos nx   sinmx . (m  n ) 19.

Find the cube roots of 1  i 3 and find the continued product of the roots.1.2      If n  0 then . x 1 3 π π  Polar form of the complex number 1  i 3 is r .2   6n     6n     (1  i 3 )  2 .cos    i sin   9    9  To represent the cube roots of a complex number 1  i 3 in an Argand diagram a circle is drawn 1 3 1 3 Q P X with O as the centre and radius 2 .R represent the cube roots of the given complex number in the Argand diagram. Modulus = z  1  i 3 amp ( z )  tan 1 y 3 π  tan 1  tan 1 ( 3 )  . Express the complex number 2  2i in the polar form.cos  2n    i sin 2n    : 3 3      1  1   (1  i 3 )  2 . (1  i 3 )  2 .1.Q.R are the vertices of an equilateral triangle.Q. 1. z  1  i 3 | z | (1) 2  ( 3 ) 2  1  3  4  2. (1  i 3 )  2 .From the centre O the lines are drawn so that they make the angles π 7 π 13π with the x-axis.cos    i sin    9    9  1 3 1 3 Y   13   13   If n  2 then .R. n Sol :  4.cos  2n    i sin  2n    3 3 3 3   1 3 1 3 n  0. [J-2010] [J-2010] [J-2010] Sol :  n Let. 9 9 9 at P.Q. .COMPLEX NUMBERS π π Find the amplitude of the complex number sin   i cos   . P.cos    i sin    9   9   7   7  If n  1 then .cos  i sin  3 3     1 3 1 3    3  (1  i 3 )  2 .1. The lines cut the circle . Then P.cos    i sin   9    9  1 3 1 3 1 1 : n  0. (1  i 3 ) 3  2 3 .cos  i sin  3 3     (1  i 3 )  2. 1 3 R .cos  i sin  3 3  1 3 1 3 1 1      3  (1  i 3 )  2 .(cos θ  i sin θ)  2. 3 3 Soln :  2.2 : n  0.

[M-2010] Soln :  9. cos    i sin    2cos    i sin    9   3    9    3 1 π π 3   2. x [M-2010] Soln :  8. Find the cube roots of the complex number 3  i and represent them in the Argand diagram. z  3  i 3 Modulus = | z | (3) 2  ( 3 ) 2  9  3  12  2 3 amp ( z )   tan 1  1  y  3  3 1 π   tan 1   tan 1   tan 1   tan 1     x 3 6 3.2 cos 2    4 cos 2    2 cos   2 2 2 [M-2010] Soln :  amp ( z )  tan 1 y sin θ  tan 1  tan 1 x 1  cos θ θ θ θ 2 sin .[cos θ  i sin θ]  r . ( 3  i 3 )  ( 2 3 ) .cis 2 2  6. cos  i sin   2   i   1 i 3 3 3 2   2   3 5.cos     i sin     6    6 1 3 1 3 1 . If x  cos 4θ  i sin4θ then prove that x 1  2 cos 2θ .cos     i sin     6    6   π  π  3 Hence . 3  i 3  2 3 . z  1  cos θ  i sinθ | z | (1  cos θ) 2  (sin θ) 2  1  cos 2 θ  2 cos θ  sin 2 θ  2  2 cos θ  2(1  cos θ) θ θ θ  2. 3 3  3   π  π  Polar form of the complex number 3  i 3 is r . Find the cube roots of the complex number 3  i 3 and find their continued product. 1    π 7 π 13 π   π 7 π 13 π     Continued product of 1  i 3   2 3  cos       i sin   9  9  9 9    9 9      21π    7π   21π    7π   2.[M-2009] n Sol :  Let. cos   sin    θ  θ 2 2 2  tan 1  tan 1 tan     θ θ   2  2 2 cos 2   cos   2 2 θ θ Polar form of the complex number is r .cisθ  2 cos  .cos     i sin     6    6   π  π  Hence . Find the amplitude of (1  cos θ  i sinθ) Let.[cos θ  i sin θ]  2 3 .

cos  2nπ    i sin  2nπ    3 6 3 6   1 1 1 3 1 3  1  12nπ  π  1  12nπ  π   ( 3  i 3 )  ( 2 3 ) .cos    i sin   18     18  1 3 1 3 : n  0. Continued product of 3  i 3  1     ( 2 3 ) 3      3   π 11π 23 π   π 11π 23 π   .   1 1  i  n  in  1  i4  n4 12. cos    i sin    2 3 . .R.R represent the cube roots of  .cos         i sin   18  18    18 18   18 18   33 π    11π   33 π    11π    2 3 .cos  2nπ    i sin 2nπ    6 6     1 3 1 3 1 : : n  0.2 Q   π   π  If n  0 then ( 3  i 3 )  ( 2 3 ) . P.cos    i sin   18     18  1 3 1 3 To represent the cube roots of a complex number 3  i 3 in an Argand diagram a circle is drawn with O as the centre and radius 2 3 . Then P.1.Q.cos    i sin   18     18  1 1 X R P   23 π   23 π   If n  2 then ( 3  i 3 )  ( 2 3 ) . If cos α  2 cos β  3 cos γ  0 and sinα  2 sinβ  3 sin γ  0 then prove that .1. 18 18 18 the given complex number in the Argand diagram. If 1.R are the vertices of an equilateral triangle.    i 1  i 1  i 1  i (1  i ).1.(1  i ) 11 2 1  i  Given .2 Y  1 π 1 π  ( 3  i 3 ) 3  ( 2 3 ) 3 .cos    i sin   18    6    18    6   3 1  2 3 .    i. The lines cut the circle at P. 1  i  Given  n [M-2009] Soln :  11.Q.2 n  0.[cos( 330 0 )  i sin(330 0 )]  2 3 .From the centre O the lines are drawn so that they make the angles π 11π 23π with the x-axis.cos    i sin   18     18  1 3 1 3   11π   11π   If n  1 then ( 3  i 3 ) 3  ( 2 3 ) 3 . 1  i  n (1  i ) 2 1 i 1 i 1 i 1  1  2i 2i  . 1  i  Find the least positive integer n for which    1. ω 2 are the cube roots of unity then find the value of 1  ω  ω 2 )6 . ω.2 n  0.cos    i sin   : 3 6 3 6      12nπ  π   12nπ  π   ( 3  i 3 )  ( 2 3 ) .Q. [M-2009] Soln :  1  i    1.1. 2  2   10.   3  i 3 .  π π  3  ( 3  i 3 )  ( 2 3 ) .

Prove that e [M-2008] n Sol :  18.t if x  y  z  0 then x 3  y 3  z 3  3xyz . cos   . Find the least positive integer n for which    1. x 1 4 1 iπ  π  π  Polar form of the complex number ( 1  i ) is r .cisβ. e. 1  i  13. e. Using D M Theoremit prove that z 10  1  i tan 5θ if z  cos θ  i sinθ . i .cisα . e.i. i .3cisγ  18.cos    i sin   4  4    . [cos α  i sin α ]  [2 cos β  i 2 sin β]  [3 cos γ  i 3 sin γ ]  0 Let . Write the multiplicative inverse of i. n Sol :  1 i π 3 [M-2008]  e 3  e. e.cis(α  β  γ ). [M-2008] n Sol :  Let. e. Find the cube roots of the complex number 1 i and represent them in the Argand diagram.[cos( α  β  γ )  i sin(α  β  γ )].cisα . Find the fourth roots of 16. cos α  2 cos β  3 cos γ  0    1 and sinα  2 sinβ  3 sin γ  0    2 Now multiplying equation (2) by i and adding it to the first equation then we get [cos α  2 cos β  3 cos γ ]  i[sin α  2 sin β  3 sin γ ]  0 i . cos 3α  8 cos 3β  27 cos 3γ  18 cos(α  β  γ ) sin 3α  8 sin 3β  27 sin 3γ  18 sin(α  β  γ ) [M-2009] Sol :  n Given.cis(α  β  γ ). 1  i  Soln :  n [J-2009] 14. cisα  x . e. i . ii.(cos θ  sin θ)  2 .k . Show that the real and imaginary parts of 5e n Sol :  15. x  y  z  0 W. cos 3α  i sin 3α  8 cos 3β  8i sin 3β  27 cos 3γ  i 27 sin 3γ  18. 16. z  1  i Modulus = | z | (1) 2  (1) 2  1  1  2 amp ( z )  tan 1 y 1 π  tan 1  tan 1 (1)  . (cisα ) 3  ( 2cisβ ) 3  ( 3cisγ ) 3  3. 2 4 i tan 1   3 are 3 and 4 respectively. (cos α  i sin α ) 3  8(cos β  i sin β ) 3  27(cos γ  i sin γ ) 3  18.2cisβ. Now equating real and imaginary parts then we get cos 3α  8 cos 3β  27 cos 3γ  18 cos( α  β  γ ) and sin 3α  8 sin 3β  27 sin 3γ  18 cos( α  β  γ ). [J-2009] [J-2009] [J-2009] Soln :  17.cisγ i . cos 3α  i sin 3α  8(cos 3β  i sin 3β )  27(cos 3γ  i sin 3γ )  18. z 10  1 Soln :  π 16. 2cisβ  y and 3cisγ  z then cisα  2cisβ  3cisγ  0 i .

( ω 3 .  i.ω)  4. x  cos α  i sinα.ω  RHS . The lines cut the circle at P.cos  2nπ    i sin  2nπ    3 4 3 4    1  8nπ  π  1  8nπ  π   .cos    i sin   3 4  3  4   : n  0.J-2010] 2 2 Soln :  Given.Q. 2  2  2    27 π   27 π   0 0 . [J-2008. n If 1.cos    i sin    4   4   4  4  π   π π  3  π  3  (1  i )  ( 2 ) .1. z  cos γ  i sin γ and x  y  z  0 . .cos    i sin    2 . (1  i ) 3  ( 2) 6 .1.   2 .Q.cos     i sin   12  12    12 12     12 12   3  1   (1  i )  ( 2) 6       1 ( 2) 2 3   π 9π 17 π   π 9π 17 π   .cos    i sin    12     12  1 1 : n  0.1.cos    i sin    2 .2 (1  (1  1 i) 3 1 i) 3 1 3   1 ( 2) 6 1 ( 2) 6 1 6  1 π 1 π  . cos( 360 0  45 0 )  i sin(360 0  45 0 )  2 .2 Y : n  0.cos    i sin    ( 2) 6 .ω 4  4. P.cos    i sin   12     12   π  π  If n  0 then. From the centre O the lines are drawn so that they make the  2π 4π 10π angles with the x-axis.2 X R P   9π   9π   If n  1 then.R. [J-2008] Sol :  LHS  (1  ω  ω )  ( ω  ω )  ( 2ω )  ( 2) . Hence P.cos       i sin   12  12    12 12   12 12  2 . 1  i  2 .cos    i sin   12     12  1 1 To represent the cube roots of a complex number  1  i 3 in an Argand diagram acircle is 1 3 drawn with O as the centre and radius 2 .R are the vertices of an equilateral triangle. (1  i ) 3  ( 2) 6 . (1  i ) 3  ( 2) 6 . Then P.( ω ) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2  4.R represent the cube .Q. If cos α  cos β  cos γ  0 and sinα  sinβ  sin γ  0 then prove that cos 2α  cos 2β  cos 2γ  0 and sin 2α  sin 2β  sin 2γ  0 also 3 3 cos2 α  cos2 β  cos2 γ  and sin2 α  sin2 β  sin2 γ  .1. π  π  π   π  Hence. cos( 45 0 )  i sin(45 0 )  1 1  i  1   2 .  1    π 9 π 17 π   π 9π 17 π       Their continued product = (1  i )  ( 2) 6  .R are the vertices of an equilateral triangle. 20.Q.2 Q   8nπ  π   8nπ  π   (1  i )  ( 2) .cos    i sin    12     12  1 1   17 π   17 π   If n  2 then. ω. y  cos β  i sinβ.   1  i. ω 2 are the cube roots of unity then find the value of (1  ω  ω 2 )2 . cos( 405 )  i sin(405 )  12   12         19.cos  2nπ    i sin 2nπ    4 4   4    4   1 3 1 3 1 1 1 : n  0. 9 9 9 roots of the given complex number in the Argand diagram.

