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Image moment-A Review

1. Introduction
In image processing, computer vision and related fields, an image moment is a certain particular weighted average (moment) of the image pixels' intensities, or a function of such moments, usually chosen to have some attractive property or interpretation. Image moments are useful to describe objects after segmentation. Simple properties of the image which are found via image moments include area (or total intensity), its centroid, and information about its orientation.

2. Raw moments
For a 2-D continuous function f(x,y) the moment (sometimes called "raw moment") of order (p + q) is defined as

for p,q = 0,1,2,... Adapting this to scalar (greyscale) image with pixel intensities I(x,y), raw image moments Mij are calculated by

In some cases, this may be calculated by considering the image as a probability density function, i.e., by dividing the above by

A uniqueness theorem (Papoulis [1991]) states that if f(x,y) is piecewise continuous and has nonzero values only in a finite part of the xy plane, moments of all orders exist, and the moment sequence (Mpq) is uniquely determined by f(x,y). Conversely, (Mpq) uniquely determines f(x,y). In practice, the image is summarized with functions of a few lower order moments.

Central moments

4. Central moments are defined as where and are the components of the centroid. . y) is a digital image. Scale invariant moments Moments ηi j where i + j ≥ 2 can be constructed to be invariant to both translation and changes in scale by dividing the corresponding central moment by the properly scaled (00)th moment.3. using the following formula. then the previous equation becomes The central moments of order up to 3 are: It can be shown that: Central moments are translational invariant. If ƒ(x.

I2 and I3 are not very useful for pattern recognition. as they are dependent. Most frequently used are the Hu set of invariant moments [1]: The first one. IT-8. On the original Hu's set there is a missing third order independent moment invariant: References 1. Hu. ^ M. vol. 1962 2. "Rotation Moment Invariants for Recognition of Symmetric Objects". is analogous to the moment of inertia around the image's centroid. 1405–1410. where the pixels' intensities are analogous to physical density.. Suk. Info. pp.179–187. vol. vol. I7. Image Proc. I1. Flusser[2] and T. K. "Visual Pattern Recognition by Moment Invariants".5. ^ J. changes in scale. 2000. A general theory on deriving complete and independent sets of rotation invariant moments was proposed by J. 2006. . and also rotation. IRE Trans. 3784–3790. is skew invariant. Theory. The last one. ^ J. pp. IEEE Trans. Flusser and T. Rotation invariant moments It is possible to calculate moments which are invariant under translation. 3. Flusser: "On the Independence of Rotation Moment Invariants". Suk. pp. which enables it to distinguish mirror images of otherwise identical images. 15.[3] They showed that the traditional Hu's invariant set is not independent nor complete. 33. Pattern Recognition.