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CHAPTER 1 - INTRODUCTION Background Radio. A personal medium. A local medium.

Messages broadcast over radio are directed personally to each individual listener. Its intense level of connection with the audience is such that for many years now, the first medium that an individual tunes in to every morning is radio. Also, it could be said that it is the last broadcast medium that an individual tunes in to before he goes to bed. This creates a form of emotional bond between the individual listener and the broadcaster. Such emotional bond can be tapped for purposes of persuasion, as applied, for instance, in radio advertising. Radio is a local medium. It broadcasts messages that significantly concern its target

audience. It encourages and sometimes requires the participation of listeners living within a certain locality. This aspect works in correlation with the personal characteristic and importance of radio. It is not an intrusive medium, as it allows the listener to do his routine work, such as household chores among other things, without getting in the way. It is an inexpensive medium and requires very little technological resources. It is

inexpensive in the sense that transistor radios are easily accessible and very affordable these days. Even personal FM radio tuners that come with headphones could be

purchased for less than one hundred pesos (PHP 100). Listeners in remote areas where electricity is absent can still tune in through the use of battery-operated transistor radios. It is a portable and readily available medium. Even people who travel can tune in to radio in their cars or on most public utility vehicles. Listeners may also choose to bring their own portable stereos, transistors, or even walkmans. These qualities of broadcast radio give it immense influence over a vast range and sizeable number of


audiences. Another more important attribute of radio is its power to make listeners use their imagination. As in radio dramas, it encourages the audience to imagine the setting, the characters, everything. It is the theater of the mind. If we look at it closely, it

encourages the listeners to think.

Thus, it enhances and sharpens the listeners‟ It is an

thinking skills if exposed to a certain format for a certain period of time.

intellectual medium. That is, the only way to process the information is to listen. And being a cold medium, it requires the listener to participate to enjoy the content. It allows for experience, which is fundamental to learning. If radio would be used to exploit these characteristics, our society would be in for a world of progress. Developmental broadcast format – what is it? Briefly, it is a format established following the concepts of development communication that can be applied to either of the two broadcast media, radio or television. It is a theme aimed at finding solutions to present problems of development and modernization of a particular locality or country. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia, an online resource library that is communityoperated and –moderated, defines development communication as:
A spectrum of communication processes, strategies and principles within the field of international development, aimed at improving the conditions and quality of life of people struggling with underdevelopment and marginalization. Reflective of the field’s historical evolution, Development communication is characterized by conceptual flexibility and diversity in the application of communication techniques used to address the problems of development. Some approaches in the “tool kit” of the field include: information dissemination and education, behavior change, social marketing, social mobilization, media advocacy, communication for social


change, and participatory communication. Communication for informed decision. Development communication is for the betterment of the society though raised from a particular group but affect the whole mass for better.

The term "Development Communication" was coined by Nora C. Quebral, a professor at the University of Philippines at Los Baños (UPLB).

Given radio‟s exceptional power, reach, and influence, a developmental broadcast format specifically-designed for the medium could do a lot of good for our society. This is not hypothetical at all, as development campaigns have been launched in the poorest of countries, and the United Nations help put up more campaigns in more countries. The Development Communication section on The Museum of Broadcast Communications states,
The United Nations provides multi-lateral aid to governments. Non-profit nongovernmental organizations (NGO) conduct development projects worldwide using U.N., government, or private funding. And government agencies, such as the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) provide assistance to developing countries, but with political strings attached.

The United Nations and USAID help conduct development projects worldwide. Naturally, this must be some form of testament to the efficiency of development-oriented programs. The Museum of Broadcast Communications states more,
There are three common types of development campaigns: Persuasion, changing what people do; Education, changing social values; and Informing, empowering people to change by increasing knowledge. This third approach is


If such a paradigm of communication. It is the presence of these filters that adds undesired frequency response and variances to group delay in the transmission path. giving them independence from central authority. And most importantly. The combining technique employed can vary but usually utilizes bandpass or bandstop filters to provide the necessary isolation between the carrier signals. and we could ask for their help. especially the third type of development campaigns earlier mentioned proves to be so useful and important. We have numerous intellectuals of our own who could help formulate a format and tailor-make it to suit the Philippine context – to address our own problems and issues. The emphasis has shifted from economic growth to meeting basic needs. We are a member of the U. our society has enough predicaments to garner enough attention from the said authorities. then why are we not employing it here in our own country? We have the required technologies to use to target our people. as stated. The 4|Page . involving people in their own development. These signals are usually combined at the base of the tower in order to have a single feeder line to the antenna. contemporary efforts attempt to reduce inequality by targeting the poorest segments of society. why not? (Patterson. the question is. 2005) Due to limited real estate and tower locations the FM broadcast plant. especially in urban centers. and employing "small" and "appropriate" technologies. can house several transmitters each producing its own carrier frequency. We have made ties with the United States and we could ask help from experts from perceived as the most useful. So.N. Instead of attempting to modernize people.