 2 sin 2 α  2 sin 2 β  2 sin 2 γ  3  0 2[sin 2 α  sin 2 β  sin 2 γ ]  3  2 sin 2 α  2 sin 2 β  2 sin 2 γ  3 3 sin 2 α  sin 2 β  sin 2 γ  2  21. e. [J-2008] Sol :  22. e.0  0  0  0 i . x  cos α  i sin α and y  cos β  i sin β Soln :  . (cos α  cos β  cos γ )  0  (sin α  sin β  sin γ ) 1 1 1 Now . 2 cos 2 α  2 cos 2 β  2 cos 2 γ  3  0 2[cos 2 α  cos2 β  cos2 γ]  3  Now . xy  yz  zx  0 Now consider . Find the cube roots of a complex number Soln :  23. e. e. Find the modulus of the complex number 3  i and represent them in the Argand diagram. [J-2008] 2i . n Prove that (1  i )9  16  16i . 1  2 sin 2 α  1  2 sin 2 β  1  2 sin 2 γ  0 i .    (cos α  i sin α )  (cos β  i sin β )  (cos γ  i sin γ ) x y z  (cos α  cos β  cos γ )  i(sin α  sin β  sin γ )  0  i . e. (cos α  i sin α ) 2  (cos β  i sin β ) 2  (cos γ  i sin γ ) 2  0 i . e. (cos 2α  cos 2β  cos 2 γ )  i(sin 2α  sin 2β  sin 2 γ )  0 Now equating real and imaginary parts then we get cos 2α  cos 2β  cos 2γ  0 i. x2 y 3 [M-2007] Soln :  24. ( x  y  z ) 2  x 2  y 2  z 2  2( xy  yz  zx) ( 0) 2  x 2  y 2  z 2  2(0)  x2  y 2  z2  0 i . (cos 2α  i sin 2α )  (cos 2β  i sin 2β )  (cos 2γ  i sin 2 γ )  0 i . e. x  y  z  0 gives (cos α  i sin α )  (cos β  i sin β )  (cos γ  i sin γ )  0 (cos α  cos β  cos γ )  (i sin α  i sin β  i sin γ )  0 (cos α  cos β  cos γ )  i(sin α  sin β  sin γ )  0 Hence . y  cos β  i sinβ & z  cos γ  i sin γ then prove that Given. sin 2α  sin 2β  sin 2 γ  0 2 cos 2 α  2 cos 2 β  2 cos 2 γ  3 3 cos2 α  cos2 β  cos2 γ  2  i .Now . e. If x  cos α  i sinα . 2 cos 2 α  1  2 cos 2 β  1  2 cos 2 γ  1  0 i. 5i [M-2007] y 3 x2   2 cos( 3β  2α ) .

From the centre O the lines are drawn so that they make the π 13π 25π angles with the x-axis.cos    i sin    6   6 1 3 1 3 1     π π  3  ( 3  i )  2 . cos   π  π     i sin    18   18   Q   13 π   13 π   If n  1 then ( 3  i ) 3  2 3 .Q. .R are the vertices of an equilateral triangle.Q.1. Find all the cube roots of the complex number Also find their continued product.2  1  12nπ  π  1  12nπ  π   ( 3  i )  2 .[cos θ  i sin θ]  2.1.cos    i sin   18     18  1 P X If n  2 then ( 3  1 i) 3  1   25 π  2 3 .  π  π  3  i is r . 18 18 18 roots of the given complex number in the Argand diagram.R represent the cube . P.Q.cos    i sin   3 6 3 6       12nπ  π   12nπ  π   ( 3  i )  2 . Represent them in the Argand diagram [M-2007] amp ( z )  tan 1 y 1 π  tan 1  x 3 6 Polar form of the complex number Hence . n Sol :  Let.cos    i sin    6   6  π  π  3  i  2. cos(3β  2α ) x2 y 3 25. z  3  i Modulus = | z | ( 3 ) 2  (1) 2  3  1  4  2 3  i . The lines cut the circle at P.2 : n  0.1. cos    25 π      i sin   18   18   To represent the cube roots of a complex number R 3  i in an Argand diagram a circle is drawn with O as the centre and radius 1 .2 Y If n  0 then ( 3   1   2 3 . their continued product is .cos    i sin   18     18  1 3 1 3 1 i) 3 1 : n  0.R.cos  2nπ    i sin 2nπ    6 6     1 3 1 3 : n  0. Then P.If y  cos β  i sin β then y 3  (cos β  i sin β) 3  cos 3β  i sin 3β If x  cos α  i sin α then x 2  (cos α  i sin α ) 2  cos 2α  i sin 2α y 3 cos 3β  i sin 3β   cos(3β  2α )  i sin(3β  2α ) x 2 cos 2α  i sin 2α x2  cos(3β  2α )  i sin(3β  2α ) y3 y 3 x2   cos(3β  2α )  i sin(3β  2α )  cos(3β  2α )  i sin(3β  2α )  2.

cos(3900 )  i sin(3900 )   i sin 6  6           3  1     2.(cos θ  i sin θ)  2.cos    i sin  18  18    18 18  18     18 18   18  3   13   13    2.    i.cos       i sin     2. 1             13   13     25   25   3  i  ( 2) 3  .cos    i sin   .     i. amp ( z )  π  tan 1 y 3 π 2π  π  tan 1  π  tan 1  3  π  tan 1 ( 3 )  π   x 1 3 3   2π   2π   Polar form of (  1  i 3 ) is r .   1  i tan(nθ)  1  i tan θ  n n n [M-2006] sin θ    cos θ  i sin θ  n  1  i cos θ     1  i tan θ   cos θ  i sin θ   cos nθ  i sin nθ  n cos θ LHS   Sol :           cos nθ  i sin nθ   1  i tan θ   cos θ  i sin θ     1  i sin θ   cos θ  i sin θ      cos θ  cos θ    Now dividing both numerator and denominator by cos nθ then we get sin nθ   cos nθ  cos nθ  i cos nθ   1  i tan nθ      RHS .  i .cos(30 )  i sin(30 )  2. [M-2006] n Sol :  Let. Find the fourth roots of the complex number  1  i 3 and represent them in the Argand diagram. 3i (1  i ) 2 1  1  2i 2i 2i 3  i 6i  2  2  6i 2 6 1 3    . 2  2   2.cos    i sin   .cos    i sin    3    3    2π   2π  Hence. 1  i tan(nθ)  1  i tan θ  Show that  .cos    i sin    3    3  . 2    26. cos(3600  300 )  i sin(3600  300 ) 0 0   3  i    3  i.cos   2. Express (1  i ) 2 in the form of x  iy .  cos nθ  i sin nθ   1  i tan nθ   cos nθ cos nθ    28.  1  i 3  2.   2. z  1  i 3 Modulus = | z | (1) 2  ( 3 ) 2  1  3  4  2.cos    i sin      18   18     18   18     18   18        13 25    39    13 25    39    2. 3i 3i 3i 3i 3i 91 10 10 10 5 5 n [M-2006] Soln :  27.

cos    i sin    2.3 ( 1  i ( 1  i ( 1  i 1 3)4 1 3)4 1 3)4    1   6nπ 2 4 .[cos( 660 0 )  i sin(660 0 )]  2.[cos( 60 0 )  i sin(60 0 )]  2.Q.R and S form a square.2. cos            2π  4    i sin    3   3      2π  2π  4     i sin 2nπ   3  3    2π   6nπ  2 π   4   i sin  3 3    1 1 1 ( 1  i 1 3)4  1   2 4 . Then . z   1 3 i .R and S represent the fourth roots of the given complex number is the Argand diagram. .3 n  0.2.( 1  i 1 3)4  1   2π  2 4 .    1  i 3.cos    i sin   12     12  To represent the fourth roots of a given complex number in an Argand 1 1 diagram. .[cos( 720 0  60 0 )  i sin(720 0  60 0 )] 1 1  i 3  3      2. These lines cut the circle at P.1.cos          i sin  12 12  12 12    12 12     12 12     44 π    11π   44 π    11π    2. cos 2nπ : n  0.   2.1. cos     20 π   20 π   If n  3 then ( 1  i 3 ) 4  2 4 . the lines are drawn so that they 2π 8π 14π 20π make the angles with the x-axis. cos : : n  0. Find the amplitude of  Let. 12 12 12 12 P. 2  2  2      4 29.Q. cos 1  2 4 .  i .3 Y If n  0 then ( 1  i If n  1 then ( 1  i If n  2 then ( 1  i    2π      i sin    12   12   Q P X R S 1   8π  2 4 .2.3 1  6nπ  2 π  1  6nπ  2 π      i sin   4 3 4 3      2π   6nπ  2 π     i sin  : 12   12     1   2π  2 4 .Q.1. cos 1 3)4 1 3)4 1 3)4 1 n  0.1.cos    i sin   12    3    12    3   2.2.R and S. 2 2 [J-2006] Soln :  1 3 i 2 2 . From O. cos    8π     i sin    12   12    14 π      i sin   12   12   1   14 π  2 4 .  1    2 π 8 π 14 π 20 π   2 π 8 π 14 π 20 π     Continued product  ( 2) 4  . cos 1   6nπ 2 4 . The points P. a circle is drawn with O as centre and radius 2 4 .

1 1 n m cos θ  i sin θ  cos θ  i sin θ   m cos mθ  i sin mθ cos θ  i sin θ 1 cos mθ  i sin mθ cos mθ  i sin mθ . sin θ  i 2 sin mθ. Case III:Let n be a fraction. then one of the values of (cos θ  i sin θ) n  cos nθ  i sin nθ.(cos θ  i sin θ)  (cos mθ  i sin mθ)(cos θ  i sin θ)  (cos θ  i sin θ) m1  cos mθ. sin θ)  cos( mθ  θ)  i sin(mθ  θ)  cos( m  1)θ  i sin(m  1)θ Hence the statement (1) is true for n  m  1 Hence by the method of mathematical induction on n. then (cos θ  i sin θ) n  cos nθ  i sin nθ. Hence.  lies in the second quadrant.T. (+ve or -ve) then (cos θ  i sin θ) n  cos nθ  i sin nθ. 31. (cos θ  i sin θ) m  cos mθ  i sin mθ Now multiplying both the sides by (cos θ  i sinθ) then we get  (cos θ  i sin θ) m . for all the positive integral Values of n.ω  32. [J-2006. Case II:Let n be the negative integer. [M-2006] 2 5 2 5 Given (1  ω  ω )  (1  ω  ω ) (1  ω  ω 2 ) 5  (1  ω  ω 2 ) 5  (1  ω 2  ω) 5  (1  ω  ω 2 ) 5 Soln :   ( ω  ω) 5  ( ω 2  ω 2 ) 5  ( 2ω) 5  ( 2ω 2 ) 5  ( 2) 5 .( 1)  32  RHS . (1  ω  ω 2 )5  (1  ω  ω 2 )5  32 .ω 5  ( 2) 5 . To prove by mathematical induction n that (cos θ  i sin θ)  cos nθ  i sin nθ    1 The statement (1) is true for n = 1. (cos θ  i sin θ)n  cos nθ  i sin nθ.(ω) 10  32.M-2008. (+ ve or .J-2009. cos θ  cos mθ.ω 9 . If ω is an imaginary cube root of unity.amp ( z )  π  tan 1 3 y π 2π  π  tan 1 2  π  tan 1  3  π  tan 1 ( 3 )  π   1 x 3 3  2    1 3 because ( x. sin θ)  i(sin mθ.ω 3 . Then. sin θ  (cos mθ.M-2010] Statement:.If n is an integer. Since q is a +ve integer. q .  2 2    30. cos θ  i sin mθ. If n is a Sol :  fraction. Because (cos   i sin )1  cos 1  i sin1  cos   i sin  Let the statement (1) be true for some value of n say n = m. y )   . n State and prove the De Moiver‟s theorem. Put n  m where m is a positive int eger. then P. Proof : Case I:Let n be a positive integer. cos θ  sin mθ.ve). sin θ  i cos mθ. Where m is a positive integer. (positive or negative) p Let n  where p is any integer & q is a positive integer.(ω  ω 2 )  32.ω 2  32.   cos mθ  i sin mθ cos mθ  i sin mθ cos mθ  i sin mθ cos 2 mθ  sin 2 mθ  cos mθ  i sin mθ  cos( mθ)  i sin(mθ)  cos nθ  i sin nθ [ m  n]  Hence if n is  ve .

[J-2007 n Sol :  1. [M-2010] n Sol :  7.p p cos θ  i sin θ q q q p p  cos q θ  i sin q θ  cos pθ  i sin pθ  (cos θ  i sin θ) p q q Now taking the q th roots the we get p p cos θ  i sin θ is one of the values of cos θ  i sin θ q q  p  p q Because q th root of a quantity has q distinct values Hence one of the values of cos θ  i sin θ Since p q is cos p p θ  i sin θ q q p n  n one of the values of (cos θ  i sin θ) is (cos nθ  i sin nθ).3) and (3. x 2  y 2  4x  2y  6  0 and x 2  y 2  12x  2y  30  0 .2). [J-2010] Soln :  5. 32. Show that the two circles x 2  y 2  6x  2y  1  0 & x 2  y 2  2x  8y  13  0 touch each other Externally.2). Find the values of h and k for the equation kx2  2hxy  4y 2  2x  3y  7  0 to represent a circle. According as n is an integer or fraction. Find the equation of the circle passing through the ends of the diameter whose end points are (2. q Hence the value or one of the values of (cos θ  i sin θ) n is (cos nθ  i sin nθ). y 1 ) on it. Find the length of the chord intercepted by the circle x 2  y 2  4x  6y  12  0 and the line 3x  4y  2  0 [J-2010] n Sol :  6. [M-2010] n 2 2 Sol :  The two given circles are x  y  6x  2y  1  0      1 . [J-2010] n Sol :  3. CIRCLES Find the length of tangent to the circle x 2  y 2  3x  3y  1  0 from the point (1. Find the amplitude of 2i  4 . [J-2010] Soln :  2. [J-2010] n Sol :  4. Find the fourth roots of the complex number ( 3  i ) 3 and also find their continued product. [J-2007] n Sol :  33. Derive the equation of tangent to the circle x 2  y 2  2gx  2fy  c  0 at the point ( x1 . Find the radical centre of the circles x 2  y 2  2x  6y  0 .

