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MC0063 – Discrete Mathematics

1 If Evaluate the following

Solution: (a)



Therefore (d)


Ai = {x  U / x is divisible by pi}.A Cryptosystem Public Key Cryptography The distinguishing technique used in public key cryptography is the use of asymmetric key algorithms. A2. Write A1 = {x  U / x is divisible by p1}. Ak. prime to n. |Ai . 3. p2. Each user has a pair of cryptographic keys — a public encryption key and a private decryption key. In general. + (-1)k + =n …. then there are n/d multiples of d in U. n}. while the private decrypting-key is known only to the recipient. . If d divides n. 1  i  k. Let p1. The R. (n) = n – + …. …. where the key used to encrypt a message is not the same as the key used to decrypt it.2. pk be distinct prime divisors of n. … |A1 Ak| = . The publicly available encrypting-key is widely distributed. Write short notes on A. the number of integers x such that 1 x < n and relatively Solution: Let U = {1. The integers in U relatively prime to n are those in none of the subsets A1. …. 2. but parameters are .S. …. Public key Cryptography B. - (n). The keys are related mathematically. Messages are encrypted with the recipient's public key and can be decrypted only with the corresponding private key. Therefore (n) = | | = |U| – |A1  A2 … Ak|. Therefore by the principle of Inclusion and exclusion. Therefore |Ai| =  Aj| =  A2 … .

An analogy to public-key encryption is that of a locked mail box with a mail slot. In contrast. An analogy for digital signatures is the sealing of an envelope with a personal wax seal. Anyone knowing the street address can go to the door and drop a written message through the slot. To use a symmetric encryption scheme.e. belongs to the person or entity claimed (i. The patent taken out by RSA Labs has expired. has used a scheme generally called the "web of trust". No fully satisfactory solution to the public key authentication problem is known The R. It can be used to encrypt a message without the need to exchange a secret key separately. its location (the street address) is in essence the public key. The message can be opened by anyone. substituting individual endorsements of the link between user and public key. it is common to exchange a key using a key-exchange algorithm and transmit data using that key and a symmetric key algorithm. however. The two main branches of public key cryptography are: Public key encryption: a message encrypted with a recipient's public key cannot be decrypted by anyone except a possessor of the matching private key — it is presumed that this will be the owner of that key and the person associated with the public key used. known as certificate authorities. symmetric-key algorithms. . PGP. The usual approach to this problem is to use a public-key infrastructure (PKI).A Cryptosystem The RSA algorithm is named after Ron Rivest. for instance. Because symmetric key algorithms are nearly always much less computationally intensive. and are thus called hybrid cryptosystems. use a single secret key — which must be shared and kept private by both sender and receiver — for both encryption and decryption. see also message digest. and the part of the message that has not been tampered with.. in addition to a certificate authority structure. certify ownership of key pairs. in which one or more third parties.S. who invented it in 1977 [RIVE78]. Adi Shamir and Len Adleman. only the person who possesses the key can open the mailbox and read the message. which decentralizes such authentication of public keys by a central mechanism. but the presence of the seal authenticates the sender. A central problem for use of public-key cryptography is confidence (ideally proof) that a public key is correct.chosen so that determining the private key from the public key is prohibitively expensive. thereby proving that the sender had access to the private key (and therefore is likely to be the person associated with the public key used). On the question of authenticity. This is used for confidentiality. and has not been tampered with or replaced by a malicious third party. The RSA cryptosystem is the most widely-used public key cryptography algorithm in the world. is 'authentic'). The basic technique was first discovered in 1973 by Clifford Cocks [COCK73] of CESG (part of the British GCHQ) but this was a secret until 1997. variations of which having been used for thousands of years. The discovery of algorithms that could produce public/private key pairs revolutionized the practice of cryptography beginning in the mid-1970s. Digital signatures: a message signed with a sender's private key can be verified by anyone who has access to the sender's public key. the sender and receiver must securely share a key in advance. The mail slot is exposed and accessible to the public. PGP and the SSL/TLS family of schemes do this.

c}) = {2.. T = {2. . so A can sign a message using their private key and B can verify it using A's public key. ….3}. c}. Example: Let S = {a. Its security is based on the difficulty of factoring large integers. 5} Define f : P(S)  P(T) by f ({a}) = {2}. ) are isomorphic. ) are isomorphic. f ({b}) = {3}. Party A can send an encrypted message to party B without any prior exchange of secret keys. 3. which only he knows. f ({b. Therefore the lattices (P(S1). Proove the given theorem as below: If S1 = { x1. x2. Also A  B if and only if f (A)  f (B) for all A. f () =  The Boolean lattices (P(S). xn} and S2 = {y1. 3. f ({c}) = {5}. f ({a. c}) = {3. 5}. A just uses B's public key to encrypt the message and B decrypts it using the private key. so that each element of S1 is directly over the correspondingly numbered element in S2 Let A be a subset of S1 Define f (A) = subset of S2 consisting of all elements that correspond to the It can be easily seen that f is one one and onto. c}) = {2. 5} f ({a. B  P(S1). ) and (P(T) . 1. …. f ({a. 4. y2. b. ) are isomorphic. b. ) and (P(S2). yn} are any two finite sets with n elements. ) and (P(S2). b}) = {2. 5}. Also there is a unique (up to isomorphism) Boolean algebra of 2n elements for every n > 0. Note: i) Any finite Boolean algebra has exactly 2n elements for some positive integer n.The RSA algorithm can be used for both public key encryption and digital signatures. Consequently the Hasse diagrams of these lattices may be drawn identically. Proof: Arrange the sets as known in Fig. RSA can also be used to sign a message. then the lattices (P(S1).

where the isomorphism f = D 30  B3 defined by f (1) = 000. 2. 4. 6. 1} by f (1) = 00. f (2) = 10. 2. f (30) = 111. Observe that D30 is isomorphic to B3 (over {0. iii) Each lattice (P(S) . 5. f (15) = 011. f (3) = 010. 1}) where n = |S| Example : Consider the lattice is a divisor of 6} = { 1. 10. 1}) we join two n – tuples if they differ by exactly are component. f (10) = 101. 15. 3. f (2) = 100. f (5) = 001. 30} has 23 elements and hence a Boolean algebra. These can be represented by a following diagrams Example i) The lattice D20 ={1. 6} Define f = D6  B2 = { 0. 5. ) is completely determined as a poset by the number |S| and does not depend in any way on the nature of the elements in S. 10. 3. 5. over {0.Evaluate . f (6) = 110. 1}). 20 } has 6  2 n (for any positive integer n) elements and hence not a Boolean algebra. 2. it is clear that the lattice (P(S).ii) From the above theorem. Note To draw the Hasse diagram for Bn (n – tuples over {0. f (6) = 11 Then f is an isomorphism. ii) The lattice D30 = {1. f (3) = 01. Boolean Algebra. ) is isomorphic to Bn (n– tuples.