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- The C N P Stoichiometry of Autotrophs – Theory
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This question consists of two subquestions, each worth 30 points. 1. (30 points) In this question we will look at the relation between the logarithm of weekly earnings and years of education. Using data from the National longitudinal study of youth, we ﬁnd the following results for a regression of log weekly wage on years of education, experience, experience squared and an intercept: log(earnings)i = 4.016 + 0.092 · educi + 0.079 · experi − 0.002 · exper2 i (0.222) (0.008) (0.025) (0.001) a. (5 points) Construct a 95% conﬁdence interval for the eﬀect of years of education on log weekly earnings. Answer: [0.092 − 1.96 × 0.008, 0.092 + 1.96 × 0.008] Points: 1 point for noting the mean is 0.092. 1 point for noting the standard deviation is 0.008. 1 point for using 1.96. 2 points for a correct answer. (Students do not have to calculate the ﬁnal numerical result [0.07632, 0.10768] to be given full credit.)

b. (6 points) Consider an individual with 10 years of experience. What would you expect to be the return to an additional year of experience for such an individual (the eﬀect on log weekly earnings)? Answer: Experience changes from 10 to 11, experience squared changes from 100 to 121, so total eﬀect is 0.079 − 21 × 0.002 = 0.037 1

079 − 21 × 0. Points: 4 points for a correct answer. 2 . and that the correct speciﬁcation of the regression function is one that includes ability: log(earnings)i = β0 + β1 · educi + β2 · experi + β3 · exper2 + β4 · abilityi + εi i In this regression. (4 points) Labor economists studying the relation between education and earnings are often concerned about what they call “ability bias.Points: 1 point for noting exper changes from 10 to 11. c.002.” Suppose that invididuals diﬀer in ability.037. 2 points for a correct equation 0. what do you expect the sign of β4 (the coeﬃcient on ability) to be? Answer: Expect this to be positive. 1 point for a correct answer 0. d. Points: 4 points for a correct answer. 2 points for noting exper2 changes from 100 to 121. Partial credit for explanation (but wrong answer) at the grader’s own judgement. (4 points) What do you think is the sign of the correlation between ability and years of education? Answer: Positive correlation between ability and years of education.

e. (5 points) Another approach to dealing with ability bias has been to use data on pairs of individuals from the same household. Answer: Omitted variable bias is β4 · cov(ability. educ)/var(educ). f. do you think that the estimated value of β1 will be greater or less than what it was in the regression without ability? Explain. (6 points) If we estimate the regression function with ability included. 3 . or even better. Let Yi1 and Yi2 be the values of log earnings for the ﬁrst and second twin in household i. Points: 5 points for a correct answer. 4 points for a good explanation. which is positive. Partial credit at the grader’s own judgement. twins. Partial credit at the grader’s own judgement. Suppose you had observations for N households with twins. Points: 2 points for a correct answer (estimated value of β1 is smaller). and Xi1 and Xi2 be their education level.Partial credit for explanation (but wrong answer) at the grader’s own judgement. What regression would you run to estimate the eﬀect of education on earnings to avoid ability bias? Answer: Regress (Yi2 − Yi1 ) on (Xi2 − Xi1 ). Therefore the estimated value of β1 will be less than in the previous regression.

What is the regression you would run to estimate the eﬀect of the change in the minimum wage? Answer: Regress Yi on a constant and a dummy for the time period. in 1992. Partial credit at the grader’s own judgement. Points: 1 point for noting the dependent variable is Yi . 1 point for a correct answer (regress Yi on constant and time dummy). 2 points for noting the other regressor is time dummy. Points: 1 point for noting the dependent variable is Yi . (5 points) Suppose we only had data on employment after the change in the minimum wage. 4 . Let Yi be employment in restaurant i. Leads to average post-change employment in NJ minus average post-change employment in Pennsylvania.2. before and after an increase in the legal minimum wage came into eﬀect in New Jersey. New Jersey and Pennsylvania. Prior to that the minimum wage was the same in New Jersey and Pennsylvania. 1 point for noting the constant. and let Ti be an indicator for whether the employment was measured post minimum wage change. b. What regression would you run? Answer: Regress Yi on constant and Si . a. in both states. The second sentence is not a requisite for full credit. (5 points) Suppose we only had data from New Jersey. (30 points) To estimate the eﬀect of minimum wage on employment. Leads to average employment in NJ post minus average employment in NJ prior to change. let Si be an indicator for the restaurant being in New Jersey. collected data on fast food restaurants in two neighbouring states. David Card and Alan Krueger.

The second sentence is not a requisite for full credit. (7 points) What regression would you run with both before and after data for both New Jersey and Pennsylvania? Answer: Regress Yi on constant. Points: 1 point for noting the dependent variable is Yi . time indicator. Partial credit at the grader’s own judgement. 1 point for a correct answer (regress Yi on constant. and other changes over time in (a). Partial credit at the grader’s own judgement. state indicator. and interaction between time and state.1 point for noting the constant. 2 points for noting the interaction between time and state. 1 point for noting the constant. 1 point for noting the state indicator. 2 points for noting the other regressor is Si . 5 . and interaction between time and state). (6 points) What are the problems with both these estimation strategies? Answer: Permanent diﬀerences between NJ and PA for (b). 3 points for correctly pointing out the problem for (b). 1 point for a correct answer (regress Yi on constant and Si ). 1 point for noting the time indicator. c. Points: 3 points for correctly pointing out the problem for (a). time indicator. state indicator. d.

Partial credit at the grader’s own judgement.Partial credit at the grader’s own judgement. NY. What regression would you do now? Answer: Regress Yi on a constant. 1 point for noting the interaction between NJ and time dummy. 1 point for noting the constant. and interaction of NJ and time dummy). 1 point for noting the time dummy. the third one (New York) like Pennsylvania not experiencing a change in the legal minimum wage. and time dummy. dummies for PA. 6 . and time dummy. dummies for PA. NY. 2 points for noting the dummies for PA and NY. (7 points) Suppose we had data from three states. Points: 1 point for noting the dependent variable is Yi . and interaction of NJ and time dummy. e. 1 point for a correct answer (regress Yi on a constant.

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