f 2 ) AP = Radius of the first circle = g 1  f 1  c1 2 2 intersection. sum of radii of the two circles is equal to distance between their centres.f )  ( 3.  k  16  5  11 2 Derive the condition for the circles x  y  2g1x  2f1y  c1  0 and x  y 2  2g 2 x  2f 2 y  c 2  0 to cut orthogonally.J-2009] 2 Soln :  P A B The two given circles are x 2  y 2  2g 1 x  2f 1 y  c 1  0      1 and x 2  y 2  2g 2 x  2f 2 y  c 2  0      2 Let A and B be the centres of the two circles (1) and (2) and let P be a point of A  (  g 1 . And BP = Radius of the second circle = g 2  f2  c2 2 2 Now by distance formula AB  (g 1  g 2 ) 2  (f1  f 2 ) 2 If the two circles cut orthogonally. f  4 . [M-2010] n Sol :  9. [M-2009] Soln :  Equation of the circle is x 2  y 2  4x  2y  k  0      1 g  2 . then find the value of k. c  13  centre of (1) is B  (  g. ( AB ) 2  ( AP ) 2  (BP ) 2  (g1  g 2 ) 2  (f1  f 2 ) 2  (g1  f1  c1 )  (g 2  f 2  c 2 ) 2 2 2 2 . f  1 & c  k Radius  g 2  f 2  c  4  1  k  4  2 5k  4  5  k  16 12.and x 2  y 2  2x  8y  13  0      2 From (1) g  3 . then APB  900 . c  1  centre of (1) is A  (  g. Find the radical axis of the two circles 3x 2  3y 2  9x  6y  1  0 and 2x 2  2y 2  8x  16y  3  0 . [M-2010] 8. f  1 .f 1 ) and B  (  g 2 .f )  ( 1.1). Soln :  10. [M-2009. Find the equation of the chord of the circle x 2  y 2  4x  6y  9  0 bisected at (0.1) From ( 2) g  1 .4) Radius of (1) is r1  9  1  1  9  3 and Radius of ( 2) is r2  1  16  13  4  2 Now r1  r2  2  3  5 and AB  (3  1) 2  (1  4) 2  16  9  25  5 Hence. Hence the two circles touch each other externally. If the radius of the circle x 2  y 2  4x  2y  k  0 is 4 units.

   

( g 1  g 2 ) 2  (f 1  f 2 ) 2  ( g 1  f 1  c 1 )  ( g 2  f 2  c 2 )
2 2 2 2

g 1  g 2  2g 1 g 2  f 1  f 2  2f 1f 2
2 2 2 2

g 1  f1  c1  g 2  f 2  c 2  0
2 2 2 2

2g 1 g 2  2f 1f 2  c1  c 2  0  2g 1 g 2  2f 1f 2  c1  c 2

2g 1 g 2  2f 1f 2  c1  c 2

13.

Show that the radical axis of the two circles 2x 2  2y 2  2x  3y  1  0 & x 2  y 2  3x  y  2  0 is perpendicular to the line joining the centres of the circles. [M-2009] 3 1 Soln :  Two given circles are x 2  y 2  x  y   0      1 2 2 2 2 and x  y  3x  y  2  0      2 1 3 1 Now from the first circle g  , f   & c  2 4 2
 1 3 Centre  (  g ,f )    ,   A .  2 4

Now from the second circle g  
1 3 5   5 Slope is 2 4  4    m 1 3 1 2 8  2 2 

3 1 3 1 , f  & c  2 , Centre  (  g , f )   ,   B 2 2 2 2

3 1 Radical axis of first and second circles is x 2  y 2  x  y   x 2  y 2  3x  y  2  0 2 2 5 3 4x  y   0  8x  5y  3  0    2 2 2 8 8 5 8 Slope of (2) is Hence, m 1 .m 2   .  1   m2 5 5 8 5 Hence the radical axis of the two given circles are perpendicular to their centres.

Find the length of the chord of the circle x 2  y 2  6x  2y  5  0 intercepted by the line x  y  1  0. [M-2009] n Sol :  15. Given two circles with radii r1 & r2 respectively and having d as the distance between their centres. Write the condition for them to touch each other externally. [M-2009] n Sol :  16. Find the equation of the circumcircle of the triangle formed by the points (0,0) , (3,0) , (0,4). [J-2009] n Sol :  18. (1,2) is the radical centre of three circles. One of the circles is x 2  y 2  2x  3y  0 . Examine whether the radical centre lies inside or outside all the three circles. [J-2009] n Sol :  19. Given the circles 2( x 2  y 2 )  12x  4y  10  0 and x 2  y 2  5x  13y  16  0 , find the length of their common chord. [J-2009] n Sol :  20. Write the condition for the circle x 2  y 2  2gx  2fy  c  0 to touch both the axes. [M-2008] 14.

Soln :  21. Find the area of the circle whose parametric equations are x  3  2 cos θ & y  1  2 sin θ . [M-2008] n Sol :  22. Find the equation of the circle which cuts the two circles x 2  y 2  6y  1  0 & x 2  y 2  4y  1  0 Orthogonally and whose centre lies on the line 3x  4y  5  0 . [M-2008]

Soln : 

Let equation of the circle be x 2  y 2  2gx  2fy  c  0      1

The two given circles are x 2  y 2  16y  1  0      2 and x 2  y 2  4y  1  0      3 Given line is 3x  4y  5  0      4 From the first circle, g 1  g, f1  f and c1  c From the second circle, g 2  0, f 2  8, c 2  1 Equation (1) and (2) cut orthogonally, then 2g 1 g 2  2f1f 2  c1  c 2 .
 16f  c  1      5 From the first circle, g 1  g, f1  f and c1  c From the second circle, g 2  0, f 2  2, c 2  1 Equation (1) and (2) cut orthogonally, then 2g 1 g 2  2f1f 2  c1  c 2 . 2g(0)  2f .( 2)  c  1  4f  c  1      6 Now solving the equations (5) and (6) then we get f  0 and c  1. 2g(0)  2f .( 8)  c  1

Radius of the circle (1) is g 2  f 2  c Now length of perpendicular from the centre (-g , -f) to the line is equal to radius. 3(g)  4(f )  5  3g  4f  5  g2  f 2  c   g2  f 2  c 5 9  16 Now put f  0 and c  1 5  3g  g2  1  25  9g 2  30g  25g 2  25 5
  16g 2  30g  0 g(8g  15)  0   8g 2  15g  0 g  0 or g 15 8 Taking g  0, f  0 and c  1 then equation of the circle is x 2  y 2  1  0 15 Taking g   , f  0 and c  1 then equation of the circle is 4x 2  4y 2  15x  4  0. 8

23. Find the equation of the circle having (4,2) and (-5,7) as end points of the diameter. [M-2008] n Sol :  Let A  (4,2)  ( x1 , y 1 ) and B  ( 5,7)  ( x 2 , y 2 ) Let A  (4,2)  ( x 1 , y 1 ) and B  ( 5,7)  ( x 2 , y 2 )

Re quired equation of the circle is ( x  x 1 )(x  x 2 )  ( y  y 1 )(y  y 2 )  0 i, e. ( x  4)(x  5)  ( y  2)(y  7)  0
 x 2  5x  4x  20  y 2  7y  2y  14  0
 x 2  y 2  x  9y  34  0. Which is equation of the circle.

24.

Find the length of the chord intercepted by the circle x 2  y 2  8x  6y  0 & the line x  7y  8  0 .

[M-2008]

Sol :  25. Find the equation of the circle whose centre is (a,0) and touching the y-axis. [J-2008] n Sol :  27. Find the equation of tangent to the circle x 2  y 2  2x  4y  4  0 which are perpendicular to the given line 3x  4y  6  0 . [J-2008] n Sol :  28. Find the equation of the circle passing through the origin having its centre on the line y = x and cutting orthogonally the circle x 2  y 2  4x  6y  10  0 . [J-2008]
n

Soln :  29. Write the condition in terms of g,f,c under which x 2  2y 2  2gx  2fy  c  0 becomes a point circle. [M-2007] n Sol :  30. Examine whether the point (1,5) lies outside, inside or on the circle x 2  y 2  4x  2y  3  0 . [M-2007] n 2 2 Sol :  Equation of the circle is x  y  4x  2y  3  0    1 and ( x 1 , y 1 )  (1,5).
P(1,5) : 1  25  4  10  3  40  3  43  Positive . Hence P(1,5) lies outside the circle.

31.

Fid the equation of the circle which passes through the point (2,3), has its centre on the line x  y  4 and cuts orthogonally the circle x 2  y 2  4x  2y  3  0 . [M-2007]

Soln :  32. Find the radical centre of the circles x 2  y 2  2x  4  0 , x 2  y 2  4y  4  0 , x 2  y 2  2x  5  0 [M-2007] n Sol :  33. Find the centre of the circle 4x 2  4y 2  4x  2y  1  0 . [M-2006]
Soln : 
Given equation of the circle is 4x 2  4y 2  4x  2y  1  0      1 Now dividing equation nor (1) by 4 then we get
1 1 y  0  2 2 4

x2  y 2  x 

Now comparing equation nor (2) with x 2  y 2  2gx  2fy  c  0 then we get
1 1 1 1 , 2f  f  and c  . 2 2 4 4  1 1 Now centre  (  g,f )   , .  2 4 2g  1  g 

34.

Find the value of k for which the circles 2x 2  2y 2  18x  6y  7  0 and 3x 2  3y 2  4x  ky  3  0 Intersect orthogonally. [M-2006] 2 2 n Sol :  Two given circles are 2x  2y  18x  6y  7  0      1 And 3x 2  3y 2  4x  ky  3  0      2 Now dividing equation nor (1) by 2 then we get x 2  y 2  9x  3y  Now dividing equation nor (2) by 3 then we get x 2  y 2 
9 From the third equation g 1   , 2 f1  3 , 2

7  0    3 2

4 k x  y  1  0      4 3 3 7 c1   2

 y  ( f )   y 1  f  Slope of AP   1   x 1  ( g )   x 1  g   Since PB is perpendicular to AP. xx 1  yy 1  gx  fy  gx1  fy 1  c  x 1  y 1  gx1  fy 1  gx1  fy 1  c 2 2 i . y 1 ) be the point on the circle Now join AP.Now from the fourth equation g 2  2 . (y  y 1 )    1 . e.e. y 1 ) lies on the circle i. Then PB is the tangent to the circle at the point P( x 1 . x  g Slope of PB    1 m  y1  f  Now equation of the tangent PB is ( y  y 1 )  m( x  x 1 ) x  g i. y 1 ) Draw PB perpendicular to AP. xx 1  yy 1  g( x  x 1 )  f ( y  y 1 )  c  x 1  y 1  2gx1  2fy 1  c      2 2 2 Since.2) Equation of the circle is ( x  8) 2  ( y  2) 2  10 2 . Find the equation of tangent to the circle x 2  y 2  2gx  2fy  c  0 at the point ( x1 .f 2  c 1  c 2  6  k . x 2  y 2  16x  4y  32  0 Hence. c2  1 6 7  9  2   3  k   2      2        1 2  2  3   2  6  f2  k 72  12  k  5     12  k  5  k  5  12  k  7. y 1 ) on it. x  x 1 & y  y 1 in equation (1) then we get x 1  y 1  2gx 1  2fy 1  c  0      3 Now using this in (2) then we get xx 1  yy 1  g(x  x1 )  f (y  y 1 )  c  0 2 2 Which is known as equation of the tangent to the circle x 2  y 2  2gx  2fy  c  0 at the point ( x 1 .( x  x1 )  ( y 1  f ).( x  x1 )  y1  f  (x1  g ).-f) i. e. y 1 ) . Find the equation of the circle two of whose diameters x  y  6 and x  2y  4 and whose radius is 10 units.g 2  2f 1 .M-2009] n Sol :  Two given diameters are x  y  6    1 & x  2y  4    2 Now solving the two equations (1) and (2) (1)  ( 2) gives x  y  6  x  2y  4  0   y  2  0  y  2 Put y  2 in (1) then we get x  8 i. [M-2006. y 1 ) on it. e.( y  y 1 )  0 A(-g. [M-2006] 2 2 n Sol :  Equation of the given circle is x  y  2gx  2fy  c  0    1 Let A be the centre of the circle and P( x 1 . 2 2 2 2 35. Now from the point P p( x 1 . ( x 1 . e. 36. e. xx 1  yy 1  gx  fy  x1  y 1  gx1  fy 1 2 2 Now adding gx 1  fy 1  c to both the sides then we get i . 3 Condition is 2g 1 . the centre (8.

37.
n

Find the radical axis of the circles x 2  y 2  4x  7  0 and x 2  y 2  8y  12  0 .

