You are on page 1of 50

The regional solid waste exchange of information and expertise network in Mashreq and Maghreb countries

Tunisia

Algeria Morocco

Syria Lebanon Palestinian territories Jordan
Libya

Egypt

Saudi Arabia

Mauritania

Sudan

Yemen

COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT

EGYPT
supported by

July 2010

The Regional Solid Waste Exchange of Information and Expertise network in Mashreq and Maghreb countries

COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN

EGYPT

July 2010

Developed with the support of Dr. Tarek Zaki and in close coordination with the SWEEP-Net national coordinator in Egypt Mr. Amine Khayal

COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT

acknowledgements

The present report owes very much to the contribution and comments of Mr. Amine Khyal, the national coordinator of SWEEP-Net and the head of the central department of solid waste, at Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA). The author gratefully acknowledges the comments on this report from Dr. Sherif Arif, the senior environmental consultant of SWEEP-Net, and the collaboration, assistance and support of my colleagues at New center for Integrated studies of Land and Environment (NILE), who provided substantive and editorial inputs towards completion of the report.

3

COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT

Contents
0. Country profile 1. Executive summary 2. Introduction 2.1. Environmental and socio-economic overview 2.2. Waste management overview 3. Current solid waste management situation 3.1. Policy, legal and institutional framework 3.2. Strategy, action plans and priorities 3.3. Planning and investments 3.4. Finance and cost recovery 3.5. Private sector participation 3.6. Public awareness and community participation 3.7. Capacity building and training requirements 3.8. Networking 4. Industrial and hazardous waste management 5. Medical waste management 6. Options for improvement and development 7. Technical assistance partners and donors 8. Opportunities of networking and partnership 9. Needs for technical support and capacity building 10. Case studies, best practices and lessons learned 11. Analysis and priorities for action Annexes 7 9 10 11 11 14 14 15 17 19 19 20 21 22 23 26 27 29 29 32 33 35 37

5

METAP Regional Solid Waste Management Project (Country Report - Egypt. 2004) • • • w w w .2 MT/year 23 MT/year 15% Others • MSW generation annual growth: • Medical waste generation: • Industrial waste generation: • Hazardous industrial waste generation: • Agricultural waste generation: 13% Plastics 4% Glass Waste composition 10% Paper/Cardboard 2% Metal Technical Performance • Municipal waste - MSW collection coverage : in rural areas in urban areas - MSW final destination: - Composted: - Recycled: - Landfilled : - Open-dumped: - Number of sanitary landfills - Under study: - Under construction: - Built: - Operational: • Hazardous and industrial waste - Number of treatment units/centers of industrial wastes (physical chemical treatment) - Under construction: - Built: - Operational: - Types of treatment of medical waste: - - 1 Incineration: 151 units Sterilization (Autoclave): 48 units - 3 5 0 - 35% 40 - 90% 9% 2. treatment and disposal of hazardous waste . 38/1967 on General Public Cleaning and Law No.n e t.5% 56% Organic Legal Framework • Egypt doesn’t have a solid waste management (SWM) law.4% 40.o rg • • • .2 million (2010) 19.2 MT/year 0. 9/2009 amending Law 4/1994 and regulating collection. - Law No. *Earlier information is available in Egypt’s Country profile. - Presidential Decree No.o rg • • • c o n tac t : c o n tac t @ s we e p .4 – 0. 1741/2005 amending the Executive Regulations of Law 4/1994 and covering regulations for the selection of sites for recycling and landfilling and equipment requirements for waste collection and transfer .10/2005 establishing a solid waste collection fee system . - Prime Minister Decree No. 86/2010 regulating the closure of existing dumping sites and the landfill at Greater Cairo and allocation of five new sites outside the residential and commercial belt of Greater Cairo. • The main updates of legislations within 2005-2010 are*: - Law No. The two most significant pieces of legislations are Law No.7 million tons (2009) 0.5 kg/day 3.000 T/year 6. METAP. • SWM legal framework is scattered in many pieces of legislation.7 – 1.The regional solid waste exchange of information and expertise network in Mashreq and Maghreb countries COUNTRY PROFILE ON THE SOLID WaSTE MaNaGEMENT SITUaTION in Tunisia Morocco Algeria egypt • Population : • Municipal solid waste (MSW) generation: • Per capita MSW generation: urban areas rural areas July 2010 Mauritania Lebanon Syria Palestinian Territories Jordan Egypt Yemen Background Information 78.5% 5% 83. s we e p . 4/1994 for the Protection of the Environment and their amendments.n e t.0 kg/day 0.

Total cost from collection to disposal under the new contracts: 250 LE . Private Sector Involvement For cleaning and transfer • Nine private companies (including three international companies) are involved in waste collection in big governorates. • Increasing public awareness to overcome wrong waste handling practices . contracting. programs for capacity building and awareness. • An Integrated Strategy for Hazardous Substances and Waste Management (in the course of preparation). Finance and Cost Recovery arrangements SWM financing • It is the responsibility of the Governorates to allocate their respective SWM budget. cost-recovery mechanisms. • Removing old accumulations in cities and villages and their disposal in environmentally and health safe locations . • Integrating the informal sector in the privatization of the solid waste sector . • Establishing an efficient cost recovery mechanism . • Developing and implementing a national policy targeting reduction of waste generation . monitoring and follow up of SWM services . etc. Options for Improvement • Establishing a national solid waste management law . The cost recovery: about 70 LE/ton. • Need for national program for source separation. Ministry of Local Development and Ministry of Finance handles implementation issues. Private Sector Participation • A strategy on private sector participation (PSP) in SWM is in the course of preparation. For disposal: ISWM services are responsible for disposal in sanitary landfills or controlled dumping sites.COUNTRY PROFILE ON SOLID WaSTE MaNaGEMENT SITUaTION IN egypt Institutional Framework • The Central Government sets up policies. • Informal sector “zabbaleen” practice solid waste sorting. community development and public awareness. • Egypt’s Country Report published by METAP (Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program) Regional Solid Waste Management Project (2004). recovery and re-use. Hazardous Waste Management • The National Strategy for Healthcare Facility Hazardous Waste Management. • A steering committee of Ministry of State for Environmental Affairs (MSEA). supported by Contracts with the private companies have been recently modified to improve SWM in Greater Cairo. recycling. • Adapting new waste utilization technologies (e. biogas and waste-to-energy projects) . implementation. • Providing technical support to increase the efficiency of waste recycling plants and adapting the principle of extended producer responsibility . SWM costs: Total cost from collection to disposal: 100-110/ton LE in Greater Cairo and Alexandria. two projects receive carbon credits: a composting and sorting facility for the southern zone of Cairo and a landfill gas capture and flaring project at Borg El-Arab and El-Hammam landfills. inspection and training. • The informal sector “zabbaleen” and small private companies perform door to door collection in other locations. monitoring. For treatment and recycling • International companies integrated solid waste management (ISWM) contracts involve sorting. • Currently.g. and less than 60 LE/ton in other Governorates. • A strategic framework for the municipal solid waste recycling sector (2006). Total cost recovery: 200 million LE per year. enforcement means. • Governorates budgets are limited and their budgetary allocations for MSWM depend on their resources and priorities. • Construction of sanitary landfills and closing the open dumping sites . • Supporting SWM projects that reduce emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) to receive carbon credits. Policy and Planning Solid Waste Management • The National Strategy for Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management (2000). • Municipalities are responsible for implementation of the system. • A limited portion of the waste handling fees are collected through the electricity bill. recycling and composting of organic waste. • Capacity building of the governorates in planning. • NGOs provide MSW treatment. using the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM)/ Prototype Carbon Fund (PCF) and Global Environment Facility (GEF) mechanisms . • Governorates are responsible for all SWM activities either directly or by contracting private sector companies. • Extending SWM services in the rural areas as a priority and involving NGOs and local contractors . legislations.

supporting partners. 9 . The workshop was attended by representatives of key ministries. It also analyzes and identifies priorities in the short term “1 . Moreover. The report discusses the present status of the solid waste management (SWM) sector. consultancy firms and freelance consultants.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT 1. EXECUTIVE SUMMaRY The present report has been prepared for the Regional Solid Waste Exchange of Information and Expertise Network in Mashreq and Maghreb Countries (SWEEP-Net). the anticipated technical support and capacity building requirements from SWEEP-Net are presented. Furthermore. Moreover.5 years”. and means of funding. The present report highlights the goal of initiating the national network. its objectives and expected outputs. It gives an overview of industrial and hazardous waste management. Such contribution may have a regional dimension as other countries may transfer and/or adapt this system. as a part of SWEEP-Net. The report contains updated information on the SWM sector in Egypt. private sector (formal and informal) involvement. NGOs and donors participation. legal and institutional framework. primary core team. A national workshop had been held on the 10th of May 2010. governorates. as an example of best practices in the sector. as a part of SWEEP-Net. objectives. to consolidate information on SWM from different institutions and practitioners. private sector companies. and highlights the possible options for improvement and development. A session was dedicated to a discussion of a proposed roadmap/action plan to setup the national SWM network. medical waste management. an NGO. The goal. to consolidate information on SWM from different institutions and practitioners.3 years” and medium term “3 . network members and its organization and the expected activities of SWEEP-Net were presented. partner countries and institutions. a case study was presented for the Nasreya industrial hazardous waste treatment center at Alexandria. since Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Programme (METAP) published “Egypt Country Report” in January 2004. main mission. finance and cost recovery. as part of the regional network. to introduce SWEEP-Net to national representatives of institutions and practitioners involved in SWM. with special focus on: associated policy. strategy and action plans. There is an emerging need for building an Egyptian national network. the report discusses the emerging need for building a national network.

