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On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History


On Heroes, Hero-Worship, and the Heroic in History
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indeed. time. AND THE HEROIC IN HISTORY By Thomas Carlyle CONTENTS. THE HERO AS PROPHET. PAGANISM: SCANDINAVIAN MYTHOLOGY. upon a great man. JOHNSON. royalty free copyright licenses. scanning machines. the punctuation and spelling of the print version have been retained. VI. ON HEROES. We have undertaken to discourse here for a little on Great Men. I. We cannot look. and every other sort of contribution you can think of. as I take it. taken up in any way. WHAT IF YOU *WANT* TO SEND MONEY EVEN IF YOU DON'T HAVE TO? The Project gratefully accepts contributions in money. PAGANISM: SCANDINAVIAN MYTHOLOGY. PURITANISM. of whatsoever the general mass of men contrived to do or to attain. II. but rather as a natural luminary shining by the gift of Heaven.29. THE HERO AS PRIEST. the practical realization and embodiment. of Thoughts that dwelt in the Great Men sent into the world: the soul of the whole world's history. ROUSSEAU. their manner of appearance in our world's business. the modellers. Money should be paid to "Project Gutenberg Association / Carnegie-Mellon University". He is the living light-fountain. The light which enlightens. CROMWELL. which has enlightened the darkness of the world. A large topic. without gaining something by him. [May 5. THE HERO AS DIVINITY.93*END* Scanned and proofed by Ron Burkey (rburkey@heads-up. For. and on their reception and performance. THE HERO AS POET. OCR software. ODIN. what ideas men formed of them. all things that we see standing accomplished in the world are properly the outer material result. with the following modifications made in the etext version: Italicized text is delimited by underscores. Universal History. thusly.--in whose radiance all . [thusly]. of manhood and heroic nobleness. BURNS. patterns. however imperfectly. THE HERO AS MAN OF LETTERS. of native original insight. 5 The text is taken from the printed "Sterling Edition" of Carlyle's Complete Works. namely. REFORMATION: KNOX. is at bottom the History of the Great Men who have worked here. it may justly be considered. in brackets. wide as Universal History itself. Greek text has been transliterated into Latin characters with the notation [Gr. which it is good and pleasant to be near. The footnote (there is only one) has been embedded directly into text. what work they did. IV. THE HERO AS KING. HERO-WORSHIP. DANTE: SHAKSPEARE. NAPOLEON: MODERN REVOLUTIONISM.] LECTURE I. *END*THE SMALL PRINT! FOR PUBLIC DOMAIN ETEXTS*Ver. an illimitable one. LECTURES ON HEROES. Otherwise. how they have shaped themselves in the world's history.04. Too evidently this is a large topic. these great ones. that Great Men. and this not as a kindled lamp only. MAHOMET: ISLAM. They were the leaders of men. were the history of these. as I say. deserving quite other treatment than we can expect to give it at present. a flowing light-fountain. III. Too clearly it is a topic we shall do no justice to in this place! One comfort is. ODIN. THE HERO AS DIVINITY. 1840. are profitable company. LUTHER. what I call Hero-worship and the Heroic in human affairs. the history of what man has accomplished in this world. and in a wide sense creators.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor payable to "Project Gutenberg Association/Carnegie-Mellon University" within the 60 days following each date you prepare (or were legally required to prepare) your annual (or equivalent periodic) tax return.--on Heroes. public domain etexts.] juxtaposed. in 20 volumes.

in every sense. his mere scepticism and no-religion: the manner it is in which he feels himself to be spiritually related to the Unseen World or No-World. with incredulity. and thus. and not him only. chosen out of widely distant countries and epochs. in such times as these. no sane man ever did believe it. but stocks and stones. with their eyes open. to illustrate several things for us. priestcraft. and for chief recognized element therein Physical Force? Was it Christianism. that a man's religion is the chief fact with regard to him. all is known. and dupery. which is often only a profession and assertion from the outworks of the man. the divine relation (for I may well call it such) which in all times unites a Great Man to other men. if we look faithfully at them. we should get some glimpses into the very marrow of the world's history. as I say. That men should have worshipped their poor fellow-man as a God. therefore. misbeliefs. They have all had a truth in them. Nevertheless it is a clear fact that they did it. not as real only. and I say. A man's. but as the only reality. and creatively determines all the rest. and in mere external figure differing altogether. That once known well. through every meanest moment of it.--plurality of gods. falsehoods. you tell me to a very great extent what the man is. to believe it! It will be often our duty to protest against this sort of hypothesis about men's doings and history. We see men of all kinds of professed creeds attain to almost all degrees of worth or worthlessness under each or any of them. made as we are. say they. and to all other isms by which man has ever for a length of time striven to walk in this world. Of a man or of a nation we inquire. make manifest to you the meanings of Heroism. it will be good to direct our survey chiefly to that religious phasis of the matter. We have chosen as the first Hero in our series Odin the central figure of Scandinavian Paganism. but so much as break ground on it! At all events. the oldest primary form of Heroism. or a nation of men's. or perhaps unbelief and flat denial? Answering of this question is giving us the soul of the history of the man or nation. Yes. inextricable jungle of delusions. men. Could we see them well. almost. How happy. the thing a man does practically lay to heart. this profession and assertion. and all manner of animate and inanimate objects. Let us look for a little at the Hero as Divinity. believe and live by such a set of doctrines. In these Discourses. on the very threshold. first of all. not this wholly. the articles of faith which he will sign and. uncertainty and inquiry whether there was an Unseen World. not worthy of the name of sane. The thoughts they had were the parents of the actions they did. Some speculators have a short way of accounting for the Pagan religion: mere quackery.--merely contrived to persuade other men. and know for certain. and his duty and destiny there. not exhaust my subject. covering the whole field of Life! A thing that fills us with astonishment.--for truly it is not easy to understand that sane men could ever calmly. their feelings were parents of their thoughts: it was the unseen and spiritual in them that determined the outward and actual. or men would not have taken them up. resting on Eternity. what the kind of things he will do is. confusions. we may pause in sorrow and silence over the depths of darkness that are in man. and live at home in. What religion they had? Was it Heathenism. could I but. But the thing a man does practically believe (and this is often enough without asserting it even to himself. if we rejoice in the heights of purer vision he has attained to. limited as we are. an emblem to us of a most extensive province of things. that is in all cases the primary thing for him. in words or otherwise. ought. Time. concerning his vital relations to this mysterious Universe. did actually hold by. in any measure. By religion I do not mean here the church-creed which he professes. much less to others). or. in religions. it may be. assert. These Six classes of Heroes. in us too. This is strange. Quackery and dupery do abound. I must make the attempt. any Mystery of Life except a mad one. mere sensuous representation of this Mystery of Life. faith in an Invisible. in many cases not this at all. was the great fact about them. above all in the . It is well said. and I here. A bewildering. protest against it in reference to Paganism. and fashioned for themselves such a distracted chaos of hallucinations by way of Theory of the Universe: all this looks like an incredible fable.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 6 souls feel that it is well with them. if it were possible. Surely it seems a very strange-looking thing this Paganism. That is his religion. Such things were and are in man. Such hideous inextricable jungle of misworships. as it were. in all men. that of Holiness? Was it Scepticism. and absurdities. from the mere argumentative region of him. This is not what I call religion.--doubt as to all this. if even so deep as that. Pagan empire of Force displaced by a nobler supremacy. you will not grudge to wander in such neighborhood for a while. almost inconceivable to us in these days.--their religion. if you tell me what that is. On any terms whatsoever.

or in any place. altogether a serious matter to be alive! I find. altering always as that alters: but it seems to me a radical perversion. in personification and visual form. a shadowing forth. It was a play of poetic minds." in this place. as mere diseases. Ask now. The Pilgrim's Progress is an Allegory. men made altogether like ourselves. to do and to forbear doing. and as if with a kind of life and historical reality in it. earnestly true. a perfect poetic symbol. Quackery gives birth to nothing. had we been there. but to know what they were to believe about this Universe. sound senses. somewhat more respectable. that not poetic allegory. least of all that dupery and deception was the origin of it. Read the candid. the sure precursor of their being about to die! Let us never forget this. such a phenomenon as that far-distant distracted cloudy imbroglio of Paganism. the "discoverability" is the only error here. We shall not see into the true heart of anything. That what a man feels intensely. it was not the health and life of such things. and see. was not the want of men. would we believe. it was a stern reality. neither need we doubt that it did operate fundamentally in this business. Man everywhere is the born enemy of lies. to see represented before him in visual shape. they have not reached it either. in allegorical fable. I call a little more respectable. Men. what. a mere play of the Fancy.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 7 more advanced decaying stages of religions. that though these Allegory theorists are on the way towards truth in this matter. they have fearfully abounded: but quackery was never the originating influence in such things. not the producer of it. and all Religions are symbols of that. For Paganism. though in less important things. errors and confusions? How was it. these poor Thibet people. once discovered. an allegory. men with open eyes. Turner's Account of his Embassy to that country. that we. corruptions. still everywhere observably at work. it is a difficult thing to find good methods for!--We shall begin to have a chance of understanding Paganism. Now doubtless there is such a law. a Symbol of what men felt and knew about the Universe. and it is one of the deepest in human nature. I find Grand Lamaism itself to have a kind of truth in it. what course they were to steer in it. At bottom some belief in a kind of Pope! At bottom still better. Which agrees. should have believed in it. and a beautiful. Pagan Religion is indeed an Allegory. yet it was one. and. belief that there is a Greatest Man. The hypothesis which ascribes Paganism wholly or mostly to this agency. fit to be supreme over them. but I cannot yet call it the true hypothesis. gives death to all things. of the business. they had to hope and to fear. in this mysterious Life of theirs. Man's life never was a sport to him. It seems to me a most mournful hypothesis. Think.--more like a cloud-field than a distant continent of firm land and facts! It is no longer a reality. standing believed by everybody. . at one time. with a primary law of human nature. therefore. that he is discoverable. with all its seriousness. to put that forward as the origin and moving cause. that. add they. he struggles to speak out of him. and take with us as our life-guidance. The Allegory is the product of the certainty. We ought to understand that this seeming cloud-field was once a reality. if we look merely at the quackeries of it. to die is not sport for a man. to sweep them out of our thoughts as out of our practice. say these theorists. never did believe idle songs. attributes such things to Allegory. in comparison with that awful Fact and scientific certainty which it poetically strives to emblem. the parent of such a bewildered heap of allegories. What Paganism could have been? Another theory.--of understanding him to be always the eldest-born of a certain genealogy? Alas. when we first admit that to its followers it was. we may say a sportful shadow. and even inversion. Whence came that scientific certainty. just and serious one: but consider whether Bunyan's Allegory could have preceded the Faith it symbolizes! The Faith had to be already there. Bad methods: but are they so much worse than our methods. To get beautiful allegories. Let us consider it very certain that men did believe in Paganism. if we do not reject the quackeries altogether. The Thibet priests have methods of their own of discovering what Man is Greatest. therefore. a poetic sport? Not sport but earnest is what we should require. clear-sighted. with which our and all men's sole duty is to have done with them. we ought to treat him with an obedience which knows no bounds! This is the truth of Grand Lamaism. that Providence sends down always an Incarnation of Himself into every generation. I say. never risked their soul's life on allegories: men in all times. rather sceptical Mr. we have still to inquire. what was it? Surely it were a foolish attempt to pretend "explaining. not in Bunyan's nor in any other case. of what such poetic minds had known and felt of this Universe. that of quackery giving birth to any faith even in savage men. They have their belief. It is a most earnest thing to be alive in this world. when it was rather the result and termination. but their disease.--of which the Allegory could then become a shadow.

would pierce into the heart of the wild . swift. was then divine to whosoever would turn his eye upon it. encasing wholly every notion we form. The world. it is the Almighty God's! Atheistic science babbles poorly of it. yet with the ripe faculty of a man. is a wrappage of traditions. inscrutable. "There is not a leaf rotting on the highway but has Force in it. if such a one were possible. ah me--what could the wild man know of it. with its blue diamond brightness (that wild blue spirit-like brightness. unspeakable. To the wild deep-hearted man all was yet new. it must be a miracle too. a Force which is not we. Nature was to this man. which is now divine only to the gifted. That there was a kind of fact at the heart of them. Now.--and so with a name dismiss it from us. it stood naked. of a man who had grown to maturity in some dark distance. like an all-embracing ocean-tide. how else could it rot?" Nay surely. worship if not in words. it is altogether different from us. What would his wonder be. Hardened round us. on which all science swims as a mere superficial film. the black cloud fashioning itself together. mere words. open as a child. but it is a poor science that would hide from us the great deep sacred infinitude of Nescience. leaving out both the quack theory and the allegory one. yet with the depth and strength of a man. godlike thing. experiments and what not. the stripping-off of those poor undevout wrappages. rivers. and listening with affectionate attention to that far-off confused rumor of the Pagan ages. proclaims it to be a living thing. the trees. It is not by our superior insight that we escape the difficulty. we can never know at all. the winds sweeping through it. Force. now hail and rain.--for we have no word to speak about it. many-sounding seas. This world. what is it? Ay. But now I remark farther: What in such a time as ours it requires a Prophet or Poet to teach us. silent. we ourselves a mysterious Force in the centre of that. his soul would fall down in worship before it." and lecture learnedly about it. now pouring out fire. Force. Nature. to the Atheistic Thinker. Simple. this huge illimitable whirlwind of Force. in all times. whither we can never penetrate. to be bottled up in Leyden jars and sold over counters: but the natural sense of man. what can we yet know? That it is a Force. devout prostration and humility of soul. he would discern it well to be Godlike. "All was Godlike or God:"--Jean Paul still finds it so. then in silence. after all our science and sciences. and grind the like of it out of glass and silk: but what is it? What made it? Whence comes it? Whither goes it? Science has done much for us. to whosoever will think of it. wonderful. We call that fire of the black thunder-cloud "electricity. This Universe. shapes and motions. Canopus shining down over the desert. what to the Thinker and Prophet it forever is. old as Eternity. nomenclatures and scientific hearsays. rushing on. our want of insight. The first Pagan Thinker among rude men. as yet unencumbered with these things. and then are not: this is forever very literally a miracle.--that great deep sea of azure that swims overhead. what? At bottom we do not yet know. What is it? God's Creation.--this. or the like. far brighter than we ever witness here). were there no other. namely. who has power to escape out of hearsays: but there then were no hearsays. He stood bare before it face to face. Let us try if. the religious people answer. the first man that began to think. have had an instinct for detecting quacks. never-resting whirlwind. but in their own poor way true and sane! You remember that fancy of Plato's. it is by our superior levity. on which we and all the Universe swim like exhalations. flashing in on him there. is still a miracle. which envelops us here. his whole heart would be kindled by that sight. if he will honestly apply his sense. the illimitable. beautiful. preternatural. the giant Jean Paul. sounds. as if it were a poor dead thing. awful. This green flowery rock-built earth. after never so much science. hearsays. never-resting thing called Time. a thing to strike us dumb. magical and more. silent. rolling. that they too were not mendacious and distracted. is awe. which we now collectively name Universe. our inattention. an unspeakable. It is by not thinking that we cease to wonder at it. towards which the best attitude for us. like apparitions which are. everywhere Force.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 8 especially in early earnest times. he had not yet united under a name the infinite variety of sights. did for itself. That is all. was precisely this child-man of Plato's. high as Immensity. just such a childlike greatness was in the primitive nations. Nature had as yet no name to him. his rapt astonishment at the sight we daily witness with indifference! With the free open sense of a child. for detesting quacks. and was brought on a sudden into the upper air to see the sun rise. not veiled under names or formulas. with scientific nomenclatures. the ancient earnest soul. the mountains.--ah. it is not we. we cannot ascertain so much as this at least. and thousand-fold Complexity of Forces. That great mystery of TIME.

if we will open our minds and eyes? We do not worship in that way now: but is it not reckoned still a merit. "and that is the Body of Man. the expression. how every object still verily is "a window through which we may look into Infinitude itself"? He that can discern the loveliness of things. without being mad. as I said above. the vivifying influence in man's life. the tap-root. the mystery in us that calls itself "I. could worship Nature. is it not all as a vesture for that Unnamed? "There is but one Temple in the Universe. but had to gaze direct at them there. This body. in what fashion soever. Worship. To us also. is not a God made visible. with no speech for any feeling. of some God. but we may feel and know. you will find it the ultimate perfection of a principle extant throughout man's whole history on earth. out of many roots: every admiration. The essence of our being. Religion I find stand upon it. in the full use of their faculties. And look what perennial fibre of truth was in that. That they did it. and at all hours. that is. Chrysostom's celebrated saying in reference to the Shekinah. not Paganism only. that it is verily so. Or coming into lower. through every blade of grass." that we recognize how every object has a divine beauty in it. Hero-worship. And now if worship even of a star had some meaning in it. in such words as can be had. lovable." says the devout Novalis. this life of ours. To these primeval men. proof of what we call a "poetic nature. is not all Loyalty akin to religious Faith also? Faith is loyalty to some inspired Teacher. they. wonder for which there is now no limit or measure. nothing else admirable! No nobler feeling than this of admiration for one higher than himself dwells in the breast of man. We touch Heaven when we lay our hand on a human body!" This sounds much like a mere flourish of rhetoric. glancing out on him from the great deep Eternity. what the horse and camel did. some spiritual Hero. these truths were once more readily felt than now. I consider Hero-worship to be the grand modifying element in that ancient system of thought. We are the miracle of miracles. I say there is. boundless. among the Hebrews: "The true Shekinah is Man!" Yes.--the great inscrutable mystery of God. worshipping the stars? Such is to me the secret of all forms of Paganism. whom it was guiding through the solitary waste there. What I called the perplexed jungle of Paganism sprang. it is even so: this is no vain phrase. from which in a great degree all the rest were nourished and grown. nothing! But now if all things whatsoever that we look upon are emblems to us of the Highest God. how much more might that of a Hero! Worship of a Hero is transcendent admiration of a Great Man. we may say. that Canopus.--all religion hitherto known. It is to this hour. with all sincerity of heart. Worship is transcendent wonder. what words have we for such things?--is a breath of Heaven. less unspeakable provinces.--in their own fashion. I say great men are still admirable. of the actual truth of the thing. and yet the depth of earnest men. admire without limit: this. Nothing is holier shall that high form. If well meditated. The young generations of the world."--ah. was a merit: better than what the entirely stupid man did. they could do. at bottom. for a noblest godlike Form of Man. and man more than anything else in Nature. submission. it will turn out to be a scientific fact. but it is not so. but Hero-worship is the deepest root of all. visible Revelation of God. To his wild heart. Well. adoration of a star or natural object. but far higher and truer religions. You have heard of St. these faculties.--namely. we call him Poet! Painter. I add that more so than any of them is man such an emblem. Man of Genius. with all feelings in it. it might seem a little eye. became what we call Sabeans. all things and everything they saw exist beside them were an emblem of the Godlike. that is worship. And what therefore is loyalty proper. was a root or fibre of a root.--is not that the germ of Christianity itself? The greatest of all Heroes is One--whom we do not name here! Let sacred silence meditate that sacred matter. who had in them the freshness of young children. through every star. or Ark of Testimony. Cannot we understand how these men worshipped Canopus. the Highest Being reveals himself in man. Bending before men is a reverence done to this Revelation in the Flesh. burning. we know not how to speak of it.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 9 Ishmaelitish man. the life-breath of . with awe and wonder: they felt better what of divinity is in man and Nature. These poor Sabeans did even what he does. who did not think that they had finished off all things in Heaven and Earth by merely giving them scientific names. We cannot understand it. it is veritably so. if we like. gifted. heartfelt prostrate admiration. revealing the inner Splendor to him.