[J-2006]

Sol :  38. Find the equation of the circle having the centre at (6,1) and touching the straight line 5x  12y  3  0 . [J-2006] Soln :  39. Derive an expression for the length of tangent form ( x1 , y 1 ) to the circle x 2  y 2  2gx  2fy  c  0 . [J-2006,J-2008] n 2 2 Sol :  Equation of the circle is x  y  2gx  2fy  c  0      1
T Let A be the centre of the circle and l Let p( x 1 , y 1 ) be any point out side the circle. Now draw PT tangent to the circle and join AP and AT. AT = Radius of the circle = g  f  c . A  ( g,f ) and P  ( x1 , y 1 )
2 2

p( x 1 , y 1 )

A( g,f )

Now by distance formula AP  (x1  g) 2  (y 1  f ) 2 Since ATP  900 . Now by Pythagoras theorem AP 2  AT 2  PT 2 Hence, PT 2  AP 2  AT 2
    PT 2   ( x 1  g ) 2  ( y 1  f ) 2    g 2  f 2  c          PT 2  ( x 1  g ) 2  ( y 1  f ) 2  (g 2  f 2  c) PT 2  x 1  g 2  2gx1  y 1  f 2  2fy 1  g 2  f 2  c
2 2 2 2 2

PT 2  x 1  2gx1  y 1  2fy 1  c.
2

Hence, PT  x1 2  2gx1  y 1 2  2fy 1  c . Hence, Length of tangent from the point ( x 1 , y 1 ) to the circle x 2  y 2  2gx  2fy  c  0 is PT  x1 2  2gx1  y 1 2  2fy 1  c . Find the value of λ for which the circles x 2  y 2  2x  8y  1  0 and 2x 2  2y 2  6x  y  λ  0 intersect orthogonally. [J-2006] n 2 2 Sol :  Two given circles are x  y  2x  8y  1  0      1 And 2x 2  2y 2  6x  y  k  0      2
y k   0      3 2 2 3 1 k From (1) g 1  1 , f1  4 and c1  1 and from (3) g 2   , f 2  and c 2  2 4 2 Equation (1) and (3) cuts orthogonally then 2g 1 .g 2  2f1 .f 2  c1  c 2 k k  3 1 2.(1).    2.( 4).   1   3  2  1   k  12. 2 2  2 4

40.

Now dividing equation (2) by 2 then (2) becomes x 2  y 2  3x 

41. Find the centre of the circle passing through the points (0,0) , (3,0) and (0,5). n Sol :  CONIC SECTIONS x2 y 2   1. 1. Find the eccentricity of the ellipse 9 4 Soln :  2. Find the focus of the parabola x 2  16y  0
n

[J-2007]

[J-2010]

[J-2010]

Sol :  3. Find the equation of the parabola having vertex at (3,5) and focus at (3,2). [J-2010] n Sol :  x2 y 2 4. Prove that the sum of the focal distances from any point on the ellipse 2  2  1 (a  b ) is equal a b to 2a. [J-2010] n Sol :  6. Write the eccentricity of the conic section represented by the parametric equations x  at 2 and y  2at . [M-2010] n Sol :  7. Find the centre of the parabola 9x 2  4y 2  18x  8y  31  0 . [M-2010] n Sol :  8. Derive the condition for the line y  mx  c to be a tangent to the circle x 2  y 2  a 2 in the form
of c 2  a 2 .(1  m 2 ) .
n

[M-2010]

Sol :  9. Find the equations of the parabolas whose directrix is x  2  0 , axis is y = 3 and the length of latus rectum is 8 units. [M-2010] n Sol :  x2 y 2 10. Define ellipse and derive its equation in the standard form 2  2  1. [M-2010] a b Soln :  11. Find the equation of the parabola if its focus is (2,3) and the vertex is (4,3). [M-2009] n Sol :  12. Find the eccentricity of the ellipse (a>b) if the distance between the directrices is 5 and distance between the foci is 4. [M-2009] n Sol :  13. Find the ends of the latus rectum & directrix of the parabola y 2  4y  10x  4  0 [M-2009] Soln :  14. Find the value of k such that the line x  2y  k  0 be a tangent to the ellipse x 2  2y 2  12. [M-2009] n Sol :  Vertices of the ellipse are A  (2,2) and A'  (2,4)
2  2  2  4 , Centre = Mid point of AA '     ( 2,1) 2   2

Length of the major axis is AA'  (2  2) 2  (2  4) 2  0  36  36  6. 16.
n

Find the sum of the focal distances of any point on 4x 2  9y 2  36 .

[J-2009]

Sol : 

Given the equation of the conic 9x 2  4y 2  18x  16y  11  0 , find its centre and the area of its auxiliary circle. [J-2009] n Sol :  18. Find the equation of the directrix of the parabola x  2t 2 and y  4t . [J-2009] 17.

Soln : 
x2 y 2 19. Derive the condition for the line y  mx  c to be a tangent to the hyperbola 2  2  1 . Also a b find the point of contact. Using the condition derived. Find the equations of tangents to the ellipse x2 y 2   1 which are parallel to the line x  y  5  0 . [J-2009] 16 12 Soln :  20. Find the equations of the parabola having (1,5) & (1,1) as the ends of latus rectum. [J-2009] n Sol :  21. Find the co-ordinates of the end points of the latus rectum of the parabola y 2  12x . [M-2008]

Soln : 
22.
n

Find the equation of the hyperbola in the form of

and eccentricity is 2. Sol : 

x2 y 2   1 given that the transverse axis is 10 a2 b2 [M-2008]

x2 y 2 23. Find the condition for the line y  mx  c to be a tangent to the hyperbola 2  2  1 .[M-2008] a b 2 2 x y Soln :  Equation of hyperbola is 2  2  1      1 a b And the given line is y  mx  c      2
Now assume that the line y  mx  c is a tangent to the hyperbola Equation of the tangent at ( x 1 , y 1 ) to the hyperbola
xx 1
2

x2 a2

y2 b2

 1 at ( x 1 , y 1 )

x2 a2

y2 b2

 1 is

 1      ( 3) a b b a b a2 The equations (2) and (3) represent the same line. [i,e. the tangent at ( x 1 , y 1 ) ] So, the coefficients in the equations (2) and (3) must be proportional. 1 m c b 2 ma 2 c    ,    y1 x1 1  y 1   x1   1  2  2 b  a  Now taking second and third ratios then we get
2

yy 1

1

i , e.

 yy 1
2

 1

xx 1
2

yy 1
2

xx 1

x 1c  ma

2

or

ma 2 x1   c

Now taking the first and third ratios then we get  b2 2 cy 1  b  y1  c  ma 2 b2  , Hence, ( x 1 , y 1 )    c c  

y 1 ) lies on the hyperbola (1) then we get x1 2 a2 b2 Now substituting the values of ( x 1 . Find the equation of directrix of the parabola y 2  8x . [M-2008] a2 b2 Soln :  26. Find the centre and the eccentricity of the hyperbola x 2  3y 2  4x  6y  11  0 .2) and its directrix is x = 1. If the line 3x  5y  9  0 is a focal chord. [J-2008] 3 3 Soln :  29. [M-2007] n Sol :  33. Find the equation to the hyperbola in the standard form 2  2  1 given that the length of latus a b 14 4 rectum is and eccentricity is . x2 a2   1. Derive the equation of the ellipse in the standard form x2 y 2   1 .  2 2  2 2  1 a2 b2 c a c b 2 2 2 m a b   2 1  m 2a 2  b 2  c 2  c 2  a 2m 2  b 2 . 2 c c 2 2  y1 2  1    ( 4) This is the condition for the line y  mx  c to be a tangent to the hyperbola 24. [J-2008] n Sol :  27. Define an ellipse. [J-2008] n Sol :  32. ( x 1 . [J-2008] Soln :  31. axis y = 2 and passing through the point (0. [M-2007] n Sol :  x2 y 2 36. [M-2007] n Sol :  34.0) . Define ellipse as the locus of the point. b2 [M-2008] y2 Soln :  25. Derive the equation of ellipse in the form of 2  2  1 a b [M-2007] Soln :  .[J-2008] Soln :  x2 y 2 28.Since. Find the equation of parabola whose focus is (3. The two ends of the major axis of an ellipse are (5. Find the focus and equation to the directrix of the ellipse 9x 2  5y 2  36x  10y  4  0 . Find the equation of the parabola with vertex (-4. Find the area of the ellipse 9x 2  16y 2  144 . Find the equation of directrix of the parabola ( x  1)2  4( y  3) . then find the eccentricity of the ellipse.0) and (-5. y 1 ) in (4) then we get  ma 2   b2       c  m 2a 4 b4   c    1. [M-2007] n Sol :  35.6).2). Find the focus of the parabola y 2  8x  32  0 .

2007. Find the eccentricity & equations to directrices of ellipse 4x 2  4y 2  8x  36y  4  0 . y 1 ) ].[M-2007] n Sol :  39. Find the length of latus rectum of the ellipse 4x 2  9y 2  8x  36y  4  0 n Sol :  44. 42. Find the eccentricity of the ellipse if the minor axis is equal to the distance between foci.  .[M-2006] Soln :  40. y 1 ) lies on the parabola (1) : put x  x1 . Find the equations of the asymptotes of the hyperbola 9x 2  4y 2  36 . then fin d the value of k. A-lso find the angle between them. [J-2006] n 2 Sol :  Equation of the parabola is y  4ax      1 and Equation of the line is y  mx  c      2 Now we assume that the line (2) is a tangent to the parabola (1) at the point ( x1 . [M-2007] Soln :  38.M-2008] n Sol :  Ellipse is the locus of the point which moves such that the ratio of its distance from the focus to its distance from the directrix is less than one. Hence the coefficients in the two equations (2) and (3) are proportional. If the line x  y  2  0 touches the parabola y 2  8x then find the point of contact. If in the parabola y 2  8kx the length of the latus rectum is 4. y 1 ) Now equation of the tangent at ( x1 . 1 m c   Now taking the first two ratios then we get y 1 2a 2ax 1 1 m 2a   my 1  2a  y 1  y 1 2a m Now taking the second and third ratios then we get m c c   2amx 1  2ac  mx 1  c  x 1  2a 2ax 1 m  c 2a   (x1 . y  y 1 in (1) then we get c 2a y 1 2  4ax1    4 Now put x 1  & y1  in (4) m m  2a  c    4a  m m  2  4a 2 m 2  4ac m  a c m c  a m . y 1 ) to the parabola y 2  4ax is yy 1  2a( x  x1 )  2ax  2ax 1        3 Now equation (2) and (3) are representing the same line. Derive the condition for the straight line y  mx  c to be a tangent to the parabola y 2  4ax . [M-2006] n Sol :  x2 y 2 41.[J-2006] [J-2006] Soln :  43. [The tangent at the point ( x1 . Define ellipse and derive the standard equation to the ellipse 2  2  1 . a b [M-2006.37. y 1 )   . m m  Since ( x1 .

Define hyperbola as a locus and derive the standard equation of the hyperbola in the form of x2 y 2   1. Draw SZ perpendicular to the directrix l.2010.This is the condition for the line y  mx  c to be a tangent to the parabola y 2  4ax .2008.M-2009] a2 b2 Soln :  Hyperbola is the locus of the point which moves so that the ratio of its distance from the focus to its distance from the directrix is greater than one. mark SA SA' e   . 2a  10 2 e  a 5 2 e 1 1  b 2  a 2 (1  e 2 )  2. On SZ. e2  1 2  Y K M P(x.y) X' A' S ' C A Z a N S Z' a X l Y' Let S be the focus and l be the directrix. [J-2006. 2 1 45.1    2. Find the equation of the ellipse in the form of directrices is 10 2 and the eccentricity is 1 . 45.  1 2 2  x2 y 2 Equations of ellipse is   1. the two points A and A‟ such that AZ A ' Z 1 SA e Now taking the I and III ratios then we get   SA  e.AZ    1 AZ 1 . 2  a 5 2 1 2  a 2  a2  2 x2 y 2   1 given that the distance between the a2 b2 [J-2006] a 25 2 Soln :  Given.