5 0.Financial Statement of the Draft of State’s General Budget for Fiscal Year 2008/2009”.4% 1.0 0 .55 Billion USD 3.800 (2009) 19.000 Tons/year 6.27% 80% 5% 15% 0. Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) 3.2 MT/year 23 MT/year 3 1.5 .7 MT/year (2009)2 Organic Paper/Paperboard Plastic Glass Metal Other Composition of MSW by Generator (%) Domestic and commercial Industrial Other Per Capita MSW Generation (kg/p/d) MSW Collection Coverage 1 50 – 60% 8 .12% 10 .2 (2010)1 1.2% 7 .5% - Rural Urban Rural Urban Composted Recycled Disposed in Landfills Disposed in Dumps Other technologies Management of Waste (Percent) Estimated Annual Public Expenditures Growth in MSW Generation Medical Waste Generation Industrial Waste Generation Hazardous Waste Generation Agricultural Waste Generation 68.Waste Management Central Department. INTRODUCTION Table 1: Key Sector Data Population` GNI per Capita (US$) Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) Generated Material Composition of MSW (%) 78.4 to 0.90% 9% 2.35% 40 .2 MT/year 0. page 28 10 .Egyptian Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics 2.15% 3 .7 to 1.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT 2.4% 40.5% 5% 83.

the country’s GDP grew only at 4. in the fiscal year 2008-09. the Mediterranean coast. The urban population comprises 43% of the total population.1. partly due to healthy economic reforms and significantly due to a rise in foreign direct investment. egion by r on ti 10% ra Upper Egypt ne e Figur e 1: MS W g 31% Delta 47% Greater Cairo 5% Canal & Sinai & Red Sea 7% Alexandria &Matruh 11 .01 million Km2. Due to this.7% in the year 2009 and the rising rate of inflation has become a severe threat for the Egyptian economy after 2008. Egypt is the second most populous country in Africa. Egypt’s economic profile is changing. the global recession forced economic reforms to take a backseat. 2.2 million inhabitants (May 2010) and an average annual growth of 1.5 million tons per year (2010).9% (2009 est. Eastern and Western Deserts. Figure 1 and Table 2 show the estimated breakdown of MSW generation at the different regions/governorates. with 78.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT 2. About 18% of the population still lives below the poverty line (up to 40 percent in rural Upper Egypt) . The majority of the population resides along the Nile Valley and Delta.2. Waste Management Overview The total annual municipal solid waste generation in Egypt has increased more than 36% since 2000. the Canal cities.). Upper Egypt. The natural divisions of Egypt are the Delta. However. the Sinai Peninsula and the Red Sea coast. Environmental and Socio-Economic Overview Egypt has an area of 1. It is warm and dry in the summer and moderate with limited rainfall increasing at the coast in winter. Egypt is positioned in the dry equatorial region except its northern areas located within the moderate warm region with a climate similar to that of the Mediterranean region. to the current level of 20.

6 1.32 20.35 0.453 12 .4 0.09 0.14 1.3 1.25 0.21 0.1 1.1 0.6 1.27 0.91 0.36 0.16 0.1 0.03 0.64 0.22 0.91 1.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT Table 2: Municipal Solid Waste Generated in Different Governorates Area Greater Cairo Governorate Cairo Giza Helwan Qalyubia 6th October Alexandria + Matruh Canal+Sinai+ Red Sea Alexandria Marsa Matruh Ismaïlia North Sinai Port Said Red Sea South Sinai Suez Delta Beheira Dakahlia Damietta Gharbia Kafr El-Sheikh Monufia Sharqia Upper Egypt Al-Minya Aswan Asyut Beni Suef Fayoum Luxor New Valley Qena Sohag Total Generated Waste (Ton/Day) 11000 4000 4000 3500 2500 3700 250 600 200 650 450 350 400 3000 4500 900 3000 2500 2000 1800 1000 650 700 750 600 250 100 1000 900 55250 Generated Waste (MT/year) 4 1.36 0.65 0.23 0.73 0.073 0.12 0.23 0.

disposal or recycling operation4.Egypt State of Environment Report. both inefficient and inadequate. In fact. Figure 2 shows the projected waste generation 2001 – 2025. the improper disposal of solid waste in waterways and drains has lead to the contamination of water supplies which hinders Egypt’s natural resources. The remainder accumulates on city streets and at illegal dumping sites. 2008 5. Country Report . for the most part. Less than 65% of that waste is managed by some form of public or private sector collection.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT Although the Egyptian government commenced several initiatives to develop the waste management sector with the start of the new millennium. 2004 13 . Moreover. and the health and welfare of its people. the management of this waste remains. heritage. The waste generation is projected to exceed 30 MT yearly by 2025. page 5.METAP. This is causing serious environmental and public health problems. as given in Egypt’s Country Report of 20045.Egypt. their efforts resulted in little improvement. Pr oje ct ed W MS eration 2001-2025 gen 0 2025 2020 2015 2010 2005 2001 0 10 20 30 40 50 Figur e 2: Projected total MSW generation (MT) Projected per capita MSW Generation (kg/capita/year) 100 200 300 400 4.

Institutional framework The responsibility of SWM is divided between the Ministry of State for Environment Affairs (MSEA)/EEAA. • Law 4/1994 is dealing with the Protection of the Environment. Ministries of Finance.2. The legal framework of SWM is scattered in many pieces of legislation. and treatment of wastes in areas other than those specified out of residential. treatment and disposal of hazardous waste (Articles 29 – 33). Ministry of Housing. Trade & Industry. rehabilitation of its sites. Legal and Institutional Framework Policy framework Strategic studies and national plan related to waste management in Egypt are presented in section 3. Ministry of Health. outside the residential and commercial belt of Greater Cairo. 2010. Article 37 (2) of this law prohibits open burning of garbage and solid waste and prohibits placement. Communications & Information Technology and Interior are important stakeholders. EEAA ensures implementation of the provisions of environmental legislation. and associated regulations and decrees. EEAA emanates the policy directives and acts as a general facilitator. Article 11 covers regulations for the selection of sites for recycling and landfilling and equipment requirements for waste collection and transfer. municipalities. Ministry of Water Resources & Irrigation and Ministry of Agriculture & Land Reclamation.1. its Executive Regulations and subsequent amendments are dealing with General Public Cleaning. for sorting. Moreover. industrial and agricultural areas and waterway. where citizens pay according to their income level and residence area. Policy. the most significant pieces of legislation are: • Law 38/1967. • Law 9/2009 amended Law 4/1994 for the protection of the environment and regulates collection. Utilities & Urban Development. are responsible of handling the implementation and operation of the system directly 14 . • Law 10/2005 is establishing a solid waste collection fee system. Moreover. and assists governorates in identifying sites for waste facilities. However. sorting.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT 3. • Prime Minister Decree 1741/2005 amended the Executive Regulations of Law 4/1994. recycling and final disposal of municipal solid waste. Annex 1 illustrates the legal framework of SWM. CURRENT SOLID WASTE MaNaGEMENT SITUaTION 3. Legal framework Egypt doesn’t have a municipal solid waste management law. regulating the closure of existing dumping sites and landfill at Greater Cairo. Ministry of Local Development. or the cleansing and beautification authorities in large cities such as Cairo and Giza. • A new Presidential Decree (86/2010) was issued on April 15. Investment. and allocation of five new sites. The governorates.

Final Report Under Environmental Policy and Institutional Strengthening Indefinite Quantity. transfer. Moreover. combustion/waste-to-energy. The National Strategy for Integrated Municipal Solid Waste Management was issued by MSEA/EEAA in June 2000. paving the way for attracting investments in that field. collection.. Some Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) have a limited role in the field of solid waste services.2. The strategy adopted the following main polices: • The central government is the facilitator for implementing the strategy. and provide safe and efficient storage.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT or through contracted international companies. 3. street cleansing. composting. waste generated from canal cleansing activities. etc. local private companies. International Resources Group. either directly or through contracting a private company. sorting and recycling activities. institutional. Their activities are directed to improving the livelihoods of the zabbaleen and encouraging environmentally sound solid waste collection. NGOs and informal sector “zabbaleen”.September 2002 15 . • The “polluter pays principle” and full cost recovery have to be applied to enhance private sector participation and system sustainability. A policy was adopted to introduce economic incentives for municipal solid waste management (MSWM) services by including a tax break for at least 5 years and exemption from custom duties for the equipment used in waste management services.2002 to support policy. September 1999 . with a specific focus on supporting private sector participation. and management (waste reduction. they lead pilot projects for source segregation of household waste in limited areas of Egypt. collection of waste from vacant lots. Annex 2 illustrates the institutional framework. • Enhancing the principle of the private and public sectors and community participation in the different SWM stages in a cost-effective manner. One of the objectives of this program was to improve efficiency and performance of the SWM sector through a combination of strategic planning. • operating existing composting plants. • final disposal by supervising dumping sites operation either directly or through a private company. recycling of materials. • The governorates and municipalities role are planning. The responsibilities of local municipalities or cleansing and beautification authorities include: • issuing licenses for private companies. gardens waste. monitoring and control. • Promoting recycling by encouraging recycling industries and developing markets for recycled products. Strategy. and regulatory reforms in the environmental sector6. The objectives of the strategy are to: eliminate the uncontrolled accumulations of solid waste. • Increasing public involvement and awareness in the different dimensions of planning. development and implementation of the strategy. 6 . Ltd.USAID. Action Plans and Priorities The Egyptian Environmental Policy Program (EEPP) was prepared within 1999 . the informal sector “zabbaleen” and NGOs. The purpose of the strategy was to build an infrastructure to support a national Integrated MSW management (IMSWM) system. transfer. market waste. enhanced public awareness. and sanitary landfilling) for all urban and rural areas. improved administration.