Systems that use a common radiating element (antenna) for both the analog and digital portions of the signal now require a channel bandwidth of 400KHz placing even a greater strain on the channel combiners to provide an adequate response. AM synchronous noise. and spectral analysis of the HD carriers to verify proper amplitude.200kHz to Fc+ 200kHz. what are the things to consider when implementing this proposal? If unattainable. Note as well. Statement of the Problem Is using lowering traditional bandwidth of 800kHz to 400kHz possible? If probable.traditional FM channel bandwidth is 800kHz but that has now been increased with the addition of HD Radio. what are the hindrances that made it unfeasible? 5|Page . The mathematical relationship between frequency response. group delay and the degradation to the FM hybrid signal is beyond the scope of this paper but can be observed by three figures of merit: stereo separation. the iBiquity requirements from SY_SSS_1026s states total gain flatness of the transmission signal path to be flat within ±0.5dB while differential group delay variation of the entire transmission path to be within 600nS from Fc.

Definition of Terms Bandwidth. It is typically measured in hertz. this project is time constraint. 6|Page . Also. It is the difference between the upper and lower frequencies in a contiguous set of frequencies.Objectives of the Study General:  To determine the factors that will make 400khz bandwidth possible for implention in fm broadcasting.  To ascertain if there are any effects (beneficial or detrimental) of the format on the execution using lower bandwidth of 400khz compare to the traditional spacing of 800khz. depending on context. sometimes to baseband bandwidth. and may sometimes refer to passband bandwidth. Specific:  To propose formulation of a new broadcast format that utilizes the existing theories of development communication to aid in transforming radio into a valuable and beneficial medium to its audience. Scopes and Limitations One of the major limitations of this study is lack of equipments and other resources needed to examine the feasibility of lowering the spacing between fm radio stations.

and Love Radio 90. It is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. FM radio is distributed primarily through broadcast reception of FM radio signals.1. Frequency Modulation band.1. 7|Page . Examples of FM stations in Manila are Monster Radio RX 93.7.FM. Campus Radio 97.

and 0. 0. resolved to discontinue the use of 50 kHz channel spacings throughout Europe. 0. stations that broadcast on certain frequencies using such increments may not be heard clearly.15.  Some digitally-tuned FM radios are unable to tune using 50 kHz increments. 0. some countries also use center frequencies ending in 0. 0. Switzerland. on December 7. 0. still allow a station on any multiple of 50 kHz wherever one can be squeezed in. 1984.35. 0.REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE The proposal of 400 KHz FM spacing in the Philippines are similar to the proposal in other countries however the 400 KHz FM spacing are now applying in other countries and not like the other countries they can minimize the FM spacing up to 200 KHz like the article below: Center frequencies While all countries use FM channel center frequencies ending in 0. and 0. 0.3. 0.1.  A few countries. This problem will not affect reception on an analog-tuned radio. Therefore when traveling abroad. which have heavily-congested FM bands. such as Italy. 0. and 0.05.8 MHz A few others also use 0. 8|Page .  Most countries have used 100 KHz or 200 kHz channel spacings for FM broadcasting since this ITU conference in 1984.9 MHz.CHAPTER 2 .95 MHz An ITU conference in Geneva. 0.0.65. 0.7.

channel 200. and so on. Because each channel is 0. an FM receiver is tuned to the center frequency of the station's channel. a few low-power television stations licensed for channel 6 are operated solely for their right to use this 9|Page . frequency-modulated broadcasting stations operate in a frequency band extending from 87. Because the lowest channel is centered on 87.9 MHz. and these take advantage of FM's capture effect and receiver selectivity. extends from 87. for a total of 20. the center frequencies of adjacent channels differ by 0. FM audio for television channel 6 is broadcast at a carrier frequency of 87. It is divided into 101 channels.0 MHz. And to make the technology of our country updated of what the latest technology is.8 MHz to 88. thus its center frequency is 87. each 0.2 MHz.8 to 108. According to http://en. designated "channel 200" through "channel 300. The 50 kHz channel spacings help prevent co-channel interference.wikipedia.9 MHz. up to channel 300.75 MHz. no one (except the FCC) uses these channel numbers.1 MHz. the tenths digit (in MHz) of the center frequency of any FM station in the United States is always an odd number." In actual practice. The lowest channel.9 MHz.0 MHz.2 MHz wide.2 MHz.0 MHz and has a center frequency of 107. Channel 201 has a center frequency of 88. the frequencies are used instead. and many radios can tune down this low. and to see that we can do what the other country did by getting some “In the United States. which extends from 107.2 MHz wide.8 MHz to 108. That‟s why we reviewing this are to make sure that our proposal is possible. To receive a station.