Find the centre of the ellipse whose vertices are (2. Hence.0 e  e  a  P  ( x. Take C as the origin.A' Z    2 A' Z 1 Bisect AA' at C. Let P( x. Hence. P is a point on the hyperbola. x  . Find the centre and foci of the ellipse 4x 2  9y 2  16x  18y  11  0 . y ) and Z   .4). by definition. Now adding equations (1) and (2) then we get SA  SA'  eAZ  eA' Z  e( AZ  A' Z)  (CS  CA )  (CS  CA' )  e.2CZ  CZ  e a  a  This means that the co-ordinates of Z are  . [J-2007] . Now take CA  CA'  a. e  PM a   ( x  ae ) 2  ( y  0) 2  e. Z   . e     PS  e.( AA' )  CS  CA  CS  CA  e. S  (ae .AA'  2CS  e. CS produced as x-axis and CY perpendicular to CS as yaxis.( A' Z  AZ ) a  AA'  e. n Find the vertex of the parabola ( y  2) 2  8x . PS  (x  ae ) 2  (y  0) 2  (x  ae ) 2  y 2 a a  PM  x  From the figure. [J-2007] Sol :  47.0 e  Now taking the II and III ratios then we get Now by distance formula.0). PM  NZ  CN  CZ  x  e e PS Since. Now (2) – (1) gives SA'SA  eA' Z  eAZ  e.PM (x  ae ) 2  y 2  ex  a  Now squaring on both the sides then we get x 2  a 2 e 2  2aex  y 2  e 2 x 2  a 2  2aex  x 2  e 2 x 2  y 2  a 2  a 2e 2 ( x  ae ) 2  y 2  (ex  a) 2 x 2  a 2 e 2  2aex  y 2  e 2 x 2  a 2  2aex  0 x 2 (1  e 2 )  y 2  a 2 (1  e 2 )      1 Now multiplying equation nor (1) by -1 then we get  x 2 (1  e 2 )  y 2   a 2 (1  e 2 )  x 2 (e 2  1)  y 2  a 2 (e 2  1) Now dividing through out this equation by a 2 (e 2  1) then we get   x 2 (e 2  1) a 2 (e 2  1) x2 2  y2 a 2 (e 2  1) 1  a 2 (e 2  1) a 2 (e 2  1) x2 2  1 x2 a2  y2 a 2 (e 2  1) 1 a a (e  1) a b This is equation of hyperbola in the standard form.2a  CS  ae. y ) be any point on the hyperbola. 2 2 2  y2   y2 [  a 2 (e 2  1)  b 2 ] 46. Also find the length of major axis. Draw PM perpendicular to the directrix and draw PN perpendicular to the x-axis.0 . This means that the co-ordinates of S are (ae.-2) and (2. Now join PS.0). [J-2007] n Sol :  48.[( CZ  CA' )  (CA  CZ )]  2a  e.SA' e   SA'  e.

then prove that θ dx x [M-2010] [M-2010] Soln :  8. If x  y  5 then find at the point (4. n [J-2007] Sol :  50.y) on the parabola y 2  4ax . sin   2 cos  . Find the focal distance of any point (x. sin x [M-2010] [J-2010] [J-2010] Soln :  2. [J-2007] n Sol :  1. If y  sin x  sin x  sin x     then prove that dx 2y  1 [J-2010] [J-2010] Soln :  6. If y  log e e (1 sin x ) then find dy . sin  sin C  sin D  2 cos  2 2   . Soln :  dy 3. If y  emcos x then prove that (1  x 2 )y 2  xy 1  m 2 y  0 . Soln :  dy cos x  5. sin  2 2 2        2   C D CD  . If x  aθ & y  a dy y   0. n Sol :  Let y  sinax      1 Now changing x by ( x  x) and y by ( y  y ) in equation nor (1) y  y  sin a(x  x)  sin(ax  ax)      2 Now (2) – (1) gives y  y  y  sin(ax  ax)  sinax  y  sin(ax  ax)  a sin x  ax  ax  ax   ax  ax  ax   2ax  ax   ax  y  2 cos  . Define director circle of a huperbola. Derive the equation of the director circle of hyperbola.9). dx Soln :  1 4. dx [M-2010] Soln :  7. Differentiate sinax with respect to x from the first principles. DERIVATIVES Differentiate log e e with respect to x. Differentiate a x with respect to x from the first principles.Soln :  49.

[M-2010] [M-2010] Soln :  11. sin   2 cos   2a cos  2 2  y     2     2  Lim    Lim   Lim   x  0  x   x  0 a x   x  0  x 2.1  a cos    a cos ax dx  2   2  d Hence. n [M-2009] dy  my  0. If y  emsin x then prove that (1  x 2 )y 2  xy 1  m 2 y  0 . sin   2 cos  y  2    2   x  x      Now taking the limit x  0 on both the sides then we get    2ax  ax   a x    2ax  ax   a x   . n Let y  tan x      1 Sol :  Now changing x by (x  x) and y by (y  y ) in equation nor (1) y  y  tan(x  x)      2 Now (2) – (1) gives y  y  y  tan( x  x)  tan x  y  tan( x  x)  tan x . sinh x with respect to x.1   Lim  x  0  2     dy  2ax  0   2ax   a cos  . Soln :  13.     2        ax    2ax  ax      2a cos   sin 2    . dx [M-2010] Soln :  12. Lim   2     Lim  x  0   x  0  ax  2     2       2ax  ax     2a cos  2    .Now dividing by x then we get   2ax  ax   a x   . If y  log5 ( secx ) then find dy . (sinax)  a cos ax. dx     ax       sin    2    1 Lim   x  0   a x        2      1  cos x  dy If y  tan1  . dx If y  (x  1  x2 )m then prove that 1  x2 [M-2009] [M-2009] Sol :  14. 9.  then find 1  cos x  dx  n Sol :  1 10. Differentiate 3x . Differentiate tanx with respect to x from the first principles. sin  .

n Sol :   x  1  x  1 dy 1  0.   x  0  x   x  0 cos( x  x ). cos x cos x. cos( x  x). cos x sin(x )  [ sin A cos B  cos A sin B  sin(A  B )]. cos x         1 sin x   y  Lim    Lim  . 15. d (tan x)  sec2 x dx  2  3x 2  dy 2x  If y  tan1  then prove that 2 dx 1  x 4  3  2x  Soln :  16. cos x x     1  sin x   Lim  Lim . If y  cos(p sin1 x) then prove that (1  x 2 )y 2  xy 1  p 2 y  0 . Differentiate sec(5x 0 ) with respect to x. cos x cos x Hence. dx x [M-2009] Soln :  18. cos x      Now taking limit as  x  0 on both the sides then we get sin(x )    cos( x  x ). sin x sin(x  x  x )    cos( x  x) cos x cos( x  x ).  x  0    x  0 cos( x  x ). cos x    cos( x  x ). cos( x  x ). cos x  cos( x  x ). Soln :  19. cos x y  Now dividing through out this equation by x then we get sin(x)    cos( x  x). cos x    y  sin(x)     x  x   x. Differentiate sin 2x with respect to x from the first principles. If y  sin1    sec   then prove that dx  x  1  x  1 Soln :  21. cos x cos( x  x ). [M-2009] [M-2009] Sol :  n 17.sin(x  x ) sin x sin(x  x ). If x m y n  ( x  y )m  n then prove that dy y  . cos( x  x ).1   x  0    x  0 cos( x  x ). 20. n Sol :  [M-2009] [J-2009] [J-2009] [J-2009] . cos x    sin(x )  y    Lim    Lim  Lim    x  0   x  0  x   x0 x  x. cos x  dy 1 1 1     sec2 x 2 dx cos( x  0). cos x  x        1 1  Lim  Lim . Given the function f (x) | x | then find f ' (0) .

sin ax . ax    2      ax    2ax  ax       a cos   sin 2    2     Lim  .  sin   2 cos  . [J-2009] n Sol :  25. Differentiate cosecax with respect to x from the first principles. sin(ax  ax ).22. sin(ax  ax )    2     2ax  ax   a x   . [M-2008] dx a  b  Soln :  27. sin(ax  ax )    a x      2     . sin    a cos  2     2   Lim    x 0  sin ax . Differentiate cos 1 (4x 3  3x) with respect to cos 1 (1  2x 2 ) . Lim    x 0   x  0 sin ax . sin(ax  ax) sin ax. [M-2008] Soln :  n n dy x y  26. If y  sin(m cos 1 x ) then prove that (1  x 2 )y 2  xy 1  m 2 y  0 . [J-2009] Sol :  23. sin  y 2    2   x x. n Differentiate (sin x )log x with respect to x. Define the differential coefficient of a continous function y  f (x) with respect to x. sin(ax  ax) Now dividing through out this equation by x then we get  2ax  ax   ax   2 cos  . [J-2009] n Sol :  24. sin ax. sin    2a cos  2  y      2  Lim    Lim    x  0  x   x 0  a 2 x . [M-2008] n Sol :  Let y  cos ecax      1 Now replacing x by x by (x  x) and y by (y  y) in equation nor (1) then we get y  y  cos eca(x  x)  cos ec( ax  ax)      2 Now (2) – (1) gives y  y  y  cos ec(ax  ax)  cos ecax  y  cos ec(ax  ax)  cos ecax  1 1 sin ax  sin(ax  ax)   sin(ax  ax) sin ax sin ax.b). sin(ax  ax)  2ax  ax   ax   2ax  ax   ax  2 cos  . sin  2 2 2        2   sin ax. If       2 then find at the point (a. sin(ax  ax) Now taking limit as x tends to zero then we get   2ax  ax   a x   . sin  2 cos  . sin(ax  ax)  ax  ax  ax   ax  ax  ax   2ax  ax    ax  2 cos  . sin  2 2    2     2   sin ax. sin(ax  ax) sin ax.

33. log a dx dy 4  4x   If y  tan 1  2  then prove that dx 4  x 2 4  x  Soln :  34. Lim      x  0 sin ax .   2ax  ax    2ax  ax    2ax  0      a cos     a cos    a sin 2 2        2   Lim  . cot ax dx 28. If y  log cos x then find . sin(ax  ax )  x  0 sin ax . If y  sin2 cot 1  then prove that 1 x  dx 2  Soln :  dy 31. d x [a ]  a x . Differentiate a x with respect to x from the first principles.a x  a x  y  a x . Let y  a x      1 Soln :  Now changing x by (x  x) and y by (y  y) in (1) then we get [M-2008] [M-2008] [M-2008] [M-2008] [M-2008] [j-2008] y  y  a x  x  a x . (cos ecax)  a cos ecax. Differentiate sinx with respect to logx.  a x . log e a Lim   Lim   x0  x   x 0 dx x      a x  1   Lim     log e a  x0  x     Hence. n Sol :  dy  e y  x . sin(ax  0)          a cos ax   a cot ax . If x  tan 1 and y  cos 1 (4t 3  3t ) then prove that 1 t dx Soln :   1 x  dy 1  . 31. sin ax d Hence.1  a.a x      2 Now equation (2) – (1) gives y  y  y  a x . [j-2008] [J-2008] . sin(ax  ax )     sin ax . dx Soln :  32. cos ecax sin ax . 29. If e x  e y  e x  y then prove that dx n Sol :  1 t dy  6.a x  a x  a x (a x x x  1) Now dividing by x then we get   y a (a  1)  Now taking limit as x  0 then we get x x  a x (a x  1)  dy  y  Hence. 30. If y  (sin1 x) 2  (cos 1 x) 2 then prove that (1  x 2 )y 2  xy 1  4  0 .

If x y  a x then prove that dy x log a  y  . Sol :  n [M-2006] [M-2007] [M-2007] 43.Soln :  35. If f ( x)  x 2  1 then find the value of f ' (1) . x2 1 [J-2008] Sol :  39. dx Soln :  37. dx 2 [J-2008] [J-2008] Sol :  36.1  e x  0   x  x  0  x       e x  1     Lim   x  0   1    x    . Differentiate e x with respect to x from the first principles.x  21  2x  2x  3  2x  3 x  2   dx  dx x  dx x 2 f ' (1)  2(1)  220 (1) 3 f ( x)  x 2  40. n If x  3 sin 2θ  2 sin 3θ & y  2 cos 3θ  3 cos 2θ then prove that dy θ   tan  . Lim    e . dx 2 dx Soln :  44. Differentiate y  a 4 log a x with respect to x. cosh x then prove that xy 2  2y 1  xy  2 cosh x  0. If y  e x x x then find dy . If y  x.e x    2 [M-2007] Now equation (2) – (1) gives y  y  y  e x . If y  log   then prove that dx  1  cos x  Soln :  [J-2008] 38.e x  e x y e x e  x  1  x x  y  e x e x  1 Now divding by x then we get         e x e x  1   y   Lim    Lim    x  0  x  x  0 x     e x  1   y  x x  Lim    e x . If x  a(θ  sinθ) & y  a(1  cos θ) then find d2y dy and also . Let y  e x    1 Soln :  Now changing x by (x  x) and y by (y  y) in (1) then we get y  y  e x  x  e x . dy  1  cos x   2 cos ecx . [M-2007] Soln :  x2 d  2 1  d 2 d 2 2 f ' ( x)  x  x  2x  ( 2). n If y  log 1  x2 then differentiate with respect to x. dx x log x [M-2007] Soln :  41. Soln :  42.

If y  xcos x then differentiate with respect to x. 2 dx 1  x 2 1  x  Soln :  53. Lim    Lim [sin(2x  x)]. dx [J-2006] Soln :  1  x2  dy 2  52. Differentiate sin2 x with respect to x from the first principles.1  x  0  x   x 0  x 0  x   x  0 dy  sin(2x  0)  sin 2x  2 sin x. If x  a(θ  sinθ) & y  a(1  cos θ) then prove that dy θ tan   . [M-2006] n Sol :  47. Let y  e ax      1 Soln :  Now changing x by (x  x) and y by (y  y) in (1) then we get 1 [J-2006] [J-2006] . If y  x 5 . sin(x  x  x) y  sin(2x  x). Differentiate e ax with respect to x from the first principles. [M-2007] Sol :  1 46. sin(A  B)] Now dividing this equation by x then we get Now taking limit as x tends to zero then we get  x  0  x  y sin(2x  x). If y  x xx    then find dy .Hence. dx 2 Soln :  51. n d x [e ]  e x dx Differentiate log 10 (log x ) with respect to x. [M-2006] 2 n Let y  sin x      1 Sol :  Now changing x by (x  x) and y by (y  y) in (1) then equation (1) becomes y  y  sin 2 ( x  x)      2 Now (2) – (1) gives y  y  y  sin 2 ( x  x)  sin 2 x y  sin2 ( x  x)  sin2 x y  sin(x  x  x). If y  cos  then prove that .5 x then find dy . 45. dx [M-2006] Soln :  49. sin(x) [ sin2 A  sin2 B  sin(A  B). sin(x)  x x  y   sin(2x  x). If y  (sinh 1 x)2 then prove that (1  x 2 )y 2  xy 1  2  0 Sol :  n [M-2006] [M-2006] 50. cos x dx 48. sin(x)  Lim    Lim    x 0  x   y   sin(x)  Lim    Lim [sin(2x  x)].

