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# MC0063 – Discrete Mathematics

1 If Evaluate the following

Solution: (a)

(b)

(C)

Therefore (d)

(e)

Ai = {x  U / x is divisible by pi}.A Cryptosystem Public Key Cryptography The distinguishing technique used in public key cryptography is the use of asymmetric key algorithms. A2. Write A1 = {x  U / x is divisible by p1}. Ak. prime to n. |Ai . 3. p2. Each user has a pair of cryptographic keys — a public encryption key and a private decryption key. In general. + (-1)k + =n …. then there are n/d multiples of d in U. n}. while the private decrypting-key is known only to the recipient. . If d divides n. 1  i  k. Let p1. The R. (n) = n – + …. …. where the key used to encrypt a message is not the same as the key used to decrypt it.2. pk be distinct prime divisors of n. … |A1 Ak| = . The publicly available encrypting-key is widely distributed. Write short notes on A. the number of integers x such that 1 x < n and relatively Solution: Let U = {1. The integers in U relatively prime to n are those in none of the subsets A1. …. 2. but parameters are .S. …. Public key Cryptography B. - (n). The keys are related mathematically. Messages are encrypted with the recipient's public key and can be decrypted only with the corresponding private key. Therefore (n) = | | = |U| – |A1  A2 … Ak|. Therefore by the principle of Inclusion and exclusion. Therefore |Ai| =  Aj| =  A2 … .