as neither Canada nor Mexico has such a reservation. Therefore. frequencies between 92 and 108 MHz). California and Tijuana.6 and 10.frequency and broadcast only nominal video programming. the FM broadcast band comprises only FM channels 201 (88. audiences on "reserved band" channels. Because of this necessary sharing. Commercial broadcasting is licensed only on channels 221 through 300 (the upper 80 channels. In some "Twin city" markets close to the Canadian or Mexican border. FM stations in a market were generally spaced four channels (800 kHz) apart. With modern equipment.9 MHz). the 10 | P a g e .1 MHz) through 300 (107. Ontario. mostly due to deficiencies in receiver technology of the time. and two-way radio systems as well as other FM broadcast stations.7 MHz intermediate frequency stage. For the same reason. with 200 through 220 (the lower 21 channels. commercial stations operating from those countries target U. assignment restrictions between TV stations on channel 6 and nearby FM stations are stringent: there are only two stations in the United States (KSFH and translator K200AA) licensed to operate on 87. Other spacing restrictions relate to mixing products with nearby television. Michigan andWindsor. air-traffic control. in effect.9 MHz.8 MHz apart. Originally. This spacing was developed in response to problems perceived on the original FM band. and in many countries shorter spacings are used. to protect against mixing products which will interfere with an FM receiver's standard 10. both due to being forced off of another channel. such as Detroit. frequencies between 88 and 92 MHz) being reserved for noncommercial educational (NCE) broadcasting. this is widely understood to be unnecessary.S. Baja California. or San Diego. The most significant such taboo restricts the allocation of stations 10.

There are no B stations in zone II. nor any C stations in the others. The highest-power stations are class C in zone II. Zone I-A (Californiasouth of 40 degrees latitude. is divided into Zone I (roughly the northeastern quarter of the U. and Zone II (all other locations). based on station "class" (power output.S. mainland. The U. 11 | P a g e . which takes into account the magnifying effect (gain) of multiple antenna elements. and class B in the others. and increases in allowable power levels. (See the list of broadcast station classes.S. Puerto Rico). are now assigned based on a table of separation distance values from currently licensed stations. based on the most highly-populated regions.S. Virgin Islands. FM stations in the U. over the original bandplan scheme described above.S. excluding the far northern areas).S. antenna height. All powers are specified as effective radiated power (ERP). FM broadcast zones in the U.) Canada is also divided in this manner. These regulations (see Docket 80-90) have resulted in approximately double the number of possible stations. and geographical location). U.FCC reserves a few other channels for such NCE stations.

For good mono reception. Technical planning criteria The required field strength to provide a good stereo signal is 54 dBμV/m in rural areas. This huge power level does not usually help to increase range as much as one might expect. WBCT (93.000 watts ERP by the terms of its original license. Michigan. 150 miles. A few old "grandfathered" stations do not conform to these power rules. almost 300 miles (480 km) distant. the required field strengths are 6 dB lower. Illinois. Nevertheless. diffracting around hills. 240 km) if there are no competing signals. this station could be heard near Bloomington.000 watt FM stations can regularly be heard up to 100 miles (160 km) away. 66 dBμV/m in suburban areas and 74 dBμV/m in city areas. the signal must also be significantly stronger than other signals on the same and adjacent frequencies.High power is useful in penetrating buildings. and farther (e. 100.. and can increase to “This article descibes the technical criteria for planning new FM stations in the UK and then discusses how the number of stations could be increased by relaxing the division into sub-bands and using transmitter when there were fewer FM stations competing.000 watts ERP.7) in Grand Rapids.” According to: http://frequencyfinder.g. However. because VHF frequencies travel in nearly straight lines over the horizon and off into space. However. runs 320. and refracting for some distance beyond the horizon. for good reception. providing a listenable signal at lower field strengths. The following 12 | P a g e . most popular music stations use lots of dynamic range compression.