If y  a cos(logx)  b sin(logx) then prove that x 2 y 2  xy 1  y  0 . Differentiate sinh1 x with respect to 1  x 2 .e ax Lim    a. sin(4x  4x) sin 4x.1  x  0  x   x0  a.  sin   2 cos  .e a  x  e a x  e a x (e a  x  1) Now dividing by x then we get Now taking limit as x tends to zero then we get y e a x (e a  x  1)  x x  e a x (e a  x  1)   a. sin  2 cos  2 2 2  2          sin 4x. sin  . sin(4x  4x )  2(4x )  4x   2(4x)  4x   4 x   4 x  2 cos  . [J-2006] [J-2006] Sol :  n 56. sin(4x  4x) Now taking limit as x tends to zero then we get . sin 4x. If y  3  x then find y  y  cos ec4(x  x)  cos ec(46x  4x)      2 Now (2) – (1) gives y  y  y  cos ec(4x  4x)  cos ec4x sin 4x  sin(4x  4x) 1 1  y  cos ec(4x  4x)  cos ec4x    sin(4x  4x) sin 4x sin 4x. Differentiate cosec4x with respect to x from the first principles.e a x (e a  x  1)   y  Lim    Lim   Lim    x0   x  0  x   x0 x a . If e x  e y  e x  y then proe that dy  e y  x .e .x     Hence.e ax dx    (e a  x  1)   Lim    1   x0  a. sin(4x  4x) sin 4x. Soln :  55. sin(4x  4x) Now dividing through out this equation by x then we get  2(4x )  4x   4 x   2 cos  . [J-2007] n Sol :  Let y  cos ec4x      1 Now replacing x by x by ( x  x) and y by ( y  y ) in equation nor (1) then we get 57. [J-2007] dx 30. sin  2 2  2   2        sin 4x. sin(4x  4x)  2(4x)  4x    4 x   4 x  4 x  4 x   4 x  4 x  4 x  2 cos  .e ax dx 54. x      (e a  x  1)   y  ax Lim    a.x  dy  a.y  y  e a ( x  x )      2 Now equation (2) – (1) gives y  y  y  e a( x  x )  e ax y  e a ( x   x )  e a x  e a x . sin  2 y  2     x x. d ax [e ]  a. dx [J-2006] Soln :  dy .

[J-2010] Soln :  2.       2 2          2(4x )  4x    2(4x )  4x    8x  0      4 cos     4 cos    4 sin 2 2        2   Lim  . Lim      x  0 sin 4x .  5  2 tan x  n Sol :  [J-2007] 1.2). dy  2  5 tan x  If y  tan 1   then find dx . sin    2(4) cos  2  y    2    Lim    Lim    x  0  x   x 0  4( 2) x . sin(4 x  4 x )     sin 4x. sin(4x  0)           4 cos 4x  4 cot 4x. A particle is travelling in a straight line whose distance is given by s  4t 3  6t 2  t  7 units. cot 4x dx 40. Then find the numbers when their product is maximum. 2 1 When the depth is 3 cm ? Also find the rate of increase in the surface area of the water level at 2 the instant. At what rate is the water level rising at the instant. Lim    x 0 4x    sin 4x. sin(4x  4x )   x  0  4x  sin 4x. sin 4x.c per second. Water is poured into an inverted conical vessel of which the radius of base is 6 cms and the height 1 is 12 cms at the rate of 5 c.1). Find the length of sub-normal to the curve x 3 y 2  a 5 at any point on it.  2(4x )  4x   4 x   . d (cos ec4x)  4 cos ec4x. [M-2010] n Sol :  6. APPLICATIONS OF DERIVATIVES Find the length of sub-tangent and sub-normal to the curve y  x 3  x 2  11 at (2. sin4x Hence. sin      4 cos    4 cos   sin 2 2     2   2       Lim  Lim    x 0 . [J-2010] n Sol :  3. Find the equation of normal to the curve y  x 2  4x  2 at the point (4. sin(4 x  4x )  x  0 sin 4x . [M-2010] n Sol :  7. Find the angle between the two curves y 2  4x and x 2  2y  3 at the point (1. [J-2010] n Sol :  5. sin(4x  4x ).1  4. sin(4x  4x )    2       4 x    2( 4x )  4x   2(4x )  4x    4x   . [J-2010] n Sol :  4. cos ec4x sin4x. [M-2010] n Sol :  . The sum of two numbers is 40. And also prove that length of sub-tangent varies directly as abscissa at that point. Then find the velocity of the particle after t = 2 seconds.2).

S.cms / sec. among all the rectangles of a given perimeter. To find and when V  288cc.r .2) m1  m 2 34 7 7 7       tan 1 . [M-2009] n Sol :  At teme t.  dx a a 10.r .  4 c. Hence  cms / sec dt dt 36 dA d 1 4 Diff ( 2) w . dt dt 36 3 13.2) 4 Now differentiating equation nor (2) with respect to x then we get dy d dy dy  (6  x 2 )   2x   2( 2)  4  m 2 dx dx dx dx ( 2. r  6 cms.8.e the sub-normal varies as the square of the ordinate y. dt dt dt 4 when V  288 from (1) 288  r 3 3 3  r 3  288 x  216 Hence.  Given curve is y  be a . / sec.x we get dx dx a a x a 9. 4 dV d  4 3  4 2 dr dr Diff (1) w . the square has maximum area.t then  [4r 2 ]  8.t .c / sec.T. The volume of the sphere is increasing at the rate of 4 c.2). Find the equation of normal to the curve y  x 2  7 x  2 at the point where it crosses the y-axis.36. 1  m1m 2 1  3x4  11 11 11 12.c. dt dt  3 dt dt  3 dr dr 1  4  4.c.r.T. [M-2009] n Sol :  tan   . [M-2009] x x x dy d 1 y Soln :   be a  be a .   sq.t then   r   . Now D.6.N  y . Soln :  Two given curves are 4y  x 3    1 and y  6  x 2      2 Now differentiating equation nor (1) with respect to x then we get d d 3 dy dy 3(4) (4y )  (x ) 4  3x 2    4  m1 dx dx dx dx ( 2. Find the angle between the curves 4y  x 3 and y  6  x 2 at (2. 4 Then V  r 3     1 and A  r 2       2 3 dV dr dA Given. let V be the volume of a sphere of radius r and A be its surface area. dy y y2  y. Show that the rectangle of maximum perimeter which can be inscribed in a circle of radius a is a square of the side a 2 . Find the rate of increase of the radius and its surface area when the volume of the sphere is 288c. for the curve y  b . [M-2010] n Sol :  S.t. [M-2009] n Sol :  11.  4r 2 . [M-2009] Length of S.3r .w.t .

Let xy  A    2 2 From the two equations (1) and (2) we get A  x 4a 2  x 2 Differentiating this with respect to x then we get dA 1( 2x)  x 2  4a 2  x 2 2( 2a 2  x 2 ) . Prove that the greatest size rectangle that can be inscribed in a circle of radius a is a square.  y  2y .4). Soln :  16. Show that the curves y  6  x  x 2 and y( x  1)  x  2 touch each other at (2. Find the rate of increase of its radius and surface area when its volume is 288π c. The volume of the sphere increases at the rate of 4π cc. 0  x.c.t. Now length of sub-tangent is dy 6 6 2 2  dx 7 19.w. [M-2008] n Sol :  Let x and y be the length and breadth of the x rectangle inscribed In a right angled triangle OMQ O y M 2 a Q P x y x2 y 2   a2    a2  x 2  y 2  4a 2    1 2 2 4 4 Given that xy is maximum. [J-2009] n Sol :  18.3).3). y 1 )  (1. Find the length of the sub-tangent to the curve x 3  xy  y 2  13 at the point (1.x then we get dx dx dx dx dx dy dy dy dy  3x 2  x.c.r. Also find the change in volume in 5 seconds and also find the rate of increase of volume with respect to the radius when the volume is 288π c./sec.  2y . d 3 d d d 2 d ( x )  x ( y )  y ( x)  (y )  (13)  0 D.At any point on the curve xm y n  a m  n show that the sub tangent varies as the abscissa of the point. [M-2008] Soln :  Given curve is x 3  xy  y 2  13      1 and ( x 1 .  3 x 2  y dx dx dx dx 2 dy dy ( 3x  y )  ( x  2y )  3x 2  y   dx dx x  2y dy ( 3  3) 6 Now . Among all right angled triangles of given hypotenuse show that the triangle which is isosceles has maximum area.  x.   dx (1. [J-2009] n Sol :  15.  4a 2  x 2   dx 2 4a 2  x 2 4a 2  x 2 4a 2  x 2 . [J-2009] n Sol :  17. [J-2009] 14. 3 ) 1  2( 3) 7 y 3 21 7 7     .

[J-2008] 2 n Sol :  Given curve is y  x    1 Differentiating (1) with respect to x then we get d 2 d dy dy 1 (y )  ( x)  2y 1    Slope  m dx dx dx dx 2y m  tan(45 0 )  1 Put y   1 1 2y 2  2y  1  y 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 in (1)   x  ( x.  y. Find the rate at which the 500π radius and the volume of the sphere are increasing when the volume of the sphere is c. Sol :   e e .c. Find the point on the curve y 2  x the tangent at which makes an angle of 45 0 with the x-axis.N  y . y )   .x we get dx dx a a Length of S.w. The surface area of the sphere is increasing at the rate of 8 sq cm/sec.t.  dy y dx a a dx a 21. [J-2008] x x x dy d 1 y n a a a. Length of S. z  A 2  [x 2 k 2  2kx3 ] 4 A A2  1 2 2 x (y  x 2 ) 4 y B x C .  Given curve is y  e Now D. [J-2008] 3 A n Sol :  Let AC  y and Bc  x and x  y  k    1 Area of the triangle ABC is given by 1 1 BC. dA 0 dx  x 2  2a 2  x  a 2 x  y When x  a 2 then y  a 2 This means that the rectangle is a square. x 20. The sum of the lengths of a hypotenuse and another side of a right angled triangle is given. 3 [J-2008] n Sol :  23.AB  x y 2  x 2 and 2 2 1 1 A  x 2 . Prove that in the curve y  e a the sub normal varies as the square of the ordinate and sub tangent is constant.[(k  x) 2  x 2 ]  x 2 [k 2  2k x] 4 4 1 Let. Show π that the area of the triangle is maximum when the angle between these sides is .r.T  y y dy y y2   a  Cons tan t .    x 2 4 2 2 4 22.For A to be maximum.

t.w. e x n Let y  x Sol :  1 dy 1 log y  x. dy  x x (1  log x) dx .  k  x  k   y 2k 2 3 3 3 3 24.x then we get  x2  x  1  . dy 3 3 dx 2 3) dy dx (1. 1 Prove that the function x x has minimum value at x  . 3 ) Given curve is y  x 2  x  1      1 dy d 1 d 2x  1 D.  21 2 111  3  3 2 25. log x   x. z is maximum and hence A is maximum when x  3 k x 1 π k 2k cos C   3   C Also.[2xk 2  2k ( 3x 2 )]  ( 2kx)(k  3x)  0 for max or min x  0 or x  dx 4 4 3 k x  0 is not admissible hence x  3 2 d z 1 1 k 1  [2k 2  12kx]  [2k 2  12k . ]  ( 2k 2 )  0 For this x.[M-2007] ( x 1 . y 1 )  (1.r. 3 ) on it.  log x  1  log x y dx x [M-2007] Hence . 2 4 4 3 4 dx k Hence. Find the length of the sub-tangent to the curve y  x2  x  1 at the point (1. (x 2  x  1)  dx dx 2 x 2  x  1 dx 2 x2  x  1 Soln :  2 3 y 3 2 3 Length of sub-tangent is    2.dz 1 1 k  .

