has been known of for over ﬁfty years, its employment as a routine spectroscopic method was quite limited until the development of high power lasers which provided a source of highly monochromatic radiation. We’ll ﬁrst look at Raman scattering from a classical perspective. Unlike pure rotational or rovibrational spectroscopy, the Raman eﬀect does not involve the direct absorption or emission of radiation. Instead, it involves the scattering of incident radiation which has been modiﬁed by some internal change in the system. The scattering can either be elastic, in which case there is no change in the internal state of the molecule, or inelastic, in which the molecule either gains energy from or contributes energy to the electromagnetic radiation ﬁeld. The Raman eﬀect is straightforward to understand when one considers the electrical nature of matter. Atoms and molecules consist of collections of oppositely charged particles whose relative positions can be altered by the application of external electric ﬁelds. This alteration leads to an eletric dipole moment being introduced ino the system. These ease with which a molecule or atom may be distorted by an electric ﬁeld is measured by the electric polarizability α. We have already considered static polarizabilities in the context of the Stark eﬀect, as analyzed by perturbation theory. For atoms, where the symmetry is spherical, the polarizability will be the same in all directions and it can be expressed by a single scalar quantity. For molecules with lowerthanspherical symmetry, the polarizability will not be the same along all directions, and just as is true for the moment(s) of inertia, the full polarizability is described by a tensor. In matrix form, the induced dipole is given by µI = α·E αxy αyy αzy or αxz Ex αyz Ey αzz Ez
µIx αxx µIy = αyx µIz αzx
The polarizability tensor is clearly symmetric, and just as the principal axes diagonalize the momentofinertia tensor so too can the polarizability tensor be diagonalized and a polarizability ellipsoid deﬁned. The isotropic polarizability, which is what matters in many applications, is then <α> = 1 (αx x + αy 3
y
+ αz z ) ,
where the primes denote the principal polarizability axes. If the molecule is undergoing some sort of internal motion, such as vibration or rotation, this can alter the isotropic polarizability such that α = α + Asin 2πνi t , 79
where νi is the frequency of the internal motion. If a timevarying electric ﬁeld characterized by E = E◦ sin(2πνLaser t) is applied, the induced moment is then given by µI or µI = αE◦ sin 2πνLaser t + 1 1 AE◦ cos 2π(νLaser + νi )t + AE◦ cos 2π(νLaser − νi )t , 2 2 = αE = E◦ (α + Asin 2πνi t)sin 2πνLaser t
and the emitted radiation will contain inelastic components at νLaser ± νi as well as the elastic scattering component at νLaser . Thus, a prerequisite to the observation of the Raman eﬀect is not only the occurrence of a periodic internal motion, but also the association with this motion of a change in the polarizability of the molecule. This change can either be in the magnitude of the polarizability tensor components or in the direction of the principal axis system, since the latter will also lead to the presence of a changing dipole. The rotation of a molecule that does not have spherical symmetry will produce a change in the spatial orientation of the principle axis system. Hence, the rotation of most molecules will provide a type of motion which gives rise to a Raman eﬀect. The stretching or bending of a bond as a result of the vibration of a molecule can also result in a change in the polarizability. To go any further, we’ll need to look at the quantum mechanics of the Raman eﬀect. Raman Selection Rules in Diatomics As always, what we need to investigate is the matrix element of the induced dipole moment with the upper and lower states under consideration. Let’s look ﬁrst at a diatomic molecule, for which the eigenstates are labeled J M > and for which the appropriate matrix element is < J M µI EJ M > . Unlike the previous case of pure rotational selection rules in which there was only a single direction cosine within the matrix element integral, now there are two (one for the ﬁeld and one for the induced moment). Each gives rise to selection rules like ∆J = ±1, and so the overall selection rule for the rotational Raman eﬀect for a diatomic (or linear) molecule is: ∆JRaman = 0, ±2 .
The ∆J = 0 term corresponds to elastic scattering, and occurs at the laser frequency µLaser . This is called the Rayleigh peak. For ∆J = −2, the inelastic scattering occurs at lower frequencies than the laser frequency, and the collection of lower frequency transitions are called the Stokes lines. Similarly, the ∆J = +2 occur to higher frequencies than the laser radiation, and are collectively called the antiStokes lines. Figure 11.1 presents a pictorial view of rotational Raman scattering. 80
5
4
3 2 1 0 Stokes AntiStokes
Low J = 3
2
1 0
νL
0
1 2
3
Figure 11.1 An outline of the rotational Raman selection rules in diatomic/linear molecules, and the deﬁnition of the Stokes/antiStokes branches. For inelastic scattering oﬀ a molecular vibration of a diatomic molecule, the rotational selection rules are still ∆JRaman = 0, ±2. For ∆J = 0, or Qbranch lines, the oﬀset from the laser is simply the vibrational frequency ν◦ . The Stokes and anitStokes O and S branches (or ∆J = −2, ∆J = 2 transitions) occur to either side, and Figure 11.2 presents a pictorial view of rovibrational Raman scattering.