community participation. planning.25% 80% 10 Years 99% 90% 80% 70% 90% Present Status of Implementation2 The Gaps Minimum collection coverage: Collection efficiency • Large cities • Capitals of governorates • Small provincial towns • Large villages Sanitary landfill disposal Recovery: • Composting • Recycling Source separation (wet. However. Analysis of the relevant performance indicators of the strategy targets and detected gaps are summarized in Table 3. introducing a partial cost recovery mechanism. waste recycling activities of major recyclable materials. prepared in 2004 for METAP. projections for the future (Years 2008 and 2013) and identification and assessment of feasible options to enhance the recycling sector activities. with a particular focus and action plan for plastic recycling. Moreover. action plans and priorities. Relevant Performance Indicators and Gaps National Strategy of the Year 2000 Pursued Target Performance Indicator 5 Years 90% 80% 70% 60% % of landfill vs. Annex 3 shows the strategy initiatives. as part of METAP. in Alexandria and parts of Cairo and Giza. The strategy covered the regulatory issues. extensive effort had been made by MSEA and the Ministry of Local Development to rehabilitate/upgrade the existing dumping sites to controlled dumping sites in Cairo. such as: privatization of service by contracting international companies. cost recovery and financing.10% 35% 15% 49% 100% 35% 0. The strategy of the year 2000 had initiated some positive changes in the SWM sector. The volume of the remaining accumulated waste that needs to be removed is 25 million cubic meters. and setup tax and customs exemptions to attract investment to the sector. dry & hazardous) Source reduction Cost recovery Funding 75% 65% 50% 30 . though some scattered efforts and attempts for improvements were initiated.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT Egypt’s Country Report5. Giza and Qalyubia Governorates. total generated 50% 20% % SW separated at source % Reduction referred to normal growth 100% % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 0. and national companies in some other governorates to handle SWM.40% 10% 24% 25% 30% 35% 80% A strategic framework for the municipal solid waste recycling sector in Egypt. total disposed % of landfill vs.Regional Solid Waste Management Project (RSWMP) for EEAA. many of the recommendations of the strategy did not find their way to proper implementation. to provide ISWM.35% 40% 50% 5% 15% 5% 1% Zero% 65% 0. MSEA in cooperation with the Military Forces National Service Agency had removed 15 million cubic meters of accumulated waste and transferred it to controlled dumping sites. Table 3: Analysis of SWM Strategy Targets. 16 . and functional waste management objectives given in the strategy. was designed in 2006. covers the policy directives.

transfer. license handling.Other tools necessary for policy implementation and enforcement. An Integrated Strategy for Hazardous Substances (HS) and Waste Management (WM) is in the course of preparation and will provide7: • A basic vision and aspiration in setting objectives and targets concerning HS and WM for the country as a whole and for the various sectors and how to meet these objectives. headed by the Prime Minster. The following table shows an estimated cost for implementation at each governorate. 7. Furthermore. Development of Integrated Hazardous Substances and Waste Management System for EEAA(2007 – 2012) 17 . in addition to rehabilitation of existing controlled dumping sites and establishing new sanitary landfills. However. • introducing and implementing the principle of extended producer responsibility. and to support private sector participation. • establishing central recycling centers on the national level. in participation with an expert team from Basel Convention Regional Center at Cairo.Standard Twinning Project FICHE. transfer and recycling. the Governorates were unable to allocate budgets for implementation. code. In the Ministerial Committee meeting dated December 5. treatment. Planning and Investments To adopt the national strategy for IMSWM of the year 2000.3. MSEA issued a package of technical guidelines to classify. Executive Regulations of the Environment Law 4/1994. 3. in the year 2005. The plan was submitted to the Ministerial Committee for Examining the Phenomenon of Acute Episodes of Air Pollution.A strategic action plan on required investments and actions leading to sustainable development . • establishing national standards for the recycling industries and products. a decision was taken that each Governorate should self-finance its share of the required investment of the plan. none of the strategy recommendations were adopted till now. MSEA/EEAA prepared an executive implementation plan. Regrettably. MSEA issued technical guidelines on designing and operating hazardous waste landfills in highly arid areas. 2005. temporarily store.Setting up a comprehensive regulatory framework(s) . The National Strategy for Healthcare Facility Hazardous Waste Management and its executive plan was developed by the MSEA and received Ministry of Health approval (Hazardous Materials and Wastes Committee) in accordance with the provisions of Article 25.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT The strategy adopted the following recommendations: • promoting source separation of municipal solid waste. with a total investment of about 2 billion LE. Moreover. and safely dispose hazardous wastes. • Basic instruments of policy implementation which may include: . to improve the MSWM sector by developing the efficiency of collection.

5 2 17 17.5 31.5 51 70 60.5 64 62.5 7 7.5 89 118 83 108.5 139.5 82 27 46.5 86.063 Presidential directions were made.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT Table 4: Required Investments for the Implementation Plan to Improve MSWM Sector (2000) Program Cost / million LE Removing Accumulations Improving Controlled Dumping Sites Establishing Transfer Stations Establishing Recycling Centers Establishing Sanitary Landfill Improving Efficiency of Collection & Transfer Total Million LE Governorate Cairo Alexandria Giza Kalyobiya Dakahilya Gharbeya Monofiya Beheira Kafr ElShiekh Sharkia Damietta Fayoum Bani Souwaif Menia Assiut Sohag Qena Luxor Aswan Ismailia Port Said Suez Red Sea Matrouh North Sinai South Sinai New Valley Total -15 --60 52 6 8 6 10 3 3 3 10 3 4.5 33 47 27 48. Collection planning • New contracts with the informal sector “zabbaleen” based on door-to-door collection of household waste.5 56. 18 .5 -234 13 17 30 19.5 3 2.5 62.5 25.5 35 30.5 16 16 10 13 10 10 10 4 5 6 6 7 7 3 3.5 30 58. to the Prime Minister and the Ministerial Committee responsible for SWM to handle the problem of escalation of waste accumulation.5 37 2.5 --7.5 2 6 7 6 10 7.5 65 84.5 4.5 2 5 4 3 2 218 30 5 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 5 5 10 10 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 220 40 -10 10 ---------------5 5 -----70 30 -30 30 30 30 30 40 30 30 -15 30 30 30 30 30 15 15 30 --30 15 30 30 10 655 126 42 110 89 172.5 28.5 2.5 14 26 31 15 15 666 13 5 30 19. in February 2010.5 26 20.5 22 28. • New contracts with the international companies.5 72. The action plan proposed by MSEA and committee members addresses the following.

74 LE per kilometer. The law resulted in partial cost recovery. FCC and Spain’s Enser Western Cairo Cleaning & Collecting Services. biogas and waste-to-energy). finding new cost recovery mechanisms to reduce this gap should be a priority. 88 LE. new contracts were approved. the total cost per ton for collection and street sweeping. • Automation of the monitoring and control system in cooperation with the Ministry of Communications using the PDA system. Inspection and control • Increasing the number of inspectors from 542 to 746. were signed in 2002 with four international waste management companies to provide ISWM service in Alexandria and parts of Greater Cairo. 3. 19 . and transport. Annex 4 illustrates solid waste management planning and investment programs. However. 115 LE. The latter company was pulled out in 2006. Moreover. The potential of realizing additional revenues from the existing 49 governmentowned composting facilities should be explored and enacted. with face values between 55 and 80 million LE per year. which requires clear enforcement mechanisms. and Veolia Environmental through Alexandria landfill gas capture and flaring project at Borg El-Arab and El-Hammam landfills. the “polluter pays” principle should be adopted. and less than 60 LE in other Governorates. Thus. the gap between the available budget and the cost incurred will increase to about 70% which will be an additional burden on the system. • Establishing 30 new monitoring and control units.4.000 tons/day and operational capacity of 1. Ama-Arab. Those companies were Onyx. It is the responsibility of the governorates to allocate their respective SWM budget. The cost recovery per ton. and a gap exists of about 35 – 40%. is about 70 LE. On applying those new contracts. At present.5. Fifteen-year contracts. Private Sector Participation As set forth in the national SWM strategy (2000). with a design capacity of 2. Annex 5 illustrates the current and expected finance and cost recovery system. • Implementing capacity building programs for inspectors. treatment and disposal is 100 – 110 LE in Greater Cairo and Alexandria. the government rushed for the privatization of the sector. Finance and Cost Recovery The central government doesn’t allocate a budget for MSWM. with a transport distance of 50 – 60 kilometer. their budgets are limited and their budgetary allocations for MSWM depend on their resources and priorities. Two projects are currently receiving carbon credits through CDM: The Egyptian Company for Solid Waste Utilization (ECARU) through managing a composting and sorting facility for the southern zone of Cairo.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT Waste treatment planning • Selection and approval of five new locations outside Greater Cairo residential and commercial belt to establish new sanitary landfills.g. representing about 60 -65% of the cost recovered. 3. which amends Law 38/1967 on Public Cleanliness. Thus the total cost per ton will increase from 100 – 110 to about 250 LE. • Design and construction of two new transfer stations to be determined.000 tons/day in the first stage. Recently. • Construction of composting plants at the locations of the new landfills for recycling the organic waste and allowing further waste treatment technologies (e. The Egyptian People’s Assembly issued Law 10/2005 for solid waste collection fee on the electricity bill. based on the following cost per ton: collection. 0. transportation. treatment and disposal. for collection and disposal.

the delegation of SWM services to international companies is facing some difficulties: • Conflicts rose between some international companies and authorities in charge of administrating the contracts over interpretations of the contracts. community awareness. access to strategy by the institutional practitioners is not ensured and thus capacity building and awareness programs are needed. • Currently. to be implemented by the private sector in Helwan Governorate. Moreover. the cost per ton for collection and street sweeping. Public Awareness and Community Participation Even though EEAA. transport. transaction. coordination with local authorities. It will handle 2. However. The study will cover the following: evaluation of the existing PSP experience in the sector and lessons learnt. is in the pre-tendering phase. sorting and recycling. The project involves an advanced waste sorting line and two waste-to-energy units. 20 . and recommendations for a strategic plan to enhance PSP efficiency. these laws were not sufficiently coordinated among concerned ministries and consequently were not attractive to investors. In other Governorates. evaluation of the current procedures and management capacity for PSP planning. and the values of social insurance premiums for employees that companies had to pay. treatment and disposal is 100 – 110 LE and only 60 LE in other governorates. monitoring and supervision.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT Some local private companies. the quality of the services by the private sector depends on the service provider. NGOs or to the informal sector ‘zabballeen’ to perform collection. The Government introduced investment laws to facilitate importing and manufacturing solid waste equipment.3. The Egyptian Company for Solid Waste Utilization (ECARU). Ama-Arab and Misr Service lease 10. 4 and 1 composting production lines. analysis of the current policy and legal framework. governorates and municipalities’ officials are well aware of the national strategy for IMSWM. etc. tendering and implementation. as indicated in section 3. respectively2. which is generally provided by the informal sector “zabbaleen” and some private companies. The first waste-to-energy project in Egypt. the majority of the public lack environmental ethics and awareness on the proper disposal of solid waste and the dangers that stem from disposal in open dumps. • After the first wave of privatization. the municipalities can delegate SWM services to small private companies. • Citizens prefer the door-to-door collection system of household waste.400 tons of waste. Zabbaleen and NGOs working with them were ignored in the planning phase of privatization. in Greater Cairo and Alexandria.6. Public awareness and community participation are considered as a key factor for establishing an effective SWM system. location of implementation. were contracted to collect and transfer household and commercial waste as well. 3. the authorities started privatizing their 49 composting plants including 88 production lines. The private sector participation is thought to be successful in Alexandria and the municipality in Qena Governorate. Moreover. In other Governorates. late payments to the companies. representing 70% of the daily generated waste in the governorate. the World Bank – PPIAF Program (Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility) supports the development of a private sector participation (PSP) strategy in the SWM sector in Egypt. structuring. such as Misr Service. etc. These low contract values lead to poor services that don’t meet citizens’ expectations. by leasing non-operating facilities to private sector companies. Moreover. Europa 2000 and Elfostat2. After privatization of the SWM sector. some unsuccessful attempts were made to contain them within the private companies. At present. the process is now stagnant.

