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RAN Efficiency Improvement Scheme for Diverse Data Applications

3GPP TSG-RAN WG2 Meeting #75 [R2-114273]Signalling Overhead of Diverse Data Applications over LTE (Intel) [R2-114274]Traces of Diverse Data Applications over LTE network for eDDA Evaluation Framework (Intel) [R2-114308]RAN Efficiency Improvement Schemes (Renesas Mobile Europe)

Tzu-Chun Luo 2011.10.19


• • • • • Introduction Signalling Overhead Calculation Trace Analysis Potential Scheme Conclusion


often in parallel. smartphone.g. tablet) are capable of running a wide variety of data applications. Such a diversity in device and application type creates a corresponding diversity in the traffic profiles that must be efficiently supported by the radio access networks(RAN) on which they run • Numerous applications require that an always-on experience is seamlessly delivered and presented to the end user 3 .Introduction • Diverse data application(DDA) : Many devices(e.

the UE or both.DDA work item • Those applications may be designed without consideration of the characteristics of cellular networks. • Objective – Identify and specify mechanisms at the RAN level that enhance the ability of LTE to handle diverse traffic profiles. and consequently may exhibit traffic profiles not well suited to those connections. – Enhancements may be applicable to E-UTRAN. and should encompass both FDD and TDD modes 4 .

we followed the following methodology – Measure the number of RRC messages exchanged by an LTE modem when setting up an RRC connection – Collect sample traces of packet arrival patterns over LTE network – Apply a range of values of Idle inactivity timer to the traces to obtain rate of RRC state change events and the ratio of data exchanged to the signalling overhead 5 .Signalling Overhead Calculation • One of the key metrics of the evaluation for eDDA WI is the signalling overhead(for RRC connection) • To get an understanding of the signalling overhead seen over LTE networks.

Details of over-the-air RRC messages exchanged RRC message exchanged during RRC_Idle → RRC_Coonected Service Request RRC Connection Setup RRC Connection Request Length in bytes 18 51 31 RRC Connection Setup Complete 32 Security Mode Command Security Mode Complete 28 27 RRC Connection Reconfiguration RRC Connection Reconfiguration Complete Total 81 27 295 6 .

Signalling Overhead Calculation RRC message exchanged during RRC_Connection → RRC_Idle RRC Connection Release Length in bytes 28 Total 28 • The messages exchanged over the EMM and between packet gateway do not include 7 .

Twitter. Gtalk. Stock update.Trace Analysis • Experimental setup consisted of an LTE smart phone device and a software tool installed on the phone to capture layer 3 packets exchanged through the phone’s LTE interface • Background traffic : Skype. Weather and News • Active session : Safari. Android Market App and YouTube • All the different traces were obtained from the same location with no mobility 8 .

4 0.2 0.8 0.3 0.Active user traffic vs.7 0.8 0.9 0.3 0.1 0 Active User Only Background Active User + Background Traffic 0 500 Packet Size (bytes) 1000 1500 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Interarrival Time(ms) 140 160 180 200 • It doesn’t make much difference when applications run in background with an active session 9 .9 0.7 0.4 0. background traffic CDFs of Packet Interarrival Times 1 0.5 0.1 0 CDF Active User Only Background Traffic Active User + Background Traffic 0.2 0.6 CDF CDFs of Packet Sizes 1 0.6 0.5 0.

4 0.Trace for background traffic CDF Packet Interarrival Times 1 0.2 0.5 0.3 0.1 0 10% 30% 50% 70% 90% Inter Arrival Times (ms) (+/5%) 1 7 60 200 925 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 Interarrival Time (ms) 700 800 900 1000 10 .6 CDF 0.8 0.9 0.7 CDF Points 0.