To meet these margins. so it will always be possible to pick up one station or the other. but not always both. otherwise there must be a small buffer region. official coverage areas can not overlap. Stations 200 kHz apart of similar field strength may be receivable in the same location with different aerial positions.margins are needed: Co-channel: 100 200 300 kHz kHz kHz 45 separation: separation: separation: 33 7 -7 dB dB dB dB 400 kHz separation: -20 dB A negative value indicates that the interfering signal can be stronger. This spacing is suited to transmitters broadcasting the same programme to overlapping areas. depending on the geography of the overlap region. transmitters on the same and adjacent channels must be some distance apart or heavily screened by hills. whether they carry the same programme or not. 200 kHz spacing can be used for adjacent stations. It can sometimes be used for different stations serving neighbouring areas. If there are hills separating the two coverage areas. However. A 400 kHz spacing is always suitable for transmitters with overlapping coverage areas. With stations 300 kHz apart. provided the stonger signal is not subject to multipath interference. the margin is -7 dB. provided reception of each station near the other's transmitter is not required. If both stations are transmitted from 13 | P a g e .

if a network radio filler was introduced for Nottingham.8 MHz spacing has been used in Bradford and Kettering. There are two types: intermediate frequency and cross station. As a consequence. However. this only happens very close to the transmitter.7 MHz apart in the UK.y and 2y can demonstrate this yourself using a pair of radios. The use of regular station spacing reduces the impact of intermodulation products and a station covering the same area from a 14 | P a g e . In addition.the same mast or nearby masts. a local station on 97. a 400 kHz spacing is OK.7 MHz prior to demodulation. though 10.7 MHz below a strong local station.centre intermediate frequencies. The final issue to consider in planning FM transmitters is intermodulation products. blocking out weaker stations on those frequencies. 10. FM radios use a superheterodyne circuit to reduce the mean carrier frequency of the selected FM station down to 10. intermodulation products within the receiver can prevent reception on a frequency 10. Consequently. stations serving the same area are never spaced 10. intermodulation products of stations on frequencies x and y can be received on frequencies 2x .7 MHz higher than they are tuned to . it would then be possible to use 97.5 for local radio from the same mast as the network filler as reception of the 97.8 MHz spacings are usually avoided as well as cheaper receivers sometimes have off. but the same frequency could be used from the Sutton Coldfield mast without disrupting Radio 1.9 signal would no longer need to be protected. For example. Very close to the transmitter or with a poor receiver. radio receivers transmit a weak signal on a frequency 10.6 and 10. In practice.5 in Nottingham would interfere with Radio 1 from Sutton Coldfield on 97.

many towns and cities have run out of space for local radio.4: Radio 3 92.1: BBC local radio and Radio 4 96.9: Classic FM and Independent local radio 102.0: Temporary and very low power stations 88. By placing BBC and independent local radio transmitters throughout the FM band. However.9: Independent local radio With a handful of exceptions. the FM band is currently divided into 11 sub-bands as follows: 87. every transmitter operates within the appropriate sub-band for the station it carries. but not others. As a consequence of this.0-107.different mast can usually operate 100 kHz apart from a cross station intermodulation product. by moving existing local radio transmitters to the national sub-bands where 15 | P a g e .0-103.5-94.6: Radio 4 and BBC regional radio 94. Space is available in the national sub-bands in some parts of the country.7-96.6: Independent local radio 97.2: Radio 2 90.9-101.9: BBC local and regional radio and Radio 4 105.4: Independent local radio 103.7-99.1-90. More efficient use of the sub-bands In the UK.6-88. much more efficient use could be made of the spectrum available.8: Radio 1 99. while spare capacity remains in the national subbands.5-104.3-92.2-97.

see the side bar.” According to: stationplaylist.possible. In many cases. a spacing of 200 kHz is too close to avoid interference. this will increase the transmission cost as a separate feed will be needed instead of simply using the main transmitter's FM signal to feed the relay. making space available everywhere. freeing up space. if the difference in the signal path to the two transmitters does not vary by more than 15 km over the area where they might otherwise interfere. Thus. preventing the receiver being captured by the unwanted signal (the stereo difference signal is always of equal or less magnitude than the sum signal).com 16 | P a g e . lower power transmitters are more suitable for relocation because their powers can be increased to compensate without outgoing interference becoming a problem. However. within the UK. particularly during temperature inversions when high powered FM transmitters carry much further due to ionospheric reflection. Because of this. Synchronisation Normally.bands will increase incoming interference. Consequently. they can be synchronised and operate at 200 kHz spacing. moving a local radio transmitter to the national sub. there is scope to move a number of low powered fillers to new frequencies 200 kHz away from the corresponding main transmitters. This technique has already been implemented for a number of commercial stations in the Netherlands. then both carriers will always be on the same side of the centre frequency. A number of case studies are presented on other pages on Frequency Finder . if the two transmitters carry the same programme and are time synchronised to within 25 μs. the local sub-bands could be re-planned. However.