King is Kon-ning. The History of the World. is it not the sticks that made the fire?" No sadder proof can be given by a man of his own littleness than disbelief in great men. professes to have gone out. is an age that as it were denies the existence of great men. In all epochs of the world's history. adoration. Truly. Kan-ning. Persiflage was the character of their whole mind." It has always seemed to me extremely curious this of Voltaire. is nevertheless. cries of Democracy." they say. Not insupportably inaccurate.--the lightning. they begin to what they call "account" for him. submissive admiration for the truly great? Society is founded on Hero-worship. His word is the wise healing word which all can believe in. and I know not what:--the notes being all false.--and several of them. the thing I call Hero-worship. he nothing--but what we the little critic could have done too! This seems to me but melancholy work. impotently crumbling down into ever worse distress towards final ruin. who cry: "See.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 10 all society." Hero-worship. valor to lead it on the right road thither. perplexity. not insupportably inaccurate. had to go down to confusion and wreck because he would not come when called. I say! They are all as bank-notes. could it have found a man great enough. In all times it is possible for a man to arise great enough to feel that they and their doctrines are chimeras and cobwebs. I said already. with his free force direct out of God's own hand.--all this I liken to dry dead fuel. and cannot cease till man himself ceases. Providence had not sent him. Liberty and Equality. was the Biography of Great Men. The dry mouldering sticks are thought to have called him forth. always are forged notes. Man that knows or cans. adoration had nowhere a place in it. And what is notable. The Time call forth? Alas. All dignities of rank. as it was always and everywhere. tottering. There is no sadder symptom of a generation than such general blindness to the spiritual lightning.--and bring him out to be a little kind of man! He was the "creature of the Time. if Christianity be the highest instance of Hero-worship. We can do with some forged false notes. no Time need have gone to ruin. waiting for the lightning out of Heaven that shall kindle it. an old. genuine admiration. No people ever were so little prone to admire at all as those French of Voltaire. in no time whatever can they entirely eradicate out of living men's hearts a certain altogether peculiar reverence for Great Men. we have known Times call loudly enough for their great man. The great man. that he has spent his life in opposing . all representing gold. into fire like his own. or the most of them forged! No: there have to come revolutions then. these social dignitaries. these are the salvation of any Time. people take to crying in their despair that there is no gold. I think. Boswell venerates his Johnson. with faith only in the heap of barren dead fuel. is the lightning. and no gold to be had for them. not to worship him. that there never was any! "Gold. on which human association rests. Yet see! The old man of Ferney comes up to Paris. when he has once struck on it. denies the desirableness of great men. and burst out round him into very curious Hero-worship. but not with all. of a graduated Worship of Heroes--reverence and obedience done to men really great and wise. distress. but an effluence of Hero-worship. All blazes round him now. This. the Time did everything. for reasons which it will be worth while some time to inquire into. then we may find here in Voltaireism one of the lowest! He whose life was that of a kind of Antichrist. however dim and perverted it may be. but as to calling him forth--! Those are critics of small vision. for it is "sacred" enough withal! The Duke means Dux. the Time called him forth. infirm man of eighty-four years. Society everywhere is some representation. without which the fuel never would have burnt. a man wise and good enough: wisdom to discern truly what the Time wanted. does again on this side exhibit a curious contrast. For if we will think of it. They did want him greatly. But I liken common languid Times. They feel that he too is a kind of Hero. and finally ceased. right truly even in the Eighteenth century. in that last act of his life when they "stifle him under roses. the Time. Show our critics a great man. The unbelieving French believe in their Voltaire. Hero-worship endures forever while man endures. loyalty.--or a Hierarchy. we shall find the Great Man to have been the indispensable savior of his epoch. I am well aware that in these days Hero-worship. with their languid doubting characters and embarrassed circumstances. but not find him when they called! He was not there. with a good many even. Leader. a Luther for example. with their unbelief. Such small critics do what they can to promote unbelief and universal spiritual paralysis: but happily they cannot always completely succeed. calling its loudest. It is the last consummation of unbelief. are what we may call a Heroarchy (Government of Heroes). alas. but take the dimensions of him.

while we believe so differently.--in short that he too. who perhaps had a lingering fondness for Paganism. though in a strange way. the latest. to set forth. That man. whom doubtless we still resemble in so many ways.--the one fixed point in modern revolutionary history. the geologists say. It is interesting also as the creed of our fathers. delivering Calases. the record of these things was written down. that we all of us reverence and must ever reverence Great Men: this is. Accordingly all persons. near a century . Let us look a little at this poor Norse creed. Saemund. For myself in these days. to me. is thought to signify Ancestress. towering up there. collected certain of their old Pagan songs. worships Heroes. took in hand next. there never was such a persifleur. is more interesting than any other. for one thing. They feel withal that. much down-rushing. has fought like a valiant man. only under an ancient obsolete vesture. So much of truth. to keep it as a sacred relic. no farther. the living rock amid all rushings-down whatsoever." At Paris his carriage is "the nucleus of a comet. in all times and places. if persiflage be the great thing. an Iceland gentleman. mostly all of a religious character: that is what Norse critics call the Elder or Poetic Edda.--such god as they are fit for. de Voltaire. and uttered musically their thoughts. Strange: they did believe that. stern and grim. like the waste chaotic battle-field of Frost and Fire. orders his Postilion. The confused wreck of things crumbling and even crashing and tumbling all round us in these revolutionary ages. I think Scandinavian Paganism. venerate and bow down submissive before great men: nay can we honestly bow down to anything else? Ah. a wild land of barrenness and lava. of all Frenchmen the most French. had Iceland not been burst up from the sea. in the North Ocean with its snow jokuls. In times of unbelief. or general triviality. it continued in these regions of Europe till the eleventh century: eight hundred years ago the Norwegians were still worshippers of Odin. from the divine Founder of Christianity to the withered Pontiff of Encyclopedism. There was nothing highest. yet with a wild gleaming beauty in summertime. swallowed many months of every year in black tempests. sulphur-pools and horrid volcanic chasms. We all love great men. nobler." The ladies pluck a hair or two from his fur. where cattle can subsist. do they not worship him? People of quality disguise themselves as tavern-waiters. to us here. It is an eternal corner-stone. will get down so far. in some sense or other. Much would be lost. men who had deep thoughts in them. with a broad oath. is what all Pagan religions have struggled. It will ever be so. We have tolerable means to do it. Denis. educated by this Saemund's grandson. the Hero is still worshipable: this. a word of uncertain etymology. Nature is still divine. whose train fills whole streets. and it seems they were poetic men these. under poor cramped incipient forms. which soon have to become times of revolution. for there is another point of interest in these Scandinavian mythologies: that they have been preserved so well. He is the realized ideal of every one of them. insincerity and aridity of any Time and its influences can destroy this noble inborn loyalty and worship that is in man.--where of all places we least looked for Literature or written memorials. an extremely notable personage. "Va bon train. from which they can begin to build themselves up again. does not every true man feel that he is himself made higher by doing reverence to what is really above him? No nobler or more blessed feeling dwells in man's heart.--Poems or Chants of a mythic. for many reasons. On the seabord of this wild land is a rim of grassy country. as they could. that did not feel this man to be higher. In that strange island Iceland. thou art driving M. He is properly their god. beautifuler.--burst up. the men whose blood still runs in our veins. but the spirit of it still true. the Hero has been worshipped. from the Queen Antoinette to the Douanier at the Porte St. And to me it is very cheering to consider that no sceptical logic. by fire from the bottom of the sea. Yes. otherwise as if bottomless and shoreless. unmasking hypocrites in high places. just about becoming obsolete then. roaring geysers. prophetic. sorrowful decay and ruin is visible to everybody. one of the early Christian Priests there. the revelation of the workings of God. beautifulest. from Norse Odin to English Samuel Johnson. It is. The Maitre de Poste. do I find in the Paganism of old nations. the thing they are all wanting to be.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 11 error and injustice. noblest in all France. Edda. Snorro Sturleson. and men by means of them and of what the sea yields. I seem to see in this indestructibility of Hero-worship the everlasting adamant lower than which the confused wreck of revolutionary things cannot fall. not been discovered by the Northmen! The old Norse Poets were many of them natives of Iceland. love.

a very dangerous Jotun. these are Jotuns. the Nottingham bargemen. Thunder was not then mere Electricity. or Flame. in a greater proportion along the east coast. Norse. Fire. but a living Jotun or Devil. Frost. they dwell apart. But all over our Island we are mingled largely with Danes proper. among several other books he wrote."--that is the rustling storm-blast before the thunder begins. the Giant Thrym. but still used in Scotland to signify hoar-frost. there is the Eager coming!" Curious. the beautiful. if it had not Stupidity to help it. the monstrous Jotun Rime drove home his Horses at night. as I find. that word surviving.--that is the peal. or Rime. as I learn. is the home of the Jotuns. and fell down in awe before. and greatest of all. they wondered at. Sea-tempest. or fleet Frost-Winds. Loke. at bottom. and they split in the glance of it. a most swift subtle Demon. native talent. which we designate by some trivial chemical name.--as of Heathen and Christian. was a devil or god. the White God. A work constructed really with great ingenuity. call it Eager. a kind of Prose Synopsis of the whole Mythology. is with these old Northmen. or Wish. that Sea-tempest is the Jotun Aegir. let us look at it as old Thought. The God Wish. it is possible to gain some direct insight even yet. From the Humber upwards. the Sun. elucidated by new fragments of traditionary verse. very dangerous to them). sat "combing their manes. all over Scotland. From us too no Chemistry. pleasant reading still: this is the Younger or Prose Edda. what one might call unconscious art. of course. which go on zealously in the North to this day. not his. What is Flame?--Frost the old Norse Seer discerns to be a monstrous hoary Jotun. are Gods. huge shaggy beings of a demonic character. Earnest simple recognition of the workings of Physical Nature. as Summer-heat.--God also of beneficent Summer-heat. the fire-bolt bursting out of Heaven is the all-rending Hammer flung from the hand of Thor: he urges his loud chariot over the mountain-tops. its Germanism has . on our river Trent. they cry out. What we now lecture of as Science. a distant dark chaotic land. wondrous too. The Gods dwell above in Asgard. in the North Country. the Giant Hymir's Cows are Icebergs: this Hymir "looks at the rocks" with his devil-eye. Balder again. and see that old Norse system of Belief. is the Sun." Giants. The empire of this Universe is divided between these two. Rime was not then as now a dead chemical thing. The primary characteristic of this old Northland Mythology I find to be Impersonation of the visible workings of Nature. which they never had seen before. that bit you sharply when you touched it. or the like. and that lived upon dry wood. wrathful he "blows in his red beard. in perennial internecine feud. His Cows--No. vitreous or resinous.--and now to this day."--which Horses were Hail-Clouds. By these and the numerous other Sagas. thereby hiding from ourselves the essential character of wonder that dwells in it as in all things. "Have a care. as a thing wholly miraculous. or rather. except a superficial one. Higher considerations have to teach us that the God Wish is not the true God. to put together. The friendly Powers again. it was the God Donner (Thunder) or Thor. the old word now nearly obsolete here. when the River is in a certain flooded state (a kind of backwater. beautifullest of visible things. as Religion The dark hostile Powers of Nature they figure to themselves as "Jotuns. Danish and Norse and Saxon have no distinction. Indeed our English blood too in good part is Danish. Hrym. Icelandic or not.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 12 afterwards. if we will look at the foundation of it! The power of Fire. which still shows itself in the latest forms of our spiritual culture. The savages of the Ladrones Islands too (say some Spanish voyagers) thought Fire. like the peak of a submerged world! The oldest Nottingham bargemen had believed in the God Aegir. Of the other Gods or Jotuns I will mention only for etymology's sake. who could give us all that we wished! Is not this the sincerest and yet rudest voice of the spirit of man? The rudest ideal that man ever formed. would hide that Flame is a wonder. after all our Astronomies and Almanacs! But perhaps the notablest god we hear tell of is one of whom Grimm the German Etymologist finds trace: the God Wunsch. and divine still. with the commentaries. Curious all this. Let us forget that it is erroneous Religion. The thunder was his wrath: the gathering of the black clouds is the drawing down of Thor's angry brows. mostly Icelandic. or eddying swirl it has. of the brood of the Jotuns. but a kinsman's. Jotunheim. the Speech of the common people is still in a singular degree Icelandic. stupendous and divine. as it were. altogether a perspicuous clear work. the Garden of the Asen. face to face. and not idle or inane. and try if we cannot sympathize with it somewhat. or Divinities. the just and benignant (whom the early Christian Missionaries found to resemble Christ). for instance.--from the incessant invasions there were: and this.

even so! Joyful to men as the dawning of day from night. after many adventures. each inextricably in communion with all. great. It is Thought. the Rocks his bones. I like. a Giant made by "warm wind. from death into life? We still honor such a man. the awakening for them from no-being into being. the Ash-tree of Existence." and much confused work. Present. Thor." Considering how human things circulate. and the brains of it became the Clouds. A broad simplicity. the Tree of Existence. a Prophet. what is doing.--as Gods and Demons. earnest minds. a worker of miraculous unexpected blessing for them. stupendous. a certain homely truthfulness and rustic strength. all men were not far from saying.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor still a peculiar Norse tinge. His blood made the Sea. Igdrasil. and walking off with it. its trunk reaches up heaven-high. personal Agencies. the Goethes!--Spiritually as well as bodily these men are our progenitors. it is strange enough this old Norse view of Nature.--if that be any great beauty!-- 13 Of the chief god. sending out Thor to get the caldron for them in the Jotun country. the storm-wind howling through it like the voice of all the gods. and the future. watering its roots from the Sacred Well.--stretch through all lands and times." with their buddings and disleafings?--events. the Sea-Jotun.--till the great Thinker came. different enough from what we believe of Nature. The "Machine of the Universe. one would not like to be compelled to say very minutely! One thing we may say: It came from the thoughts of Norse men. Consider only their primary mythus of the Creation. What a Hyper-Brobdignagian business! Untamed Thought. on this ever-stupendous Universe. above all. every fibre there an act or word? Its boughs are Histories of Nations. At the foot of it. a face-to-face and heart-to-heart inspection of the things. not from Ulfila the Moesogoth only. the present. onwards from of old." Northmen. whose shaped spoken Thought awakes the slumbering capability of all into Thought. has its roots deep down in the kingdoms of Hela or Death. discloses itself here. the ears of the Pot reaching down to his heels! A kind of vacant hugeness. Whence it specially came. after our beautiful Apollo statues and clear smiling mythuses. as in the Greek Paganism. we shall speak by and by. The First Norse "man of genius. enormous force. Genius. too. of the Shakspeares. do but think of that in contrast! Well. so very different from the light gracefulness of the old Greek Paganism.--determined on constructing a world with him. All Life is figured by them as a Tree.--or storm tost. Odin. what the essence of Scandinavian and indeed of all Paganism is: a recognition of the forces of Nature as godlike. were longing to say. what will be done. distinguishes this Scandinavian System. It is Igdrasil. Beautiful. It is strange. Mark at present so much. that representation they have of the tree Igdrasil. not giantlike.--to be tamed in due time into the compact greatness. a great rude sincerity. giantlike. things done. It is the past. fairly opened to the things about them. characterizes that Norse system. Fates. Future. such as men only feel. like a huge hat. his flesh was the Land. They too are "Normans. across this Universe. Is not every leaf of it a biography. altogether beautiful and great.--from the thought. half-sport. but from all men since the first man began to speak. and so forth: but to these wild men he was a very magician. or with a painful. very great and manlike." as we should call him! Innumerable men had passed by. clapping the Pot on his head. but godlike and stronger than gianthood. the original man. with a dumb vague wonder. It is ever the way with the Thinker. such as the very animals may feel.--I find no similitude so true as this of a Tree.--is it not. the genuine Thought of deep. stalking helpless with large uncertain strides. Not graceful lightness. to come down upon the Norse Gods "brewing ale" to hold their feast with Aegir. spreads its boughs over the whole Universe: it is the Tree of Existence. Its "boughs. large awkward gianthood. The rustle of it is the noise of Human Existence."--alas. "the infinite conjugation of the verb To do.--the Past. a . call him Poet. of his eyebrows they formed Asgard their Gods'-dwelling. It is the infant Thought of man opening itself. out of the conflict of Frost and Fire. To me there is in the Norse system something very genuine. the spiritual Hero. Not inconceivable to us. What he says. Yes. It grows there. fruitlessly inquiring wonder. with awe and wonder. sit Three Nornas. what was done. as yet altogether untutored. of the first Norse man who had an original power of thinking. round his Thought. having got the Giant Ymer slain.--how the word I speak to you to-day is borrowed. the breath of Human Passion rustling through it. his skull was the great blue vault of Immensity. the Seer. as from painful enchanted sleep. answering to it. The Thoughts of all start up. rude. catastrophes. in the Death-kingdom. enormous. The Gods. rusticity. things suffered. indeed.--quite lost in it.--the first characteristic of all good Thought in all times.

came into Europe about the Year 70 before Christ. does not at all stand so in the reality. but invisibly. grows. features. Alas. as in sympathetic ink." men will say to-morrow. with his wild beard and eyes. in the quietest manner. it is the combined work of them all. as name of their chief Divinity. with boundless gratitude.--and came by and by to be worshipped as Chief God by these Scandinavians. admiration for whom. he . given assurance to them of their own destiny there? By him they know now what they have to do here. not of any man. is still more unhesitating. some centuries later. In all minds it lay written. or whatever name the First Norse Thinker bore while he was a man among men. The word Wuotan. Existence has become articulate. and Chief Norse God. in man after man. of successive generations since the Belief first began. Torfaeus. It stands rather at all manner of distances and depths. writes down. and such System of Thought can grow no farther. a like view starts into being in all minds. Power. with the English wade and such like. How he led these Asen (Asiatics) of his out of Asia. a very curious Northman of that same century. A Teacher. Source of Movement. Of all which. is it not the arrival of a Thinker in the world!-One other thing we must not forget. a word spread. would the rude Norse heart feel. Luthers. with our sorrows. with our limbs. Has he not the power of articulate Thinking. in every epoch of the world. All this of the old Norse Belief which is flung out for us. no document of it. and many other powers. how it changed from shape to shape. Wheresover a thinker appeared. unfolds itself into a System of Thought. the Man now named Odin. Poetry and so forth. in the Black-Sea region. accession. at his word it starts into visibility in all. his Twelve Peers made into Twelve Sons of his own. according to Grimm. since the first of them. Athanasiuses. transcending the known bounds. "Wednesday. Odin's day! Of Odin there exists no history. The word signifies Divinity. very far beyond the Year 70! Odin's date. They are not one coherent System of Thought. contributed to that Scandinavian System of Thought. a little. Has he not solved for them the sphinx-enigma of this Universe. generation after generation. settled them in the North parts of Europe. is not this too sunk for us like the rest! Of Odin what history? Strange rather to reflect that he had a history! That this Odin. Nay. there in the thing he thought of was a contribution. we fancy. 14 For the Norse people. He proves it by etymology. the one made by the man Odin himself. like a picture painted on the same canvas. a Hero. adventures. with Twelve Peers. it will explain. Saxo Grammaticus. no guess about it worth repeating. he says. goes so far as to deny that any man Odin ever existed. this word. invented Letters. and is the fit name of the highest god. and a great people straitened for room. by one thinker's contribution after another. the German Antiquary. was such a man. I need say nothing. his rude Norse speech and ways. learned and cautious. as yet miraculous? So. over all the Teutonic Nations everywhere. and Captain of soul and of body. in one level of distance in the Edda. scruples not to find out a historical fact in every individual mythus. almost in a brief business style. found to be untenable now. His view of the Universe once promulgated. he first has made Life alive!--We may call this Odin. keeps ever growing. in his wild Norse vesture.--till its full stature is reached.--means primarily Movement. the grandest "revolution" of all. a change or revolution made. all to the name. All Scandinavian thinkers.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor God!--Thought once awakened does not again slumber. parent of all others. Far. Snorro indeed. the worker. Dantes. has perished. but properly the summation of several successive systems. of worth immeasurable. by warlike conquest. what to look for hereafter. What history it had. figure and environment are sunk from us forever into unknown thousands of years. Gods like himself: Snorro has no doubt of this. whole terrestrial history. the origin of Norse Mythology: Odin. joys. melodious by him. grows. as grounded on mere uncertainties. was a man like us. became adoration. much of it. no man will now ever know: its Councils of Trebizond.--intrinsically all one as we: and did such a work! But the work. till it got to the full final shape we see it under in the Edda. are sunk without echo in the dark night! Only that it had such a history we can all know. but must give place to another. while it continues credible there. Councils of Trent. Nay Grimm. the great event. which connects itself. the confusion of these Norse Eddas. with the Latin vadere. in his Heimskringla. and writes it down as a terrestrial event in Denmark or elsewhere. how Odin was a heroic Prince. which is the original form of Odin. in ever-new elaboration and addition. assigns by calculation a date for it: Odin.

surely there must have been an Odin. Fancy your own generous heart's-love of some greatest man expanding till it transcended all bounds. deep. And in three hundred years. Lope would have grown. supreme. any sincere soul. which Logic ought to know that she cannot speak of. were there no books. agrees with all that thought will teach one about it. what could he think himself to be? "Wuotan?" All men answered. the contemporaries who had seen him. of all things. he becomes tenfold greater when dead. how if a man was great while living. speaking the truest he knew. and words formed from it. a kind of terror and wonder to himself. is there to encourage it. as well as of a god? As for the adjectives. and then the next thing remarkable for that quality.--what sort of fact it became for him. This light. kindled in the great dark vortex of the Norse Mind. no book. a divine Universe bursting all into godlike beauty round him. The colors and forms of your light will be those of the cut-glass it has to shine through. ever-operating laws." if the flower or woman were of surpassing beauty? Had this lasted. being once all dead. any great man would grow mythic. no adjective. Let us consider it fixed that Wuotan means Wading. get into the habit of saying "a Lope flower. and in three thousand years--! To attempt theorizing on such matters would profit little: they are matters which refuse to be theoremed and diagramed. I have said." "Movement". was named the green tree. depends not on it. And in the darkness. history or echo of history. dark but living. to assure us of this. were at first substantives and things. palpable to the sense at one time. and what he guesses that he may be. of whom to his rapt vision all Nature was the awful Flame-image. this is to me the centre of the whole. waiting only for light. Enough for us to discern. without date or document. "Wuotan!"-And then consider what mere Time will do in such cases. to discern that the centre of it all was not a madness and nothing. the least measure--Himself! What others take him for. but a real Hero of flesh and blood! The voice of all tradition. A great soul. knows not what he is. in Spain. speaking to his brother men. with his own wild soul full of noble ardors and affections. among the old Saxon. must always have stated what seemed to him a fact. And now still. in his Essay on Language. is ever an enigma. so much as on the National Mind recipient of it. were formed in this way. German and all Teutonic Nations. for every man. and no man to whom the like ever had befallen. of whirlwind chaotic darkness and glorious new light. With all men reverently admiring him. a real Appearance of Nature.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 15 says. chiefly notable for its greenness. Indeed. We cannot annihilate a man for etymologies like that! Surely there was a First Teacher and Captain. far in the uttermost distance. he was but mistaken. for every man.--did not the Spaniards in their universal admiration for Lope. his people knew no limits to their admiration of him. Like enough! We must bow to Grimm in matters etymological. How such light will then shine out. But the way in which such Appearance or fact shaped itself. what hinders it from being the name of a Heroic Man and Mover.--Curious to think how. that he was some effluence of the "Wuotan. only here and there some dumb monumental cairn.--alternates between the highest height and the lowest depth. surmises that all adjectives whatsoever were formed precisely in that way: some very green thing. All primary adjectives. that some effluence of Wuotan dwelt here in him! He was not necessarily false. these two items strangely act on one another. any the truest fact is modelled by the nature of the man! I said. Why. but a sanity and something. in forms and colors. no Arundel-marble. and with wondrous thousand-fold expansion spread itself. subtle. Adam Smith. when love. is . a tree for instance.--should have felt that perhaps he was divine. but universal.--since a great deep soul. the adjectives formed from it all signify divine. got the appellative name Green. some gleam as of a small real light shining in the centre of that enormous camera-obscure image. force of Movement. help to determine one another. they had as yet no scale to measure admiration by. The earnest man." "four-horse coach." or the like. worship and all that lies in the human Heart. till it filled and overflowed the whole field of your thought! Or what if this man Odin. The world of Nature. can. How the man Odin came to be considered a god. according to Smith.--was and is modified by his own laws of thinking.--as we still say "the steam coach. or something pertaining to the chief god. What an enormous camera-obscura magnifier is Tradition! How a thing grows in the human Memory. in the entire ignorance. Supreme Power and Divinity. the chief god?--that surely is a question which nobody would wish to dogmatize upon. with the afflatus and mysterious tide of vision and impulse rushing on him he knows not whence. in thirty or forty years. to be an adjective signifying godlike also." "a Lope dama. in the human Imagination.