7 0.6 CDF CDF Points 90% minimum Packet Size (bytes) 100 (+/.5%) 68 0.3 0.1 0 0 100 200 300 • The packet sizes are generally very small ranging from 68 to 100 bytes for 90% of all the packets 11 400 500 600 Packet Size (bytes) 700 800 900 1000 .2 0.9 0.Trace for multiple background applications CDF of Packet Sizes 1 0.8 0.5 0.4 0.

7 0.Analysis of Specific background application traffic CDF of Packet Interarrival Times 1 0. multiple background application makes a big difference in the CDF of packet inter-arrival times 12 .1 0 All Background Skype 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Interarrival Time (ms) 140 160 180 200 • Single vs.3 0.4 0.9 0.8 0.5 0.6 CDF 0.2 0.

Impact of Signalling Overhead • For a user running a active session using Safari 13 .

Impact of Signalling Overhead • For a user running multiple apps in background 14 .

Impact of Signalling Overhead • For a user running an active session with multiple apps in background 15 .

Potential Scheme • R2-114308 discusses low data rate application and MTC(Machine Type Communication) small data transmission • Potential schemes to improve the LTE RAN efficiency – Always-On in RRC_Connected State – Making use of RRC_Idle mode Tx/Rx 16 .

time/frequency synchronization.Always-On in RRC_Connected State • Straightforward : to keep UE always in RRC_Connected State and never release the UE to RRC_Idle State • Advantage : reduce the signalling overhead between RRC_Connected and RRC_Idle transitions • Drawback : – RAN resource(e. UL TA maintenance) 17 .g. PDCCH monitoring. RRM/CSI measurement. radio link monitoring. C-RNTI resources.g. memory used for UE context) are reserved – Power consumption to keep RRC_Connected(e. CQI/SR/SRS resources.

Since there can be a relatively long interval between packet transmission. UE is allowed to decrease the frequency of PDCCH monitoring – S-Measure allows such control over RRM/CSI management can be configured to be aperiodical • But UE still needs to retain downlink timing/frequency synchronization and possible uplink timing. the cost seems not so desirable 18 . s-Measure – In DRX mode.Always-On in RRC_Connected State • Solution : DRX.

Making use of RRC_Idle mode Tx/Rx • Transmit and receive data in RRC_Idle state • UL transmission : use RACH Msg3 to carry a small packet. SRB/DRB setup procedure. the applications need to be based on UDP 19 . and RRC connection release procedure will not be needed • Drawback : – No integrity protection and ciphering – Delay due to RACH contention – No ack. then eNB can directly reject the RRC connection setup request • Advantage : the security activation procedure.

size. type etc. priority. Random Access Response 2 Upon receiving the infrequent small data transmission from the MTC devices. It also acknowledges the MTC’s small data transmission at eNB.g.RACH procedure with small data transmission Implicit or explicit infrequent small data transmission indication of the MTC device: e. MTC Device eNB 1 Random Access Preamble Implicit or explicit indication on the data source and type etc. 3 Scheduled Transmission Contention Resolution 4 20 . eNB sends the RRC connection rejection message to UE with cause value of the offline small data transmission.

Making use of RRC_Idle mode Tx/Rx • DL transmission : MBMS service can be reused • Advantage : DL data transmission could for group of UEs and more signalling are saved • Drawback : – eNB can not transmit DL data to individual UEs – No ack – No integrity protection and ciphering 21 .

– Proposal 2: We recommend using Table 1 and Table 2 as a baseline to compare against any other sample traces for the case of user running background traffic.Conclusion • R2-114273:Signalling Overhead of DDA over LTE – Proposal 1: We propose to investigate and develop efficient mechanisms to reduce the signalling overhead when running background traffic • R2-114274:Traces of DDA over LTE network for eDDA evaluation framework – Proposal 1: The data shows that background traffic is significantly different from active user traffic (HTTP. – Proposal 3: For eDDA simulation framework. 22 . FTP etc. We recommend either using traces or developing a model based upon traces for multiple applications running in the background. a specific mix of background applications must be decided to obtain consistent traces.).

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