workshops and on-the-job training on recycling activities were provided to interested staff at the governorates. MSEA’s efforts are scattered and limited.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT Awareness actions within the SWM sector Currently. municipalities. procedures. cleansing authorities. organizations and citizens involved in SWM. custom designed training programs on selection of transfer station and sanitary landfill locations were directed to the staff of the engineering departments at the governorates and Cairo and Giza cleansing and beautification authorities. etc. Through this process. both with regard to the number of personnel available as well as the expertise of the existing staff. public associations. Moreover. compiling a database of waste related capacity building programs. there is no formal communication strategy to raise awareness and community participation within the SWM sector. the capacity building needs of each organization and its personnel would be identified in accordance with their responsibilities. The prior formation of a public awareness and communications team in Alexandria Governorate facilitated the SWM privatization. reduction of generated quantities of waste. including tools. Furthermore.7. EEAA provided numerous training workshops on ISWM and hazardous waste management for the personnel working in those fields. Annex 8 illustrates examples of the required training and capacity building programs. manuals and guidelines). The public should also be informed in advance of the fees they are expected to pay and any plans to change the method of collection or the magnitude of the service. A national capacity building program and action plan are needed to integrate the technical. Furthermore. Capacity Building and Training Requirements There is currently insufficient SWM capacity. Analysis of capacity building needs is required for different institutions and other stakeholders. nationally and internationally is needed. Another series of training workshops in the field of inspection and monitoring of SWM services were directed at governorates’ employees. youth centres and schools in the creation of a generalized public conscience on SWM issues is of crucial importance. 21 . Awareness programs on HHW and electrical and electronic waste “e-waste” management are urgently needed. It is important to mount a strong public awareness campaign on the impact of different types of wastes on human health and environment and to inform citizens of their legal responsibilities and associated penalties for violations. 3. public awareness campaigns should be directed to encourage at-source segregation of wastes. The team aided in developing a unit that coordinated efforts between a range of agencies. its environmental side effects and potential benefits. processes and tools (e. Annex 7 illustrates examples of public awareness and community participation programs and activities with reference to SWM. clubs. and the staff of the environmental management units at the governorates. Moreover. and the necessary capacity for implementing a sound national ISWM program. This team established goals and strategic programs to support the Governorate. in terms of their current capacity. Awareness actions to citizens The active participation of NGOs. NGOs and zabbeleen. and promote information on recycling activities.g. conceptual and social skills required to facilitate multi-stakeholder participation.

COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT 3. in addition to a national private company. there is broad experience in the field of municipal solid waste recycling in general and specifically in the composting industry. Furthermore.8. Egypt can actively provide technical expertise to SWEEP-Net in the fore-mentioned fields. the Egyptian Company for Solid Waste Utilization (ECARU). Networking In Egypt. which has large national. research institutes and experts that have extensive experience in the field of hazardous waste management and can provide assistance to SWEEP-Net partner countries in that field. Egypt has a wide base of universities. 22 . regional and international experience in sorting municipal solid waste and composting its organic portion. A group of experts have broad knowledge in these fields.

Country Fact Sheets. • Policies adopted for hazardous waste generators include: . 8. . identification & characterization. . Country Fact Sheet. these guidelines covers: transportation. • EEAA has recently adopted some guidelines for the overall hazardous waste management system in addition to that adopted by the Basel Convention.000 ton/year. Egypt.National Strategy for Cleaner Production. among them: • The absence of the obligation of a periodic registration. 6. location of dumping or treatment methods.National Environmental Action Plan 2002-2017. • MSEA in coordination with concerned ministries drafted a future vision and plan for the sound and safety management of hazardous wastes in accordance with procedures highlighted by the law 4/1994 and its executive regulations. • Law 9/2009 amended Law 4/1994 and regulates collection. INDUSTRIaL aND HaZaRDOUS WaSTE MaNaGEMENT Industrial and hazardous waste generation There are no accurate measures of the annual industrial hazardous waste generated in Egypt. article 1 (1) a Annex I : Y1-Y45 23 .Reduction of hazardous waste at source. sources. • The lack of the contractor or importer obligation to keep a wastes’ record illustrating the nature. Moreover.Identification of hazardous waste. quantities. .Reporting on generation of hazardous waste. type. treatment and disposal of hazardous waste (Articles 29 – 33). permitting system. .Safe on-site storage of hazardous waste.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT 4.National Strategy for Waste Management. Policy framework The national strategies/policies for reduction and/or elimination of hazardous waste (HW) generation are8: • Strategies related to the environmentally sound management of HW have been adopted . recycle and final disposal. surveillance and control of all the staff working in handling hazardous wastes. Legal framework The legislation and guidelines on Hazardous waste management are the following. • Egyptian Environmental Law No. number of collecting times and transportation methods. However. the total amount of hazardous wastes generated is 200. on-site interim storage.2 million tons of industrial waste is generated annually2. . according to Basel Convention.Labeling of hazardous waste. . The legal framework is not free of deficiencies. Egypt8. . 4/1994 and its executive regulations present the overall legal framework for hazardous waste management.Basel Convention.On-site treatment of hazardous waste.

inorganic hazardous waste storage area and organic hazardous waste transfer station.000 cubic meter. 2007-2013. • Absence of environmental auditing on hazardous waste producing plants. • The slack way that Environmental Legislation is enforced in Egypt. • Growth in the ICT sector in Egypt exceeds 20% during 2007 and 2008 and expected to be 15% for 2009 due to the global financial crisis.g. • The number of internet subscribers reached 13 Millions in March 2009. • Need of training on integrated management of hazardous waste. etc. • Absence of an institutional structure (e. under the Naserya project (a joint effort between EEAA.000 different substances including toxic heavy metals and organics which can pose serious environmental pollution problem upon irresponsible disposal. • Lack of awareness of hazardous waste management. The project consists of a landfill of 14. E-waste has been identified as the fastest growing waste stream in the world.) consisting of the stakeholders responsible of hazardous waste management. The problems facing hazardous waste management are9: • Insufficient hazardous waste treatment units and insufficient trained staff. Ministerial Committee. a physical-chemical treatment plant for inorganic liquid hazardous waste and a solidification unit. 9. Egypt. Basel convention Regional Center for training and Technology Transfer for the Arab States. and to 44 Millions in 2009.000 square meters area designed in accordance with the international standards. The annual capacity of the physical-chemical treatment plant is 4. • Lack of technical and financial support to hazardous waste management plant at Nassreya Alexandria.EU. Governorate of Alexandria and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland). particularly for the provision of oil/water separating unit to handle the waste from petroleum plants in Alexandria. 24 .3 Millions in 2001 to approximately 24 Millions in 2007. BCRC-Egypt E-waste Activities .COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT • The lack of the contractor obligation to maintain integrated accurate information network showing the locations assigned for disposal of wastes and. Annex 3: Egypt Environment Profile 10.2006-2009. • The absence of incentives in the law to motivate establishments to reduce their rates of waste generation and to practice recycling . Industrial and hazardous waste management The first treatment facility for hazardous waste in Egypt. was formed in Alexandria in 2000. E-waste management Electric and electronic equipment contain over 1. E-waste status in Egypt10 : • The number of mobile phone subscribers increased from 4.Hani Moubasher.. Country Strategy Paper.

and owners. • Few collection programs for end of life mobile phone batteries were initiated by local mobile operators but not publicly propagated. • Legislative framework for e-waste management that incorporates responsibilities to importers. manufacturers. • An e-waste forum initiated by Egypt Cleaner Production Center and the regional organizations CEDARE and BCRC-Egypt was established. • Need to enhance and collect accurate data on quantities and types of e-waste generated and appear in waste streams. recycling. • Need to identify recycling technologies for known e-waste stream. • Need to develop a proper collection. In 2010. transportation. • No records regarding e-waste generation rates are available. and exporting or disposal system. • In 2007. • An inter-ministerial committee with members from the private sector and national and regional organizations is formed and is currently discussing a roadmap for e-waste management in Egypt. • Need to enhance participation of the concerned stakeholders in e-waste management. another decree was issued that reduced it to 3 years. the Minister of Trade and Industry issued a decree prohibiting importing personal computers that are older than 5 years (it was 10 years before). Problems Facing E-Waste Management10: • Awareness for e-wastes and its possible impacts.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT • Import of used personal computers and CRT monitors has increased dramatically since 2001 (the number increased approximately 6-8 times in five years). • Need to build local capacity/experts on e-waste management. generation rates and impact scenarios should be the alarming vehicle for awareness. 25 .