Technical issues which specializes in the development of software for running radio stations. or synchronous systems. I am also the creator and moderator of the Yahoo LPFM New Zealand discussion group mailing list. it has been proven over time that 400Khz spacing between transmissions is quite adequate for most radio receivers. I havegained technical FM transmission experience from contacts in this line of work also. D and E. No doubt this has a short term benefit to the ministries treasury but it does 17 | P a g e . Over this time we have discussed many ideas and I have gained technical knowledge of the many aspects of radio transmission.I have previously owned a high power license here in Tauranga (99. The multinational networks can and will out bid any local organisation when tendering for local frequencies.stationplaylist. However. initially in Wellington but later in other centres following technical proving. but I do not believe the specifications should revolve around poorly designed radios. This group has attracted a variety of members from around the country with differing skills.The Ministry seeks comments on the provision of infill coverage through licences separated by 400 kHz from the main coverage service. some badly designed clock/alarm radios may have difficultly with this separation. there is a very real need for local community radio stations which the current licensing regime does not provide for. including a lawyer. and an employee of BCL who has provided technical engineering advice for several years. I wish to use this knowledge to discuss your proposals C.0 FM). Te Aroha and Kopukairua at 400khz spacing and both can be received fine on all modern radios. Tauranga receives signals from Mt. I currently run a software development company (www. This group has grown to over 200 members since founded in 2001. As you mention in your discussion paper.Proposal C .

Any organization currently holding a license anywhere in the country should not be eligible to tender for a community frequency. say 50km.Proposal D .4 and below.The restrictions that I and others have discussed include the following: a. The studio or programming source should be within the same geographical area as the transmission site. This would require the present Land Mobile use to be compressed into the band below 87. what time frame should apply to the transition? It is an international standard for 88-108FM radio receivers to support down to 87.not provide for the best use of the spectrum or the benefit to the community and New Zealand as a whole.5 through 88. Perhaps a specific radius could be imposed. All members of the LPFM discussion group believe the current number of frequencies available for LPFM should not be reduced.5 MHz. This means no networking from studios in other geographical areas.5Mhz. Only one frequency should be allocated to one organisation. Many services occupy these frequencies in other countries. utilizing the same 18 | P a g e . the lower LPFM band could consist of the frequencies 87. any additional frequencies made available from an official change to 400khz separation should be reserved solely for local community stations with suitable restrictions to either deter or remove national networks from the tendering process. b.The Ministry seeks comments on the proposal to plan and implement VHF-FM broadcasting services between 87.5Mhz should be moved as soon as possible to 87. With this in mind.5 MHz and 88 MHz.1. Without this restriction. a large company in one city could end up with all the available frequencies. The Land Mobile frequencies up to 87. Once this area is available. If the proposal is adopted.

0Mhz. Providing transmitters are conforming to the requirements for spurious emissions. this newly created licensed area should be available for community frequency licensing only. and therefore there is no need to provide a guard band for a guard band.0Mhz. and 106. NZ uses the same standard aviation band from 108 to 117 MHz as used in most other countries. As mentioned earlier.7 (88. No services use any frequencies between these 2 frequencies. say.0 to 109.0Mhz. Proposal E . I propose 5 watts eirp be implemented for 88. etc. What appears to have been overlooked is that the aviation band has a self imposed guard band from 108. the US and the UK. There is nothing different in NZ that would require a larger separation. many high-powered FM transmissions exist on 107.4 in the Auckland area). Is an eirp limit of 5 watts suitable? Should the method of measurement be changed to specify. This includes Australia.7Mhz.7 through 107.Comments are sought on the proposal to allow a greater power for “low power” FM broadcasters under the general licence in the 88. particularly at the low power of 5 watts. An engineer acquaintance of mine has established that a 5 watt eirp transmission 19 | P a g e . New community licensed frequencies could be allocated from 88.4 through 88. The discussion paper‟s suggestion that 5 watts at 107.7 will be potentially harmful to aeronautical services is unfounded.9.4 MHz range.1 through 88. This is designed for protection from highpower transmissions on the FMBC band up to 108. and in most of these countries. 5 watts at the transmitter output and allow any antenna to be used? There is no need to restrict any of the current LPFM guard bands to less than 5 watts eirp. 5 watts will not interfere with any existing service.600khz of band currently available for LPFM.0 MHz to 88.9 and 108.