the greatest of all.--this was enough to determine the Signs of the Zodiac. A great thought in the wild deep heart of him! The rough words he articulated. as I say. the first beautiful morning-light of our Europe. all that we mean by a Poet.--with no notion of building up " Allegories "! But the fresh clear glance of those First Ages would be prompt in discerning the secret relations of things. what must these wild Norse souls. Wandsworth: Odin grew into England too. Wanstead. and the miracles of "magic" he worked by them. had a word to speak. a light of Intellect. And now. Wansborough. Thus if the man Odin himself have vanished utterly. Snorro tells us farther that Odin invented Poetry. A great heart laid open to take in this great Universe. error enough: but sheer falsehood. and make his obscure element a little lighter. and utter a great word about it.--as the truly Great Man ever is. divisiblest of all. we can understand well . a wise. in the soul and thought of him first of all. this Odin must have been of the same sort of stuff as the greatest kind of men. rude Nobleness of heart. as I say: and he had to shine there. in that obscure element. We will fancy him to be the Type Norseman. these are still leaves from that root! He was the Chief God to all the Teutonic Peoples. when all yet lay in fresh young radiance as of a great sunrise. the only kind of lights we have yet. first awakened into thinking. discerning with his wild flashing eyes what to do. Wuotan. But he was as a light kindled in it. Runes. Prophet. infinite radiance of hope and wonder. idle fables. Transport yourselves into the early childhood of nations. Thought is Thought. and our Europe was first beginning to think. he might work magic enough! Writing by Runes has some air of being original among the Norsemen: not a Phoenician Alphabet. with his wild lion-heart daring and doing it. as I said. make a great feature in tradition. to be! Wonder. God." Who knows to what unnamable subtleties of spiritual law all these Pagan Fables owe their shape! The number Twelve. a Hero. if we still admire such a man beyond all others. that was the fortune he had in the world. the number of Odin's Sons. the fruit of him is found growing from deep thousands of years. over the whole field of Teutonic Life. in the hearts of these strong men! Strong sons of Nature. A Hero. hope. For this Odin once admitted to be God.--as is still the task of us all. and here was not only a wild Captain and Fighter. Schiller finds in the Cestus of Venus an everlasting aesthetic truth as to the nature of all Beauty." among that people! It is the greatest invention man has ever made! this of marking down the unseen thought that is in him by written characters. So with regard to every other matter. Our own Wednesday. as yet without names for it. the finest Teuton whom that race had yet produced. the most remarkable number. great devout Thinker and Inventor. quartered. into six.--we will not believe that our Fathers believed in these. If Odin brought Letters among his people. however it speak or spell itself. suppose Odin to have been the inventor of Letters. in his rude semi-articulate way. how he made the Spanish Soldier who was guarding him scratch Dios on his thumb-nail. Prophet. allegory aforethought. Runes are the Scandinavian Alphabet. there is this huge Shadow of him which still projects itself over the whole History of his People. in his own rude manner.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 16 the Fantasy of Himself. You remember the astonishment and incredulity of Atahualpa the Peruvian King. this world is the multiplex "Image of his own Dream. have made of him! To them. A Hero is a Hero at all points. as well as "magic. and man's Life here. This Odin. He is as a root of so many great things. gifted. parted into three. to ascertain whether such a miracle was possible. Any vague rumor of number had a tendency to settle itself into Twelve. Hero. as well as that miraculous runic marking of it. into adoration. we must leave those boundless regions. almost as miraculous as the first. Intrinsically. And quite unconsciously too. are they not the rudimental roots of those English words we still use? He worked so. I conjecture.--in such way did they admire their Pattern Norseman. The rude Norse heart burst up into boundless admiration round him. but a Poet too. which could be halved. as of a young child's thoughts. but a native Scandinavian one. and wholly open to obey these. he was noble and noblest. Cannot we conceive that Odin was a reality? Error indeed. that he might try the next soldier with it. the music of human speech. noble-hearted man. is it not still Odin's Day? Wednesbury. and innumerable other Twelves. their Pattern Norseman. It is a kind of second speech. curious:--but he is careful not to insinuate that the old Greek Mythists had any notion of lecturing about the "Philosophy of Criticism"!--On the whole. Odin's Runes are a significant feature of him.

ah no. expanded and confused in that manner! Ah. of Thou shalt and Thou shalt not. would now begin to develop itself altogether differently. we found to be recognition of the divineness of Nature. This poor Scandinavian Hero-worship. Man first puts himself in relation with Nature and her Powers. and adjusting oneself there. and a feeling in some shape or other perennial as man himself. with a great-hearted simplicity and depth and freshness. in such artless. but hearty entire reception of a Hero by his fellow-men. in a true.--that were a still worse case. cannot be religious Faith. indeed. is not that Scandinavian Mythology in some sort the Portraiture of this man Odin? The gigantic image of his natural face. Despise it not. after thousands of years of ever-new expansion. that most probably they must have been of much newer date. robust. in whose veins their blood still runs: "This then. I say. Thought. so much enlarged. This. with limit enough! But if we have no great men. what I feel deeply for a long time now. . the Faith itself must first be there. and had not yet much to say about itself. and taught with his runes and his rhymes. unfearing way. man will find himself but struggling to comprehend again a part of it: the thing is larger shall man. legible or not legible there. most rude. your notion too. That it is the vital element of manhood. No great man lives in vain. an Infinite thing!" The essence of the Scandinavian. nor admire without limit. the whole Teutonic People laid to heart and carried forward. or do not admire at all. We do not now call our great men Gods. What this Odin saw into. I think. still less to sing. loving. and his Moral Duty. as indeed was already hinted. under new conditions. wonders and worships over those. in time or out of time. is a great distinction and epoch in Human Beliefs. but you too are not yet at the top. then Allegory enough will gather round it. I will remark. A rude childlike way of recognizing the divineness of Nature. is better than grace. true old race of men. calling out of the depths of ages to us. that whole Norse way of looking at the Universe. was most active while it lay mainly in the silent state. and grow thenceforth in a new manner. not to be comprehended by him. this is what we made of the world: this is all the image and notion we could form to ourselves of this great mystery of a Life and Universe. is more sincerely done in the Scandinavian than in any Mythology I know. most probably. as indeed of all Pagan Mythologies. childlike. whatever it might before have been. were comparatively idle for the old Norsemen. recognition of Man. Sincerity. admiring. A right valiant. the divineness of Man. is always Thought. and covering the whole Northern Heaven. as I said above. sincere communion of man with the mysterious invisible Powers visibly seen at work in the world round him. though this too is not wanting. Such recognition of Nature one finds to be the chief element of Paganism. To me there is something very touching in this primeval figure of Heroism. it is the noblest of feelings. as the fit body round its soul. is the history of every great thinker still. like other Faiths. Superior sincerity (far superior) consoles us for the total want of old Grecian grace.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 17 that the whole Scandinavian Scheme of Nature. or dim No-scheme. No. honest. I should say. Is it not as the half-dumb stifled voice of the long-buried generations of our own Fathers. is but a partial. moreover. comes to be the chief element only in purer forms of religion. The History of the world is but the Biography of great men. If I could show in any measure. Sincerity is the great characteristic of it. I can well suppose. With regard to all these fabulous delineations in the Edda. comprehend. You are raised high above it. that the grand point is the distinction for him of Good and Evil. has an indestructible merit for us. a great landmark in the religious development of Mankind. Never so helpless in shape. betokening what a giant of a man this child would yet grow to!--It was a truth. like some enormous camera-obscure shadow thrown upwards from the dead deeps of the Past. and as it were a kind of Poetic sport. and is none.--it would be the chief use of this discoursing at present. Here. even from the first. The Norse Faith. helpless. His way of thought became their way of thought:--such. that matter is a thing no man will ever. imperfect one. not till a later epoch does he discern that all Power is Moral. Allegory and Poetic Delineation. to large free scope of vision. yet heartfelt. and yet manlike. In gigantic confused lineaments. the soul of man's history here in our world. I feel that these old Northmen wore looking into Nature with open eye and soul: most earnest. giantlike.

--how strangely! I called it a small light shining and shaping in the huge vortex of Norse darkness. grows.--the right good improver. is the basis of all. Odin's creed. how man thereby became a god. about to die.--misleading certain critics not a little. even that wild sea-roving and battling. from which all manner of mythologies. Forest-felling Kings. once out at sea. for instance! Hrolf. Old kings.--progenitors of our own Blakes and Nelsons! No Homer sang these Norse Sea-kings. and thought it a message out of Heaven. Nor was it altogether nothing. but despise and thrust them out. yet valor of its kind. unconscious that they were specially brave. it is the woof out of which his whole system of thought is woven. or Rollo Duke of Normandy. into the realms of Hela the Death-goddess: I take this to have been the soul of the whole Norse Belief. and him a Divinity for telling it them: this seems to me the primary seed-grain of the Norse Religion. in their musical Mythologies. Valor is still value. and. his very thoughts are false. told his People the infinite importance of Valor. in endless complexity. the ship sent forth. The Valkyrs. they would cut wounds in their flesh. it might blaze up in flame. I find some who got the title Wood-cutter. A man shall and must be valiant. and that his People. with sails set and slow fire burning it. It lies at the basis this for every such man. too. Consider too whether there is not something in this! It is an everlasting duty. for a Mahomet. different enough from ferocity. the first seed is the essential thing: any branch strikes itself down into the earth. he thinks too as a slave and coward. we cannot act at all till then. the completeness of his victory over Fear will determine how much of a man he is. had their body laid into a ship. to some of them. there could not produce enough come out of that! I suppose the right good fighter was oftenest also the right good forest-feller. A man's acts are slavish. which it is useless trying to bend or soften. In the old Sea-kings too.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 18 Among those shadowy Edda matters. In the same direction have not we their descendants since carried it far? May such valor last forever with us! That the man Odin. for true valor. for no nation of men could ever live by fighting alone. and so. the main practical belief a man could have was probably not much more than this: of the Valkyrs and the Hall of Odin. for a Napoleon too. is true to this hour. has a share in governing England at this hour. speculations. It was the eager inarticulate uninstructed Mind of the whole Norse People. valid in our day as in that. longing only to become articulate. The Valkyrs are Choosers of the Slain: a Destiny inexorable. of an inflexible Destiny. showing itself against the untamed Forests and dark brute Powers of Nature. and then that these Choosers lead the brave to a heavenly Hall of Odin. It is doubtless very savage that kind of valor of the old Northmen. one . as I fancy them. he must march forward. only the base and slavish being thrust elsewhither. We must get rid of Fear. I say. to go on articulating ever farther! The living doctrine grows. doer and worker in every kind.--like a Banyan-tree. on the whole.--as indeed it is for all earnest men everywhere. but Agamemnon's was a small audacity. what an indomitable rugged energy! Silent. Now and always. that Odin might receive them as warriors slain. symbolic practices. and quit himself like a man. this was a fundamental point for the Norse believer. I suppose at bottom many of them were forest-fellers as well as fighters. that Odin would have no favor for them.--to Hrolf's of Normandy. feeling a response to it in their own hearts. Grow.--trusting imperturbably in the appointment and choice of the upper Powers. consider that. and in such manner bury worthily the old hero. a Luther. if they were not brave. not fear at all. becomes a new root. and all men and things. at once in the sky and in the ocean! Wild bloody valor. defying the wild ocean with its monsters. has appointed who is to be slain. with closed lips. believed this message of his. and traditions. through so many generations. than none. and if natural death seemed to be coming on. songs and sagas would naturally grow. as with an impressiveness out of Heaven. Snorro tells us they thought it a shame and misery not to die in battle. and that the one thing needful for a man was to be brave. It needed to be ascertained which was the strongest kind of men. A more legitimate kind of valor that. we have a whole wood. if we disentangle the real kernel of it. though the Skalds talk mainly of the latter. a whole jungle. that. amid all that fantastic congeries of assertions. and of small fruit in the world. speaking with a Hero's voice and heart. The first duty for a man is still that of subduing Fear. better. Yet the darkness itself was alive. not true but specious. discerner. Among the Northland Sovereigns. Much lies in that. to conquer Nature for us. till he have got Fear under his feet. the wild Sea-king. who were to be ruler over whom. They understood in their heart that it was indispensable to be brave. allegories. the duty of being brave.

will give one no notion of it." Hermoder rides on. as the Voluspa in the Elder Edda. that old Norse work. rough as the North rocks. are Icebergs. they would go on singing. but the Kingdom of the Dead is down yonder. subduing them. and still more . Huge untutored Brobdignag genius. In later centuries. with those of the Hindoos. he is one. Probably enough." has a kind of Hindoo look. "Yes. at any rate. benignant. Dantes. There is a great broad humor in some of these things. the beautiful. nor does it concern us much. as our modern Painters paint. far towards the North. to seek Hymir's Caldron. his mother. what we called "the enormous shadow of this man's likeness"? Critics trace some affinity in some Norse mythuses. give him up. these things will have a kindred with the remotest lands. even a tint of good humor and robust mirth in the middle of these fearful things. How strangely things grow. of a rapt. The robust homely vigor of the Norse heart attaches one much. Thor. He sends his ring to Odin. spreads a shadow of his own likeness over sections of the History of the World. and die. Some wild Prophecies we have. claps it on his head. This is the Hymir whose cattle. with the earliest times. sports with him. sends Hermoder to seek or see him: nine days and nine nights he rides through gloomy deep valleys. the "handles of it reach down to his heels. Thor himself engages in all manner of rough manual work. The strong old Norse heart did not go upon theatrical sublimities. directness of conception. when it was no longer from the innermost heart. The first man that began to think in this Planet of ours. Inexorable! Hela will not. that the old Norse heart finds its friend in the Thunder-god? That it is not frightened away by his thunder.--Thor the Thunder-god changed into Jack the Giant-killer: but the mind that made it is here yet. or not from the heart at all. The beautiful and gentle has to remain there. This poor Jack of the Nursery. shrouded in awe and horror. Of the distinctive poetic character or merit of this Norse Mythology I have not room to speak. his gray beard all full of hoar-frost. The Cow Adumbla. Nanna his wife sends her thimble to Frigga. must and will have thunder withal! The Norse heart loves this Thor and his hammer-bolt. poetically symbolizing." The Norse Skald has a kind of loving sport with Thor. Was not the whole Norse Religion. Manual Labor. and speak with him: Balder cannot be delivered. it is. after much rough tumult. for Odin or any God. earnest. Frigga. Hela's gate. a labyrinth of gloom. his true henchman and attendant is Thialfi. is ever and anon travelling to the country of the Jotuns. they had not time to tremble. men who as it were but toyed with the matter. of the Creation and such like. scorns no business for its plebeianism. these later Skalds. They shall forever remain there. and all that is great and good in man. Hymir the huge Giant enters. Gray's fragments of Norse Lore. but only is changed. harrying those chaotic Frost-monsters. sword of sharpness. indeed we may say undoubtedly. goes to Jotun-land. in these delineations. Is it not a trait of right honest strength. to die with him. he was the beginner of all. They try all Nature for a remedy. with a heartiness. I suppose. snatches the Pot. and it is their songs chiefly that survive. as a remembrance.--needing only to be tamed down. and the third man. And then the second man. Thor "draws down his brows" in a veritable Norse rage. but he is dead.--of Truth.--any more than Pope will of Homer. but finds that Summer-heat. arrives at the Bridge with its gold roof: the Keeper says. at least straitening and damaging them. His Wife had volunteered to go with him. and do not die! There are twigs of that great world-tree of Norse Belief still curiously traceable. that the Gods may brew beer. He is the Peasant's friend. in some sense. an honest pity. the critics have discovered. their veracity. Thor." Beautiful traits of pity too. every true Thinker to this hour is a kind of Odin. homeliness. coat of darkness. Balder "the white God" dies. Hynde Etin. Goethes! It is all gone now. But they were comparatively an idle adjunct of the matter. with his miraculous shoes of swiftness. transported into frosty countries. This is everywhere to be well kept in mind.--Ah me!-For indeed Valor is the fountain of Pity too. It is no square-built gloomy palace of black ashlar marble. as Gray gives it us: no. splits pillars with the very glance of his eye. A Hindoo Cow. who has written a fine Essay on Thor. as we saw above. Thor is Summer-heat: the god of Peaceable Industry as well as Thunder. Balder did pass here.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 19 seed the parent of it all. does see Balder. as the Iceland deserts. leaps Hell-gate.--nay. into Shakspeares. he is the Sungod. says Uhland. the beautiful noble summer. I like much their robust simplicity. "grasps his hammer till the knuckles grow white. accordingly. Thought does not die. teaches men his way of thought. sibylline sort. "licking the rime from the rocks.

Thor. no real thing. and said. they told him: could he lift that Cat he saw there? Small as the feat seemed. which indeed formed one whole side of the house. in the morning it turned out that the noise had been only the snoring of a certain enormous but peaceable Giant. wandered over plains. said to Thor: "You are beaten then:--yet be not so much ashamed. Thialfi was with him. That Horn you tried to drink was the Sea. Thor grasped his hammer. what is that they have dropt?--At the gate of Utgard.--as.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor decisively _Red Etin of Ireland. That this world is after all but a show. but who could drink that. rustic glove! Skrymir now carried their portmanteau all day. and this that they took for a house was merely his Glove. and seemed to dint deep into Skrymir's visage. could at the utmost raise one foot. and as the door. he bent up the creature's back. tail in mouth. among stones and trees. and took refuge there. is really a mythic personage. Old Age. Duration: with her what can wrestle? No man nor no god with her. had you torn that up. made it what we see. stood in the door. there was deception of appearance in it. had his own suspicions. There is a sublime uncomplaining melancholy traceable in these old hearts. rubbed his cheek. To Thor. And now. three times over. the earnest Thinker. they found a little closet at last. is a Norse mythus! Old Saxo. Etin is evidently a Jotun.--I remark too that it had not fingers as ours have. he struck down into the Giant's face a right thunder-bolt blow. There must be sparrows roosting in this tree. I think. you did make it ebb. but only a thumb. what Meditation has taught all men in all ages. the little closet they had fled into was the Thumb! Such a glove. these old Norse songs have a truth in them. made it a Danish history. Nay. Thor and his companions were admitted. poisoned asleep by drops in his ear. Neither had Thor any battle: for. of the poisoned Father. indeed. Why. there is an Old Woman that will wrestle you! Thor. the bottomless! The Cat you would have lifted. an inward perennial truth and greatness. out of Saxo. you are no man. and the rest. to drink this dry at one draught. Long and fiercely. and his Tragedy. there seems no doubt of that. it was a common feat. heartily ashamed. they told him. girds and keeps up the whole created world. these are both derived from Norseland. The Giant merely awoke. a place so high that you had to "strain your neck bending back to see the top of it. After various adventures. wild uncultivated places. Hamlet. escorting them politely a little way. to Utgard (the Outer Garden. the Great World-serpent. but he merely checked his snore. on their quitting Utgard. they entered upon Giant-land. wherever he may be: "We are such stuff as Dreams are made of!" One of Thor's expeditions. A great free glance into the very deeps of thought. Raising his hammer.snake_. however. Shakspeare's Hamlet is a twig too of this same world-tree. His companions within ran hither and thither in their terror. He was a weak child. central seat of Jotun-land). that is the _Midgard. Thor drank. they handed a Drinking-horn. but a rude greatness of soul." Skrymir went his ways. all must have that can very long preserve itself by tradition alone. of force to rend rocks.--the Hindoo Mythologist. but the Giant only murmured. Amleth I find. the door was the Glove-wrist. That is a twig of the world-tree that has grown. I think. seized this haggard Old Woman.--why. and remarked.--a phenomenon or appearance. thrown aside there. a better blow than before. They stayed there. could not raise its feet off the ground. but made hardly any impression. Shakspeare. one large hall. is remarkable in this respect. the world must have rushed to ruin! As for the Old Woman. she was Time. she . and Loke. It was a simple habitation. the chief Jotun. did not like the ways of Skrymir. but could not throw her. said the Utgard people. prepared for fight. who lay peaceably sleeping near by. invited to take share in the games going on. which. was open. All deep souls see into that. the Giant Skrymir. Thor with his whole godlike strength could not. Was that a grain of sand? Thor's third stroke was with both his hands (the "knuckles white" I suppose). the German Philosopher. and the rest undivided: a most ancient. for his part. Did a leaf fall? Again Thor struck. gods or men. in_ the Scottish Ballads. Suddenly in the dead of the night loud noises alarmed them.--the Shakspeare.--by nature or accident that one has grown! 20 In fact. they entered. altogether empty. so soon as Skrymir again slept. At nightfall they noticed a house. It is a greatness not of mere body and gigantic bulk. as his wont was. They seem to have seen. seeking some outlet in that rude hall. determined at night to put an end to him as he slept. these brave old Northmen. lo.

