Matt Robinson PLATO QUESTIONS 1.

Philosophy may have first developed in Athens because it was a place for analysis and thought and a meeting place for many. Philosophy in Athens really kind of replaced their navy fleet because after the war was over, they got rid of their navy and turned more towards philosophy. 2. Apparently there is no question 2. 3. The absorbing problem in Plato's life was trying to find a method where the wisest and the best would be found, and then led to rule the rest. 4. To Plato and Socrates, virtue meant wisdom. I somewhat agree; I think that to be virtuous, you have to have wisdom, but I don't agree that having wisdom is the same as having virtue. 5. Plato says that greed and luxury are what prevent us from living in a utopia. 6. He criticizes democracy because of the excess of itself. Democracy is based on people having the right to all hold office, but he follows by saying that it is a disaster when the people are not properly equipped to be the best rulers and put us on the wisest courses. 7. Plato says that human behavior comes from three main sources: desire, emotion, and knowledge. 8. He says that philosophers alone are fit to rule the world because they are not distracted by desire and emotion and they act solely upon knowledge. 9. In the first ten years of life, educations shall be mostly physical, every school should have a gym and a playground. Because of this, all medicine will become unnecessary. Then he says that music will be used to balance the physical side because we don't want a nation of prize-fighters and weightlifters. Education should not be compulsory in this utopia because a freeman should be a freeman also in the acquisition of knowledge. He says that knowledge which is forced on us has no hold on the mind and is useless. 10. Plato thinks that a belief in God is important because that is the only way a nation can be strong. Belief in God can inspire hope and offer comfort, as well as courage and devotion. 11. At the age of 20, everyone takes a test to see if you should further your education. If you don't pass the test you will be assigned to business men, clerks, factory workers, or farmers. If they pass the test, they will continue to be educated for 10 more years. After those ten years are up, there will be another, harder, test which if you fail, you will become executive aides or military officers and if you pass you are taught philosophy. 12. We will tell them that where they are placed is God chosen and cannot be changed so that they will not rebel. 13. They will be thrown out into the real world with no favor shown on them and will be forced to live in the reality for 15 years. If they make it through the fifteen years, they will automatically become rulers of the state.

Matt Robinson 14.Plato's utopia is more democratic than our own system of government because in our system, there is some corruption in voting, whereas in this system, there is equal opportunity for everyone. 15. They will live under communism by not having any personal property or any gold or silver. The women will also not be private. Each man will have no wives but the communism is to be of women as well as of goods. 16. There really is no family relationships of the guardians. Because all of the kids are taken from their mothers at birth, they will not be distinguishable and the mothers will raise all of the children of all of the guardians. 17. No one is allowed to have children unless they are in perfect health and in a certain age group. This is the supervision in the system. If a child is born with unlicensed mating or deformed, they are supposed to let the child die. This is the infanticide in the system of eugenics. If people are not in the age groups for mating, then they are still allowed to mate, but they must abort the baby before it is born. 18. If a farmer makes a whole bunch of money, whatever they make over 4 times the normal amount, they have to give to the state. I don't think this is a good idea because this will encourage people not to work as hard because if they do work hard, they have to give up that hard earned money. 19. For the State, Plato defines justice as not mere strength, but harmonious strength. For the individual, Plato defines justice as having and doing what is one's own.

ARISTOTLE QUESTIONS 1. He was wrong about the fact that there would be no vacuum in nature, he was wrong about the earth being the center of the solarsystem, he thought that the male element in reproduction merely stimulates and quickens, he didn't know anything about muscles, didn't distinguish arteries from veins, thinks that the brain is only for cooling blood. He also thinks that women have fewer teeth than men. 2. I think he got so much wrong because he ventured out where no one had been before so he was bound to make some mistakes. While some of them were quite dumb (the teeth one in particular), it think that most of them were honest mistakes. 3. He said that birds and reptiles were very similar in structure, monkeys are intermediate between quadrupeds and man, he said that humans are mammals, he got a lot of other things right in zoology and also established the science of embryology. 4. 5. Some words that we use that come directly from Aristotle are faculty, mean, maxim, category, energy, actuality, motive, end, principle, and form. 6. God: Aristotle believes that there is a God who is incorporeal, indivisible, spaceless, sexless, passionless, changeless, perfect and eternal.

Matt Robinson The soul: Aristotle thinks that the soul is the sum of the powers of the body and cannot exist without it. Has a different view of the soul than that of Socrates Art: Aristotle says that the noblest art appeals to our intellect, as well as to our feelings and this pleasure is the highest form of joy to which a man can have. Ethics: Aristotle has simple ethics. He says that the goal in life is not merely to live a good life, but to be happy. He says that the way to do that is through reason. The "Golden Mean": The golden mean is something that fluctuates and discovers itself only to nature and reason. Utopias: He doesn't think that utopias will work because in a utopian system, everyone has to be on board and no one can be selfish and Aristotle doesn't think that is a possibility. Marriage and Women: Aristotle compared women and men to slaves and masters. He basically says that a women should be obedient and men are superior. He thinks that women are unfinished men who are lower on the scale of development. Silence is a woman's glory: Aristotle believes that this is true. I would say that when he says this, he is more meaning that women are meant to obey their men.