and the self imposed guard band is more than ample protection. With an increase to 5 watts.The current suggestion that only 88. Overall. but to be overly cautious. the increase will be 20 | P a g e . so there is no reason to restrict the upper LPFM band to 0. I propose the increase to 5 watts occur immediately across all current LPFM frequencies. At 5 watts LPFM. Most LPFM operators will want to use 5 watts as apposed to 0. The selectivity of an aviation receiver is several times better than a high quality FMBC domestic receiver. Using the same power level across all LPFM frequencies will make for much easier compliance and 108Mhz would not affect aviation services.1 to 88. The receivers in these radios are also very selective and will easily disgard 5 watts at 100khz separation at close range. I know that many others feel the same way. There is no need to wait for greater separation from the land mobile services. The current LPFM guard band up to 107.7 could in fact be used for high-power broadcasting licences.0Mhz broadcast would not cause any issues. I for one will be much more motivated to spend more time on my own LPFM station to produce better programming. I recommend leaving this space reserved for a 5 watt LPFM guard band. an aviation receiver could be within just a few metres of the transmission without any effect.5 watts and this will lead to massive over-crowding within this small 400khz area. The additional coverage and penetration into more homes will reduce the many complaints I receive where listeners can receive the station in the car but not inside their homes. The engineer established that an aviation receiver within 1km of a several kilowatt 108.4Mhz be increased to 5 watts is not a necessary restriction. and will likely cause other problems.5 watts.

5 watts signal. servicing localized suburban areas with formats that are often niche and not commercially viable. most of whom struggle to receive the current 0. I and many other operators. but since this format will not provide massive profits to shareholders in other countries. I'm sure there will be the usual negative feedback from the commercial networks regarding 400Khz spacing. Licensed community frequencies will also greatly influence what is offered to local communities. Existing services will not be affected. One example is around Rotorua‟s many lakes of which some are behind elevated hills. it is not currently available on the radio. and little or no community presence. There are various areas around NZ where 5 watts would be all that is required to service these small areas. without the need to engineer a commercial license. The current commercial networks provide a very limited range of music. I and many others believe that 5 watt LPFM is not going to impact very much at all on the revenue of these companies. LPFM listeners. but as a service to the community. The coverage made available from the increase in power to 5 watts will be suitable for existing stations to relay into small pockets where their main signal cannot reach.most beneficial for the listeners. Most LPFM operators are not operating for profit. believe it is the benefit to the community that should be considered above all else. This would simplify the process for stations to extend their coverage into areas where no other signals can reach. and the general public. and 5 watt LPFM. In an attempt to prevent any possible indentation to their advertising revenue with competition. community frequencies.Summary and Benefits There is technically no reason why the changes I have proposed cannot be implemented. 21 | P a g e . Many are offering alternative styles of music that many listeners desire. LPFM operators are providing an essential service with alternative programming.

i. The commercial networks have taken over the airwaves to the detriment of the NZ public. before all the spectrum is lost to foreign companies. Jeevan Reddy and S. has been in consultation with community radio stations operating on the FM Band. The Community Radio Forum is a registered society working in the interests of community radio stations in India. This document. and these need to be made available in good numbers. The Government needs to stand up to these money hungry networks and provide New Zealand with some alternative programming and spectrum. Background: The Supreme Court of India saw a landmark case in 1995. a unique combined effort of grassroots communities from all over the country and community media advocates. within a License Service Area. The landmark judgment – “airwaves are public property” – has been. in Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Vs Cricket Association of Bengal. Restricted community licenses are the most logical step.These services along with LPFM can make a real positive difference to what is available on the radio. in addition to some upper band frequencies. in many ways the foundation of the community radio movement.B Sawant. and we request TRAI to consider these comments as a stakeholder in the FM Radio Sector in India. Mohan. presided over by a bench of three judges – “Issues Related to Prescribing Minimum Channel Spacing.” According to: maraa. civil society actors and academicians. 22 | P a g e . This may require reserving all lower band “in-between” frequencies for community licences. in FM Radio Sector in India.

there have been various presentations by engineers and officials from Wireless Planning & Coordination (WPC) wing of the Ministry of Communications who have stated explicitly that there would be six (6) frequencies allotted to community radio in a given license service area or a circle. there are 150 operational community radio stations. As grassroots communities are poised to finally gain access to media ownership. More than 80% of the licenses have been awarded to educational institutions – since they have had a policy almost two years earlier. but also become powerful vehicles for communities to address their own social. the number of available frequencies for CR were whittled down to three (3) for all practical purposes.After nearly a decade. Most of the community radio stations fall under three key categories – non‐profit. 23 | P a g e . on November 16th 2006. It was only eleven and a half years after the „airwaves‟ judgment that. the government of India released community radio guidelines which recognized the legitimacy of communities to broadcast on FM through the third tier of broadcasting – community radio. and also because of a single window licensing process for campus‐based CR stations. they are indeed showing potential to not only realize the vision of freedom of speech and expression as constituted in Article 19(1)(a). economic. educational institution and agricultural centre (Krishi Vigyan Kendra). political and cultural issues. Today. Over the next five years. the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting released community radio guidelines. and an equal number awaiting license. in 2006. Further. but limited the definition of community to educational institutions.