of grave eyes and aspect. The mythus about Thor is to this effect. surely I should have blamed him far more for an under-zeal in that! He paid dear enough for it. or doing other royal work: on leaving a certain haven. drawing down his brows. runs in the blood of us. he was nowhere to be found. as they sail along the beautiful shore. Utgard with its sky-high gates. has stept in. It is the grim humor of our own Ben Jonson. have a care!" said the stranger. in battle. King Olaf. the divine Powers and the chaotic brute ones.--This is the last appearance of Thor on the stage of this world! Do we not see well enough how the Fable might arise. a rude but earnest. from haven to haven. and Justice to reign among men. strength against strength. and that glove-house was some Earth-cavern! But Skrymir had vanished. he addresses King Olaf thus: "Yes. King Olaf has been harshly blamed for his over-zeal in introducing Christianity. and many a sore day had Thor. rough from the Mimer-stithy. say Norse critics. but it is not final death: there is to be a new Heaven and a new Earth. It is in the Voluspa Song. in the year 1033. a sorrowing protest against the advance of Christianity.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 21 prevails over all! And then those three strokes you struck. green. dedicated gratefully to his memory as Saint Olaf. for one catches tones of it. seemingly a very old. is sailing with fit escort along the shore of Norway. so . let us glance at the last mythus of the appearance of Thor. mutually extinctive. sternly impressive _Consecration of Valor_ (so we may define it). and end there.--it was. prophetic idea. and how. he died by the revolt of his Pagan people. without unveracity on the part of any one? It is the way most Gods have come to appear among men: thus. dispensing justice. have to vanish: we have our sad farewell to give them. All earnest men have seen into it. Curious: this law of mutation. meet at last in universal world-embracing wrestle and duel. and will not return ever again. many a wild fight with the rock Jotuns. as we see. mirth resting on earnestness and sadness. tragic for me in this last voice of Paganism. Thor is vanished. and even gods die. "twilight" sinking into darkness. rare old Ben.--look at these three valleys. of stately robust figure. and new-birth into the Greater and the Better! It is the fundamental Law of Being for a creature made of Time. I fancy. when Thor grasped his hammer to smite them. than in many a famed Greek Mythus shaped far better! A great broad Brobdignag grin of true humor is in this Skrymir. out of the American Backwoods. as the rainbow on black tempest: only a right valiant heart is capable of that.--and when they looked again. World-serpent against Thor. near that Drontheim. it is all beautiful. pass away the highest things. That Norse Religion. yet all death is but a phoenix fire-death. And now you seem minded to put away Thor. had been deciphered by these old earnest Thinkers in their rude style. a right fair home for you. at Stickelstad. All things that have been in this world. And now.--set forth reproachfully by some Conservative Pagan. That is also a very striking conception that of the Ragnarok. with the sun shining on it there. or Twilight of the Gods. but after some time."--fit to be "seen"! There is something pathetic. King Olaf. his answers surprise by their pertinency and depth: at length he is brought to the King. had gone to air. where the chief Cathedral of the North has now stood for many centuries. sufficed for these old valiant Northmen. the old chaotic rocky Earth in person. King Olaf. and half play. I fancy it to be the latest in date of all these fables. it is found that a stranger. The stranger's conversation here is not less remarkable." what was this Neptune too but a "stranger of noble grave aspect. may still see into it. the whole Norse world has vanished. Consecration of Valor is not a bad thing! We will take it for good. living in this Place of Hope. The Gods and Jotuns. In like fashion to that. which also is a law written in man's inmost thought. though all dies. after long contest and partial victory by the former. the Christian Reform King. and ruin. not of the prophetic and entirely devout: but as a mythus is there not real antique Norse gold in it? More true metal. under a still other shape. all things that are or will be in it. The old Universe with its Gods is sunk. The courtiers address him. fruitful. if in Pindar's time "Neptune was seen once at the Nemean Games. red beard. your three strokes made these!" Thor looked at his attendant Jotun: it was Skrymir. Consummation. a higher supreme God. only the Giant's voice was heard mocking: "Better come no more to Jotunheim!"-This is of the allegoric period. swallows the created Universe. connected with this. before he could make it so.

He is by no means the truest of Prophets. a god! This was imperfect enough: but to welcome. 1840. Whether they shall take him to be a god. but such unreasoning. a Falsehood incarnate. and feel in their hearts that he was a denizen of the skies. or how to account of him and receive him! The most significant feature in the history of an epoch is the manner it has of welcoming a Great Man. Ever. has passed away without return. this of Hero-worship: different in each age. but as one God-inspired. but I do esteem him a true one. for they by their union first constitute the True Religion. Neither is there no use in knowing something about this old Paganism of our Fathers. it is always some other side of our common Human Nature that has been developing itself. a Burns as we did. I mean to say all the good of him I justly can. a man of "genius" as we call it. we advance to a very different epoch of religion. the maker of this world? Perhaps not: it was usually some man they remembered. difficult to do well in any age. Nay we might rationally ask. Unconsciously. was not good. For at bottom the Great Man. THE HERO AS PROPHET. among a very different people: Mahometanism among the Arabs. as through a little window. we shall see. the Soul of a Man actually sent down from the skies with a God's-message to us. never so great. into deliquium of love and wonder over him. as he comes from the hand of Nature.--to fall prostrate before the Great Man. Farther. It is the way to get at his secret: let us try to understand what he meant with the world. It is the second phasis of Hero-worship: the first or oldest. We have chosen Mahomet not as the most eminent Prophet. by their way of answering that. for example. are they so immeasurably diverse. Indeed.--with our own possessions in the Past. what a change and progress is indicated here. it is in us yet. sent to amuse us a little. in a different place. as there is no danger of our becoming. as a Prophet. and combined with higher things. we may say. that only by the world's reception of them. brings us into closer and clearer relation with the Past. than the Scandinavian method itself! To fall into mere unreasoning deliquium of love and admiration.--this we waste away as an idle artificial firework. The worship of Odin astonishes us. A great change. trained to . Johnson. in the universal condition and thoughts of men! The Hero is not now regarded as a God among his fellowmen. one may say. that his religion is a mere mass of quackery and fatuity. the Past had always something true. nay irrational supercilious no-love at all is perhaps still worse!--It is a thing forever changing. is the possession of the Present. and sink it into ashes. which well-meaning zeal has heaped round this man. From the first rude times of Paganism among the Scandinavians in the North. MAHOMET: ISLAM.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 22 far as it goes. The Great Man is not recognized henceforth as a god any more. But neither can this any more be. Better to know them all than misknow them." [May 8. that of counting the Great Man a god. the heart of the whole business of the age. Did any set of human beings ever really think the man they saw there standing beside them a god. one may perhaps call that of Burns a still uglier phenomenon. Our current hypothesis about Mahomet. will then be a more answerable question. is to do it well. to be a prophet. Burns. It was a rude gross error. and is a precious possession. For the whole Past. begins really to be now untenable to any one. is ever the same kind of thing: Odin. wreck and ineffectuality: such reception of a Great Man I do not call very perfect either! Looking into the heart of the thing. betokening still sadder imperfections in mankind's ways. whom his fellowmen will take for a god. or what they shall take him to be? that is ever a grand question. are disgraceful to ourselves only. was that what we can call perfect? The most precious gift that Heaven can give to the Earth. that he was a scheming Impostor. The actual True is the sum of all these. "To which of these Three Religions do you specially adhere?" inquires Meister of his Teacher. and the shapes they assume. to the true instincts of men. Yet let us say that it is at all times difficult to know what he is. Where the proof was of that story of the pigeon. I hope to make it appear that these are all originally of one stuff. When Pococke inquired of Grotius. The lies. any of us. or had seen. not any one of them by itself constitutes what of Human Nature is hitherto developed. into the very heart of these men's spiritual condition. Mahometans. in the history of the world there will not again be any man. there is something godlike in him. "To all the Three!" answers the other: "To all the Three. but as the one we are freest to speak of. what the world meant and means with him.] LECTURE II. as I keep repeating. In a different time. Luther. that old Faith withal! To know it consciously.

A man must conform himself to Nature's laws. It will not stand for twelve centuries. he is great by that. he cannot get out of the awful presence of this Reality. Nature bursts up in fire-flames. we will in no wise consider as an Inanity and Theatricality. Napoleon. first of all. But of a Great Man especially. of him I will venture to assert that it is incredible he should have been other than true. I suppose. prominent world-leaders. do prosper by their quackery. have to smart for it. The Great Man's sincerity is of the kind he cannot speak of. Such a man is what we call an original man. homeless. that is a very poor matter indeed. The rude message he delivered was a real one withal. no Inanity and Simulacrum. for a day."--what we must call such for want of some other name? It is from the heart of the world that he comes. he cannot help being sincere! The great Fact of Existence is great to him. miserable. We may call him Poet. Are we to suppose that it was a miserable piece of spiritual legerdemain. I will believe most things sooner than that. It is like a forged bank-note. far from that. and has to live. undeniable. Fly as he will. oftenest self-conceit mainly. God has made many revelations: but this man too. if quackery so grew and were sanctioned here. Though all men should forget its truth. he cannot. Burns. burnt clay and what else be works in. not they. A messenger he.--a shallow braggart conscious sincerity. we cannot conceive him so. perhaps does not ask himself if he is so: I would say rather. but is first of all in right earnest about it. is the first characteristic of all men in any way heroic. His mind is so made. At all moments the Flame-image glares in upon him. No. not at all! Speciosities are specious--ah me!--a Cagliostro. The man's words were not false. there. A false man found a religion? Why. for my part. it is no house that he makes. No Mirabeau. a poor conscious ambitious schemer. he is conscious rather of insincerity. it glares in upon him. I think. the Great Man does not boast himself sincere. what I call a sincere man. a false man cannot build a brick house! If he do not know and follow truly the properties of mortar. in daily communion with that. than in any other word whatever. A greater number of God's creatures believe in Mahomet's word at this hour. an earnest confused voice from the unknown Deep.--he lives. and walk in a vain show. his sincerity does not depend on himself. then. nor his workings here below. many Cagliostros. let us disbelieve them wholly! They are the product of an Age of Scepticism: they indicate the saddest spiritual paralysis.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 23 pick peas from Mahomet's ear. a fiery mass of Life cast up from the great bosom of Nature herself. Not the sincerity that calls itself sincere. Direct from the Inner Fact of things. To kindle the . It seems to me the primary foundation of him. sent from the Infinite Unknown with tidings to us. This Mahomet. following hearsays. Fearful and wonderful. we all feel that the words he utters are as no other man's words. to lodge a hundred and eighty millions. If we would attain to knowledge of anything in God's true Creation. ah no. they get it passed out of their worthless hands: others. a deep. and pass for an angel dictating to him? Grotius answered that there was no proof! It is really time to dismiss all that. it is competent to all men that God has made: but a Great Man cannot be without it. are they not a kind of "revelation. was never promulgated in this Earth. he is portion of the primal reality of things. or Nature will answer him. Prophet. cannot form any such supposition. the latest and newest of all? The "inspiration of the Almighty giveth him understanding:" we must listen before all to him.--in one way or other. Hearsays cannot hide it from him. this which so many creatures of the Almighty have lived by and died by? I. be verily in communion with Nature and the truth of things. but a rubbish-heap. it will fall straightway. Really his utterances. has not God made him. These hundred and eighty millions were made by God as well as we. such theories are very lamentable. and mere death-life of the souls of men: more godless theory. Alas. Cromwell. great. A little man may have this. and of all that can lie in him. genuine sincerity. is this Universe to him. One would be entirely at a loss what to think of this world at all. real as Death. this. is not conscious of: nay. no man adequate to do anything. he is blind. French Revolutions and such like. I should say sincerity. The word this man spoke has been the life-guidance now of a hundred and eighty millions of men these twelve hundred years. for what man can walk accurately by the law of truth for one day? No. he comes to us at first-hand. real as Life. there!--I wish you to take this as my primary definition of a Great Man. proclaiming with terrible veracity that forged notes are forged. God.

with tears. Who is called there "the man according to God's own heart"? David. immediate manifestations. like a sand-sea. left alone with the Universe. still account it a merit to recognize a certain inexhaustible significance. is to be conscious of none. by another law as sacred. I believe we misestimate Mahomet's faults even as faults: but the secret of him will never be got by dwelling there. The Persians are called the French of the East. for a man. these Arabs. It was wrong. as Sabeans. true. of Jewish kindred: but with that deadly terrible earnestness of the Jews they seem to combine something graceful. one would think. Consider that wide waste horizon of sand. and assuring ourselves that he did mean some true thing. of the Maker of Nature. as one having right to all that is there. if the inner secret of it.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor world. In words too as in action. as written for us in those Psalms of his. kill him if he can. They worshipped the stars. But indeed. They had many Prophets. empty. with tears. I should say. dividing habitable place from habitable. when the merchandising was done. Poor human nature! Is not a man's walking. if such were never so well proved against him. Sale says. the Hebrew King. I consider to be the truest emblem ever given of a man's moral progress and warfare here below. and yet most meditative. the details of the business hide the real centre of it. Their country itself is notable. still . An earnest. we make too much of faults. Savage inaccessible rock-mountains. have we not from of old the noblest of proofs. shake this primary fact about him. which is not Jewish. had fallen into sins enough. They had "Poetic contests" among them before the time of Mahomet. and speaking or singing it. They are not a loquacious people. You are all alone there. All God's works are still in a sense symbols of God. we will call the Arabs Oriental Italians. temptations. according to their light. the fit habitation for such a race. and honored. will serve him with sacred hospitality for three days. repentance the most divine? The deadliest sin. he has to struggle onwards. the remorse. I say. What are faults. beauty. were it his worst enemy. the world's Maker had ordered it so. of genius. David's life and history. for doing that. the heart so conscious is divorced from sincerity. sore baffled.--that is death. ever. There is something most agile. what are the outward details of a life. frankincense-trees. repentance. truthful kind of men. humility and fact. as we know. never-ended struggle of it. there was no want of sins.--recognized them as symbols. might know better. by day a fierce sun blazing down on it with intolerable radiance. at Ocadh. and ever. They are. ask candidly what it was or might be. is not. worshipped many natural objects. And thereupon the unbelievers sneer and ask. but eloquent. The wild Bedouin welcomes the stranger to his tent. he will slay his foal to treat him. by night the great deep Heaven with its stars.--a kind of diluted worship. We will leave all this behind us. Details by themselves will never teach us what it is. brilliant. always that: "a succession of falls"? Man can do no other. Struggle often baffled. will set him fairly on his way. All earnest souls will ever discern in it the faithful struggle of an earnest human soul towards what is good and best. date-trees. I must say. Such a country is fit for a swift-handed. were that same supercilious consciousness of no sin. deep-abased. down as into entire wreck. with bleeding heart. Is this your man according to God's heart? The sneer. if the soul of it were true.--and then. 24 On the whole. begun anew. in the South of Arabia. That his struggle be a faithful unconquerable one: that is the question of questions. silent. blackest crimes. enthusiastic in the Arab character. insincerities even. seems to me but a shallow one. Faults? The greatest of faults. and there. A gifted noble people. Readers of the Bible above all. "poetic beauty" as we name it." Of all acts. Do we not. alternating with beautiful strips of verdure: wherever water is. active. and yet not wholly wrong. in truth. repentance. he has to rise again. be forgotten? "It is not in man that walketh to direct his steps. taciturn rather. a people of wild strong feelings. Neither can the faults. and of iron restraint over these: the characteristic of noble-mindedness. true unconquerable purpose. We will put up with many sad details. in all natural objects whatsoever? A man is a poet. each according to the light he had. there is greenness. Teachers each to his tribe. is dead: it is "pure" as dead dry sand is pure. struggle again still onwards. the outcome of many or of all high qualities: what we may call religiosity. often-baffled. yet a struggle never ended. In this wild element of a Life. From of old they had been zealous worshippers. there were yearly fairs. of Mahomet. now fallen. These Arabs Mahomet was born among are certainly a notable people. as I urged. great grim deserts. odoriferous balm-shrubs. imperfections. deep-hearted race of men. gifted when they do speak. Poets sang for prizes:--the wild people gathered to hear that. One Jewish quality these Arabs manifest.

become places of trade.-To the idolatrous Arabs one of the most ancient universal objects of worship was that Black Stone. zem-zem. have produced fermentation there. But so many pilgrims needed lodgings: and then all places of pilgrimage do. forwarders of those Eastern and Western products. most honored temple in his time. and repose of reconcilement. at once the symptom and cause of immeasurable change to all people in the world. oldest choral melody as of the heart of mankind. though much decayed now. reigns in it. where all forms of Arab Idolatry assembled in common adoration. they think it is the Well which Hagar found with her little Ishmael in the wilderness: the aerolite and it have been sacred now. were Governors of Mecca. the mildly understanding heart. And all in such free flowing outlines. Sublime sorrow. unconsciously waiting for the day when they should become notable to all the world. in its simplicity. Ten Men of a chief tribe. The government was a kind of irregular aristocratic republic. a people of great qualities. A curious object. The Well Zemzem has its name from the bubbling sound of the waters. "twenty-seven cubits high. . material things no less than spiritual: the Horse. as the oldest. In that case. the Life and Death of the Divine Man in Judea. I call that. its very bread. some man might see it fall out of Heaven! It stands now beside the Well Zemzem. not without a touch of theocracy. with double circuit of pillars. or with all: held together by no open bond. the Caabah is built over both. that Mecca took its rise as a Town. Syria. true eyesight and vision for all things. There is the seeing eye. five times. Egypt. sublime reconciliation. carriers.--"hast thou clothed his neck with thunder?"--he "laughs at the shaking of the spear!" Such living likenesses were never since drawn. even Italy. in the black cloth-covering the Sultan sends it yearly. grand in its sincerity. and great. It has no natural advantage for a town. Diodorus Siculus mentions this Caabah in a way not to be mistaken. some half-century before our Era. its provisions. oldest statement of the never-ending Problem. Their Idolatries appear to have been in a tottering state. such a noble universality. It had been from the sacredness attached to this Caabah Stone and Hagar's Well. The rest of the Nation. And thereby indeed the chief staple and warehouse of whatever Commerce there was between the Indian and the Western countries. traders.--to glitter again under the stars. One feels.000. I think. for thousands of years. Silvestre de Sacy says there is some likelihood that the Black Stone is an aerolite. indeed. from the first. the eyes of innumerable praying men are turned towards it. one of the grandest things ever written with pen. from the pilgrimings of all tribes of Arabs thither. and Keepers of the Caabah. much was getting into confusion and fermentation among them. unnoticed by the world. in the Bible or out of it. and God's ways with him here in this earth. at Mecca. It had at one time a population of 100. The first day pilgrims meet. chosen in some rough way. that is. as if it were not Hebrew. if it were not this meeting at the Caabah. all men's Book! It is our first.--man's destiny. as the summer midnight. different from noble patriotism or sectarianism. It is the Keblah of all Moslem: from Delhi all onwards to Morocco. where it is the first condition of being. being oftenest at war one with another. lived under similar rude patriarchal governments by one or several: herdsmen." with circuit. in its epic melody. of equal literary merit.--so soft. generally robbers too. stands in a sandy hollow amid bare barren hills. at a distance from the sea. and had a Caabah over them. they find that they can accomplish other objects which depend on meeting together. as the world with its seas and stars! There is nothing written. of itself. So true every way. Obscure tidings of the most important Event ever transacted in this world. buyers. merchants have also met: where men see themselves assembled for one object. A Well is in all places a beautiful affecting object. this day and all days: one of the notablest centres in the Habitation of Men. have to be imported. A great town once. had in the course of centuries reached into Arabia too.--held mainly by the inward indissoluble bond of a common blood and language. gushing out like life from the hard earth.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 25 palpable to every one of us.--still more so in those hot dry countries. fractioned and cut asunder by deserts. his own family was of that tribe. of what devoutness and noble-mindedness had dwelt in these rustic thoughtful peoples? Biblical critics seem agreed that our own Book of Job was written in that region of the world. An authentic fragment of the oldest Past. that Caabah! There it stands at this hour. apart from all theories about it. A noble Book. with festoon-rows of lamps and quaint ornaments: the lamps will be lighted again this night. still kept in the building called Caabah. Mecca became the Fair of all Arabia. The Koreish were the chief tribe in Mahomet's time. In this way had the Arabs lived for long ages. and could not but. importers for their own behoof of provisions and corn.