5 4 3 2 1 0 v=1
5 4 3 2 1 0 v=0
Stokes
Rayleigh
AntiStokes
O
Q
S
O
Q
S
Figure 11.2 The vibrational Raman eﬀect in diatomic/linear molecules. Raman Selection Rules in Polyatomics For polyatomic species, the best recourse for determining whether or not a normal mode is Raman active or inactive is to use group theory. The character tables at the backs of most textbooks, including Atkins & Friedman, include the irreducible representations of the polarizability operators (which are sometimes listed as α’s, but may also be listed as 81
x2 , y 2 , xy, ...). As before, we demand that the overall matrix element have A1 symmetry. Going through the C2v and C3v tables, we see that all of the vibrational modes in molecules like water or ammonia are Raman active (and also electric dipole allowed). The interesting diﬀerence of absorption spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy comes when considering molecules like CO2 or acetylene which have a center of inversion (and hence which support g and u states). Acetylene, for example, has 3(4)−5 = 7 modes. Three are nondegenerate and four are degenerate, and are summarized in Figure 11.3 below. We see that two of the modes are infrared active and Raman inactive (the antisymmetric C–H stretch and the cisbend), while three of the normal modes are IR inactive and Raman active (the C–C stretch, the symmetric C–H stretch, and the transbend). This is a speciﬁc example of the exclusion rule, in which it can be shown via group theory that for molecules with a center of inversion modes which are Raman active are electric dipole forbidden and vice versa. Thus, to fully characterize the force ﬁeld of such polyatomic systems, both the Raman and IR absorption spectra must be acquired.
Frequency IR? Raman? ν 1 ν 2 ν 3 3374 1974 3287 No No Yes Yes Yes No
+

+

ν 4
612
No
Yes
+


+
ν 5
729
Yes
No
Figure 11.3 The normal modes of acetylene and their IR/Raman activity. So far, we’ve only examined the symmetry properties and propensities of the vibrations themselves. Of course, molecules vibrate and rotate at the same time, and so the next sections brieﬂy outline the rotational envelopes that are associated with the diﬀerent kinds of vibrational modes in linear, symmetric top, and asymmetric top molecules. Rotational Proﬁles of Vibrations in Linear Molecules The point groups of linear molecules are either C∞v (if they are polar, and hence have a rotational spectrum) or D∞v (if they are symmetric, and hence have no rotational spectrum). The vibrations associated with such molecules are either of Σ or Π symmetry, and transitions to these kinds of states are called parallel and perpendicular transitions, respectively. The latter have vibrational angular momenta associated with the vibrational degeneracy, and so have diﬀerent rotational selection rules associated with them that are reﬂected in the rotational envelopes of the vibrational bands. From the ground state of a closed shell linear molecule, the parallel transitions are of Σ → Σ symmetry, while the perpendicular bands are of Σ → Π symmetry. 82
Figure 11.4 An overview of the midIR spectrum of HCN. The most important diﬀerence between these types of bands is that the former obey ∆J = ±1 selection rules, while the latter obey ∆J = 0, ±1 selection rules. Thus, at coarse resolution, parallel bands have only P and R branches while perpendicular bands have P, Q, and R branches. Physically, the parallel bands have the dipole derivative along the internuclear axis, while the perpendicular bands have the dipole derivative normal to the internuclear axis. An overview of the appearance of these kinds of bands for the HCN molecule is shown in Figure 11.3. At higher resolution, the parallel bands for a C∞v linear molecule such as HCN look just like a vibrational transition in a heteronuclear diatomic molecule, as Figure 11.4 shows. The major diﬀerence, especially as the molecule gets larger, is the presence of hot bands in the linear molecule spectrum that are associated with low lying vibrational states that can be signiﬁcantly populated at room temperature. For perpendicular bands, the angular momentum of vibration leads to a doubly degenerate state in the absence of rotation. In the rotating principal axis reference frame, however, there are Coriolis forces which lift the degeneracy. This is called ltype doubling, and modiﬁes the term expression for linear molecules to Fv (J ) = Bv J (J + 1) ± qi J (J + 1) , 2
where qi is the ltype doubling constant. The most obvious eﬀect of the perpendicular nature of the vibration is that the Qbranch is now allowed, as is shown for the ν1 + ν5 combination band of acetylene in Figure 11.4 (in which the ortho/para alternative is clearly visible). Upon closer inspection of the actual rotation levels involved, it can be seen that the P and R branches terminate on the lower ltype doublet, while the Qbranch terminates on the upper half of the ltype doublet. Thus, in order to measure the qi values from infrared spectra, both the P/R and Qbranches must be rotationally resolved! This can be quite diﬃcult for larger molecules, and so in many cases the ltype doubling is in fact measured via the pure rotational spectra arising from the thermally populated upper vibrational states. In this case, the ltype doublets appear weakly to either side of the intense ground state rotational transition, and the splitting grows with frequency (or J ). 83
5 4
J’
+ + +
Σ+
v=1
3 2 1 0
5 4 3 2 1 0
J’’
+
Σ+
 v=0 + +
. . . P(1)
R(0) . . .