A stone is through up vertically and the height x feet reached by it in time “t” seconds is given by x  80t  16t 2 . the two curves touch each other at (1. 30.  (1  log x). 3 ) m1  m 2 Hence. 3 ) 2 Differentiate (2) with respect to x then we get dy dy  2x  2   2  2  4  m2 dx dx (1. Equation of common tangent is y  3  4(x  1)  4x  y  1  0. 4 2 2 Maximum height reached by the stone is 100 ft. [M-2006] 3 Soln :  29. A man 6 feet tall moves away from a source of light 20 feet above that ground level and his rate of walking being 4 miles/hour.{x x (1  log x)}  x x .d2y 1 1   x x . base radius = CB = 9 and depth = OC = 12 2 .3). (t 2 )  80  32t dt dt dt dt dt = velocity of the stone after „t‟ seconds. An inverted circular cone has depth 12 cms and base radius 9 cms. Show that the curves 2y  x 3  5x and y  x 2  2x  1 touch each other at the point (1. ds 80 5 0  80  32t  0  32t  80  t   secs. At maximum height dt 32 2 5 Stone reaches the maximum height after seconds.  (1  log x) 2  2 x dx x  1 1 1 dy When x   e 1 then  (e 1 ) e (1  log e 1 )  (e 1 ) e (1  1)  0 e dx 2 d y  1  and 2  (e 1 )e 1  1  0   ve Because. 27. 2 25 5 5 s  80.   200  16. Find the rate of rise of water level and the rate of increase of the surface area 2 when the depth of water is 4 cms. [M-2006] 3 2 n Sol :  The two given curves are 2y  x  5x    1 and y  x  2x  1    2 Diff (1) with respect to x then we get dy dy 3x 2  5 dy 35 2 2  3x  5      4  m1 dx dx 2 dx (1. Show that y  sin x. [M-2006] n Sol :  Given. y is min imum at x  e 26.  200  100  100. Water is poured into it at the 1 rate of 1 cc/sec. is the length of shadow changing?. Also find the equation of the common tangent. At what rate is the tip of the shadow moving ? [M-2007] n Sol :  π 28. At what rate. Find the time for the stone to reach its maximum height.3).(1  cos x) is maximum when x  . Also find the maximum height reached by the stone. 1  log x  0 dx e  1 Hence. [M-2007] n 2 Sol :  s  80t  16t ds d d d d v  (80t )  (16t 2 )  80 (t )  16.   16.

 dt 16  dt  dA 9 1 3  .3. Find its acceleration in terms of S. Find the numbers when their sum is minimum.2. n Sol :  Given. A point moves on a straight line.r. Now differentiating this with respect to x we get d 2 d dy dy 2a [y ]  [4ax ]  2y  4a   dx dx dx dx y y y y 2 4ax     2x dy 2a 2a 2a dx y Hence. 2h.4. dt 16 dt 3 3 dh When h = 4 then  . 2 16 dt dh 3. Required to find  and when h  4cms. [J-2006] n Sol :  32. dv 3 dh dA Given.cm / sec When h = 4 then dt 16 6 4 2 2 2 C B R Q P O 31. Length of S. dt 2 dt dt Now from the similar triangles OPQ and OBC OQ PQ h r 9 3h     r h  r OC BC 12 9 12 4 1 1  3h  3h 2 V  r 2 h    h  3 3 r  16 dv 3 dh  . Water is poured into it 1 at the rate of 1 cc/sec.[J-2006] Soln :  Given curve is y 2  4ax . Show that the curves x 2  y 2  2a 2 and xy  a 2 touch each other at the point (a.16 1    cm / sec dt 2.A be the volume.3.3h 2 .3. n Sol :  34. the sub-tangent is double the abscissa of the point.Let V.16 16 9 2  3h  A  r      h 16 4 dA 9  dh   .4 2 .  sq. Show that in the parabola y 2  4ax the sub-tangent at any point is twice the abscissa. radius and area of the water cone OPQR at any instant t. s  5 cos 2t . 33. Its distance S feet from a fixed point on the line at a time t is [J-2006] S  5 cos 2t . Product of two numbers is 16.a). A right circular cone has the depth of 12 cms and a base radius of 9 cms. Find the rate of rise of water level and the rate of increase of water 2 surface when the depth of water level of 4cms.T  n [J-2006] [J-2006] Sol :  35.

A circular blot of ink in a blotting paper increases in area in such a way that the radius r cm at t3 time t seconds is given by r  2t 2  . Evaluate : [J-2010] Soln :  3 Evaluate : [J-2010] Soln :  4.(1  tan x) .dx .dx    dx 5  4 cos x 1  tan x . 1 36. [J-2007] e Soln :  37. Evaluate : [J-2010] Soln :  5. (sin 2t )  10. log x.dx 1  tan x dx x  4x  9 2 [J-2010] Soln :  2. Evaluate :   log x .dx ex dx [M-2010] Soln :  8. Show that the height of a right circular cylinder of the greatest volume which is inscribed in a 2a sphere of radius a is . x2 [M-2010] Soln :  6.d d (5 cos 2t )  5. [J-2007] 4 n Sol :  38. Evaluate :  13  12 cos x . Find the rate of increase of area when t = 2. [J-2007] 3 Soln :  v INDEFINITE INTEGRALS 1. Then find the radius of the right circular cylinder.2 cos 2t  20. cos 2t dt dt dt a  4.5 cos 2t  4s. [M-2010] Soln :  . Evaluate : secx. (cos 2t )  5. Prove that x x is minimum at x  .(2 sin 2t )  10 sin 2t dt dt dv d d a  ( 10 sin 2t )  10. Evaluate :  x.

dx sin x cos 2 x 2 [M-2008] 2 2 2 2 Soln :   1 sin x  cos x sin x cos x .dx 1  cos 2x 2 [M-2010] Soln :  11. Evaluate :  dx . Evaluate :  dx 8  6x  9x 2 3 [M-2010] Soln :  10. Evaluate :  1 .dx   .dx   .dx   tan x. ( x  3)  7  9  1.dx  log(secx)  c Soln :  12. log   c  .dx 1 x .dx 2 2 2 2 2 2 sin x.dx 3 sin x  4 cos x [J-2009] Sol :  17.dx   . n 1  cos 2x 2 sin x . ( x  3)  16  1. n Evaluate :  sin x  18 cos x . n Evaluate :   1 x . ( x  3)  4  4  ( x  3) 2       I  dx  7  6x  x 2   4  ( x  3)  dx 1 1 x  7  .dx [J-2009] Sol :  16. 1  cos x . cos x sin x. n Evaluate : . Evaluate : [M-2009] tan2 x .dx .  x  . cos x sin x.dx   1  cos 2x 2 cos 2 x  3  tan x  Evaluate : e x  .dx   . 7  6x  x 2 Soln :  2 2  1  1   7  6x  x 2  [x 2  6x  7]  1. Evaluate :  [sin(logx)  cos(logx)]. sin2 x [J-2009] [M-2008] Sol :  18. cos 2 x 2 . log c 2 2.dx   1  cos 2x . Evaluate :  sec (2x).6  7   .dx  cos x   [M-2009] [M-2009] Sol :  13.dx  1 x( x  1) 2 [J-2009] Soln :  15. cos x sin x.6  2  2      2 2 2 2 2  1.9.4 8 4  ( x  3) 1  x   4  ( x  3)  2 14. Evaluate : Soln :  19.

Evaluate : [M-2008] x2  4 Soln :      23.dx  cos x  4 [J-2008] Sol :  27.dx   dx  x   .dx . Evaluate :  cos (3x).dx . Evaluate : [M-2008] 2 2 sin x  3 sin x  4 Soln :  x . 1  2 tan x 1 . 1  sin x sin x 1  sin x  1 1   1  sin x Soln :   1  sin x dx   1  sin x dx    1  sin x  1  sin x dx   1 1 1  sin x 1  sin x   1.1 1 dx   dx   sec2 x.dx   1.dx 2 2 cos x sin x  tan x  (  cot x)  c  tan x  cot x  c sin x 20. sec2 x.dx   tan2 x.dx   t 2 . cos x    x  [tanx  secx]  c  x  tan x  secx  c cos x .dt   sec2 x.dx   tan x.dx [J-2008] Soln :  28.dx   tan x. n Evaluate : [J-2008] Sol :  26.dx  dt   2  3 tan x .dx   tan2 x.dx (1  e ).( 1  e  x ) x t3 (tanx) 3  tan x  x  c   tan x  x  c 3 3 [J-2008] Soln :  25.dx . . sec2 x  tan2 x]. 21. n Evaluate :  tan x. tan x].dx 4   [tan2 x. 22. cos x.dx  24. Evaluate : [M-2008] .dx  sin 3x.(sec x  1). tan x.dx   (sec2 x  1). Evaluate : put t  tan x then sec2 x. sec2 x.dx   cos ec 2 x.dx .dx   tan2 x.dx 2 cos x cos x cos x.dx 4 [M-2008] 2 2 2 2 Sol :   tan x. dx  x   dx 1  sin x 1  sin x 1  sin x 1  sin2 x 1  sin x sin x   1 2  x dx  x    2  dx  x   [sec x  secx. n Evaluate :   1  tan x  e x . Evaluate : [M-2007] .

 1 x   ( 2  x)  1   1 1  ex  . 4 . [J-2006] Soln :  33.dx   e x .dx [J-2007] Soln :  . Evaluate :  e .dx  3 3 Soln :  put t  x 3 t dt 3  32. c c c 3 3 3 log 4 3 log 4 3 log 4 Evaluate :  sin  x . n Evaluate : cos x .  .dx sin x  cos x [J-2006] Sol :  34. 1  cos x . c c 2 x 2 x  Evaluate :  4 x .dx . 1 x sec2 dx  f ' ( x ) 2 2 35.dx x2  1  1 x  e x .dt  . dx 2  ( 2  x)  [M-2006] Sol :  30.[f ( x)  f ' ( x)]. e.dx 2 2  2  ( 2  x)   ( 2  x)   2  x ( 2  x)  1 ex e x . tan  c  2  x 1 x  e x tan  sec2  dx 2 2 2  x x x f ( x )  tan x 2 i .x 2 .dx [M-2006]  3x 2 .dx 2  1  cos 4x cos 2x  sin 2x. . dx  e x .dx      c 4 2    2  29.dx  2    1 [sin(4x)  sin(2x)].f ( x)  c  e x . n Evaluate :   x2  1 . dt 1 1 4t 4t 4x t 4 .f ( x )  c  e .Soln :   sin 3x. Evaluate : [M-2006] Soln :   31.dx  dt  x 2 .dx   e x .dx   x  1  sin x  [J-2006] Soln :   e (1  sin x ) 1 sin x   dx   e x    dx 1  cos x  1  cos x 1  cos x  x x  2 sin cos   1 2 2 dx  e x  1 sec2 x  tan x dx ex     2 2 2 2 x    2 cos 2 x  2 cos 2 2    x  x  e [f ( x )  f ' ( x )]dx  e . cos x. Evaluate :  1 5e  1 3x .  .dx    1  sin 4x.

Evaluate : 1  4x  4x 2 . 2x  x [J-2009] Sol :  7.dx [J-2007] Soln :  DEFININTE INTEGRALS 1. n Evaluate :  0 e π x tan x . n Evaluate :  sec x.dx  uv   vu'.dx sec x  tan x [M-2010] Sol :  4. tan x. n Evaluate :  0 3 x2 . n Evaluate :  log 1 e x. sin x.dx 2 0 π 4 [M-2010] Sol :  3.dx .dx [M-2009] Sol :  5.36. [J-2007] Soln :  38.dx . n Evaluate :  sec x. sin1 x 1  x2 1 . n Evaluate :  0 2 x .dx 0 π 4 [J-2010] Sol :  2.dx [J-2007] Soln :  39. Prove that  uv'. cos x 4 0 π 2 [J-2008] Sol :  .dx . Evaluate :   x. n Evaluate :  1  sin x .dx x 2  5x [M-2009] Sol :  6.

dx  LHS . n Evaluate :  1 x. 3 0 π 4 [M-2007] Soln :  9. Evaluate : π 2  0 π 2 1  cos 2x . cos x.dx   2 sin2 x .  1  dt dx  dx  dt Sol :  RHS  f (a  x).dx  2  sin x.dt [ prop ( 2)]  f ( x).dx (1  x ) 2 [M-2007] Sol :  11. 0 0 a a [J-2006] put a  x  t .dx x  4x  6 2 [M-2007] Sol :  10.dx   f (a  x).dx π 2 π 2 π 2 [J-2007] Soln :  π 2  0 1  cos 2x .dx   1  [1  2 sin2 x]. sin x.dx  2  cos x 0   2 cos  cos(0)  2 2   0 0 PROPERTIES OF DEFININTE INTEGRALS 1.dt a a a   0 a 0  0 when x  0 when x  a then t  a then t  0  f (t ).dx 3 0 [J-2006] Sol :  12.dx   1  1  2 sin2 x .dx .(dt )   f (t ). n Evaluate :  (3x  1) . Evaluate :  sin x.dx 0 π 2 π 0 0 π   2   2 . n Evaluate :  x1 . n Prove that  f (x).dx 0  a  f (t ).8.e x . 0  [prop (4)] .dx .

dx  log 2 1.dx   log 2.x  log 2   0  log 2.dx  1  tan x    0  4 2   log   .dx   log 2. a 2 cos 2 x  b 2 sin2 x 2ab [J-2007.dx   4  log 2 8 [M-2006.Hence.dx  1  tan x  I  0  4 log 2. 4  4 π 4 I   .dx 0 0 0 0 0  4 0    2I  log 2.e.dx  π 4 [J-2009] Sol :  4.dx    2 cos 2 x  b 2 sin2 x Now adding the two equations (1) and (2) then we get . log 2. i. n Prove that  0 π 2 xdx π2  .dx   0 0    log 1  tan   x   . I   0 log(1  tan x).2009] Sol :  I Let . n Evaluate :  (sin3x  cos x).dx    1  tan x    0  1  tan x  1  tan x  log   . I  a 0 π 2 x. tan x      4    I  0  4   1  tan x   log 1     .dx  2 2 a cos ( π  x)  b 2 sin2 ( π  x) a 0 π 2 ( π  x).2009] Soln :   4 Let. P .T. 2.dx 0 0 a a .dx  4    4  0       tan 4  tan x     log 1     .  f (x).dx   f (a  x).dx     1  4  4 I  log(1  tan x).dx   1  tan  . 8 3.dx   4  0  4 log(1  tan x ).dx   log(1  tan x).  0  4 log(1  tan x ).dx    2  4  4 Now adding (1) and ( 2) we get  4  4 2I   log(1  tan x). the value of a definite integral is not altered if we change x to (upper limit –x) provided the lower limit is zero.dx    1 cos x  b 2 sin2 x 2  0 π ( π  x).

