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Bio Unit 2


Prokaryotic Cells 
The cells that do not have a membrane bound nucleus  Cell wall y Provides structure and protection  Ribosomes ( 70s) y Synthesizes proteins  Flagellum y Helps in movement  Plasmid y Used in genetic engineering as vectors/ Holds genetic information  Mesosomes y Involved in respiration  Slime Layer y Protection 

Eukaryotic Cells 
Cells which have a membrane bound nucleus  Nucleus y A double membraned organelle y Outer membrane is connected with the RER y Contains genetic material j Chromosomes in nucleoplasm y Nucleolus contains and produces nucleic acid y Nuclear membrane contains pores y Controls cell activity  Mitochondria y Has a double membrane y It is the site of respiration where ATP is produced y Inner membrane is folded to form structures called Cristae y Matrix contains enzymes involved in respiration y Found in large numbers in cells that are active and require a lot of energy  Endoplasmic Reticulum y Smooth ER j Made of Cristae j Stores and transports lipids and steroids within the cell or out of the cell y Rough ER j Made of Cristae j Many ribosomes are attached to the surface membrane j Synthesizes proteins j Connected with the outer membrane of the nucleus j Transports synthesized proteins in vesicles within the cells  Golgi Body y Made of vesicles pinched off the RER

and carry out a particular function  Tissues are organized into organs: .       Cell organization:  Similar cells organized into tissues: .Bio Unit 2 y Vesicles increase in size to from flat sacs y Modified protein synthesis in RER y Store substances temporarily y Form lysosomes Microtubules y Hollow cylinders. along microtubules y Vesicles fuse with the membrane and the contents are releases. . processed and finished off y Vesicles are budded off the Golgi and move to the cell surface membrane.Each system has a particular function. Golgi apparatus and vesicles in protein transport y Proteins made on ribosomes on the RER y Proteins enter the RER cisternae y Vesicles containing the protein are budded off the RER y Vesicles move along microtubules to the Golgi and are added on y Protein is chemically of different tissues working together to perform a particular function:  Organs are organized into systems: . found throughout the cytoplasm y Made from a protein called tubulin. y Help other organelles to move from place to place in the cell Centrioles y Made of microtubules y Situated in the cytoplasm y From spindle fibers during cells division Ribosomes (80s) y Made of two units j Large unit and small unit y Contain rRNA to synthesis proteins Lysosomes y A membrane bound organelle formed by the Golgi body y Contains digestive enzymes y Digest cell debris or foreign bodies in the cell The roles of the Rough Endoplasmic or more similar cells are organized together. Prokaryotic Cells Small cells Always unicellular DNA is circular without proteins Ribosomes are small No cytoskeleton Cells division is by binary fission Reproduction is always asexual Eukaryotic Cells Larger cells Often multi-cellular DNA is linear and associated with proteins to form chromatin Ribosomes are large Always has a cytoskeleton Cell division is by mitosis or meiosis Reproduction is asexual or sexual A.

homologous pairs of chromosomes come together and pair up.  Two of the chromatids in each homologous pair twist around each other and exchange portions of their chromatids.  Mitosis  Interphase  G1 y Division of cell organelles y Protein synthesis + ATP produced  S y DNA replicated  G2 y ATP stored y Division of organelle is completed y Chromosomes become condensed and thicken  Prophase  Chromosomes condense and become visible  Centrioles movie to opposite poles of the cells  Nucleolus disappears  Nuclear membrane breaks down  Metaphase  Spindle fibres connect centrioles to chromosomes  Chromosomes align along the equator  Anaphase  Centromeres separate  Chromatids pulled towards the poles  Telophase  Nuclear membrane begins to from  Spindle fibres disperse  Chromosomes begin to unravel  Cytokinesis  Cell begins to split into two  Importance of mitosis  Replace dead cells in living organisms  Growth and development  Repair damaged tissues and cells  Involved in asexual reproduction  Meiosis  Crossing over of chromatids  During Meiosis .  Crossing over produces new combinations of alleles  This increases the genetic variation  Independent assortment of chromosomes  Happens during Meiosis   The homologous pairs line up randomly  Maternal and paternal chromosomes from parents are therefore randomly distributed into gametes  Prophase   Chromosomes condense and align  Crossing over occurs  Centrioles move towards the poles  Nucleolus dissipates  Nuclear membrane disintegrates  Metaphase  .Bio Unit 2 A.