“Essential Steps for Preparing a Plan for Medical Waste Management in Healthcare Units”.000 tons. 11. As a result of the expansion in using incineration systems for disposal of medical waste. The annual total waste generated from healthcare facilities is 160. Detailed Information on Selected Country: Egypt 26 . It drops significantly in rural areas where only 25% of all healthcare facilities manage healthcare waste in a safe and appropriate manner12. EEAA cooperates with Ministry of Health to implement the integrated management program for hazardous wastes generated from healthcare activities. A national scientific committee that includes members from MoH. The legal framework is quite comprehensive in the area of medical waste management. Moreover. MEDICaL WaSTE MaNaGEMENT At the national level. 413 & 343/1996 and 192/2001. 80% of all healthcare facilities). collection. MSEA validated and set maximum limits for emissions from medical waste incineration units and published them in the amended copy of the Executive Regulations of Law 4/1994 to avoid air pollution. Moreover. The level of compliance to these regulations is on the whole good in urban areas (approx. Guidelines for preparing a plan for medical waste management in healthcare units were prepared. and final disposal processes) and safe sharps disposal.000 tons are infectious medical waste2. Disposal is commonly conducted by incineration systems (151 units) or by shredding and autoclaving sterilization (48 units) in health care facilities. MoH supports Health Directorates in each governorate with vehicles to transport medical infectious wastes form the point source to the disposal facility. of which 40. the Environmental Health Department within the Ministry of Health (MoH) is in charge of healthcare waste management issues. Funds allocated both from the Government and the private sector are not sufficient to carry out all the tasks that are required to manage healthcare waste in a safe and sustainable way throughout the country. six private companies are currently working in integrated medical waste management (Annex 10). EEAA and Universities provides technical and scientific guidance and advice. Healthcare Waste Management. The difference is non-medical waste of similar composition to household waste.WHO. MSEA issued an operational manual guide for medical waste incinerators. transfer.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT 5.Gehad Abo-El Atta. 2004 12. Law 4/1994 for the protection of the environment outlines the regulation. Moreover. the national guidelines for infection control11 prepared by MoH include two chapters covering medical waste management (segregation at source. in addition to MoH decrees 82/1996.

• Allocating an annual budget by the central Government for the SWM sector until a sufficient cost recovery mechanism is achieved. Options for improvement and development of the sector are : Strategy and Planning • Developing and implementing a national policy aiming to reduce waste generation. establish transfer stations. improve collection and transfer. Finance and Cost Recovery • Application of the polluter pays principle. • Establishing a national capacity building program and action plan to integrate the technical. Private Sector Participation • Adapting suitable mechanisms to enhance private sector participation in the ISWM system. which is a main policy of the national strategy. 27 . implementation. conceptual and social skills required to facilitate multi-stakeholder participation. Training and Capacity Building • Implementation of capacity building and training programs for the governorates’ staff in planning. contracting. • Implementation of training programs for human resource development of the labor responsible for maintenance and repair of equipment. • Improving managerial and marketing staff skills. which is another policy of the strategy. OPTIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT aND DEVELOPMENT The SWM sector suffers from several problems. Legal Framework • Establishing a national SWM law. • Budgetary allocation of investments to remove waste accumulations. • Finding a suitable mechanism to integrate the informal sector “zabbaleen” in the privatization process. • Exploring and enacting the potential revenue deriving systems from the existing 49 government-owned composting facilities after their rehabilitation. Supporting SWM projects that reduce emissions of Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) to receive carbon credits. recycling centers and sanitary landfills. in addition to the extended producer responsibility principle. recommended by the strategic framework for enhancing solid waste recycling. monitoring and follow up of SWM services. • Establishing a national program for source separation. in each governorate. for the SWM with specific roles and responsibilities. • Applying accurate techniques for measuring the annual generated quantities of the different types of waste.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT 6. Management and Monitoring • Establishing a monitoring and evaluation system. using the CDM/PCF and GEF mechanisms.

through the introduction of efficient and cost-effective systems for dealing with large volumes of solid waste. disposal and treatment of domestic. Waste Valorisation • Developing the recycling sector by establishing central recycling centers on the national level and setting up national standards for the recycling industries and products. with the objective of improving the safety and quality of life for the populations concerned. One of the components of the European Neighbourhood Policy (ENP) of the joint EU-Egypt Action Plan (AP). The specific objectives of the program are: improved SWM including collection. and adapting source separation and source reduction mechanisms. Approximately 20 million Euro are allocated towards the start of the programming period13. industrial and agricultural waste. is a program (2011-2013) focusing on the implementation of the national strategy for integrated municipal solid waste management. 13. • Extending SWM services in the rural areas as a priority and involving NGOs and local contractors • Reducing the gap between the current performance and the strategy targets by: improving the collection coverage. and increased coordination with all relevant stakeholders. including private sector. using proper treatment technologies.An indicative program 28 . • Adapting new waste utilization technologies such as biogas and waste-to-energy projects • Establishing recycling centres for e-waste. sustainable country-wide waste management policies and related institutional structures. enhancing waste recovery procedures. recycling. closing the existing dumping sites and establishing sanitary landfills for disposal.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT SWM Enhancement • Increasing the efforts of removing the accumulated solid waste in rural and urban areas. Public Awareness • Establishing a communication strategy and action plan to raise awareness and community participation. • Launching public media campaigns to raise awareness on hazardous household waste and e-waste.

8. informal sector. The network would enhance the knowledge and skills of SWM institutions and practitioners through dissemination of information and promotion of exchanges and partnerships among SWM entities at the national and regional levels. Taking this into consideration. Further planning and studies should build on the projects already accomplished in that field. Annex 11 illustrates a chronological survey of the projects financed by international donor agencies. This network would support entities working in SWM and promote development of environment-friendly waste management.). The proposed national network would consolidate solid waste management related policies. The goal of initiating the national network is to provide a quick and easy access to SWM information for main areas of interest (polices. etc. private sector participation. strategies. Many of Egypt’s donors collaborate either in technical areas or in programs and project finance. institutional framework. planning. OPPORTUNITIES OF NETWORKING aND PaRTNERSHIP SWEEP-Net had the initiative of creating a regional network for SWM. etc. community participation & awareness. in a reliable common environment accessible to SWM practitioners and stakeholders in Egypt. recovery. 29 .COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT 7. programs. as each one of these projects has made considerable contribution to the problem of SWM in Egypt. there is an emerging need for building a national network to consolidate information on SWM from different institutions and practitioners which at the end will be Egypt’s contribution to SWEEPNet. composting. NGOs working in waste management. recycling. action plans. reuse. policy advice and technical expertise in planning and implementation of specific projects. finance & cost recovery. Such contribution may have regional dimension to other countries that may transfer and/or adapt this system. The network will address technical assistance and support that could facilitate the investment opportunities in Egypt and regionally. In General. Donor agencies have a significant role in supporting Egypt’s efforts in the solid waste sector. Such support takes many forms including provision of some financing. documentation. it is too difficult to axis data and information related to the SWM sector in Egypt. Developing a national network is a national priority that reflects a national critical demand. TECHNICaL aSSISTaNCE PaRTNERS aND DONORS Egypt receives financial assistance from many foreign governments and multilateral agencies.

• Developing a set of indicators to assess the network progress. Governorate 1. • Disseminating information and relevant reports. areas of expertise and any relevant information about institutions and practitioners involved in SWM.… Rep SWMSP2 Free Lancers NGO-2 Rep. etc). • Establishing Egyptian SWM knowledge hub. donor representatives. other stakeholders and the regional SWEEP-Net. terms of reference.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT The objectives of the network are: • Establishing SWM think tank (steering committee. information providers. … Rep. members. • Sharing technical expertise. 2. educational resources and opportunities between network members and organizations. SWMSP1 Consultancy Firms NGO-1 Rep. • Preparing. Chart) Network Coordinator Network Consultant Information Officer MSEA Representative(s) Governmental Representatives SWM Service Providers Consultants NGO Team MSEA Sectors Ministry-1. sharing. regular meetings. • Creation of a shared electronic environment. 30 . The expected outputs of the network are: • Enhancing connections and communication between members. information.2. Figure 3: Proposed Network Structure (Org. maintaining a database of contacts.

etc in addition to the copyrights and ownership of shared/produced information. memberships. thus wasting their time and effort.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT • Regular meetings discussing common solid waste issues.. Targeted information shall be created based on the definition of focus groups. structures. “Operational Guidelines” that define the workflow. processes. etc.). private companies. MSEA. activities and actions. an information officer. that should be agreed before network startup. • Providing awareness programs for improving the SWM sector (such as source separation and source reduction) within this website. Within this plan. stakeholders recommended to be hosted by the organization of the national coordinator of SWEEP-Net in Egypt. responsibilities. the team can be expanded. medical waste. municipalities. representatives of MSEA’s sectors. consultants. On discussing the legal status of the network. municipal waste. etc. then based on needs and with the development of the network. full terms of reference governing the network shall be published including: “Guiding Principles” in which ethical values and principles of collaboration between members are written down. There is no defined funding model for the network at the moment. The proposed initial structure of the network is shown in the Figure 3. however. • Creation of a website serving the network purposes.g. Before network startup. The main roles of those representatives are being the bridgehead for communications with their organizations. This plan should include: objectives. etc. the normal dayto-day activities are listed. beautification and cleansing authorities. focus groups shall be created inside the network in order to cope with this situation and to avoid sharing of irrelevant information with some members. governorates. 31 . planning network activities. activities and supporting the members with all needed information and references. time plan. sharing success stories.). e-waste. and responsibilities.g. technical support and training programs. etc. A detailed operational plan should be developed prior to network startup. required outcomes. and representatives of other related ministries. major industrial firms interested in waste management. a consultant. the support for covering the cost of planned activities in Egypt can be obtained from one or more from the following entities: national donors (e. • Adding discussion forums or blogs on the internet for members to post their thoughts or questions where others can give their input. As there will be different stakeholders and contributors interested in different SWM fields (e. The proposed core team consists of: a network coordinator. and international donors. NGOs. The core team of the national network can basically start with limited number of members. telecom operators interested in e-waste management. research institutes. ministries. This website should be linked to SWEEP-Net. industrial hazardous wastes. • Providing technical assistance.