The art of writing was but just introduced into Arabia. He seems to have lived in a most . Of the great brother souls. adroitness. if we will reflect on it. or hear of by uncertain rumor of speech in the obscure Arabian Desert. all uncultured. she forty. her regard for him grew: the story of their marriage is altogether a graceful intelligible one. He loved the little orphan Boy greatly. always throwing light on the matter. accompanied his Uncle on trading journeys and such like. By this Uncle. They must take care of that beautiful little Boy. a woman noted for her beauty. at the age of six years his Mother too. could take in. It was a kind of feature in the Hashem family. connected with the chief persons of his country. beaming black eyes. genuine man. the lost Abdallah come back again. brotherly. He is alone there. had no language but his own: much in Syria must have been a strange unintelligible whirlpool to him. Abdallah. or how much any monk could have taught one still so young. deep down in the bosom of the Wilderness. Mahomet. in what he spake and thought. yet amiable. as he grew up. from his dim place. silent when there was nothing to be said. These journeys to Syria were probably the beginning of much to Mahomet. as her Steward.--with one foreign element of endless moment to him: the Christian Religion. passionate. Mahomet was only fourteen. This is the only sort of speech worth speaking! Through life we find him to have been regarded as an altogether solid.--a good laugh in him withal: there are men whose laugh is as untrue as anything about them. the Nestorian Monk. A spontaneous. who cannot laugh. he had been remarked as a thoughtful man. which swelled up black when he was in anger: like the "horseshoe vein" in Scott's Redgauntlet. yet just. Mahomet had it prominent. companionable. Probably enough it is greatly exaggerated. he could know nothing. though still beautiful. sincere. has to grow up so. The wisdom that had been before him or at a distance from him in the world. jocose even. which were to ripen in a strange way into views. true in what he did. he left him in charge to Abu Thaleb the eldest of the Uncles. They noted that he always meant something. fire and light. But the eyes of the lad were open. an old man. used to say. was all his education. as would appear. The young man here first came in contact with a quite foreign world. as told us by the Arab authors. into beliefs and insights one day." A man of truth and fidelity. how her gratitude. A good old man: Mahomet's Father. wise. this of having no books. when he did speak. The Faithful. in the year 570 of our Era. He saw in Mahomet. but pertinent. and travelled in her business. with his own eyes and thoughts.--alone with Nature and his own Thoughts. His companions named him "Al Amin. nothing in their kindred was more precious than he. A man rather taciturn in speech. so circumstanced. true-meaning man! Full of wild faculty.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 26 It was among this Arab people. from an early age. of the thing we call school-learning none at all. He was of the family of Hashem. cordial. What of this infinite Universe he. again to the Fairs of Syria. One other circumstance we must not forget: that he had no school-learning. How he was placed with Kadijah. a century old. and lie very enigmatic as yet. I know not what to make of that "Sergius. with his old life-worn eyes. glimpses of many things would doubtless be taken in. But perhaps the most significant of all his journeys is one we find noted as of some years' earlier date: a journey to the Fairs of Syria. flame-beacons through so many lands and times. sincere character. it seems to be the true opinion that Mahomet never could write! Life in the Desert. of the Koreish tribe as we said. working out his life-task in the depths of the Desert there. a rich Widow. But.--I somehow like too that vein on the brow. He was twenty-five. a just and rational man as everything betokens. so much and no more of it was he to know. though poor. had been his youngest favorite son. as to him that now was head of the house." whom Abu Thaleb and he are said to have lodged with. Curious. with fidelity. how he managed all. brown florid complexion. this of the Nestorian Monk. as one can well understand. all that was left of Abdallah. with its experiences. One hears of Mahomet's beauty: his fine sagacious honest face. At his death. in his eighteenth year one finds him a fighter following his Uncle in war. was in a manner as good as not there for him. of wild worth. no one directly communicates with this great soul. Mahomet was brought up in the best Arab way. that the man Mahomet was born. Except by what he could see for himself. while the boy was still but two years old. A serious. this black swelling vein in the brow. her worth and sense: he fell to the charge of his Grandfather. a hundred years old. Almost at his birth he lost his Father.

and her alone. to live an honest life. had been." to the earnest soul a mockery and abomination. but saw it all." seemingly. in his pilgrimings and wanderings. thou must find an answer. There is something behind and beyond all these. as I said. or they are--Idolatries. did he start on the "career of ambition. and all crowns in the Earth. which we too have to ask. That God is great. That all these Idols and Formulas were nothing. of Persian Chosroes. had been sufficient hitherto. he was one of those who cannot but be in earnest. to pass the month in prayer. when having withdrawn to a cavern in Mount Hara. waited on by heads of the Koreish. or perish miserably. There was no answer. the stern sandy solitudes answered not. where would they in a few brief years be? To be Sheik of Mecca or Arabia. All crowns and sovereignties whatsoever. and meditation on those great questions. near Mecca. had to answer! It is the thing which all men have to ask themselves. or are not good. which indeed we may call first and last. was in doubt and darkness no longer. in the silence of the mountains. during the month Ramadhan. A silent great soul. be the image of.--Ambition? What could all Arabia do for this man. which all these must correspond with. I have no faith whatever in that. the Alpha and Omega of his whole Heroism. wholesome way with this wedded benefactress. hitherto. belying all his past character and existence. of Mount Sinai. He made us at first. glared in upon him. open to the "small still voices:" it was a right natural custom! Mahomet was in his fortieth year. Men do and must listen to that as to nothing else.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 27 affectionate. the prurient heat of his life all burnt out. and that there is nothing else great! He is the Reality. and answer. Now. A Hero. when the good Kadijah died." the mere good opinion of neighbors that knew him. would find natural and useful. Ah no: this deep-hearted Son of the Wilderness. with its blue-glancing stars. has in very truth something of divine. loving her truly. and what of God's inspiration dwelt there. set up as a wretched empty charlatan to acquire what he could now no longer enjoy! For my share. entirely quiet and commonplace way. we and all . The word of such a man is a Voice direct from Nature's own Heart. he was alone with his own soul and the reality of things. He there has to answer it. it was of the Heaven above and of the Hell beneath. into solitude and silence. with the crown of Greek Heraclius. It goes greatly against the impostor theory. All his "ambition. the stupid routine of Arab Idolatry: there was no answer in these. this impostor hypothesis. had other thoughts in him than ambition. with its splendors. and we must leave all Idols. and have a bit of gilt wood put into your hand.--all else is wind in comparison. answered not. who with his household was with him or near him this year. has this first distinction. which such a man. his "fame. he one day told his wife Kadijah. as indeed was the Arab custom. during this Ramadhan. a thousand thoughts.--will that be one's salvation? I decidedly think. no hearsays could hide that unspeakable fact." and. as we named it. vague traditions of Jews. "Here am I!" Such sincerity. with its terrors. All his irregularities. what is Death? What am I to believe? What am I to do? The grim rocks of Mount Hara. worthy chiefly of dismissal by us. He is real. and look to Him. himself silent. not. till the heat of his years was done. Not till he was already getting old. "bits of black wood pretending to be God. Mahomet had been wont to retire yearly. as I repeat. The great Heaven rolling silent overhead. Wooden Idols are not real. whom Nature herself has appointed to be sincere. From of old. a praiseworthy custom. not very tolerable even. sustains us yet. Idolatries never so gilded. We will leave it altogether. miserable bits of wood. what good is it? The great Reality stands glaring there upon him. all other things of no moment whatever in comparison. He was forty before he talked of any mission from Heaven. While others walk in formulas and hearsays. date from after his fiftieth year. Communing with his own heart. The man's own soul. peaceable. even now. above all. as not credible. the fact that he lived in this entirely unexceptionable. real and supposed. Though all men walk by them. this man could not screen himself in formulas. The jargon of argumentative Greek Sects. respectable formula: all these are good. will do nothing for this man. or else through all Eternity never! Answer it. Use and wont. had been in this man: What am I? What is this unfathomable Thing I live in. The great Mystery of Existence. with his beaming black eyes and open social deep soul. This wild man felt it to be of infinite moment. respectable hearsay. contented enough to dwell there. that there was One God in and over all.--what could they all do for him? It was not of the Earth he wanted to hear tell. which men name Universe? What is Life. and peace growing to be the chief thing this world could give him. That by the unspeakable special favor of Heaven he had now found it all out. That he looks through the shows of things into things.

I think. give ear to no vain cavils.--who of us yet can know what to call it? It is the "inspiration of the Almighty" that giveth us understanding. or getting into the course of it. we resign ourselves to God. in the great darkness which threatened to be death: he called it revelation and the angel Gabriel. the moment another soul will believe in it. vain sorrows and wishes: to know that we know nothing. "It is certain.-The good Kadijah. He spoke of his Doctrine to this man and that. and for the other! The thing He sends to us. before all. by all manner of qualities. Long afterwards. and there stood up and told them what his pretension was: that he had this thing to promulgate abroad to all men. and had lost her looks: you love me better than you did her?"--" No. neither had it been. God is great! "Though He slay me. listened to him with wonder. all of us that have any moral life. it is properly the soul of Christianity. His encouragement to go on. we can fancy. Such light had come. also believed in him. not questioning it. set in flame with this grand Truth vouchsafed him. A man is right and invincible. To know. A confused dazzling splendor as of life and Heaven.--of which the best Logics can but babble on the surface. and how of all the kindnesses she had done him.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 28 things are but the shadow of Him. he invited forty of his chief kindred to an entertainment. that the soul of it was Good. and she was that!"--Seid. it was true this that he said. not victorious otherwise:--and surely his first chance of co-operating with it. the best. "Allah akbar. saving him from death and darkness. that it was the highest thing. a Just Law. whatsoever He do to us. For this world. and alone good! This is the soul of Islam. Christianity also commands us.--That Mahomet's whole soul. precisely while he joins himself to the great deep Law of the World.--Necessity will make him submit. these with his young Cousin Ali. shall be good. had Christianity not been." It is a boundless favor. to get into the truth of anything. he is victorious while he co-operates with that great central Law. old. we all live so. though deep beyond his soundings. was altogether the usual encouragement that such a man in such a case meets. this young brilliant Ayesha was. It has ever been held the highest wisdom for a man not merely to submit to Necessity. were it death and worse than death. Annihilation of Self. yet will I trust in Him. the thing wanted there. It is good and wise. was very natural. One can fancy too the boundless gratitude of Mahomet." says Novalis.--but to know and believe well that the stern thing which Necessity had ordered was the wisest." says Goethe. by Allah!" answered Mahomet: "No. This is yet the highest Wisdom that Heaven has revealed to our Earth. In the whole world I had but one friend.--that his part in it was to conform to the Law of the Whole. that he therefore was bound to make known the same to all creatures: this is what was meant by "Mahomet is the Prophet of God. shall be best. he had gained but thirteen followers. is to know with his whole soul that it is. in three years. "Is not Belief the true god-announcing Miracle?" says Novalis. this of believing the earnest struggling word he now spoke was the greatest. that the worst and cruelest to our eyes is not what it seems. obeying it as unquestionable. his Slave. one day. were his first converts. the . to illuminate the darkness of this wild Arab soul. a woman who indeed distinguished herself among the Moslem. That our whole strength lies in resigned submission to Him." Islam means in its way Denial of Self. should feel as if it were important and the only important thing. I say. profit-and-loss calculations. but the most treated it with ridicule. that it is good. by Allah! She believed in me when none else would believe. Abu Thaleb's son. through her whole long life. That Providence had unspeakably honored him by revealing it. To cease his frantic pretension of scanning this great God's-World in his small fraction of a brain. as it could. questioning him: "Now am not I better than Kadijah? She was a widow. and say."--and then also "Islam. with indifference. to know that it had verily.--for Islam is definable as a confused form of Christianity. and in devout silence follow that. this is yet the only true morality known. to be resigned to God. a transitory garment veiling the Eternal Splendor. We are to take no counsel with flesh and blood. that we have to receive whatsoever befalls us as sent from God above.--"If this be Islam. After some three years of small success. temporary appearances." That we must submit to God. virtuous and on the road towards sure conquest. His progress was slow enough. in spite of all superficial laws. "do we not all live in Islam?" Yes. God is great. with doubt: at length she answered: Yes. "my Conviction gains infinitely.--He never forgot this good Kadijah." this too is not without its true meaning. Ayesha his young favorite wife. is ever a mystic act.

the good Kadijah was dead. steel and murder: well. now and always afterwards. felt to be of infinite moment to them and all men. ordering him to hold his peace. with a lad of sixteen. gaining adherents in this place and that. or whatsoever thing Nature had made. all his adherents had to quit Mecca. It would speak itself there. that rebukes us all. on his own advice. then they must slay him straightway. since unjust men had not only given no ear to his earnest Heaven's-message. they would not listen to these. the deep cry of his heart. It is so with all men in the like case. and could do no other. not without great difficulty. His powerful relations protected Mahomet himself. some rider's horse taking fright or the like. the City of the Prophet. his path desolate. He died by assassination in the Mosque at Bagdad. whether Mahomet and his Doctrine had not ended there. that the task he had got was no soft. they shall have it. they must pardon the Assassin. Keepers of the Caabah. Mahomet answered so. talking of it? Mahomet answered: If the Sun stood on his right hand and the Moon on his left. young Ali." Burst into tears: he felt that Abu Thaleb was good to him. to put Mahomet to death with their own hands. waiting to take his life.--the wild Son of the Desert resolved to defend himself. one out of every tribe. but would not even let him live if he kept speaking it. but his outlook at this time was one of the dismalest. escape in disguise. in such mood as we may fancy. More than once it seemed all over with him. hatred. confidence in the fairness of others: he said. hegira as they name it: the Year 1 of this Hegira is 622 of our Era. and found welcome. open or secret danger attended him. publishing his Doctrine among the pilgrims as they came to Mecca. endanger himself and them all." from that circumstance. the place they now call Medina. that so they two in the same hour might appear before God. The whole East dates its era from this Flight. but by and by. the assembly broke up in laughter. started up. Ali's Father. Hitherto Mahomet had professed to publish his Religion by the way of preaching and persuasion alone. and exclaimed in passionate fierce language. That he would! The assembly. forty sworn men. let steel try it then! Ten years more this Mahomet had. his friends sinking round him one by one. appeared ridiculous to them. He went on speaking to who would listen to him. believe it all for himself. all of fighting of breathless impetuous toil and struggle. yet with a grace. equal in rank to Sun. and not been heard of at all. more than once it turned on a straw. encompassed with danger: unless he could find hope in his own heart. as mere fools and worshippers of wood! Abu Thaleb the good Uncle spoke with him: Could he not be silent about all that. Naturally he gave offence to everybody: Who is this that pretends to be wiser than we all. superintendents of the Idols. the fifty-third of Mahomet's life. Tidings. homeless. a death occasioned by his own generous fairness. Something chivalrous in him. impatient of the silence. like a man and Arab. It must do that. and. where he had gained some adherents. He had to hide in caverns. If the Koreish will have it so. full of affection. it was a very serious thing! As for this young Ali. of fiery daring. or "Medinat al Nabi. Mahomet fled to the place then called Yathreb. The Koreish grew ever angrier. . If the wound proved not unto death. But now. and all Koreish and all men and things. so long as the Almighty allowed it. but if it did. as yet a lad of sixteen. but it was spreading. Mahomet is not solicitous of sympathy from us. and see which side of that quarrel was the just one! Mahomet naturally gave offence to the Koreish. Abu Thaleb was dead. brave as a lion. It lay some two hundred miles off. through rocks and deserts. among whom was Abu Thaleb. could not be unfriendly to Mahomet. or Moon. In the thirteenth year of his mission. One or two men of influence had joined him: the thing spread slowly. would trample them down by sheer violence. Nevertheless it proved not a laughable thing. they say. laid plots. he could not obey! No: there was something in this Truth he had got which was of Nature herself. But it was not to end so. He was now becoming an old man. and swore oaths among them. Continual contradiction. in spite of Sun and Moon. but a stern and great one. of one unlettered elderly man. fly hither and thither. A noble-minded creature. one cannot but like him. "burst into tears. finding his enemies all banded against him. driven foully out of his native country. and seek refuge in Abyssinia over the sea. anger the chief men. and not trouble others. he escaped thither. yet the sight there. in continual peril of his life.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 29 one thing: which of them would second him in that? Amid the doubt and silence of all. as he shows himself. and no continuance possible at Mecca for him any longer. the outward face of things was but hopeless for him. a truth and affection worthy of Christian knighthood. deciding on such an enterprise against all mankind. with what result we know.

Charlemagne's conversion of the Saxons was not by preaching. Here however. what a greatness. with their idle wire-drawings.--has silently turned all the rest to some benefit too. barn-sweepings. you have no other thing that you can do! And now if the wild idolatrous men did believe this. It is no doubt far nobler what we have to boast of the Christian Religion. Pure? I might say to many a man: Yes. and yet so great. in this world and in the next. There is a soul of truth in all the things she ever gave harbor to. which in new and ever-nobler embodiment lives immortal as man himself! It is the way with Nature. with a heart-life in it. one day. best: you are bound to take it so. conquer nothing which does not deserve to be conquered. they are an impotent blasphemous presence. is not with her the final question. if we take this for an argument of the truth or falsehood of a religion. That it be genuine. in reference to much that there is in Mahomet and his success. and to the uttermost bestir itself. You must first get your sword! On the whole. In one man's head alone. The yellow wheat is growing there. and makes no complaint about it! So everywhere in Nature! She is true and not a lie. and really. He can kill us and keep us alive: "Allah akbar. when once it had got one. beak and claws. will do little for him. The body of all Truth dies. in what . We do not find. hearsay. in the long-run. God alone has power. will not. in some merely scientific Theorem of the Universe. You take wheat to cast into the Earth's bosom. What is better than itself. with any sword or tongue or implement it has. a horror and abomination. The genuine essence of Truth never dies. you are properly neither pure nor impure. chopping barren logic merely! Out of all that rubbish of Arab idolatries. but you are chaff. but a living kind. We will let it preach. rumors and hypotheses of Greeks and Jews. at its starting. I tell you! They can do nothing for you. there it dwells as yet. Yet withal. says nothing of the rubbish. we are to remember what an umpire Nature is. which cannot be complete. and try to propagate with that. Not how much chaff is in you. A bastard kind of Christianity. subtleties. not dead. you will find it the wisest. a voice from the great Deep of Nature. He made us.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 30 Much has been said of Mahomet's propagating his Religion by the sword. not the falsehood: it succeeded by its truth. traditions. That he take a sword. had seen into the kernel of the matter. that it propagated itself peaceably in the way of preaching and conviction. no matter: you cast it into the kind just Earth. you are pure. Mahomet's Creed we called a kind of Christianity. What we call pure or impure. the heart empty and dead! The truth of it is embedded in portentous error and falsehood. with his wild sincere heart. formality. and just. you are nothing. which cannot but be found. if not so. you never were in contact with the great heart of the Universe at all. The sword indeed: but where will you get your sword! Every new opinion. if we look at the wild rapt earnestness with which it was believed and laid to heart. and can do no wrong: the thing which is deepest-rooted in Nature. erroneous. Nature has no business with you." Understand that His will is the best for you. there is one man against all men. but whether you have any wheat. is precisely in a minority of one. I care little about the sword: I will allow a thing to struggle for itself in this world. whatsoever is in it. if ye knew them. and so die and disappear. and fight. shrouds it in. and yet in all. pure enough. One man alone of the whole world believes it. she will protect it if so. an element of light in darkness: to us they have to come embodied in mere Logic. there is a soul which never dies. I should say a better kind than that of those miserable Syrian Sects. and the flies stick on them. but only what is worse. Nature herself is umpire. very sure that it will. but the truth of it makes it be believed. In this great Duel. composure of depth and tolerance there is in her. She requires of a thing only that it be genuine of heart.--insincere hypothesis. "ye rub them with oil and wax. with their vain janglings about Homoiousion and Homoousion. and with their fiery hearts lay hold of it to do it. and do. and motherly in her truth. a thing will propagate itself as it can. of the Christian Religion either. it cannot put away."--these are wood. there is a radical mistake in it. chopped straw. and pamphleteer. God alone is. is not this the history of all highest Truth that comes or ever came into the world? The body of them all is imperfection. or can lay hold of. your wheat may be mixed with chaff. with his great flashing natural eyesight. Idolatry is nothing: these Wooden Idols of yours. that it always disdained the sword. the head full of worthless noise. she grows the wheat. incomplete.--the whole rubbish she silently absorbs. what we call truest. argumentative theologies. earnest as death and life. God is great. Alas. I say. that howsoever sore to flesh and blood. dust and all imaginable rubbish. there is the point at Nature's judgment-seat. that thing and not the other will be found growing at last. this wild man of the Desert. the good Earth is silent about all the rest.

Not that Abstractions." This is the Work he and his disciples made so much of. much of it. a kind of wild chanting song. entanglement. He is in harmony with the Decrees of the Author of this World. as would seem. forward his ambitions and quackeries: but really it is time to dismiss all that. no better definition of Duty than that same. so far as writing goes. Mahomet's followers found the Koran lying all in fractions. logical Propositions. We read in it. whatsoever was not equally real. in short! Nothing but a sense of duty could carry any European through the Koran.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 31 form soever it came to them." here surely were the most eminent instance of that! We also can read the Koran. incondite. without any discoverable order as to time or otherwise. There. that Mahomet dictated at intervals his Sacred Book. Yet I should say. much perhaps has been lost in the Translation here. endless iterations. or perhaps at . asking all the world. Arab idolatries. as it had been written down at first promulgation. direct from the great Heart of Nature once more. it means nothing. has the voice of this Book. All that is right includes itself in this of co-operating with the real Tendency of the World: you succeed by this (the World's Tendency will succeed). be correctly worded or incorrectly. had to go up in flame.--insupportable stupidity. is rhythmic. and walk by. on shoulder-blades of mutton. it is as toilsome reading as I ever undertook. kept sounding through the ears and the hearts of so many men. that perhaps we may get some glimpses of a remarkable man. Homoiousion. it was not unintelligible how the Arabs might so love it. all art and author-craft are of small amount to that. When once you get this confused coil of a Koran fairly off your hands. in that way. written. and go whither and how it likes: this is the thing it all struggles to mean. for twelve hundred years. as badly as almost any book ever was! So much for national discrepancies. and this not very strictly. one feels it difficult to see how any mortal ever could consider this Koran as a Book written in Heaven. to put the longest chapters first. the essential type of it begins to disclose itself. In one form or the other. for this which was fire. all Moslem are bound to study it. If a book come from the heart. This may be a great point. Islam devoured all these vain jangling Sects. crude. flung pell-mell into a chest: and they published it. incondite. and others have represented it as a mere bundle of juggleries.--merely trying. but that living concrete Sons of Adam do lay this to heart: that is the important point. Read in its historical sequence it perhaps would not be so bad. lies almost at the end: for the earliest portions were the shortest. I say it is still the one thing worthy of being believed by all men. It is true we have it under disadvantages: the Arabs see more method in it than we. and not a bewildered rhapsody. Is not that a miracle? The Mahometans regard their Koran with a reverence which few Christians pay even to their Bible. Yet with every allowance. and I think had right to do so. then or before or at any time. Much of it. If it do not succeed in meaning this. is known to be a very fair one. to this day. if it would mean anything. of conscious deceit generally. our Translation of it. Man does hereby become the high-priest of this Temple of a World. thirty relays of priests take it up in succession.--mere dead fuel. It was a Reality. of its being a bona-fide book. they say. or Reading. Prideaux. too. in these times. at all moments. cooperating with them. and have it behind you at a distance. most crude. or indeed as a book at all. who would accuse him of deceit prepense. long-windedness. as we might in the State-Paper Office. by Sale. unreadable masses of lumber. I say it was well worthy of being believed. and the standard of taste. We hear of Mahometan Doctors that had read it seventy thousand times! Very curious: if one sought for "discrepancies of national taste. I know. in various senses. I must say. A wearisome confused jumble. seek in it for the light of their life. They have mosques where it is all read daily. and in the right course there. vain logical jangle. especially after the Flight to Mecca. and in this there is a merit quite other than the literary one. which this Earth has to conform to. Syrian formulas. the thing to be read. may jangle itself out. chapter after chapter got up to excuse and varnish the author's successive sins. you are good. it will contrive to reach other hearts. too good for the Earth. as a well-written book. get through the whole each day. they say. which they name Koran. It is admitted every where as the standard of all law and all practice. the thing to be gone upon in speculation and life. in the original. not vainly withstanding them: I know. "Thing to be read. One would say the primary character of the Koran is this of its genuineness. Their Judges decide by it. It was during these wild warfarings and strugglings. Homoousion. The real beginning of it. the message sent direct out of Heaven. I do not assert Mahomet's continual sincerity: who is continually sincere? But I confess I can make nothing of the critic.