: Amoeba  Sporulation  The production of spores which are capable of growing into new individuals  E. Hydra parent  Gametogenesis in Humans  Oogenisis  Starts at puberty  Ends at menopause  Gametes produced per germ cell=1  Polar bodies produced= 3  Ova  Surrounded by follicle cells which form a protective layer  Spermatogenesis  Starts in the fetus  Gametes produced per germ cell=4  No polar bodies  Spermatozoa  Acrosome y Membrane bound storage site for enzymes that digest the layers surrounding the ovum and all the sperm s head to penetrate  Nucleus .Bio Unit 2  Homologous pairs line up at the equator of the cell  Anaphase   Centromeres do not split  Homologous separate and move toward the poles  Telophase   Nuclear envelope reforms  Chromosomes disperse  Metaphase    Chromosomes line up at the equator  Anaphase    Centromeres divide  Sister chromatids move to opposite ends of the cell  Telophase    Nuclear envelope reforms  Chromosomes begin to unravel  Cytokinesis  4 daughter cells each with the chromosomes complement of the parental cell A.: Ferns and Mosses  Fragmentation/Regeneration  Reproducing form fragments of their original body parts  E.: Starfish  Budding  Offspring grows out of the body of the  E.: Yeast.  Asexual Reproduction  Binary fission  Splitting of an individual  E.g.g.g.g.

y Contains highly condensed haploid chromosomes y The condensed form of the genetic materials reduce the amount of energy needed to transport it Mitochondria y Provides the energy for the lashing of the tail Microtubules y Produce the whip-like movements of the tail which keeps the mature sperm in suspension and may help it swim towards the ovum Tail y A flagellum which propels the sperm by its movement in a liquid environment     Gametogenesis in Plants  Microgametogenesis  In the male anther.  This is when the digestive enzymes are released from the acrosome.  in the centre of the embryo sacs forms the gametophyte generation  External Fertilization  Occurs outside the body.  After pollination (pollen grain on stigma) make two male gametes produced by mitosis of the generative nucleus each haploid (n). pollen grain germinates by absorbing water and chemicals from the stigma Pollen forms pollen tube.  Structure of integuments (coverings) forms around the tissue known as nucellus.  This triggers the cortical reaction.  Cell Differentiation .Bio Unit 2 A. which grown through the style up to the ovary Pollen nucleus controls growth of pollen tube Tip of pollen tube secrets digestive enzymes that digest the style tissues The generative nucleus travels along the tube towards ovary Male nucleus fuses with egg cell nucleus to form diploid zygote Other nucleus fuses with the two polar nuclei to form a triploid endosperm.  The sperm nucleus enters the egg cell. with the gametes shed directly into the environment  Internal Fertilization  The transfer of the male gametes directly to the female.  This alters the zona pellucida and prevents other sperm from reaching and fertilizing the egg. the acrosome reaction occurs. where the egg cell releases the contents of vesicles called cortical granules into the space between the cell membrane and zona pellucida.  It goes through the first stage of meiosis giving 2 (n) cells then second stage of meiosis to result in 4 haploid (n) cells. Each is a pollen grain. and digest the zona pellucida so that the sperm can move towards the cell membrane of egg  The sperm head fuses with the cell membrane of the egg. and the tail is discarded  Nucleus of sperm fuses with nucleus of egg  Fertilization in Plants        After pollination.  Megagametogenesis  Meiosis results in a small number of ova contained within the ovules inside the ovary  The ovule is attached to the wall of the ovary by a pad of special tissue called the placenta.  Fertilization in Humans  Sperm swim toward egg cell in oviduct  Once sperm contacts the zona pellucida of the egg cell.  From this mitosis happens which divides the nucleus this results in a pollen gain microspore with a generative nucleus and pollen tube nucleus. the pollen mother cell (microspore) is formed by mitosis it is a diploid cell (2n).

 Many people believe that life begins at conception.g. e. IVF (In-vitro fertilization) is carried out. it will develop into a blastocyst  These cells are then transferred to a culture medium where they are cultured into embryonic stem cells.  To do this in a laboratory. and a small amount of bone marrow is removed.  They can be extracted and obtained by an operation with very little risk involved. this includes all specialized cells in an organism and extra-embryonic cells j A fertilized egg is totipotent y Pluripotency j The ability to produce all the specialized cells in an organism. and it is immoral and wrong to destroy and embryo.  Once the human egg has been fertilized.  Stem cell Therapy  Stem cells can potentially be used to replace damage tissues in a range of diseases.  Scientists are researching the use of stem cells for treatments for conditions such as: y Spinal cord injuries: stem cells can be used to repair damaged nerve tissue y Parkinson s sufferers: stem cells to rep lace the lost or faulty nerve cells that produce dopamine  Arguments for the use of stem cells y Can save many lives y Can improve the quality of life for many people  Arguments against the use of stem cells  Obtaining stem cells from embryos by IVF raises ethical issues viable embryos are destructed and could have been a potential human life.  Scientists are playing god and messing with human life . but is limited in its differentiating ability A. even to reduce suffering in existing human life.Bio Unit 2  Stem cells  Undifferentiated cells that have the potential to develop into many different specialized cells  Potency  Refers to the potential to differentiate into different cell types y Totipotency j The ability of a stem cell to produce all cell types. can be found in bone marrow.  The donor is anaesthetized and a needle is inserted into the centre of the bone. usually from the hip.  Stem Cells  Embryonic Stem Cells  Obtained from early embryos. y Multipotency j The ability to produce a number of different cells.  Adult Stem Cells  Found in body tissues of an adult.

.Bio Unit 2 A.