The anticipated technical support and capacity building requirements from SWEEP-Net are: • Providing logistical support to the national network to the extent possible.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT 9. • Providing technical support to fill the gaps identified by the national network in the SWM sector. • Providing technical support for the national network to prepare and implement programs for raising awareness and capacity development. • Designing and regularly updating training manuals and/or guidelines that cover the different disciplines of the SWM sector. • Pursuing initiatives. 32 . • Providing technical support for training activities and further refinements of the manuals developed by the national network experts. • Providing technical assistance and support for workshops and seminars to be presented by the national network. NEEDS FOR TECHNICaL SUPPORT aND CaPaCITY BUILDING SWEEP-Net has been established to support entities working in SWM and promote development of environment-friendly waste management. • Providing technical support for developing a central national database that covers the SWM sector activities. and providing technical support for the national network where needed.

using two special trucks designed for transporting hazardous waste. Alexandria Governorate formed a Hazardous Waste Management Unit (HWMU) to operate the center in 2000. CaSE STUDIES. evaporation ponds with an area of 5.000 square meters designed in accordance with the European standards. and a laboratory. treatment methods. • Human resource development and capacity building is essential for the staff working in hazardous waste management. transportation and treatment of hazardous waste. However. 2005. Lessons learned: • The early decisions of the governorate to establish the hazardous waste management unit that will operate the center and to provide extensive training courses to its staff were the cornerstones for the success of the project. organic hazardous waste transfer station. particularly for the provision of the oil/water separating unit that handles the waste from petroleum plants in Alexandria7. etc.000 square meter for leachate from the landfill. physicalchemical treatment unit. and opposition to the high cost for treatment. solidification and stabilization unit. • The center provides collection and transportation of hazardous waste. • The facility is designed for treatment of inorganic hazardous waste and consists of: a landfill area of 14. • The agreement for phase I of the project was signed in February 1999. September 2003. as industries were slacking in sending their waste to the center. Moreover.130 tons of waste for treatment. • The polluter pays principle had been adopted from the beginning of operations. and carries all safety equipment and labeling required by law 4/1994 for the protection of the environmental and its amendment. and April 2006 for capacity building. 33 . Governorate of Alexandria and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland are the counterparts in Nasreya hazardous waste management project. tailored training programs are provided to inspection and enforcement civil servants. • In 2009.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT 10. insufficient enforcement of law 4/1994 and its amendment law 9/2009. Nasreya’s landfill received 2. The programs cover legislation. • The center lacks technical and financial support. Phase II of the project was commenced in October 2003 and the center operation began on June 29. authorities and NGOs. on handling. identification of hazardous waste. • The centre organizes training programs to representatives from industry. • Training courses were provided to the HWMU personnel in Finland and Switzerland in November 2000. BEST PRaCTICES AND LESSONS LEaRNED Example: Industrial Hazardous Waste Management Project: Nasreya Industrial Hazardous Waste Treatment Center at Alexandria Background: • EEAA. This may be due to: lack of awareness. • Need for strong awareness campaign directed to the industrial sector on the activities and services provided by the center. between the Governments of Finland and Egypt. located nearby Bourg El Arab. inorganic hazardous waste storage area. direct investment costs are not compensated by the treatment price. Law 9/2009.

nasreya. (http://www. Nasreya Industrial Hazardous Waste Treatment Center. • Increase awareness of the industrial sector about the activities and services provided by Nasreya center.com/english/for%20more%20details%20About%20Project. Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency. Waste Management Central Department. References: 1.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT Recommendations: • Initiating a mechanism for the continuous technical and financial support for the center. • Extending the activities of the center to include collection. (EEAA) 34 .htm) 2. • Enforcement of law 4/1994 for the protection of the environmental and its amendment Law 9/2009 to persuade industries to treat and dispose their hazardous waste. treatment and disposal of e-waste and acid batteries.

raise awareness. establishing a legal framework. • Separating the monitoring units from the contracting authorities in order to control fines and assure its automatic recording.2 Medium Term “3-5 Years” • Completing the removal of accumulated waste at the governorates. • Establishing five new sanitary landfills outside Greater Cairo residential and commercial belt. • Improving collection and treatment of MSW. aNaLYSIS aND PRIORITIES FOR aCTION 11. • Accurate measure of the annual generated quantities of the different types of waste. • Achieving good results for source separation of waste. • Establishing an e-waste management program. • Establishing two transfer stations and recycling centers. • Improving collection and treatment of MSW. For example. to a system for accounting based on cost/ton. 35 . • Adapting new technologies to generate the revenue to meet the budget deficit. • Improving the current infrastructure as shown in Table 5. in Cairo and Giza. • Providing sustainable solutions for the projected infrastructure. • Supporting e-waste management activities (assessment of annual generation. 11.1 Short Term “1-3 Years” • Modifying the contracts with the private companies. and increasing the contract values. etc). • Closing all the open and controlled dumping sites as well as the landfill present at a part of El-Wafaa Wal-Amal. • Closing all open-dumping sites in the governorates and establishing controlled dumping sites as a transition stage till sanitary landfills are set up. waste-toenergy and biogas projects can be implemented.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT 11. • Encouraging source separation of waste. The monitoring system will record any violations as photos and send them to the service companies.

Searching for external funding and national budgetary allocation Priority For Action 3-5 years .Capacity building and training Enhancing the involvement of the private sector. Giza and Alexandria Re-initiating the involvement of the private sector. and exporting or disposal 36 .Modifying the contracts with the private companies in all governorates . waste-to-energy and waste-to-energy and biogas biogas projects projects Private Sector Participation 9 Service companies.Adapting new technologies .COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT Table 5: ISWM Priorities for Action ISWM Component Policy/Legal/ Institutional Status .Assessment of annual generation of e-waste . as.Establishing transfer stations. capacity building of employees at the plants. currently working in Cairo. transportation.Placement of collection bins for different types of waste . E-Waste Management Lack of e-waste generation assessment. . recycling.Providing training programs for labor . management program and awareness Establishing an e-waste management program for collection. including 3 international companies.Scattered laws and regulations for SWM Financing/Cost Recovery A gap of roughly 35% exist between finance and cost recovery Priority For Action 1-3 years . and adaptation of environmental management systems. both nationally and internationally in all governorates Enhancing awareness and community participation Public Awareness/ Poor media coverage Community of the issue and limited Participation community participation Infrastructure Lack of suitable infrastructure for implementing ISWM programs Establishing a suitable repair and maintenance program in order to improve sustainability Green House Gases Emissions and Management 2 companies are receiving carbon credits Applying for carbon credits. recycling centers and landfills Rehabilitation of composting plants.Searching for external funding and national budgetary allocation .Establishing a legal framework .Out-dated contracts with private companies .Providing suitable transportation and handling equipment for the waste .Raising awareness and community participation .Adapting new technologies to generate revenue such to generate revenue such as.Modifying the contracts with the private companies in Greater Cairo . legislative framework.Establishing a national SWM law in order to organize the sector . both nationally and internationally in priority Governorates Establishing and implementing a communication strategy to raise awareness and community participation .Implementation of the SWM law .

COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT annexeS 37 .

Based on and including updates. disposal Delegates responsibility for physical and social infrastructure to city councils Ministry of Water Resources and Irrigation. Article 1 Presidential Decree 284/1983 Municipal solid waste Domestic and municipal waste Policy/regulatory Operations and types Operations and types Policy/regulatory Policy/regulatory and types Collection of garbage and solid Establishing Cairo and Giza wastes and their disposal in Beautification and Cleansing special areas Authorities Waste collection. transfer and disposal Waste collection. 2000 Prime Minister’s Decree 1741/2005 amending Decree 338/1995 Domestic. transfer. Executive regulations (MoH134/1968) Waste types addressed Solid waste from residential. disposal People’s Assembly EEAA (mainly). transfer and disposal Institutional roles addressed Ministry of Housing Financing and cost recovery provisions General budget. Ministry of Health and Population Waste collection. treatment. “Table 2: SWM Legal framework”. municipal and industrial wastes Policy/regulatory operations and types Waste disposal Presidential Decree 272/1982 (PD 272/1982). Country Report: Egypt.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT annex 1: SWM Legal Framework14 SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS Type of Instrument Environment and other Laws Name of Instrument Law 38/1967 on General Public Cleaning. treatment and disposal Regulations for identification and selection of sites for municipal waste recycling and landfilling and equipment requirements for waste collection and transfer Transferred jurisdiction for general cleaning from the Ministry of Housing to local administrative units Domestic. disposal Waste collection Regulations for selection of sites for recycling and landfilling and equipment requirements for waste collection and transfer Waste collection entities Local Council Collection of SWM fee on the electricity bill Prime Minister’s Decree 338/1995 Cabinet Decree. enforcement/monitoring Waste collection. commercial and industrial establishments and wastewater Functional responsibilities addressed Policy/regulatory. page 9. monitoring Hazardous waste management Policy/regulatory Hazardous waste collection. Ministry of Housing (for selecting disposal sites) Collection fee depending on area of residence and income level Law 48/1982 for the Protection of the River Nile and Waterways against Pollution Law 4/1994 for the Protection of the Environment Law 10/2005 for Public Cleanliness amending Law 38/1967 Law 9/2009 amending Law 4/1994 for the Protection of the Environment Decree Ministry of Housing Decree 134/1968. fee on building inhabitants of not more than 2% of their rent and fines collected for violation of the law Other Law 31/1976 amending Law 38/1967 Law 43/1979 Domestic. municipal and hazardous wastes All solid waste types Policy/regulatory Enforcement. implementing Law 38 / 1967 Municipal. municipal and hazardous waste All solid waste types Municipal waste 14 . monitoring Policy/regulatory Waste collection fee on the electricity bill Enforcement. municipal and industrial wastes Domestic. METAP. treatment. municipal and industrial wastes Policy/regulatory Operations and types Policy/regulatory. industrial waste Policy/regulatory Waste disposal Domestic. enforcement/monitoring Waste management system components addressed Waste collection. 2004 38 39 .