Figure 11.5 Selection rules for a linear molecule parallel transition (top), and a speciﬁc example, the C–H stretch of HCN.
5 + 
4
+ + + + 
3 2 1
Πu
4
+
3 2 1 0

Σ
+ +
+ g
...
R(0)
Q(1)...
P(2) . . .
Figure 11.6 Selection rules for a linear molecule perpendicular transition (top), and a speciﬁc example, the 11 51 combination band of acetylene. 0 0 84
Rotational Proﬁles of Vibrations in Symmetric Top Molecules With symmetric rotors we now have K = 0 to worry about. For symmetric rotors in the C3v group, which is a common occurrence, remember there are A and E symmetries. A quick check of the character table reveals that only A1 → A1 and A1 → E transitions are allowed. Just as for the linear molecule case, these are called parallel and perpendicular transitions, respectively. For the parallel bands the selection rules are ∆K = 0 and ∆J = ±1, for K = 0 ∆K = 0 and ∆J = 0, ±1, for K = 0 while for perpendicular bands the selection rules are ∆K = ±1 and ∆J = 0, ±1. Thus, unlike the case for a linear molecule, for a symmetric top there is a Qbranch for both parallel and perpendicular bands. For the parallel bands, however, all of the diﬀerent Kvalues for which there is a Qbranch have transitions in essentially the same place – splittings are introduced only by the small change in rotational constant upstairs and downstairs and by the centrifugal distortion constants. Thus, for parallel bands there is a single tight Qbranch with P  and Rbranches to either side with a spacing between features of roughly 2B. As J increases, a larger and larger number of K states become available, and even the P  and Rbranch features begin to get smeared out as J increases. For the perpendicular bands, life is even more complicated. Here, since K is allowed to change by ±1, the individual Qbranches are spread out according to K. Just as for diatomic molecules, the change in angular momentum by one leads to a spacing of approximately a rotational constant. For a prolate symmetric top the spacing between the Qbranches is approximately 2(A − B), for oblate tops the appropriate spacing is obviously 2(C − B). Underlying these evenly spaced Qbranches are the assorted P  and Rbranches that go along with them. These are smeared out at low resolution, and what is most apparent are then the evenly spaced Qbranch features. Two examples of parallel and perpendicular bands are presented in Figures 11.7 and 11.8, which show the 11 parallel 0 band of CH3 F and the 61 perpendicular band of SiH3 F. Here, the notation 11 should be 0 0 read as meaning the 0 → 1 transition of the v1 mode, etc. Rotational Proﬁles of Vibrations in Asymmetric Top Molecules Finally, the most complex examples of rotational proﬁles in polyatomic molecules are due to those of asymmetric tops. As before with rotational spectra, the only rigorous selection rule left is ∆J = 0, ±1 , which leads to a widely scattered suite of P , Q, and Rbranches. Just as was true for the permanent dipole moment projections, the dipole derivative for a given vibration can be broken down into it components along the a, b, c inertial axes that rotate with the molecule. By analogy with pure rotational spectroscopy, we’ll again label various bands as 85
Figure 11.7 The 11 A1 → A1 parallel vibrational band of CD3 F. 0
Figure 11.8 The 61 E → A1 perpendicular vibrational band of SiH3 F. 0
type A, type B, or type C according to their dipole derivative projections. The diﬀerent projections lead to diﬀerent overall shapes for the bands, as summarized in Hollas. For prolate tops, the type A bands resemble those of parallel bands from symmetric tops – their is a strong central Qbranch feature ﬂanked by compact P  and Rbranch wings whose feature spacings are close to 2B. For the type B bands, the change in both K p and Ko spreads all of the features out, much as in a perpendicular band of a symmetric top. At low resolution, therefore, type B bands tend to lack a strong central peak, but instead can often look like the parallel bands of linear molecules at low resolution and signaltonoise (so watch out!). At somewhat higher resolution, the Qbranch features spaced by roughly 2A begin to appear. At very high resolution these type B bands are very complex, but since so many transitions are permitted, once they are fully understood quite accurate values of the A, B, C rotational constants and centrifugal distortion constants can be extracted. Example type A and type B bands from the ethylene molecule are presented in Figure 11.9. Finally, for a type C band there is again a strong central feature, but one which is more spread out than that of a type A band. In addition, the wings to higher and lower frequency are stronger relative to the central feature in a type C band than in a type A band. Other examples of such spectra may be found in various texts (such as Spectra of Atoms and Molecules, Bernath).
86
Figure 11.9 The 111 type A band of ethylene (top), the the 91 type B band of ethylene 0 0 (middle), and the 71 type C band of ethylene. 0
87