Curiously. through these incondite masses of tradition. the thing his own heart has been opened to. of what we might almost call poetry. any making-up of his mind. earnest. But curiously." if your eyes were open! This Earth. he often answers impatiently: I can work no miracles. the Prophet Abraham. tossing amid these vortices. has not time to mature himself into fit speech. as the centre of a world wholly in conflict. backslidings of his own wild heart. and been received by them even as he Mahomet was. the first and last merit in a book. the thoughts crowd on him pell-mell: for very multitude of things to say. "appointed paths in it. colored by the various vicissitudes of three-and-twenty years. now worse: this is the Koran. to our heart. in the haste and pressure of continual fighting." appointed to preach this doctrine to all creatures. It is the confused ferment of a great rude human soul. might con over the Biographies of Authors in that way! This is the great staple of the Koran. they are borrowed I suppose mainly from the Hebrew. go to and fro on it. in his forlorn garret. The body of the Book is made up of mere tradition. rude. flung out unshaped. with wearisome iteration. in their chaotic inarticulate state.--The clouds in the dry country of Arabia. With a kind of breathless intensity he strives to utter himself.--nay. is found straggling. simmering like a great furnace of thoughts. would hail any light of a decision for them as a veritable light from Heaven. through all this. in all senses. Great Nature's own gift. complaint. I make but little of his praises of Allah. the wild soul of the man. He has actually an eye for the world. The meaning that is in him shapes itself into no form of composition. born in the deep bosom of the Upper Immensity. is stated in no sequence. is it not wonderful. what had rendered it precious to the wild Arab men. the work of Allah. seething. The man has not studied speaking. But for a wretched Simulacrum. but fervent.--they are not shaped at all. perhaps twenty times." you can live in it. at least they are far surpassed there. would seem the inspiration of a Gabriel. The successive utterances of a soul in that mood. so blessed. seems to me the merit of the Koran. ejaculation in the Koran. these thoughts of his. it is natural uncultivation rather. He has faults enough. gives rise to merits of all kinds.--still more.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 32 all. much of the Bedouin still clinging to him: we must take him for that. he can get nothing said. The man was an uncultured semi-barbarous Son of Nature. God made it for you. through these three-and-twenty years. These things he repeats ten. the Prophet Hud. A brave Samuel Johnson. Yet the world. method. after all. I think. Mahomet can work no miracles. But the eye that flashes direct into the heart of things. We said "stupid:" yet natural stupidity is by no means the character of Mahomet's Book. Battles with the Koreish and Heathen. his soul knowing rest no more. His Life was a Fact to him. and as it were vehement enthusiastic extempore preaching. this Mahomet: with a certain directness and rugged vigor. to Mahomet they are very wonderful: Great clouds. In wakeful nights. and writing this Koran as a forger and juggler would have done! Every candid eye. of living in a mere element of conscious deceit. comes ever and anon some glance as of the real thinker and seer. for very magnitude of meaning. It is. all this kept him in a perpetual whirl. continual high-treason against his Maker and Self. and sees the truth of them. again and ever again. I? "I am a Public Preacher. which many praise. was not a juggler's. quarrels among his own people. vituperation. which she bestows on all. as they struggle and tumble there. no! This great fiery heart. now well uttered. says he. we will not and cannot take him. as one may fancy. as we can see.--which is a great solace to him. it alone can give rise to merit of any kind. this God's Universe an awful Fact and Reality. Look over the world. practicing for a mess of pottage such blasphemous swindlery. forgery of celestial documents. the Prophet Moses. Forger and juggler? No. he cannot get himself articulated into words. Christian and other real and fabulous Prophets. untutored. had come to this Tribe and to that. warning men of their sin. will read the Koran far otherwise than so. a vein of true direct insight. he says. struggling vehemently to utter itself in words. has never done repeating them. wholly "a sign to you. at bottom. where do they come from! . had really from of old been all one great miracle to him. For we are to consider Mahomet. indispensable for him there. The panting breathless haste and vehemence of a man struggling in the thick of battle for life and salvation. the test of a sincere heart. that cannot even read. or coherence. Sincerity. He returns forever to the old stories of the Prophets as they went current in the Arab memory: how Prophet after Prophet. this is to me a highly interesting object. this is the mood he is in! A headlong haste. he brings home still. a hungry Impostor without eyes or heart. but which only one in the thousand does not cast sorrowfully away: it is what I call sincerity of vision.

We ought not to forget it! That once well forgotten. and dead thistle. a glance at first-hand into the very fact of things. and a Terror not to be named." melt into the Blue as clouds do. The poor swearing soldier. has his "honor of a soldier. as we said once before. curious. pour down their rain-deluges "to revive a dead earth. in very deed. they change the grass into milk. death are the allurements that act on the heart of man.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 33 They hang there. a few years ago ye were not at all. thoughts. heart: a strong wild man." As if indeed any religion. "Ye have compassion on one another:" this struck me much: Allah might have made you having no compassion on one another. unless he can worship in some way. the great black monsters. any kind of Hero. abnegation. His Religion is not an easy one: with rigorous fasts. good for propelling steamships! With our Sciences and Cyclopaedias. prayers five times a day. hired to be shot. it did not "succeed by being an easy religion." and grass springs. they spread out their cloth wings. not even as one thing at all. at bottom. all great thinkers.--sugar-plums of any kind. they lie dead. are visible in this man. go bounding through the water there. Nothing. and gray hairs.--might have shaped himself into Poet. more than was just. It is not to taste sweet things. in those laboratories of ours. but something higher: one sees this even in the frivolous classes. was continually clear to this man. and does not figure as a divine thing. it is not the growing tree and forest. unquestioned from immemorial time in Arabia. Not by flattering our appetites. not on one but on many sides. Laws of Nature.--which gives ever-new timber. strength. in the Arab fashion. and abstinence from wine. "and are a credit to you!" Ships also. King. martyrdom. restrict them. and again are not. the dullest day-drudge kindles into a hero. among other things! Man cannot know either. he says. of whatsoever is best and truest. Is not that a sign?" Your cattle too. Priest. you have your clothing from them. Not happiness. which he permitted. is a visual and factual Manifestation of God's power and presence. "ye have compassion on one another.--salable. he found them practiced. were not of his appointment. without this. Heaven's wind driving them.--how had it been then! This is a great direct thought. Difficulty. They wrong man greatly who say he is to be seduced by ease. At the Last Day they shall disappear "like clouds. and as dust and vapor vanish in the Inane. in one way or other. no. have contrived to see: That this so solid-looking material world is. recompense. contentious." Ye were small once." Old age comes on you. empty. nothing more." the whole Earth shall go spinning. these great rock-mountains. Show him the way of doing that. as an immense Plain or flat Plate of ground. withered. The best science. and not be! He figures the Earth. but to do noble and true things. what he did was to curtail them. God has withdrawn the wind. anon they lie motionless. ye sink down. in this world or the next! In the meanest mortal there lies something nobler. the rude Scandinavians themselves. Rude vestiges of poetic genius. Allah withdraws his hand from it. but as a set of things.--a thistle in late autumn. that the poorest son of Adam dimly longs. as the true force. serviceable dumb creatures. Most sciences. by awakening the Heroic that slumbers in every heart. lavations. . can any Religion gain followers. and "tall leafy palm-trees with their date-clusters hanging round. eyesight. His knowledge is a pedantry. could succeed by that! It is a calumny on men to say that they are roused to heroic action by ease.--Allah made them. your strength fades into feebleness. I know not what else were worth remembering. Ye have beauty. "and. you have a flame that burns up all lower considerations. in all things whatsoever. "shaped you out of a little clay. The universal empire of Allah." different from drill-regulations and the shilling a day. whirl itself off into wreck. Kindle the inner genial life of him. a Splendor. The indulgences. He sees what. otherwise. very strange creatures. A strong untutored intellect.--a shadow hung out by Him on the bosom of the void Infinite.--he talks often about ships: Huge moving mountains. Much has been said and written about the sensuality of Mahomet's Religion. we are apt to forget the divineness. is but as the dead timber. essence and reality. presence everywhere of an unspeakable Power. undivine enough. strict complex formulas. with their "point of honor" and the like. or cause holding of religion. they come ranking home at evening-time. What a modern talks of by the name. Sale tells us. Forces of Nature. To his eyes it is forever clear that this world wholly is miraculous. The mountains. and vindicate himself under God's Heaven as a god-made Man." adds he. the mountains are set on that to steady it. hope of pleasure. I think were then a very dead thing. they shall dissipate themselves "like clouds. and cannot stir! Miracles? cries he: What miracle would you have? Are not you yourselves there? God made you. and it ceases to be. criminal to us.

"than at the Day of Judgment." No Dilettantism in this Mahomet. The very falsehoods of Mahomet are truer than . Not a mealy-mouthed man! A candid ferocity." said he. They called him Prophet. It was well. no boast of the other. careless of what vulgar men toil for. Greek Emperors. would not have reverenced him so! They were wild men. good. his common diet barley-bread and water: sometimes for months there was not a fire once lighted on his hearth. speculation. A poor. no man could have commanded them. in quiet paralysis of life-death. Withal I like Mahomet for his total freedom from cant. Seid had fallen in the War of Tabuc. is written down sometimes as a sentence by itself: "Assuredly. What will become of your harvest through all Eternity? Hot weather? Yes. what it is they are bound to do. and yet equivalent to that of Christians. Generous things are recorded of him: when he lost his Daughter." borrowed on such an occasion. he can never forget that. patch his own cloak. Mahomet makes no apology for the one. Mahomet ordered them to be paid: "Better be in shame now. If he owed any man? A voice answered. let him be called what you like! No emperor with his tiaras was obeyed as this man in a cloak of his own clouting.--or these wild Arab men. something better in him than hunger of any sort." Such a man not only utters and produces falsehoods. his emancipated well-beloved Slave. I should say. me three drachms. asked. it is a business of Reprobation and Salvation with him. if the case call for it. he stood there face to face with them. into all kinds of fierce sincerity. If he had injured any man? Let his own back bear the stripes.--the veritable Son of our common Mother. Yet Seid's daughter found him weeping over the body. bursting ever and anon into quarrel. The rational moral principle. They record with just pride that he would mend his own shoes." He answered in like manner of Seid. "The Lord giveth. Your harvest? It lasts for a day. There is no ostentatious pride in him. ye shall not have short weight!--Everywhere he fixes the matter in his eye. speaks plainly to all manner of Persian Kings. but neither are acts of mercy. the second of the believers. a kind of amateur-search for Truth. ill-provided man. "the respect due unto thee. you say? Why. hard-toiling."--He went out for the last time into the mosque. He is a rough self-helping son of the wilderness. ordering in the midst of them: they must have seen what kind of a man he was. the harvest.--"You see a friend weeping over his friend. of noble natural pity and generosity wanting. was not a sensual man." he says: that word. cobbling his own shoes. Ye shall have the just measure of your deeds at that Great Day.--"living in a vain show. in trembling hope. now and then. It consists in the heart and soul of the man never having been open to Truth. there and then. the thing he answers is. counselling."--You remember Kadijah. Seid had done his Master's work. They will be weighed out to you. two days before his death. is as if struck dumb by the greatness of it. "but Hell will be hotter!" Sometimes a rough sarcasm turns up: He says to the unbelievers. in his own dialect. visibly clouting his own cloak. spark of the Divinity. many of them. fighting. bare. and the "No. brought visible through twelve centuries. and the Lord taketh away. towards its Maker. intent mainly on base enjoyments. not enshrined in any mystery. but is himself a falsehood. "Yes. in the Koran. fighting and jostling three-and-twenty years at his hand. he does not mince matters! The War of Tabuc is a thing he often speaks of: his men refused.--the old gray-haired man melting in tears! "What do I see?" said she. it was hot. to march on that occasion. His household was of the frugalest. the brother of us all. pleaded the heat of the weather. knows well enough. every way sincere. broken ejaculations of a heart struggling up. His last words are a prayer. blessed be the name of the Lord. They were each the free dictate of his heart. Not a bad man. does not pretend to be what he is not. We cannot say that his religion made him worse. about himself. of Time and Eternity: he is in deadly earnest about it! Dilettantism. and so forth. Mahomet said. We shall err widely if we consider this man as a common voluptuary. hypothesis.--nay on enjoyments of any kind.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 34 Mahomet himself. cruel things could not fail. Seid had now gone to his Master: it was all well with Seid. each called for. without right worth and manhood. by Allah!" Traits of that kind show us the genuine man. toying and coquetting with Truth: this is the sorest sin. after all that can be said about him. I find something of a veritable Hero necessary for that. not bad. The root of all other imaginable sins. but neither does he go much upon humility: he is there as he can be. of itself. "Assuredly. he sees it: his heart. is in him. in cloak and shoes of his own clouting. in close contact with him always. it made him better. is sunk deep in him. During three-and-twenty years of rough actual trial. the first of Mahomet's fightings with the Greeks." In a life-and-death war with Bedouins.

that he could and would shake them off. of pity and equity dwelling in the heart of this wild Son of Nature speaks so. there were many things to be said. in whatever he changed of it. is a perfect equalizer of men: the soul of one believer outweighs all earthly kingships. Islam. are the work of doctors. Let a man assert withal that he is king over his habitudes. into the wild Arab soul. The worst sensualities." shall go right against his desire in one matter. reaches upwards high as Heaven. much in his own Life. "should we allow him the greater latitude on all other sides. too. and never die or end at all. like a Bentham. vainly here below. respectable in some times and places. But there is another thing to be said about the Mahometan Heaven and Hell. and it is at your peril if you neglect. bears in that direction. The sublime forgiveness of Christianity. the pure Presence of the Highest. that man. and seek. there will be Heaven enough! In reference to this of the sensual Paradise and Mahomet's sensuality. as in flame-characters. much in Mahomet's Religion.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 35 the truths of such a man. softened and diminished all this. On the other hand. Have Peace!--the thing that all rational souls long for. not overmuch. which it is not convenient to enter upon here. and summing all up by addition and subtraction into a net result. they are intimated rather than insisted on. all men. awful. and calculate the profit and loss. that. in Meister's Travels it is. but it is to be in measure. or clear purpose of moral improvement on his part. and make himself do the thing he does not wish. not able to articulate. yet it can be said that there is always a tendency to good in them. the sorest chapter of all for us. says nothing harsh to anybody. and therewith leave it to your candor. With bursting earnestness. and in his threescore years of Time holds an Eternity fearfully and wonderfully hidden: all this had burnt itself. one of which was this: "We require. and Beginning of Facts. the hero comes upon a Society of men with very strange ways. in a way that might put some of us to shame! He does not. not always so well remembered elsewhere. however gross and material they may be. In one of his Delineations.--just as carbonic acid is. most cleanly. his Hell sensual: true. it is the first of all truths. "Your salutation shall be. whatever that may be. which is death and poison." says the Master. ever present to him. Two remarks only I shall make. is the property of the poor. The tenth part of a man's annual income. Mahomet's Paradise is sensual. As in flame and lightning. and insight into the essence of man. of that grand spiritual Fact. He is the insincere man: smooth-polished. as the one blessing. which it is ill for us too if we do not all know and feel: the Infinite Nature of Duty? That man's actions here are of infinite moment to him." All grudges! Ye shall love one another freely. like any great Faith. What is the chief end of man here below? Mahomet has answered this question. Mahomet insists not on the propriety of giving alms. according to Islam too. downwards low as Hell. The first is furnished me by Goethe. followers of his. That gross sensual Paradise of his. half-articulating. that horrible flaming Hell. the great enormous Day of Judgment he perpetually insists on: what is all this but a rude shadow. is not here: you are to revenge yourself. on cause shown: this is an excellent law. a Paley. that is not the evil: it is the reducing of our moral self to slavery by them that is. Whether on the whole the Right does . "that each of our people shall restrict himself in one direction. "Ye shall sit on seats. for each of you. Enjoying things which are pleasant. bodies it forth in that Heaven and that Hell. this shall infinitely transcend all other joys. take Right and Wrong. in the eyes of his brothers. The Month Ramadhan for the Moslem. Nor is it forgotten that the highest joys even there shall be spiritual. then by a certain healthy manful instinct. But we are to recollect that the Arabs already had it so. ultimate pleasure of the one and of the other. or beyond justice. which is as good. Peace. it stands written there. unspeakable. It is venerable under all embodiments." Salam. in the rude Bedouin imagination. he strives to speak it. if not by forethought. not his work. they are an emblem of an everlasting truth. it is a casual hint of his which seems well worth taking note of. In the Koran there is really very little said about the joys of Paradise. turning of the other cheek when the one has been smitten. This namely. with his little life. are equal. in the one and the other there is enough that shocks all spiritual feeling in us. that they are the true dictates of a heart aiming towards what is just and true. Bodied forth in what way you will. He says. with a fierce savage sincerity. but on the necessity of it: he marks down by law how much you are to give. Good all this: the natural voice of humanity. that Mahomet. ask you." There seems to me a great justness in this. of those that are afflicted and need help. We will not praise Mahomet's moral precepts as always of the superfinest sort. facing one another: all grudges shall be taken away out of your hearts. inoffensive.

do we give to Great Men. whom all ages possess. Hero.--displacing what is worse. and whole daily existence. within one century afterwards. have ever stood by their Faith as the Moslem do by theirs. the god of all rude men. Above all things. in no age is it other than possible that he may be shaped into a Poet. I will answer. along with his answer. Poet. which the progress of mere scientific knowledge puts an end to. reducing this God's-world to a dead brute Steam-engine. the other is life eternal. These Arabs.--this has been enlarged into a Heaven by Mahomet. fronting Time with it. pleasures and pains on:--If you ask me which gives. look not at the falsehood of it. Arabia shines through long ages over a great section of the world. the Hero as Prophet. the other in nowise left undone. and to be earned by faith and well-doing. We are now to see our Hero in the less ambitious. I will remark again. life-giving. according to the sphere in which they have displayed themselves! We might give many more names.--is it not as if a spark had fallen. Prophet.--glancing in valor and splendor and the light of genius." _Allah akbar. or almost vacant of scientific forms. great. I confess. the Great Man was always as lightning out of Heaven. at Delhi on that. Zealous missionaries preach it abroad among Malays. A poor shepherd people. Islam_. THE HERO AS POET. it is not better to do the one than the other. For these twelve centuries. the rest of men waited for him like fuel. The history of a Nation becomes fruitful. that the Hero can be Poet. on this same principle. soul-elevating. Benthamee Utility. character of Poet. virtue by Profit and Loss. the small has grown world-great. and then they too would flame. It is Scandinavian Paganism. You shall not measure them. I have no notion of a truly great man that could not be all sorts of men. DANTE: SHAKSPEARE. since the early ages. the beggarlier and falser view of Man and his Destinies in this Universe. The Poet is a heroic figure belonging to all ages. nothing that is better or good. they are incommensurable: the one is death eternal to a man. that the different sphere constitutes the grand origin of such distinction. black Papuans. according to the kind of world he finds himself born into. and places. Priest or what you will. roaming unnoticed in its deserts since the creation of the world: a Hero-Prophet was sent down to them with a word they could believe: see.--as Heaven is to Hell. Let Nature send a Hero-soul. The Poet who could merely . Mahomet or they. and try to live by it! No Christians. when once he is produced. and a divine patience which is still more valiant. Belief is great. by valiant action. These Arabs believe their religion. are productions of old ages. Divinity and Prophet are past. or only perhaps the English Puritans in modern times. of these dusky millions. the man Mahomet. in different times. but also less questionable. blazes heaven-high from Delhi to Grenada! I said. To the Arab Nation it was as a birth from darkness into light. but lo. the sand proves explosive powder. it has been a religion heartily believed. as a fact not unimportant to be understood. They presuppose a certain rudeness of conception. Arabia first became alive by means of it. and Eternity with it.--and will produce. 1840. the one is to the other as life is to death. There needs to be. always when Nature pleases. brutal Idolaters. the infinite celestial Soul of Man to a kind of Hay-balance for weighing hay and thistles on. The one must in nowise be done. look at the truth of it. The Hero as Divinity. the unnoticed becomes world-notable. but a Heaven symbolical of sacred Duty. if men in their loving wonder are to fancy their fellow-man either a god or one speaking with the voice of a god. The Scandinavian God Wish.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 36 not preponderate considerably? No. King. Call it not false. "Who goes? " will hear from the passenger.] LECTURE III. whom the newest age as the oldest may produce. one spark. has a genuine element of what is spiritually highest looking through it. as it were. Arabia is at Grenada on this hand. and that one century.--many different names. Prophet. it is not Mahomet!-On the whole. "There is no God but God. we will repeat that this Religion of Mahomet's is a kind of Christianity. according to varieties we note in them. not to be repeated in the new. on a world of what seemed black unnoticeable sand. so soon as it believes. a world vacant. however. and a truly celestial element superadded to that. it has been the religion and life-guidance of the fifth part of the whole kindred of Mankind. a character which does not pass. not to be hidden by all its imperfections.--believing it wholly. [May 12. sounds through the souls. This night the watchman on the streets of Cairo when he cries.