) The current consultation paper suggests reduction of channel spacing to 400 KHz from the existing spacing of 800 KHz. TRAI is requested to kindly consider Community Radio in their future consultations and recommendations regarding FM. CR stations are mandated to be not‐for‐profit. 3.) While commercial FM radio licenses are obtained through an auction. Overall Comments Community Radio Forum would like to place some overall comments on the record in the context of the consultation paper issued by TRAI . Although the rationale is primarily for the growth of commercial FM radio in A+ and A category cities. a three tiered radio‐broadcasting structure ‐ Public Service (All India Radio). 1. No. in FM Radio Sector in India). Commercial (private FM radio stations) and Community (Community Radio Stations). and hence have an entirely different licensing process. 7/2011 (“Issues Relating to prescribing Minimum Channel Spacing. the final recommendation could be for FM licensing across India – including rural areas.There is a need from the Ministry of Information & Broadcasting and the Ministry of Communication & Information Technology and the broadcast regulator (TRAI) to give priority to this sector as it is explicitly using the airwaves to serve community and public interests – in the spirit of the 1995 judgment referred to earlier. 2.) India has since early 2004. Since there are over 150 community radio stations in the country on the FM band. Therefore it is critical to look at the issue from a larger perspective. 24 | P a g e . within a License Service Area. and their numbers are steadily increasing.

) Unlike private FM. 5. there is no transparency in how a given license service area is defined for community radio. However. 7. with stations only paying approx.) While this is possibly speculative.) Until there is transparency from DoT on a systematic frequency allocation plan within the FM band for a given service area. 25 | P a g e .000 INR for spectrum usage. it does underline the need for wider consultation and field based research on how much interference is faced by the low‐power community radio stations.4. and on what basis the frequencies are divided between public radio. Therefore it may be possible for a 3KW station to overpower a 100 W station if the channel spacing between them is insufficient. community radio stations are transmitting at 50 to 100 watts ERP. since licensing is an internal government process. how many frequencies are reserved/allotted for community radio in a given service area. community radio stations are allotted licenses by MoIB and frequencies allotted by WPC. 20. it is very difficult to decide or comment on how channel spacing reduction will impact all three tiers of the FM Radio Sector in India 6) We also would like to mention here that while private FM radio stations can transmit on power from 3 kW (3000 watts) upwards. commercial radio and community radio. especially in urban areas.

Specific Comments On the specific questions posed in the Consultation Paper. selectivity of FM receivers available with the consumers (such as mobile handsets. This will create more opportunities for community radio to address the urban poor who often get left out of developmental initiatives. the vast majority of radio listeners use their mobile phones as listening devices which can handle even 200 KHz channel separation. the CR Forum would like to submit the following responses: 1. the issues such as the viability and desirability of having more number of channels in the interest of the stakeholders. There also needs to be some field level research to see from 26 | P a g e . what should be the appropriate minimum channel spacing? Please justify your response with appropriate reasoning. especially in urban areas. and other receivers). if so. However. Further. Arriving at a specific and mutually convenient and feasible channel spacing level should be through wider consultation with all stakeholders including community radio. which are rural centered. car radios. it is accepted that in A+ and A category cities. While giving the response. transmission from a single or multiple transmission setups may please be factored in The Minimum Channel spacing within a license service area should be reduced from the current level of 800 KHz.) What should be the minimum channel spacing within a license service area for the FM radio channels? Should it be reduced from the current level of 800 KHz. the quality of transmission from transmitters of community radio as well as private FM stations can lead to increasing interference amongst FM radio stations. This issue can be looked at in more detail through some field level data whether interference is or is not occurring between private FM stations or between private and community radio stations.

