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Test of divisibility: 1. A number is divisible by ‘2’ if it ends in zero or in a digit which is a multiple of ‘2’i.e. 2,4, 6, 8. 2.

A number is divisible by ‘3’, if the sum of the digits is divisible by ‘3’. 3. A number is divisible by ‘4’ if the number formed by the last two digits, i.e. tens and units are divisible by 4. 4. A number is divisible by ‘5’ if it ends in zero or 5 5. A number is divisible by ‘6’ if it divisible by ‘2’ as well as by ‘3’. 6. A number is divisible by ‘8’ if the number formed by the last three digits, i.e, hundreds tens and units is divisible by ‘8’. 7. A number is divisible by ‘9’ if the sum of its digit is divisible by ‘9’ 8. A number is divisible by ‘10’ if it ends in zero. 9. A number is divisible by 11if the difference between the sum of digits in the even amd odd is 0 or multiple of 11 e.g.28589=(2+5+9)-(8+8) = 16-16 =0 so it is divisible by 11 LCM: LCM of a given set of numbers is the least number which is exactly divisible by every number of the given set. HCF: HCF of a given set of numbers is the highest number which divides exactly every number of the given set. LCM, HCF: 1. Product of two numbers = HCF × LCM 2. HCF of fractions = LCM of denominators /HCF of numerators 3. LCM of fractions = HCF of denominators /LCM of numerators 4. One number = LCM × HCF/2nd number

. its square root is a number ending in’4’ or ‘6’. its square root is a number ending in’5’ 4. 2. LCM of two numbers= Product of the numbers / HCF 6. 7 or 8 3. 3. 4 × 4 = 16 = 5 × 3 + 1 5 × 5 = 25 = 8 × 3 + 1 7 × 7 = 49 = 16 × 3 + 1 6. Every square number is a multiple of 3 or exceeds a multiple of 3 by unity. If a square number ends in ‘9’. A square cannot end with an odd number 2. 5 × 5 = 25 = 6 × 4 + 1 7 × 7 = 49 = 12 × 4 + 1 7. its square root is a number ending in’2’ or ‘8’. Ex. its square root is a number ending in’1’ or ‘9’. If a square number ends in ‘5’. the preceding digit is even. Ex. Characteristics of square roots of numbers 1. Every square number is a multiple of 4 or exceeds a multiple of 4 by unity. HCF = Product of the numbers /LCM Square root Characteristics of square numbers 1. 3. 5. If a square number ends in ‘6’. its square root is a number ending in’3’ or ‘7’. The square of an even number is even. A square cannot end with an odd number of zeros 2. The square of an odd number is odd 4.5. Ex. If a square numbers ends in ‘9’. If a square number ends in ‘4’. If a square number ends in ‘1’. 5. 7 × 7 = 49 ‘4’ is the preceding even numbers 27 × 27 = 729 ‘2’ is the preceding even numbers.

The relative velocity of two bodies moving at velocities u and v(u>v) in the same direction is u – v. if the train or the moving body has to pass a . TIME AND WORK Points for recapitulation while solving problems on time and work: 1. If a person can do a piece of work in ‘m’ days. The relative velocity of two bodies moving in opposite directions is u + v. its square root is a number ending in ‘0’. Time and work are always in direct proportion. If the number of persons engaged to do a piece of work be increased (or decreased) in a certain ratio the time required to do the same work will be decreased (or increased) in the same ratio. Speed v = s/t where s = Total distance t = Total time 2.6. TIME AND DISTANCE 1. 5. then A will take half the time taken by B to do a certain piece of work. A train or a moving body of known length has to travel its own length in passing a lamppost or a fixed body of insignificant size. 3. If A is twice as good a workman as B. 7. t = s/v 4. 2. he can do 1/m of the work in 1 day. s = vt 3. A train or a moving body must travel its own length plus the length of the stationary body in question. If a square number ends in ‘0’. 6. 4.

the corresponding ratio of times will be v : u Average Average= Sum of all quantities/ number of all quantities Average speed=Distance/Total time If an object covers equal distances at x km/hr and y km/hr. If a man changes his speed in the ratio u : v. Motion downstream or upstream: Velocity of boat downstream = u + v Velocity of boat upstream = u – v Where ‘u’ is the velocity of the boat in still waters and ‘v’ is the velocity of the stream. 8. 9. then Average Speed = 2xy/x+y .stationary body i. a bridge.e. a railway platform etc.