commonplace matter. veritably is. he is to reveal that to us. they had done things a little harder than these! Burns. That always is his message. is but the vesture. the clear deep-seeing eye: there it lies. what Goethe calls "the open secret. While others forget it. in this most important respect especially. tragedies. but especially the Appearance of Man and his work. A man once more. He could not sing the Heroic warrior. in the supreme degree. What the world. in earnest with the Universe. you sometimes see a street-porter. Shakspeare. who could be any kind of craftsman. That they have penetrated both of them into the sacred mystery of the Universe. it were a dead thing. though all others were but toying with it.--in one or the other degree. live ever in the knowledge of it. Petrarch and Boccaccio did diplomatic messages. which some upholsterer had put together! It could do no good. seen by almost none! That divine mystery. staggering under his load on spindle-shanks. And if. Philosopher. first of all. poems. he is all these. he finds himself living in it. here is no Hearsay. Nature does not make all great men. the Vates. the most important fact about the world. bound to live in it. The grand fundamental character is that of Great Man.--as if. a gifted song-writer. as yet a vague capability of a man. In some old languages. might have made a still better Mirabeau.--I might say. from the starry sky to the grass of the field.-Poet and Prophet differ greatly in our loose modern notions of them.--"The open secret.--it cannot be considered that aptitude of Nature alone has been consulted here either!--The Great Man also. with that great glowing heart. with the bursting tears that were in it. quite well: one can easily believe it. would never make a stanza worth much. Once more. in virtue of being sincere. has penetrated into it. shall permit and bid is. Legislator. can prosper at all without these. "the Divine Idea of the World. is a man sent hither to make it more impressively known to us. and make him into a smith. You take any man. the titles are synonymous. But it is as with common men in the learning of trades. says the Satirist. to what shall he be bound apprentice? Given your Hero. and compose stanzas. in what province soever. Varieties of aptitude doubtless. there are aptitudes of Nature too. participators in the "open secret. well understood. that the man be great.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 37 sit on a chair."--open to all. King. and the Universe." are one. the embodiment that renders it visible. in the self-same mould. with the fire that was in it. this man too could not help being a sincere man! Whosoever may live in the shows of things. as Addison complains. could not have written verses. he could have been. and touched all hearts in that way. So too I cannot understand how a Mirabeau. had his course of life and education led him thitherward. definable always in one or the other dialect. Really a most mournful pity. Prophet and Poet. on this matter. He is a Vates. whether Prophet or Poet. it seems. but infinitely more of circumstance. Philosopher. a carpenter. he has been driven to know it. This divine mystery is in all times and in all places. . he knows it.--a failure to live at all. the things Turenne says are full of sagacity and geniality. Poet? It is an inexplicably complex controversial-calculation between the world and him! He will read the world and its laws. True. of which all Appearance. the world with its laws will be there to be read. I say. it is for him a necessity of nature to live in the very fact of things. So far Poet and Prophet. but it is a pity for every one of us if we do not know it. as we said. but a direct Insight and Belief. without consent asked of him. at present. to speak much about this. whoever may forget this divine mystery. I fancy there is in him the Politician. unless he himself were at least a Heroic warrior too. The great heart.--one knows not what he could not have made. more than all other men. Fundamentally indeed they are still the same. no man whatever. again. is considered a trivial. the Thinker. and far oftenest it is the latter only that are looked to. Napoleon has words in him which are like Austerlitz Battles. like sayings of Samuel Johnson. is he to become Conqueror. that which lies at the bottom of Appearance. and near at hand a tailor with the frame of a Samson handling a bit of cloth and small Whitechapel needle. In most times and places it is greatly overlooked. have much kindred of meaning. Vates means both Prophet and Poet: and indeed at all times." as Fichte styles it. inert. Louis Fourteenth's Marshals are a kind of poetical men withal.--that sacred mystery which he more than others lives ever present with. which lies everywhere in all Beings. as the realized Thought of God. a mason: he is then and thenceforth that and nothing else. if we live otherwise! But now." "Which is the great secret?" asks one.

have some touches of the Universal. The Prophet too has his eye on what we are to love: how else shall he know what it is we are to do? The highest Voice ever heard on this earth said withal.--the rhythm or tune to which the people there sing what they have to say! Accent is a kind of chanting. the speech of a man even in zealous anger becomes a chant. those whom we are to take for perfect Poets. weaker in degree." to whatsoever he delineates. are melodious. here in this world. seem a Universal Poet. and lets us for moments gaze into that! Nay all speech. "is higher than the Good. a saying of Goethe's.--Musical: how much lies in that! A musical thought is one spoken by a mind that has penetrated into the inmost heart of the thing. At bottom. too. clearly enough. "Consider the lilies of the field. a certain character of "infinitude. to such and such critics. out of Saxo Grammaticus. springing up there in the humble furrow-field. may have meaning: "The Beautiful. as between round and square. Observe too how all passionate language does of itself become musical. All inmost things. musical not in word only. Song. This is noteworthy. One who rises so far above the general level of Poets will.-In ancient and also in modern periods we find a few Poets who are accounted perfect. some of which are not very intelligible at first. The "imagination that shudders at the Hell of Dante. They say. no man is wholly made of that. We need not spend time in defining. Most Poets are very soon forgotten: but not the noblest Shakspeare or Homer of them can be remembered forever. if her Essence. whereby it exists. "differs from the false as Heaven does from Vauxhall!" So much for the distinction and identity of Poet and Prophet." A glance. as he ought to do. namely the melody that lies hidden in it. some meaning will gradually be found in it. having music in it. the Vates Poet on what the Germans call the aesthetic side. can express the effect music has on us? A kind of inarticulate unfathomable speech."--dressed finer than earthly princes. into the deepest deep of Beauty. the story of Hamlet as Shakspeare did: but every one models some kind of story out of it. we may say. It seems somehow the very central essence of us. all men have accent of their own." is not that the same faculty. are settled by critics in the same way. The one we may call a revealer of what we are to do. communicates an Unendlichkeit. the Beautiful includes in it the Good. even the commonest speech. I find considerable meaning in the old vulgar distinction of Poetry being metrical. Duty and Prohibition. Who is there that. naturally utter themselves in Song. in logical words. they toil not.--with a finer music than the mere accent. the inward harmony of coherence which is its soul. especially by late German Critics. as Beautiful. detected the inmost mystery of it. being a Song. as Good and Evil.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 38 With respect to their distinction again: The Vates Prophet. We are all poets when we read a poem well. no man is made altogether of Poetry. But indeed these two provinces run into one another. if not. then it will be poetical. from the great inner Sea of Beauty! How could the rude Earth make these. a beautiful eye looking out on you. an arbitrary distinction. whom it were a kind of treason to find fault with. were not inwardly Beauty? In this point of view. that. All deep things are Song. which leads us to the edge of the Infinite. as if all the rest were but wrappages and hulls! The primal element of us. neither do they spin: yet Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these.--though they only notice that of others. though not very precise. has seized that sacred mystery rather on the moral side. Where there is no specific difference. all definition must be more or less arbitrary. a song. as Dante's own? No one but Shakspeare can embody. every one embodies it better or worse. "The lilies of the field. Truly." The true Beautiful. this is right: yet in strictness it is only an illusion. A man that has so much more of the poetic element developed in him as to have become noticeable. there is no perfect Poet! A vein of Poetry exists in the hearts of all men. will be called Poet by his neighbors. and must be. one might say this as soon as anything else: If your delineation be authentically musical. The meaning of Song goes deep. This. we might say. you will say. And yet it is. which has staggered several. the other of what we are to love. . in all the thoughts and utterances of it. rugged as she looks and is. for example. All Poets.--a day comes when he too is not! Nevertheless. that the Poet has an infinitude in him. not. there must be a difference between true Poetry and true Speech not poetical: what is the difference? On this point many things have been written. has something of song in it: not a parish in the world but has its parish-accent. which however." he intimates. and has a right to be. yet on so vague a matter is worth remembering: if well meditated. and cannot be disjoined. For my own part. but in heart and substance. and the like. all men. in the whole conception of it. I have said somewhere. World-Poets too. if pressed to give a definition. of us.

if we do not now reckon a Great Man literally divine. believing which. looking on it. The Book. were faith in the shows of things entirely swept out. have we not two mere Poets. you cannot help inclining to think genuine. so that a man acted on the impulse of that only. fatalest faith. paralytic as it is. perhaps of all faces that I know. in the most unheroic times. and our reverence for great men. were Dilettantism. on the whole. his most miraculous word gains from us only the recognition that he is a Poet. so that it is impiety to meddle with them. with no great result. as all the Tiaraed and Diademed of the world put together could not be? High Duchesses. The unguided instinct of the world. make sad work. comes out in poor plight. Men worship the shows of great men. by God's blessing. with his black brows and flashing sun-eyes. whoever did it. and the most of that has vanished. is still our indestructible reverence for heroism. in a kind of royal solitude. not altogether that our reverence for these qualities. man of genius. does indeed in this the highest province of human things. irrecoverably lost for us. The Hero taken as Divinity. though no Pope or Cardinals took hand in doing it! Such. They are canonized. in the long space that now intervenes. or such like!--It looks so. the most disbelieve that there is any reality of great men to worship. but I persuade myself that intrinsically it is not so. worshipped after his sort. a certain transcendentalism. If we consider well. all crippled. is of a dignity far beyond all others. then next the Hero taken only as Poet: does it not look as if our estimate of the Great Man. it will perhaps appear that in man still there is the same altogether peculiar admiration for the Heroic Gift. Nevertheless look. and all that sorrowful brood. then for one god-inspired. replaced by clear faith in the things. It is five centuries since he ceased writing and living here. sorrow-stricken man. The Vates Poet.--and one might add that Portrait commonly attributed to Giotto. wandering. incommensurable with all others. The Poet is he who thinks_ in that manner.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 39 and of all things. are ever rising higher. Wisdom and Heroism. at Napoleon! A Corsican lieutenant of artillery. a curse which will not last forever. Poetry. Do not we feel it so? But now. gather round the Scottish rustic. and now in the next stage of it. working across all these perverse impediments. therefore. blinded. the Hero taken as Prophet. invests these two.--We will look a little at these Two. one would literally despair of human things. that is the show of him: yet is he not obeyed. Many volumes have been written by way of commentary on Dante and his Book. which. epoch after epoch. The dreariest. none equal. a glory as of complete perfection. if you can only reach it. Dante and Shakspeare are a peculiar Two. yet we may say beatified? Shakspeare and Dante are Saints of Poetry. none second to them: in the general feeling of the world. canonized. really. on the whole. To me it is a most touching face. that. we will call _musical Thought. They dwell apart. seems to hold a poor rank among us. in spite of every perverting influence. His Biography is. were continually diminishing? We take him first for a god. as manifested in our like. if we will think of it. The Greeks fabled of Sphere-Harmonies: it was the feeling they had of the inner structure of Nature. they shall one day be. Scepticism. that the soul of all her voices and utterances was perfect music. This is worth taking thought of. See deep enough. Lonely there. Burns. the curse of these ages. and ostlers of inns. it turns still on power of intellect. this is the man! In the secret heart of these people it still dimly reveals itself. yet. such as they are. in comparison with the Vates Prophet. and you see musically. I should say. beautiful verse-maker. and our esteem of him for his function. that this rustic. of the supreme unattainable Fountain of Splendor. it is a man's sincerity and depth of vision that makes him a Poet. painted as on . the most so. the Poet Dante and the Poet Shakspeare: what little it is permitted us to say here of the Hero as Poet will most fitly arrange itself in that fashion. as in all provinces. is getting lower. At bottom. cast out of us. as it were. not much note was taken of him while he lived. and strange words moving laughter and tears. alike slight. Sceptical Dilettantism. the Book itself is mainly what we know of him. with his melodious Apocalypse of Nature. for example. what a new livelier feeling towards this Burns were it! Nay here in these ages. Triviality. that there at any time was.--a strange feeling dwelling in each that they never heard a man like this. and counted the other non-extant. An unimportant.--as. his function. if not deified. has arrived at such result. by what name soever called. though there is no accredited way of uttering it at present. the heart of Nature being everywhere music. it is that our notions of God. After all commentaries. hardly recognizable.

He tried what was in him to get reinstated. doomed thenceforth to a life of woe and wandering. He had met in boyhood a certain Beatrice Portinari. heart-affecting face. is a Letter of Dante's to the Florentine Magistrates. was not altogether easy to make happy. he might have been Prior. could not help fulfilling it. the Guelf-Ghibelline. slow. well accepted among neighbors. in the upper class of society. he could not know well what was distant: the small clear light. far from happily. or some other confused disturbances rose to such a height. like that of a god! The eye too. much school-divinity. was with his friends cast unexpectedly forth into banishment. but. were the only one he had ever with his whole strength of affection loved. Podesta. In life. with arms in his hand: but it would not do. There is in it. and of great subtlety. as if he whom it had power to torture and strangle were greater than it. Why the world was of such a sort? This is Dante: so he looks. isolation. as from imprisonment of thick-ribbed ice! Withal it is a silent pain too. Of all beings it might seem as if she. nunquam revertar. or whatsoever they call it. the known victory which is also deathless. seems to have made a great figure in his life. with fixed stern pride: "If I cannot return without calling myself guilty. Give him the choice of his happiness! He knew not. this best fruit of education he had contrived to realize from these scholastics. he had gone through the usual destinies. of Florence. I will never return.--and the world had wanted one of the most notable words ever spoken or sung. implacable. All readers know his graceful affecting account of this. Florence would have had another prosperous Lord Mayor. A nobler destiny was appointed for this Dante. She makes a great figure in Dante's Poem. written in answer to a milder proposal of theirs. the deathless sorrow and pain." The little that we know of Dante's Life corresponds well enough with this Portrait and this Book. He answers. He knows accurately and well what lies close to him. been twice out campaigning as a soldier for the Florentine State. struggling like a man led towards death and crucifixion. There is a record. the softness.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 40 vacancy. so it stands. far apart at last in the dim Eternity. in the year 1265. a silent scornful one: the lip is curled in a kind of godlike disdain of the thing that is eating out his heart. they say: a very curious civic document. most luminous for what is near. held apart from him. gentle affection as of a child." and sings us "his mystic unfathomable song. had in his thirty-fifth year. We will not complain of Dante's miseries: had all gone right with him as he wished it. but all this is as if congealed into sharp contradiction. I fancy. an altogether tragic. grim-trenchant. wheresoever caught. Another curious document. some Latin classics. tenderness. been on embassy. to be burnt alive. In Dante's Priorship. he had the fiercest feeling that it was entirely unjust. The face of one wholly in protest. in such a time. nefarious in the sight of God and man. a beautiful little girl of his own age and rank. as foundation of it. that he should return on condition of apologizing and paying a fine. She died: Dante himself was wedded. proud hopeless pain. A soft ethereal soul looking out so stern. and lifelong unsurrendering battle. with his keen excitabilities. equable. silent. of her being wedded to another. in some distant intercourse with her. by natural gradation of talent and service. This was Dante's learning from the schools. without printed books or free intercourse. and the ten other listening centuries (for there will be ten of them and more) had no Divina Commedia to hear! We will complain of nothing. He was born at Florence. His property was all confiscated and more. become one of the Chief Magistrates of Florence. with the simple laurel wound round it. more than we do. some considerable number of years later. Aristotelean logic. His education was the best then going. breaks itself into singular chiaroscuro striking on what is far off. learned better than most all that was learnable. I believe. Bianchi-Neri. that Dante. and he.--no inconsiderable insight into certain provinces of things: and Dante. still extant in the Florence Archives. bad only had become worse. and of her death soon after. into abnegation. and then of their being parted. this "voice of ten silent centuries. against the world. a kind of inquiry. Burnt alive. what was really happy. dooming this Dante. Affection all converted into indignation: an implacable indignation. whose party had seemed the stronger. we need not doubt.--significant of the whole history of Dante! I think it is the mournfulest face that ever was painted from reality. the rigorous earnest man. He has a clear cultivated understanding.--as if it were withal a mean insignificant thing. tried even by warlike surprisal. it looks out as in a kind of surprise." . with his earnest intelligent nature. but it seems not happily. what was really miserable. and grown up thenceforth in partial sight of her. and the ten dumb centuries continued voiceless.

that awful reality over which. he answered in no courtier-like way. wander. with his heart's blood. Della Scala stood among his courtiers. with its Florences and banishments. that all right Poems are. in his own bitter words. proving. it is for most part a very melancholy. in his forsakenness. it was won. as is said. Petrarch reports of him that being at Can della Scala's court. For body and soul.--broken-hearted rather. in this earth." I said. the amusee must also be given! Such a man. He knew too. or even much help him in doing it. It must have been a great solacement to Dante. for most part! What we wants to get at is the thought the man had. thou shalt not fail of a glorious haven!" The labor of writing.--not in sport. a wise man. we find. no living heart to love him now. depth and music of his thoughts. not to say an insupportable business. Pretenders to this are many.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 41 For Dante there was now no home in this world. the Ravenna people would not give it. he said: "Is it not strange. if he had any: why should he twist it into jingle. that no Florence. that we call him a Poet. " and this his Divine Comedy. was great and painful for him. not elsewhither. Coleridge remarks very pertinently somewhere. and listen to him as the Heroic of Speakers. with its alti guai. Florence thou shalt never see: but Hell and Purgatory and Heaven thou shalt surely see! What is Florence. _Se tu segui tua stella_. with his sarcasms and sorrows. of a truth. and that he himself should see it. Can della Scala. in many senses. I would say. "If thou follow thy star. Come e duro calle. and have nothing to amuse us with at all?" Dante answered bitterly: "No. art thou and all things bound! The great soul of Dante. bursts forth at length into "mystic unfathomable song. he no more doubted of that Malebolge Pool. become musical by the greatness. and was. with his proud silent ways. not yet very old. Naturally his thoughts brooded on that. in that age. that we can give him right to rhyme and sing. It is his whole history. the most remarkable of all modern Books. Dante's heart. The deeper naturally would the Eternal World impress itself on him. with his proud earnest nature. are authentically Songs. in strictness. all of it. that wherever you find a sentence musically worded. only flutters as an unreal shadow. while you. By degrees. partly. "Here am I Dante laid. He died after finishing it. He lies buried in his death-city Ravenna: _Hic claudor Dantes patriis extorris ab oris_. in his extreme need. as we can see. and to an earnest reader. this Time-world. according to Coleridge's remark. His Book. than we doubt that we should see Constantinople if we went thither. but a piece of Prose cramped into jingling lines. homeless on earth. that this poor fool should make himself so entertaining. this Book. at the age of fifty-six. with mimes and buffoons (nebulones ac histriones) making him heartily merry. that of reading rhyme! Rhyme that had no ."--so could the Hero. made its home more and more in that awful other world. when turning to Dante. Dante. now. and the very tones of him. to the great grief of the reader. for his sore miseries there was no solace here.--to the great injury of the grammar. as indeed most good Books are." Ah yes. it was bodied in fixed certainty of scientific shape.--whose speech is Song. has been written. but in grim earnest."--given the amuser. of true rhythm and melody in the words. there is something deep and good in the meaning too. it came to be evident to him that he had no longer any resting-place. from place to place. with pain and sore toil. that whatsoever is not sung is properly no Poem. This Book. and blamed one day for his gloom and taciturnity. I doubt. He wandered from patron to patron. sit there day after day. a proud thought for him at times. with his moody humors. the greatest a man could do. it is the one fact important for all men:--but to Dante. still say to himself: "Follow thou thy star. your Highness is to recollect the Proverb. Homer's and the rest. shut out from my native shores. Bodied or bodiless. poor and banished." The wretched are not cheerful company. Like to Like. to wander. The earthly world had cast him forth. could hinder him from doing it. was not made to succeed at court. and the World and Life altogether? ETERNITY: thither. The Florentines begged back his body. he says. brooding over it in speechless thought and awe. it was the Heroic of Speech! All old Poems. as on the one fact important for him. "How hard is the path. long filled with this. that it all lay there with its gloomy circles. That he. Song: we said before. Dante's Poem was a Song: it is Tieck who calls it "a mystic unfathomable Song. go strangely together here as everywhere. and indeed could know otherwise. in a century after. here in exile. could do this work. if he could speak it out plainly? It is only when the heart of him is rapt into true passion of melody. after all. that it was great. was not a man to conciliate men. is the result. nor no man or men." and such is literally the character of it. word and idea. not strange. "which has made me lean for many years. or hope of benefit.

