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Japanese Language: Japanese (日本語 nihongo) is spoken in Japan, and essentially nowhere else.

The Japanese language is distinct from Chinese and Korean, although the written form uses Chinese (kanji) characters, and is not known to be related to any other language. Grammar Japanese generally employs a subject-object-verb order, using particles to mark the grammatical functions of the words: 私がハンバーガーを食べる watashi-ga hamburger-o taberu, "I-subject hamburger-object eat". It is common to omit subjects and even objects if these are clear from previous context. Verbs and adjectives conjugate by tense and politeness level, but not by person or number. There is no verb "to be" as such, but the polite copula desu can be used in most cases: John desu ("I am John"), Ringo desu ("This is an apple"), Akai desu ("It is red"), etc. Note that the exact meaning will depend on the implied subject! The good news is that Japanese has none of the following: gender, declensions or plurals. Nouns never conjugate and almost all verbs are regular. Reading and writing Reading and writing Japanese are advanced skills which take years of work to gain much real proficiency. Japanese themselves use three different writing systems of various complexity, two of which (hiragana' and katakana) are syllabic and relatively easy to learn with 50 characters each, but the clincher is the set of over 2000 Chinese characters known as kanji. The set of hiragana characters is illustrated in the Japanese Pronunciation Guide.
こんにちは。 Konnichiwa. (kon-nee-chee-WAH) O-genki desu ka? (oh-GEN-kee dess-KAH?)

How are you?

Fine, thank you.
元気です。 Genki desu. (GEN-kee dess) (oh-NAH-mah-eh wah NAHN dess-KAH?)

What is your name?
お名前は何ですか。 O-namae wa nan desu ka?

My name is ____ .
私の名前は ____ です。 Watashi no namae wa ____ desu. (wah-TAH-shee no nah-mah-eh wa ____ dess)

Nice to meet you.
始めまして。 Hajimemashite. (hah-jee-meh-MOSH-teh) Onegai shimasu. (oh-neh-gigh shee-moss)

Please. (request)

Please. (offer)
どうぞ。 Dōzo. (DOH-zo)

Thank you.
どうもありがとう。 Dōmo arigatō. (doh-moh ah-ree-GAH-toh)

You're welcome.
どういたしまして。 Dō itashi mashite. (doh EE-tah-shee mosh-teh)

はい。 Hai. (HIGH)

いいえ。 Iie. (EE-eh)

Excuse me.
すみません。 Sumimasen. (soo-mee-mah-sen)

(informal) それでは。 Sore dewa. (oh-yah-soo-mee-nah-sigh) I don't understand. かばんをなくしました。 (kaban o nakushimashita) I dropped my wallet. (long-term) さようなら。 Sayōnara. けがしました。 (kega shimashita) Please call a doctor. わかりません。 Wakarimasen. (wah-kah-ree-mah-sen) Where is the toilet? トイレはどこですか。 Toire wa doko desu ka? (toy-reh wah DOH-koh dess kah?) Leave me alone.I'm sorry. 病気です。 (byōki desu) I've been injured.) Don't touch me! さわらないで! (sawaranaide!) I'll call the police. (oh-hah-YOH go-zigh-moss) Good evening. こんばんは。 Konbanwa. たすけてください。 (tasukete kudasai) It's an emergency. (nee-hohn-goh [yo-koo] hah-nah-seh-mah-sen) Do you speak English? 英語を話せますか。 Eigo o hanasemasuka? (AY-goh oh hah-nah-seh-moss-KAH?) Is there someone here who speaks English? だれか英語を話せますか。 Dareka eigo o hanasemasuka? (dah-reh-kah AY-goh oh hah-nah-seh-mossKAH?) Help! たすけて! Tasukete! (tah-soo-keh-teh!) Look out! あぶない! Abunai! (ah-boo-NIGH!) Good morning. 迷子です。 (maigo desu) I lost my bag. 財布をおとしました。 (saifu o otoshimashita) I'm sick. 日本語「よく」話せません。 Nihongo [yoku] hanasemasen. (sa-YOH-nah-rah) Goodbye. (kohm-bahn-wah) Good night (to sleep) おやすみなさい。 Oyasuminasai. 医者を呼んでください。 (isha o yonde kudasai) Can I use your phone? . ほっといて。 (hottoite. 緊急です。 (kinkyū desu) I'm lost. (goh-men-nah-sigh) Goodbye. 御免なさい。 Gomen-nasai. おはようございます。 Ohayō gozaimasu. (SOH-reh deh-wah) I can't speak Japanese [well]. 警察をよびます。 (keisatsu o yobimasu) Police! 警察! (keisatsu) Stop! Thief! 待て! どろぼう! (mate! dorobō!) I need your help.

電話を使っていいですか? (denwa o tsukatte iidesuka) .