) EEAA Guidelines for selection sites for recycling and treatment facilities EEAA Guidelines for Landfill Municipal waste Municipal waste Policy/regulatory Policy/regulatory All solid waste types Policy/regulatory Waste disposal 40 41 . treatment Ministry of Housing. Local Council. draft regulation. etc. EEAA Ministry of Housing. Bill.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT ELEMENTS Type of Instrument Decree Name of Instrument Governor of Cairo Decree 4775/2009 Waste types addressed Municipal waste Functional responsibilities addressed Policy/regulatory Waste management system components addressed Waste monitoring unit Institutional roles addressed Transferring the units from Cleansing and Beautification Authorities to the General Department for follow-up at Cairo Municipality Transferring all dumping sites and the landfill out of Greater Cairo Recycling. EEAA Financing and cost recovery provisions Other Presidential Decree 86/2010 Other (Policy. Local Council.

sorting and/or recycling of municipal waste.1: Solid Waste Management Stakeholders. sorting. The Middle East and North Africa Region. training and human resource development. monitoring and inspection Implementation of the system. action plans. sorting and recycling SWM projects including collection. transportation. legislations. Utilities & Urban Development Ministry of Trade & Industry Ministry of Health Ministry of Local Development MSEA/EEAA Municipalities Cleansing and Beautification Authorities International Private Companies National Private Companies Informal Sector “Zabbaleen” NGOs 15. published in April 2005 42 . strategies. Arab Republic of Egypt. sorting. guidelines for planning. monitoring and inspection for agricultural waste in cooperation/coordination with MSEA/EEAA All of the above for construction and demolition waste in cooperation/ coordination with MSEA/EEAA All of the above for industrial waste in cooperation/coordination with MSEA/EEAA All of the above for healthcare waste in cooperation/coordination with MSEA/EEAA All of the above for all types of waste in cooperation/coordination with MSEA/EEAA All of the above for all types of waste Local Governorates Setting regional strategies and action plans. training and human resource development. contracting and management. treatment. training and human resource development. monitoring and inspection Implementation of the system. implementation. recycling and/or disposal of municipal and healthcare waste Household waste collection. recycling and disposal of municipal and healthcare waste SWM projects including collection.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT annex 2: Institutional Framework 15 Institution Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation Function and mandates National Setting national policies. projects for improving the livelihoods of the Zabbaleen Ministry of Housing. implementation of the system. transportation.Based on Table 5. transportation. monitoring and inspection ISWM projects including collection. treatment. training and human resource development. Water and Environment Department. page 66. Country Environmental Analysis (19922002). transportation. the World Bank.

The facility features waste sorting for recovery of recyclables and aerobic composting of organic waste. registered by the Executive Board of the UNFCCC. reducing the amount of methane and other greenhouses gases caused by landfill. The Social Fund for Development is financing micro recycling projects either through 100% grant or loan with subsidized interest. First greenhouse gas emission reductions purchase in Egypt for a municipal solid waste composting project at Cairo Southern Zone composting and sorting facility. page 15. follow-up privatization efforts at the different governorates.266 tCO2eq over the crediting period starting the 1st January 2006 ending the 31st December 2015. managed by the WB.480 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent greenhouse gas emission reductions to the Carbon Fund for Europe. Estimate total emission reductions to be realized are 3. METAP. for inorganic waste. Landfill Gas Capture and Flaring Project at Borg El Arab and El Hammam landfills. of which 41 accepted by inter-ministerial national committee. Establishing Nasreya hazardous waste treatment center in Alexandria consisting of a physicalchemical treatment unit. 2004 43 . only 6 landfills are operating now and 3 under construction. sorting and/or recycling) and adopt programs for improving the livelihoods of the Zabbaleen. and 12 to be finalized. sorting and/or recycling. Country Report: Egypt. Solid waste recycling is considered to be a priority in solid waste management. Hazardous waste handling. The project reduces the fugitive emissions of methane. pilot projects for source segregation of household waste were implemented in limited areas of Egypt. Community Waste Management The number of constructed composting plants are 88. The People’s Assembly issued a law for collection of cleaning fees depending on area of residence and income level. transfer. Siting of facilities gives effect to need for composting expressed in national SWM strategy. transfer. transfer. Social Fund for Development. action plans and priorities16 Waste Management components Policy/Institutional Nature of Strategy/ Priority Introduction of economic incentives for the MSW management services. However. treatment and landfilling.Based on and including updates. Articulation of Strategy/Priority Ministerial Decree Finance/Cost Recovery Private Sector Participation Law 10/2005 The Government of Egypt issued international tenders The establishment of a ministerial to privatize solid waste services in a Alexandria and SWM committee to facilitate and Cairo. Moreover. 16.715. There is need to integrate the informal sector in the privatization mechanism of the sector.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT annex 3: Strategies. and a solidification unit to match landfill criteria for hazardous waste. System/ Technologies The Government of Egypt had identified 53 landfill sites. a greenhouse gas which contributes to global warming and climate change. The informal sector “Zabbaleen” perform door-todoor collection of household waste. Some NGOs work in SWM (collection. Selling 325. “Table 4: Strategies and Priorities”. This included a tax break for at least 5 years and exemption of custom duties for equipment used in waste management services.

6 million Start Date: 2003 – Duration of Contract: 15 years Annual contract value: LE 107.Duration of Contract: 5 years Annual contract value at start of service: LE 36 million Start Date: 2003 – Duration of Contract: 15 years MSW/Giza Annual contract value at start of service: LE 44.2 million Start Date:2007 . Country Report: Egypt.1 million Start Date:2004 .Duration of Contract: 7 years MSW/Cairo MSW/Giza Annual contract value: LE 13. Composting & Sanitary Landfilling Project for Cairo South District General Cleansing Project for El-Marg and Part of El-Nahda Integrated Solid Waste Management Project for Giza Urban District I Integrated Solid Waste Management Project for Giza Urban District II Integrated Solid Waste Management Project – Alexandria Integrated Solid Waste Management Project – Aswan Integrated Solid Waste Management Project – Suez Projected investment requirement LE 200 million as capital investment and LE 1.Based on and including updates.1 million Start Date: 2003 – Duration of Contract: 15 years Annual contract value: LE 16. “Table 3: Solid Waste Management Planning and Investment Programmes”. page 12.9 million Start Date: 2003 – Duration of Contract: 15 years MSW/ Alexandria MSW/Aswan Annual contract value: LE 115 million Start Date: 2002 – Duration of Contract: 15 years Annual contract value at start of service: LE 9 million Start Date: 2003 – Duration of Contract: 15 years MSW/Seuz Annual contract value at start of service: LE 9 million Start Date: 2003 – Duration of Contract: 15 years * The National and Governorates projected investment requirements and the contract values were updated and two companies were added 17.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT annex 4: Solid Waste Management Planning and Investment Programs17 Planned investments* Institutional level National Action Municipal solid waste management program (EEAA . METAP.050 million annual operating costs LE 100 million as capital investment and LE 150 million annual operating costs LE 700 million projected as annual operating cost LE 250 million projected as annual operating cost LE 100 million projected as annual operating cost Investment commitments Investment commitment LE 370 million as capital investment Annual contract value: LE 94. 2004 44 .Ministry of Local Development – Ministry of Finance .Governorates) Agriculture waste management program (Ministry of Agriculture and Land Reclamation) Governorate Integrated Solid Waste Management Project for First Priority Governorates Integrated Solid Waste Management Project for Second Priority Governorates Integrated Solid Waste Management Project for Third Priority Governorates Sector/ locality Health Care/ National MSW/Cairo MSW/Cairo MSW/Cairo Project Healthcare waste management program (Ministry of Health) Integrated Solid Waste Management Project for Cairo East District Integrated Solid Waste Management Project for Cairo North District Recycling.

COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT annex 5: Finance and cost recovery Budgetary allocations by Central Government Budgetary allocation by Municipalities/ governorates Cost/ton for collection & street sweeping. levy.215 LE 45 .65% 35 . etc. resources and priorities 100 – 110 LE per ton in Greater Cairo and Alexandria Less than 60 LE in other governorates Current negotiations to modify the contracts to improve MSWM services in Greater Cairo Cost per ton for collection. treatment and disposal No Central Governmental budgetary allocation for SWM services Budgetary allocation by Governorates is limited and variable depending on their budgets. street sweeping and transportation Cost per ton for treatment and disposal Total Cost per ton from collection to disposal/treatment Cost recovery Cost recovery per ton Total cost recovery per year Percentage of cost recovered Gaps if any between the government budget and the cost incurred for collection and disposal Type of SWM recovery system Amount of SWM recovery (billing. recycling operation revenue.40% Taxes.) 70 LE 200 Million LE 60 .120 LE 95 LE 205 . penalties As stated in total cost recovery/year 110 . transportation.

Companies contracted ISWM services are responsible for disposal in sanitary landfills or controlled dumping sites .Street waste collection for ISWM contracts Treatment . disposal.Informal sector “zabbaleen” practice solid waste sorting.E.Some NGOs assist “zabbaleen” and mange recycling facilities .Cleansing and Beautification Authorities and municipalities are responsible for disposal activities in other locations annex 7: Public awareness and community participation PA & CP programs and activities with reference to SWM SEAM Project: Increasing awareness of residents on the need to maintain a good waste collection service.Collection in public bins and containers .) USAID 46 . Technical Co-operation Office for the Environment Association of Garbage Collectors for Community Development (AGCCD) Awareness campaign for source separation of household waste . and recycling in Gharbiya and Qena Governorate The Association for the Protection of the Environment (A. Sohag Governorate Health awareness and industrial safety of waste pickers Key partner (ngos/programs/stakeholders) CONTACT person EEAA. recycling and composting of organic waste . Health awareness program for Zabbaleen Community participation in solid waste collection.Collection from collection/transfer points that are randomly distributed. recovery and re-use . .ISWM contracts involve sorting.Some private companies lease non-operating composting plants Disposal .COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT annex 6: The Role of Private Sector in the SWM Chain SWM Chain Collection and transfer Role of Private sector .P. .Door-to-door collection of household and commercial waste through either zabbaleen or private sector companies.

transport. manufacturing companies. Municipalities EEAA. Zabbaleen. graduates On the job training: Hazardous waste handling. EMUs. private companies EMUs. private companies EMUs . private companies EMUs. graduates EEAA. operators Workshops: E-Waste management MSEA. private companies Decision makers. Ministry of Local Development. Industrial manufacturing companies. operators NGOs. private service companies EEAA. EMUs Beneficiary Decision makers. Ministry of waste management Local Development. manufacturing. sorting treatment Workshops / on the job training: Recycling and composting: Techniques. private companies Decision makers. monitoring and enforcement of SWM services MSEA & Ministry of Local Development MSEA & Ministry of Local Development Partners and beneficiaries Local Governorates & Municipalities Governorates & Municipalities Institution EEAA. Ministry of Communication & Information Technology. Ministry of Industry Governorates & Municipalities Governorates & Municipalities Governorates & Municipalities Governorates & Municipalities EEAA. Ministry of Local Development. implementation. maintenance & repair Workshops: Integrated hazardous MSEA. EMUs. leasing contracts. Municipalities Decision makers. recycling and disposal activities MSEA. development of equipment. Operators Graduates / Technicians Governorates. Industrial manufacturing companies. Ministry of Industry Governorates. EMUs. EMUs Workshops: Municipal solid waste MSEA & Ministry of management and CDM projects Local Development Workshops / on the job training: Sanitary landfill operation and maintenance On the job training: Municipal waste collection.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT annex 8: Capacity building and training Requirements THEME National Workshops: Incorporation of private sector to solid waste management activities Workshops: SWM finance and cost recovery. graduates Decision makers. service provider companies EEAA. contracting. transport. EMUs. graduates 47 . Ministry of Industry Governorates. planning. graduates Graduates. Municipalities Graduates.