which can be considered in shaping recommendations. and lastly across the country. transparent and consultative manner.) In the event of reduction of minimum channel spacing. This planning needs to equitably cater to each sector and needs to be done in a public. especially in larger metros and A category cities. if they are facing interference from private FM stations. smaller urban centers. 4. through more private radio stations. Each phase should consult with stakeholders and existing practitioners who might be able to give valuable field level experiences. more in urban areas than others. 2.) Any other relevant issue that you may like to raise or comment upon 27 | P a g e . should the minimum channel spacing be reduced only in A+ and A category cities or should it be reduced across the country? The minimum channel spacing from current level of 800 KHz could be reduced in phases – A+ and A category cities. However. It could encourage the growth of the private FM Radio sector in India.) What are the implications of reducing/not‐reducing the minimum channel spacing within a license service area? The implication of reducing the minimum channel spacing within a license area has huge potential for the FM radio sector in India. It could also create more FM frequencies for community radio stations since there could be more allocated for them with reduced channel spacing. 3. where there are clear indicators on reservation for different sectors – public. from the current level of 800 KHz. especially listeners of community radio stations. private and community – and how much spectrum each sector can access.listeners of A+ and A category cities. it is critical to have a concrete FM band management plan.

and further. it would be possible to assess supply and demand and subsequently. Community Radio stations. 2nd Floor.We reiterate that FM radio sector planning should accommodate the needs of community radio stations as well. and on what basis these frequencies are allotted. how many frequencies are allotted within each circle. need clarity on the size of the circles within which frequencies are allotted and on what basis this size is defined. Depending on this information. assess scientifically the positive and negative consequences of issues like reduced channel spacing. Defence Colony New Delhi – 110024” 28 | P a g e . especially. Therefore we urge TRAI to recommend that the priority is to have a coherent FM frequency planning which caters to all three sectors in an equitable way. Community Radio Forum of India D302.

Frequency Selection a. such as the transmitting antenna heights. As a first pass. were further obtained from the database. Frequencies spaced at 400 kHz which could potentially be used for the proposed service were investigated. d. etc. 2.Methodology 1. the frequencies identified for detailed analysis were based on current and planned co-channel or adjacent services within 400 km. The proposed service and existing (and planned) co-channel and adjacent services were then analysed for interference to each other as detailed in the next section. Interference Analysis a. c. The data from the Ministry‟s database was converted into an Excel spreadsheet format which could be used for investigating the potential frequency availabilities. EIRPs. horizontal radiation patterns. b. The predicted coverage/interference plots for the proposed service and the potential interfering services were produced using the Planet EV radio prediction programme (produced and supported by Ericsson Wireless) and the SRTM 3 second digital terrain data. 29 | P a g e . GQ-AAS extracted the relevant data from the SMART service which contains the database of current and planned FMBC services. Current (or planned) co-channel and adjacent services which could potentially interfere with (or be subject to interference from) the proposed frequency(s) were identified and all relevant details of the services.

10) and (50. the relevant frequency was considered to be unavailable. In cases where significant interference is not predicted at any of the protection locations.50). (50.1) predictions. Planet EV supports a number of propagation models including: • Free space • Okumura-Hata • Longley-Rice • ITU 370-Recommendation • CRC-Predict GQ-AAS primarily uses the CRC (Communications Research Centre) of Canada Predict models. c-1. Initially. Stage One c. The predicted coverage plots of the proposed and current (or planned) services were mathematically compared at the relevant protection locations. In cases where significant interference is predicted at one or more of the protection locations. as they are the most sophisticated model in the Planet EV suite and allow (50. Where the significant interference is predicted at one or more of the protection locations for current (or planned) services. the relevant frequency was considered to be unavailable400 kHz Channelling FM Radio Planning for Auckland c-2.b. the protection locations of the proposed service were assessed for interference from current and planned services. c-3. 30 | P a g e . the frequency was then assessed for interference from the proposed service back to the other service‟s protection locations.

It was assumed that interference would exist. interference plots are appended to the report for the Ministry‟s consideration. The 31 | P a g e . Where significant interference is predicted to occur within the 66 dBuV/m contour of the wanted service the frequency was considered unavailable. Each frequency that passed the first stage of interference analysis was analysed further by plotting the margin relative to the RPR between each wanted and unwanted service and overlaid with the 66 dBuV/m coverage contour for the wanted service. This produced a figure which identifies any areas of predicted interference within the 66 dBuV/m contour of the wanted service. the frequency was considered to be available. 2 Table 9: Criteria used for the first stage of interference analysis d. Further investigation required. Action Frequency may potentially be available. Case 1 Result The predicted RPR margin was greater (better) than or equal to -6 dB at the protection location The predicted RPR margin was less (worse) than -6 dB at the protection location. Where no or minor interference is predicted within the 66 dBuV/m contour of the proposed service and current (or planned) services. Frequency unlikely to be available. g.The following criteria were used for the first stage of interference analysis. f. The frequency assessments that predicted -6 dB or higher margins relative to the RPR at all protection locations for both the proposed and current (or planned) services were analysed in greater detail in the second stage. Stage Two e.

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