Evaluate :  x.dx a cos 2 x  b 2 sin2 x 2  2I   0  x  (   x) .dx 1  sin x.dx . log  . 7 0 [J-2008] Soln :  7.dx  1  sin x. cos x  0  2 1 . I  2 2ab 5. cos  x 0 1  sin 0 2  2  Now adding the two equations (1) and (2) then we get   2I   0  2 cos 2 x .dx  1  sin x.dx 2 2 a 2  b 2 tan 2 x a 2  b 2 tan 2 x 2 cos x 2 sin x b 0 a 0 0 cos 2 x cos 2 x Now put b tan x  t then b sec2 x. I   0  2 cos 2 x . Prove that  0 1  2  1 dx 1  .dx  . sin x      x. sin x  cos x 2  2  1 [M-2008] Soln :  6.dx      2 1  cos x.dx a cos x  b 2 sin2 x 2 2 Now dividing both numerator and denominator by cos 2 x then we get     2 sec2 x sec2 x cos 2 x 2I  .dx  1  sin x. tan  a    ab [tan ( )  tan (0)]  ab  2  0 2 2 b  a t   0       0 2I  2     2   ab  2  ab π 2 Hence .dx  dt  when x  o then t  0 and when x  then t   2 dt   2  1 2 2    1  t   1 1 b 2I  2   a . cos x    2 cos 2   x sin2 x 2  I . cos x . 1  sin x cos x 3 3 [J-2008] Soln :   2 Let . cos x  0  2 sin2 x .(1  x) .II  0  x.dx  2 2 a cos x  b 2 sin2 x  0  (   x).dx  2 .dx      1 1  sin x.dx   .dx  . Prove that  0 π 2 cos 2 x π . cos x  0  2 sin2 x  cos 2 x .dx  2 a cos 2 x  b 2 sin2 x  0  .

dx   .dx  log(cosx).dx   2 0 0 π 2 π 2 Sol n :   2 Let.dx   2  0  log(sin t ). cos x  log  .dx tan 2 x  tan x  1 If x  0 .dx   2  0 [log(sin x )  log(cos x )].dx  I 1  log 2 1.Now dividing numerator and denominator by cos 2 x then we get 2I   0  2 sec2 x .dt  1 . dx  2 log(sin x. log 2 2 0  [M  2007]  π  I  logsin  x .dx  sec2 x  tan x  0  2 sec2 x .dx  dt 2I   0 π 2  dt  2 t t1  0  1  t   2   dt 1  3  1  . tan   2 2 3  3  2   1 t        2  2  2     0 2I  2  1 2   2  1  1   .dx  2  2I   0  2 log(sin 2x ). If x   .dt  2 0   0 log(sin t ).  tan ( )  tan    2  6  3 3 3 3   3  I  3 3 8. 2  When x  0 then t  0 dt  dt  2dx dx and  dx  dt 2 When x   then t   2 Now consider. log(sinx). I  log(sinx). t  0 .T. I 1   2  0  2 log(sin 2x ).dt [ prop (7 )] .dx    1 0  2  2  π 2   Now adding the two equations (1) and (2) then we get 2I   log(sin x ). t 2  Put t  tan x then sec2 x.2 log(sin t ). π P.dx  2    0  sin 2x  log  .dx      2 0   2 For I 1 Put 2x  t .dx   0 log 2.dx   2  0  2 sin x.dx  2I   0 0  2  0 log(cos x ). cos x ).

dx    1 ax I  a a (a  x)(a  x) . I   0  2 sinn x .dx  0 a 0  1 is even fun and  a2  x2   is an odd fun a2  x2  x    x  I   2a.(a  x) . Evaluate :  0 sinn x . log 2 2 9.dx  2 a2  x2   a x a  a a a2  x2 a  a x a2  x2 . sin1     0  2a.dx   . log 2 2 I    .dx     n n   x  cos   x 0 sin  2  2  Now adding (1) & ( 2)   0  2 cos n x .dx  (a  x).dx  sinn x  cos n x   RHS .  a 2  a  0  12.dx ax a [M-2006] Soln :  Let I  a a  ax .dx a I    a x   2  .dx     2 cos n x  sinn x 2I   0  2 sinn x .I1   0  2 log(sin x ).dx      1 sinn x  cos n x   sinn   x 2  I .dx  sinn x  cos n x  2 0  0  2 cos n x .dx  I  2 From ( 2)  2I  I   .dx 0  2 2I  x    0 2 2 I  10. Evaluate : a  a ax .  0  x.dx sinn x  cos n x [M-2006] Sol :  n  2 Let.T.dx   a ax a2  x2 . 2 (1  x)(1  x ) 4 [J-200. 4  0  2 sinn x  cos n x . P.dx a I  2a  a 1 a2  x2 .[sin1 (1)  sin1 (0)]  2a.dx  sinn x  cos n x  1.2010] .

 0 sin  .dx 1  x2  4 Put x  tan     tan 1 x Then I   4  0 log(1  tan ).d  sin   cos   4  0  2 sin   cos  . log 2.Let. sec2 .d  (1  tan ). sec2 .d  (1  tan ).d 1  tan 2  When x  0 then   0 and I  0 log(1  tan ).dx  (1  x)(1  x 2 )  0  2 tan .dx (1  x)(1  x 2 ) and put x  tan  then sec2 .d 1  tan  I  0 I  2  0  2 sin  sin  sin  sin  cos  .d  sin   cos   0  2 1. sec2   0  2 tan . I   2  0  x. 2 8 1 x [M-2006] Let. I   0  x.d sec2  when x  1 then   4 .d     2 Adding (1) & ( 2) sin   cos      cos    sin   0 2  2    2   2   2  2I  2I  13.dx  .d  cos  .d  cos   sin   0  2 cos  . I   0 1 log(1  x ) .d  dx When x   then    2 When x  0 then   0 Let.d  .d  x  2 0   0 2 2  I Prove that  0 1 log(1  x)  .(1  tan 2 )  0  2 tan . sec2 .d  .d      1 sin  sin  cos   sin  cos   sin  1 0 1 0 0 cos  cos  cos     2 sin   cos  2  .d  cos  . sec2 .

d  4   4 I  0 0  4 log 2.dx  a  b  0 6 6 x .d   1  tan    0  1  tan   log 1   . Find the area between the curves y 2  6x and x 2  6y using integration. 8 4  4 0  2.d   1  tan    0  4  1  tan   1  tan   log  .d   0  4    log 1  tan    .d log 1      1  tan 4 .d  4    4  0  4    tan   tan    4  .d   1  1. Two given curves are y 2  6x    1 and x 2  6y    2 Soln :  Put y  x2 in equation nor (1) then we get 6  x3  x4 x4  6x  2  6x  0  x   6  0 36 a  36  x0 or x6 Area between ( 2) .J-2010] Soln :  3.dx  6 x .dx 0  6 1 2  y 2  6x y 6 x  .d I  log 2 1. tan    11  log   . log 2.I  0  4 log(1  tan ).d 1  tan    I  0  4 2   log   .d   0 log(1  tan ).d  log 2. [M-2010] [M-2009.d  I 0       2I  log 2 1. I  . tan       I   0  4 0  4  4 1  tan    log1   .d   1  tan     4 [log 2  log(1  tan )]. APPLICATIONS OF DEFINITE INTEGRALS Find the area of the circle x 2  y 2  6 by the method of integration. x  axis and the ordinates x  0 and x  a is A 1  y . d  4 I  0 [log 2  log(1  tan )].  0  . log 2 .

25 9 [M-2008] Soln :  8. x  0. Soln :  9.dx     x3 6 6 3    0 3(6) 36 36   12 sq. b a  0 a a 2  x 2 . 3 x2   3  2    6  2 2  6   x a 6  6x x 3 0 3  0  6   6 0 y  6x 2 Y x6 X' 2 2.units 3 3 3 Area between ( 2) . x  axis.units. a2 b2 Soln :  Equation of an ellipse is x2 a2  y2 b2  x2 y 2  1 a2 b2 Area of an ellipse  1 is 4( Area of CAB) y2 b2  4 Area bounded by a x2 a2  1.dx y b 2 a  x 2 put x  a sin  a a cos .6 2 72 6 .dx   0 6 x2 1  x3  1 . Find the area of the ellipse x2 y 2   1 by the method of integration. 3  A  A 1  A 2  24  6. Find the area bounded between the curves x 2  y and y  x  2 Sol :  n [M-2007] [M-2006] [J-2006] 10. x  axis and the ordinates x  0 and x  6 is O X x 2  6y A2   a b y .d  dx . x  a  4 y .6 6    24sq. [J-2009] Soln :  7. 3 3 6   6 0  36 Y' sq. Find the area of the ellipse x2 y 2   1 by the method of integration.units.dx 0  a 4  0 b a2  x2 dx a x2 a2   y2 b2 1 x2 a 2 y2 b 2  1  a2  x2 a 2 y  2 b2 a 2 (a 2  x 2 )  4. Find the area bounded by the curves 4y 2  9x and 3x 2  16y . Find the area of the circle x 2  y 2  6 by the method of integration.

& x  a    2  4b a    0  2 0  2 0  2 0  2 a 2 (1  sin2 ) .d  a  2  0 X' C  4ab cos 2 .dx  e y sin x.dy  0 Soln :  2 d 2 y   dy   2  1     .d 2 2 xa X 4b  a 4b a cos .d 2  Y' sin 2  2     2ab (1  cos 2). cos 2  .a cos . Find the area enclosed between the parabolas y 2  4ax and x 2  4ay .d  2ab     2ab.units. Find the order and degree of the differential equation dx 2   dx     n Sol :  [M-2010] .a cos . [J-2007] Soln :  1. DIFFERENTIAL EQUAIOTNS Form the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constant from y 2  4ax . 2 0     1.d when x  0. 2  0  ab sq.d Y a 2 .    0. 3. 4b a   2 a 2  a 2 sin2  . Solve the differential equation (e y  1) cos x.a cos . [J-2010] [J-2010] 3 Soln :  2.d  4ab 0  2  0  0 1  cos 2 .d  2  4b a x0 a cos .a cos .

[J-2008] Soln :  13. 10. log x  1. Solve the differential equation tan y . [J-2009] n Sol :  dy 8. Solve the differential equation dx Soln :  dy   0. [M-2007] n Sol :  Family of straight lines passing through the origin is y  mx dy y dy m  x. [J-2009] dx Soln :  9.dx  . n  dy Find the order and degree of the differential equation 1  dx    2 d2y   2 dx   [M-2009] [M-2009] Sol :  6. log x  x. Form the differential equation of the family of circles touching y-axis at the origin.dy  c Soln :  y log y log y y 1  1 1   where. dx x dx 14. Form the differential equation by eliminating the parameter c . log ydx  dy  0 . sin1 x  sin1 y  c .e y . . dy  x 2  x 2 . Solve by the method of separation of variables e y . x dx   t dt  c y   [M-2007]          x. log y  t  dy  dt  x.dx  dy  0  1.4. Find the particular solution of xy(1  x 2 )  y 2  1 given that when x  1 .[M-2008] Given equation is sin1 x  sin1 y  c      1 Soln :  Differenti ating equation (1) with respect to x then we get 1  y2 dy   dx 1  x2 dy  ( x  y  1) 2 . 2 dx 1  x [J-2008] Soln :  12. 1 1 1  log x. y  0 . log x. log x  x  log(logy )  c .  y which is the differential equation. dy  sin(x  y )  sin(x  y ) .dx   log t  c    x. Find the general solution of the differential equation y log x. Form the differential equation by eliminating the arbitrary constant ( y  2) 2  4a( x  1) . dx 2 [M-2010] 3 Soln :  5. Form the differential equation of the family of straight lines passing through the origin of Cartesian plane. 2 2 dx 1 x 1 y 1 1 11. Find the general solution of the differential equation xy [M-2008] dy 1  y 2  (1  x  x 2 ) . dx Soln :  7.

dy   0  log c     log x  log(x  1)  log y  log(y  1)  log c i. 1  1 1  x y  log  log c x1 y 1 or xy  c( x  1)(y  1) dy  1  6xex  y . Solve the differential equation [J-2007] [J-2007] Sol :  . Solve the differential equation ( y 2  y ).   ( x 2  y 2 ).dy  0 2 15.dx dy du  dx dx du dy 1  dx dx 1  e 18. 2 . n dy  tan2 ( x  y ). 2x  2y . 0 dx dx dy ( 2y 2  x 2  y 2 )  2xy dx dy  2xy 2xy  2  2 2 dx y  x x  y2 19.  dy  Find the order and degree of the differential equaiotn 1      dx   n Sol :  16. log 17.  d2y   k.- u .du  6x. dx Form the differential equation for the equation x 2  y 2  2ky  0 . dx put x  y  u Solve the differential equation 1 du  1  6xeu dx [J-2006] Soln :   du  6xeu dx  e u  6x. dx   3 4 [M-2006] [M-2006] Soln :  1 1 1 dx  0 x( x  1) y( y  1)   x  x  1   dx   y  y  1 . dx  dx   00 2 y dy dy 2xy  2y 2  ( x 2  y 2 ).dx   e  u  3x 2  c  e  ( x  y )  3x 2  c  e y  x  3x 2  c Form the differential equation for the equation x 2  y 2  2ky  0 x 2  y 2  2k y  0  x y  2k  0 y 2 2 [J-2007] Diff    dy  dy  y . 20. e.dx  ( x 2  x).