El Sheikh Ali Youssef street. 93 km.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT annex 9: Industrial and hazardous waste management Type of Waste Inorganic Hazardous Waste Quantity Estimation 2. Sokhna. The Old Katamia Road. Suez 48 . Deif Soliman Organic Hazardous Waste 23. Abi Al Derdaa.640 ton/ year Egypt Cement Co. Alexandria Responsible Dr.129 ton/year Technology of treatment Physical-chemical treatment plant for inorganic liquid hazardous waste and a solidification unit Cement kiln incineration Name of landfill /Plant Nasreya Hazardous Waste Treatment Centre Place 45.

Tarek Genina Cairo Eastern Zone Medical waste Alexandria Medical waste Port Said Medical waste Suez Medical waste Beni Suef Medical waste Health Directorates in Governorates Medical waste 4 ton/day FCC El-Wafaa Wal-Amal Borg El-Arab Port Said Mr. Manuel Ramirez Mr. Mohamed El-Kalawi 3 ton/day 0.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT annex 10: Medical Waste Management Type of Waste Cairo Southern Zone Medical waste Quantity Estimation 5 ton/day Technology of treatment Outsourced autoclave sterilization and incineration (Cairo University Hospital incinerator) Autoclave sterilization Name of Infrastructure EcoConserve Environmental Solutions Place 15th of May City Responsible Dr.5 ton/day Incinerator and autoclave sterilization Incinerator Veolia Misr Sevice Company Tanzefco Company Danida Project 0. Hassan Abaza Gen. Salah El-Borno Mr. Ghonimy Samra Mr.35 ton/day 2 ton/day Incinerator Incinerator Suez Beni Suef 50 ton/day Incinerator and autoclave sterilization Healthcare Facilities Different governorates 49 .

GTZ (now GIZ) USAID Name of Project Project Start/Finish Dates Start: 1981 Finish: 1993 Start: May 1995 Finish: March 1996 Start: July 1995 Finish: Dec 1996 Start: July 1995 Finish: July 1997 Start: 1997 Finish: 1999 Start: Sept. Alexandria Aswan National Kafr El Sheik and Qena Governorates Fayoum Start: 2000 Finish: 2003 Start: 2000 Finish: 2003 Start: 2000 Finish: 2004 US$ 1. investment in fleet. Qalubyia. Phill Jago seam@eis.850 EUR Cairo Start: 1999 Finish: 2006 Finish: 2000 Start: 2001 Finish: 2003 Nasreya. Qena. formation of database for exchange and marketing waste between the industries. page 21. support for privatization of waste management services. for Int.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT annex 11: Solid Waste Management Donor/Lender activity18 Donor/Lender World Bank. METAP. UNDP DANIDA DANIDA UNDP. transfer station and landfill Provision of Technical assistance and capacity building and establishing a citizens’ complaint center at the governorate Classifying industrial solid waste. Damietta and Dakahleya Governorates UK Dept.Based on and including updates. Alexandria National National Privatization of waste management (part of EEPP II) Establishing the National Strategy for Integrated Solid waste Management Landfill identification project USAID EU Landfill identification project Finland GTZ USAID KfW. with particular focus on waste management 18. LIFE program UNDP. commercial and industrial waste collection system SWM system operated by a community development organisation in collaboration with the city administration Privatization of waste management services Development of guidelines to assess and manage private sector Work on solid waste Setting the overall direction for municipal solid waste management in Egypt over a period of 10 years. Phone and E-Mail Zabbaleen Environmental Development Programme (ZEDP) Pilot/Demonstration Project for Hospital Waste Management Solid Waste Management Project Establishing a SWM system Establishing a SWM system Moqattam area. Dev. LIFE program.eg Contact Person. GTZ Netherlands Hazardous waste management Establishing a pilot landfill Hazardous waste management Privatization of waste management services ISWM Mediterranean Urban Waste Management Project financed by the EC-SMAP 1 Integrated Industrial Solid Waste Management Start: March 1999 Finish: Sep 2002 UNDP/ MEDCITIES Alexandria EU LIFE 3rd Countries 6th of October City Sohag. “Table 6: Solid Waste Management Donor/Lender Activity”.3 million Recommendations for management of industrial hazardous waste generated in Greater Cairo Construction of a sanitary landfill and a physicalchemical treatment process Establishing a pilot landfill at Aswan Building the regulatory framework to safely manage hazardous waste Developing an integrated plan for the Management of Municipal Solid Waste Preparation of SWM plans.000 LE Suef Qanater City Cairo. laying down the principles for its operation. Waste strategies supported by 14 demonstration projects are being implemented in the four governorates Mr. 2004 50 51 . Mega-Cities Project. Identification of landfill sites to serve the country. SEAM II. 1999 Start: 1999 Finish: 2000 Project Location Total budget and financial scheme Project Objectives Improve the living conditions and build the capacities of the Zabbaleen community Designing and implementing a pilot project for medical waste management Providing functional and safe systems for the collection and disposal of solid waste Establishing household. Country Report: Egypt.com. 422. Beni165. Cairo Cairo University Hospitals Kom Ombo/Daraw El-Ramad district.

Bioreactor (Digester) Landfill Cells Demonstration Project Enhancing private sector participation in the SWM sector on the level of governorates Survey of mercury wastes in general and fluorescent bulbs wastes containing mercury. recommendations for a strategic plan to enhance PSP efficiency Dr.gov. Phone and E-Mail USAID USAID Hazardous Waste Management Analysis of existing SWM laws and regulations National Alexandria Governorate El-Minya Governorate Government of the Italian Egyptian-Italian Environmental Cooperation Program. SWM facilities and provision of waste disposal site. World Bank GTZ EC-LIFE 3rd countries DANIDA Beni.3 million USD Project Objectives Building regulatory framework to safely manage hazardous waste and preparing 7 brochures on Hazardous Waste Management System Review and analysis of existing SWM laws and regulations Institutional. 2005 Start: Dec 2004 Finish: Dec 2006 Start: April 2005 Finish: 2007 National National Cities of Al Fayoum and Etsa Beni Suef and EL Fashn 299. GTZ Standard Twinning Project FICHE Development of Integrated Hazardous Substances and Waste Management System Start: Sep 2008 Finish: Aug 2010 National 1. Feasibility Study for a Solid Waste Management Project CIDA KfW Cairo Start: 2005 Finish: 2007 Qena Governorate USD 1.Suef Start: 2002 Finish: 2005 Start: Jan.000 USD 52 53 .6 million Euro World Bank – PPIAF Private sector participation (PSP) strategy in the solid waste sector in Egypt Start: 2010 National 200.000 EUR Methane Recovery from Landfills. SWM Improvement Project. structuring.7 M 190. proper service and maintenance procedures for collection trucks and other SWM equipment. evaluation of the current procedures and management capacity for PSP planning. analysis of the current policy and legal framework. Jaafar Sadok Friaa Tel: + 1202 473 7124 jsfriaa@worldbank. Development of SWM guidelines Improving the conditions of private sector participation in municipal waste management.. METAP. EMG Component. Demo project for the Abatement of GHG from Solid Waste landfills in Egypt. Contact Person. Capacity building through local and international training of EEAA’s staff working in the field of hazardous wastes. org Korean International Cooperation Agency (KOICA) Mercury Wastes Integrated Management Start: 2007 National 3 million USD EC South Sinai Regional Development Programme (SSRDP) Running South Sinai 64 million Euro for the whole program EU. and closed and two landfills will be rebuild according to standards Strengthening EEAA’s institutional and policy capacities and adopting relevant EU best practices in Hazardous Substances and Waste Management System Evaluation of the existing PSP experience. Establishing a unit for recycling fluorescent bulbs One of the program components is waste management system for South Sinai. 2003 Finish: Jun. monitoring and supervision.25266016 irts@eeaa. technical and financial needs for a sound and effective SWM system in ElMinya Governorate. EIECP Republic National programme for the privatisation of solid waste management (NPPSWM) Solid Waste Management Project Regional Solid Waste Management Project financed by SMAP II National program for the privatization of waste management in Egypt ISWM for Al Fayoum and Etsa GTZ National 2. Khaled Metwally – Programme Director/Authorising Officer Khaled. Finland EU. Strategic Framework for Enhancing Solid Waste Recycling in Egypt with Special Focus on Plastics Recycling. transaction. Osama Abd Elsalam Tel: +202. tendering and implementation. ESP.088 million Euro Improving the conditions of private sector participation (PSP) in the communal SWM in the frame of the national program of solid waste management. information.900 Euro Developing a safe and environmentally sound Integrated Waste Management System Support planning and implementation of new waste collection and source separation systems.COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT COUNTRY REPORT ON THE SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN EGYPT Donor/Lender Name of Project Project Start/Finish Dates Start: 2001 Finish: 2003 Start: 2003 Finish: 2003 Start: 2002 Finish: 2004 Start: June 2002 Finish: June 2005 Project Location Total budget and financial scheme 1.org Mr.Metwally@ eu-ssrdp. closing 6 existing dumpsites and two landfills will be rebuild according to standards.eg Mr.

© SWEEP-Net The regional solid waste exchange of information and expertise network in Mashreq and Maghreb countries July 2010 .

n e t. s we e p .o rg • • • • • • c o n tac t : c o n tac t @ s we e p .o rg • • • .• • • w w w .n e t.