nothing more said. so distinct. Plutus. No light task. Dante's World of Souls! It is. each with its Soul in torment. rather as a narrow. His silence is more eloquent than words. Perhaps one would say. the blustering giant. decisive. a "fiery snow without wind. awful. so shall we hate the false song. It came deep out of the author's heart of hearts. For though this of painting is one of the outermost developments of a man. See. and then in Dante it seems a natural condensation. among serious men. with its quick abrupt movements. and rapt passion and sincerity. there is no vocation in them for singing it. I would advise all men who can speak their thought. Consider. collapses at Virgil's rebuke. consider how he paints. swift. In all ways we are "to become perfect through suffering. its silent "pale rages. as the like of him is pretty sure to have been.--it ought to have told us plainly. but because he is world-deep. altogether an insincere and offensive thing. and the past tense "fue"! The very movements in Dante have something brief.--so vivid. and the "fiery snow" that falls on them there. doubtless helped him in this. He is world-great not because he is worldwide. through Eternity. Not the general whole only. look out on one another like compartments of a great edifice. with intense earnestness. intensity. superfluous. passionate. seizes the very type of a thing. Commedias that come out divine are not accomplished otherwise. red-hot cone of iron glowing through the dim immensity of gloom. piled up there. It had made him "lean" for many years. It is strange with what a sharp decisive grace he snatches the true likeness of a matter: cuts into the matter as with a pen of fire. And how Farinata rises. It has all been as if molten. But I add. Each answers to the other. when they saw him on the streets. it proceeds as by a chant. in all senses. rendered forever rhythmically visible there. that it could not be otherwise. they are to be shut at the Day of Judgment. what it was aiming at. genuinely a Song. his simple _terza rima_. for example. at bottom. with the much that depends on it. visible at once and forever! It is as an emblem of the whole genius of Dante. The three kingdoms. not to sing it. it is "as the sails sink. Thought." parched brown and lean. I give Dante my highest praise when I say of his Divine Comedy that it is. as of a captive struggling to free himself: that is Thought. and through long generations. One reads along naturally with a sort of lilt. Through all objects he pierces as it were down into the heart of Being. a great supernatural world-cathedral. Purgatorio. almost military. with the cotto aspetto. into clear visuality. every compartment of it is worked out.--in Hell enough. Its depth. without any jingle. there is music everywhere. into ours. deliberate. in long severe sorrow and struggle. more condensed.--true effort. used to say. solemn. reigns in it. the mast being suddenly broken. in all senses. swift Italian nature of the man. and are charmed by it as by something divine. never-ending! Or the lids of those Tombs. and even sectarian mind: it is partly the fruit of his age and position." speaks itself in these things."--But. The fiery.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 42 inward necessity to be rhymed. in that silent dim-burning Hall. here too. true labor of any kind. he had been in Hell. presents that and nothing more. and account it a mere wooden noise. for the essence and material of the work are themselves rhythmic. a right intense one: but a task which is done. is it not the daughter of Pain? Born as out of the black whirlwind." slow. Inferno. to begin with the outermost development of his intensity. like a marble stone accurately hewn and polished. He has a great power of vision. the lids laid open there. and how Cavalcante falls--at hearing of his Son. the sincerest of all Poems. so silent. The people of Verona. in the hottest furnace of his soul. we find to be the measure of worth. highest virtue itself. spontaneous to the man. sincerity. there is the man that was in Hell!" Ah yes. to understand that. which also partakes of the character of music. as I say. Paradiso. an abrupt precision in him: Tacitus is not briefer. each fits in its place. makes it musical. proportionates it all: architectural. A true inward symmetry. and in this the soul of the middle ages. "Eccovi l' uom ch' e stato all' Inferno. His greatness has. into truth." Or that poor Brunetto Latini. I know nothing so intense as Dante. It is of the inmost essence of his genius this sort of painting. It is the soul of Dante.. "face baked. square sarcophaguses. concentred itself into fiery emphasis and depth.--go deep enough. what one calls an architectural harmony. The language. but partly too of his own nature. Precisely as we love the true song. stern. is the prevailing character of Dante's genius. no work known to me is so elaborated as this of Dante's. a thing hollow. You remember that first view he gets of the Hall of Dite: red pinnacle. One smiting word. There is a brevity. in fact. Dante does not come before us as a large catholic mind. and it goes deep. and then there is silence. in a serious time. In the very sound of it there is a canto fermo. it comes like all else from the .

" Such words are in this man. that "trembling" of the ocean-waves. separated from him so far:--one likens it to the song of angels." Or think of this. it is so Dante discerned that she was made. and the outcome of a great soul. unless he had. putting those into Hell whom he could not be avenged upon on earth! I suppose if ever pity. that ever came out of a human soul. A touch of womanhood in it too: _della bella persona. as very characteristic of him. egoistic. is even more excellent than it. was in the heart of any man. you have found a man worth something. he could not have discerned the object at all. the Painters tell us. What a paltry notion is that of his Divine Comedy's being a poor splenetic impotent terrestrial libel. and how. as certainly as to the jaundiced they are yellow. The tremolar dell' onde. Francesca herself may have sat upon the Poet's knee. fallacy and trivial hearsay. on a ground of eternal black.--sentimentality. he is not to be paralleled in the modern world. like a child's young heart. and Hell is and must be so rigorous. It is a tenderness. "that Destiny itself could not doom him not to die." an emblem of the noblest conception of that age. A small flute-voice of infinite wail speaks there. that he discern the true likeness. For the intense Dante is intense in all things. is the best of all Portrait-painters withal. wretched. And indeed may we not say that intellect altogether expresses itself in this power of discerning what an object is? Whatsoever of faculty a man's mind may have will come out here. But a man who does not know rigor cannot pity either. His scorn. it was in Dante's. look only and pass. perhaps the very purest. his grief are as transcendent as his love. earnestness and depth. pitying love: like the wail of AEolian harps. into our very heart of hearts. I know not in the world an affection equal to that of Dante. It is beautiful how Dante works it out. Such preference belongs. dawning afar on the . "the eye seeing in all things what it brought with it the faculty of seeing"! To the mean eye all things are trivial. it had risen sternly benign on the scathed heart of Dante.--as indeed. Repentance is the grand Christian act. Morally great. what qualities in that! A thing woven as out of rainbows. a matter to be done? The gifted man is he who sees the essential point. it is a solace that he_ will never part from her! Saddest tragedy in these alti guai.--and then that stern. it is every way noble. to wail forever!--Strange to think: Dante was the friend of this poor Francesca's father.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 43 essential faculty of him. of the thing he has got to work in. sympathized with it. that he. And how much of morality is in the kind of insight we get of anything. his gazing in her pure transfigured eyes. He must have been sincere about it too. sincere and sympathetic: a man without worth cannot give you the likeness of any object. or seen the vital type of it. in that aer bruno. a trembling. taken on the wider scale. It is a noble thing that Purgatorio. and of a vividness as of fire in dark night. Non han speranza di morte. we must call him. yet also infinite rigor of law: it is so Nature is made. His intellectual insight as painter. he has got into the essence of all. would full surely die. And the racking winds. I do not agree with much modern criticism. Dante's painting is not graphic only. as a bright innocent little child. and live with the antique Prophets there. the man of business's faculty. or little better.--had sympathy in him to bestow on objects. worn as he was. one would almost say. under the first pure gleam of morning. in greatly preferring the Inferno to the two other parts of the Divine Commedia. che mi fu tolta. not the false superficial one. Hateful to God and to the enemies of God: "lofty scorn. it is among the purest utterances of affection. especially the former. on occasion too as reasoner. to our general Byronism of taste. Thc Purgatorio and Paradiso. Find a man whose words paint you a likeness. their meeting together in the Paradiso. I imagine. longing. For rigor. to seek his parallel we must go into the Hebrew Bible. In the first place. what we may call. "They have not the hope to die. Francesca and her Lover. mark his manner of doing it. what are they but the inverse or converse of his love? "_A Dio spiacenti ed a' nemici sui_. about all objects. Raphael. soft. unappeasable silent reprobation and aversion. sore-saddened heart! These longings of his towards his Beatrice. it is physiognomical of the whole man. never-resting. and leaves all the rest aside as surplusage: it is his faculty too. "Non ragionam di lor. His very pity will be cowardly. he dwells in vague outwardness. it is the beginning of all. above all. In the commonest human face there lies more than Raphael will take away with him. No most gifted eye can exhaust the significance of any object. whirl them away again. If sin is so fatal. yet in Repentance too is man purified. brief. "Mountain of Purification. even in the Pit of woe. her that had been purified by death so long. and is like to be a transient feeling. We will not speak of them. awful. soft. Is it even of business. is but the result of all other sorts of intensity. tender as a mother's. Infinite pity." One day. true.

had ten silent centuries. who considers this of Dante to have been all got up as an Allegory. but for the moral. as figured in the Christianity of the Middle Ages. to the Throne of Mercy itself. in our Modern European Mind. and by Mercy shall have been admitted in. Paradise. who has ceased altogether to think as Dante did. But mark here the difference of Paganism and Christianism. sees it. when one has prevailed. now as always. Precious they. vicissitudes of things and men in this world. "Pray for me. the Thought they lived by stands here. was there. as it is called. Emblemed: and yet. if in company still with heavy sorrow. how the Christian Dante felt Good and Evil to be the two polar elements of this Creation. I say again. in all things. the destinies. an emblematic representation of his Belief about this Universe:--some Critic in a future age. Paganism emblemed chiefly the Operations of Nature. What a progress is here. and a psalm of praise rises. as I urged the other day. terrible and beautiful. It was perhaps delineated in no human soul with such depth of veracity as in this of Dante's. The obscure sojourn of demons and reprobate is underfoot. Superiority to Fear. "Tell my Giovanna to pray for me. or sublimest. he believes it. the real world. are a symbol withal. At bottom. The craftsman there. is emblemed here. The future Critic. the one was as preternatural as the other." the denizens of that Mount of Pain all say to him. in a very strange way.--how little of all he does is properly his work! All past inventive men work there with him. Men do not believe an Allegory. one great difference." my daughter Giovanna. Very notable with what brief simplicity he passes out of the every-day reality. It expresses. found a voice. but by incompatibility absolute and infinite. that these two differ not by preferability of one to the other." yet nevertheless in years. which is heaven's gate. never-dying Hope. the whole heart of man taking them for practically true. are the fruit of the Christian Meditation of all the good men who had gone before him. efforts.--all Christianism. and still not without worth for us. The Divina Commedia is of Dante's writing. To the earnest Dante it is all one visible Fact. These sublime ideas of his. as among things palpable. Paradise: these things were not fashioned as emblems. Has not each man a soul? He will not only be a spirit. All three make up the true Unseen World. all Nature everywhere confirming them? So is it always in these things. that the one is excellent and high as light and Heaven. but is one. as in huge world-wide architectural emblems. forever true in the essence of it. when one soul has perfected repentance and got its sin and misery left behind! I call all this a noble embodiment of a true noble thought. may find this too all an "Allegory. any thought at all of their being emblems! Were they not indubitable awful facts. the whole Mountain shakes with joy. into the Invisible one. a thing forever memorable. yet with Penitence. is the saving merit. and in the second or third stanza. whatever his new thought may be. with everlasting Pity. a kind of inarticulate music to me. The other was not for the sensuous nature. they shall have reached the top. the Inferno without it were untrue. a man sent to sing it. veracious. was but the threshold to an infinitely higher Fact of a World. with these tools. in ages and aeons. Hope has now dawned.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 44 wandering Two. So always. and dwell there. we find ourselves in the World of Spirits. is as the type of an altered mood. only the finishing of it is Dante's. with these cunning methods. black as Gehenna and the Pit of Hell! Everlasting Justice." some of them. how unconscious of any embleming! Hell." perhaps an idle Allegory! It is a sublime embodiment. as Dante and the Middle Ages had it. is the Poet of it in virtue of that. Dante's Hell. One was for the sensuous nature: a rude helpless utterance of the first Thought of men. Christianism emblemed the Law of Human Duty. combinations.--the chief recognized virtue. "bent down like corbels of a building. are indispensable to one another. the other hideous. and its facts. to keep it long memorable. "I think her mother loves me no more!" They toil painfully up by that winding steep. a soft breathing of penitence mounts higher and higher. Dante is the spokesman of the Middle Ages. true once. Purgatory. as we said. Sincerity. Courage. with what entire truth of purpose. The joy too of all. But indeed the Three compartments mutually support one another. will commit one sore mistake!--Paganism we recognized as a veracious expression of the earnest awe-struck feeling of man towards the Universe. but also is not he precious? . The Paradiso. the Moral Law of Man. on which it all turns. is the redeeming side of the Inferno. indubitable! To Dante they were so.--crushed together so "for the sin of pride. if in that one respect only!-And so in this Dante. yet in truth it belongs to ten Christian centuries. of the soul of Christianity. the smith with that metal of his.--as indeed with all of us. in everlasting music. like those Scandinavian ones the other day. to all men. Purgatory.

speak to all men's hearts. crudities.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor Much. bodies of opinion and practice: but it has made little of the class of Dante's Thought. by one of the noblest men." and all Histories. the pure and great. great cities. or count up and present before men! It is . Greece. will find a brotherhood in him. under a vesture the most diverse from ours. and had ceased individually to be. In this way the balance may be made straight again. fixed there in the firmament. and Man's work in God's Earth.--he was but a loud-sounding inanity and futility. not dead. like the dust of King Agamemnon! Greece was. Mahomet speaks to great masses of men. one calculates. which are a kind of distilled Newspapers. at any rate. got no furtherance from the Arabian Caliph. differs altogether from what is uttered by the outer part. are brief in comparison to an unfathomable heart-song like this: one feels as if it might survive. like theirs. feeding through long times the life-roots of all excellent human things whatsoever.articulately spoken in the Arab Desert. has worked in the depths of our existence. It will grow its own fruit. or not embodied so at all. still of importance to men. to-day and forever. a dialect filled with inconsistencies. when these had all sunk into new irrecognizable combinations. and what uproar and blaring he made in this world. follies: on the great masses alone can he act. in so far only as he did something. clearer. had not he spoken.--in a way that "utilities" will not succeed well in calculating! We will not estimate the Sun by the quantity of gaslight it saves us. had his Arabians at Grenada and at Delhi. that a man and his work are measured. in swift endless changes. pontificalities. the inmost is the same yesterday. All cathedrals. Effect? Influence? Utility? Let a man do his work. and of the highest thing that Europe had hitherto realized for itself? Christianism. For the thing that is uttered from the inmost parts of a man's soul. how many gold piasters pocketed. at which the great and the high of all ages kindle themselves: he is the possession of all the chosen of the world for uncounted time. and sung forth fitly somewhat therefrom. The outer is of the day. One need not wonder if it were predicted that his Poem might be the most enduring thing our Europe has yet made. as Dante sings it. it is not by what is called their effect on the world. he was not at all. and emblemed forth abidingly. because he speaks from the heart of man. and outer arrangement never so lasting. Napoleon in Saint Helena is charmed with the genial veracity of old Homer. then. will speak likewise to their sincerity. Dante shall be invaluable. Dante burns as a pure star. then no matter how many scimetars he drew. at once of one of the greatest human souls. was something. Dante's Italians seem to be yet very much where they were. may long survive Mahomet. Mahomet. in all times and places. encyclopaedias. and whether embodied in Caliph Thrones and Arabian Conquests. by what we can judge of their effect there. is like an antique Prophet too. is another than Paganism in the rude Norse mind. In the one sense and in the other. In a hundred years. the outer passes away. for depth of sincerity. once more! The boundless treasury which we do not jingle in our pockets. the deep sincerity of his thoughts. under the empire of mode. Dante's effect on the world was small in comparison? Not so: his arena is far more restricted. in the coarse dialect adapted to such. is sung. seven hundred years before!--The noblest idea made real hitherto among men. his words.--what matters that? That is not the real fruit of it! The Arabian Caliph. where is it? Desolate for thousands of years. as we saw. the life and existence of it all gone. Like a dream. and there with good and with evil strangely blended. and Greece. except in the words it spoke. yet living voiceless. as the other does. away. at bottom. The uses of this Dante? We will not say much about his "uses. Dante. are we not right glad to possess it? As I calculate. Let us honor the great empire of Silence. creeds. But. who look on this Dante. The oldest Hebrew Prophet. for nothing so endures as a truly spoken word. but also it is far nobler. Shall we say. Dante. is it not an utterance. the fruit of it is the care of Another than he. vanished. a bewildered heap of stones and rubbish. great empires." A human soul who has once got into that primal element of Song. Europe has made much. brass and stone. so that it "fills all Morning and Evening Newspapers. True souls. they will feel that this Dante too was a brother. it may last yet for long thousands of years. is not. does yet. would have been dumb. 45 On the whole. If the great Cause of Man. in all generations of the world. Dante speaks to the noble. It is the one sole secret of continuing long memorable. or of no value.--perhaps not less but more important. One remark I may make: the contrast in this respect between the Hero-Poet and the Hero-Prophet. Neither does he grow obsolete. Homer yet is veritably present face to face with every open soul of us. come from his very heart. this mystic Song. another than "Bastard Christianism" half. his woes and hopes.

this man came to us. had been enough for this man! But indeed that strange outbudding of our whole English Existence. as in a tranquil unfathomable sea! It has been said. and every bough and leaf of it is there. that Shakspeare is the chief of all Poets hitherto. as the outcome and flowerage of all which had preceded it. placid. what practical way of thinking. Such a calmness of depth. apart from all other "faculties" as . we may say. that Middle-Age Catholicism was abolished. Shakspeare. He did make his appearance nevertheless. this other sovereign Poet. opening subscription-lists. no thought. and was on the point of breaking down into slow or swift dissolution. taking small thought of Acts of Parliament. very literally. recognizably or irrecognizable. the man Shakspeare. in any other man. embodies for us the Outer Life of our Europe as developed then. perhaps the opinion one sometimes hears a little idolatrously expressed is. as rather curious. its Inner Life. mutual communication of every minutest leaf with the lowest talon of a root. One should look at that side of matters too. For Religion then. selling of shares. has given us the Practice or body. as it were by mere accident. as if it had been a thing of little account. a man was sent for it. I say. is slowly pointing to the conclusion. acting. This latter also we were to have. we had perhaps never heard of him as a Poet! The woods and skies. and all its nobleness and blessedness. on all men! It is all a Tree: circulation of sap and influences. to give long-enduring record of it. that has its roots down in the Kingdoms of Hela and Death. in Faith and in Practice. the noblest product of it. was the soul of Practice. so great. was sent into our world to embody musically the Religion of the Middle Ages. had the Warwickshire Squire not prosecuted him for deer-stealing. as it now and always is. Queen Elizabeths go their way. the Italian man. quiet. And yet.-- 46 As Dante. Nature at her own time. King Henrys. Priceless Shakspeare was the free gift of Nature. humors. we English had the honor of producing the other. came without proclamation. made his appearance. of all things. had produced this Practical Life which Shakspeare was to sing. its chivalries.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor perhaps. On the whole. the rustic Life of Man in Stratford there. on the hustings or elsewhere. What Act of Parliament. it is a priceless thing. I think the best judgment not of this country only. far-seeing. Acts of Parliament. the usefulest for each of us to do. Just when that chivalry way of life had reached its last finish. after thousands of years. so Shakspeare. the right one. I think always. the Religion of our Modern Europe. was it that brought this Shakspeare into being? No dining at Freemason's Tavern. with every other greatest and minutest portion of the whole. not a leaf rotting on the highway but is indissoluble portion of solar and stellar systems. but of Europe at large. in these loud times. complete and self-sufficing is this Shakspeare. as we now see it everywhere. which was the theme of Dante's Song. with his perennial singing voice. placid joyous strength. if we take all the characters of it. wide. Dante has given us the Faith or soul. so in Shakspeare and Dante. with his seeing eye. will still be legible. all things imaged in that great soul of his so true and clear. on the whole. debate at St. The Christian Faith. ambitions. what our modern Europe was. word or act of man but has sprung withal out of all men. the upper light of the world. not a Sir Thomas Lucy but comes at the hour fit for him. and infinite other jangling and true or false endeavoring! This Elizabethan Era. fierce as the central fire of the world. Of this Shakspeare of ours. As in Homer we may still construe Old Greece. Two fit men: Dante. The Tree Igdrasil. in our recorded world. so far as Acts of Parliament could abolish it. with Catholicism or what else might be necessary. courtesies. and works sooner or later. deep. Curious enough how. the primary vital fact in men's life. given altogether silently. are small. notwithstanding the noise they make. is itself attributable to the Catholicism of the Middle Ages. as the Sun. Italy produced the one world-voice. that in the constructing of Shakspeare's Dramas there is. I know not such a power of vision. Yet it does bud and wither. by fixed eternal laws. looking at the world. did not it too come as of its own accord? The "Tree Igdrasil" buds and withers by its own laws. which we call the Elizabethan Era. And remark here. and Nature too goes hers. Shakspeare. and whose boughs overspread the highest Heaven!-In some sense it may be said that this glorious Elizabethan Era with its Shakspeare. sent him forth. preparation of ours.--too deep for our scanning. the greatest intellect who. before Shakspeare. in fact. such a faculty of thought. Stephen's. was sent to take note of it. men then had. has left record of himself in the way of Literature. Curious. and not sufficiently considered: how everything does co-operate with all.--received altogether silently. in a not less noble way.

--we forget the rude disorderly quarry it was shaped from. miserable things? You can laugh over them. Of him too you say that he saw the object. equal to that in Bacon's _Novum Organum_ That is true. the true sequence and ending? To find out this. The thing he looks at reveals not this or that face of it.--is the best measure you could get of what intellect is in the man. perhaps still better. candor. or failing that. what his materials are. See. a Juliet. there is. or it would not hold together and exist). it is a calmly seeing eye. since the days of Shakspeare. the primary outfit for a Heroic Man in what sort soever. "But are ye sure he's _not a dunce_?" Why. All the greatness of the man comes out decisively here. and all the intellect you will find in Bacon. and name yourself a Poet. an Othello. on his being taught to sing in his boyhood! But the faculty which enables him to discern the inner heart of things. all manner of hope. just. truthfulness. Are they base. in prose or verse. it is deliberate illumination of the whole matter." The seeing eye! It is this that discloses the inner harmony of things. and if so. according to the depth of his understanding. hides the builder's merit. you may say what he himself says of Shakspeare: "His characters are like watches with dial-plates of transparent crystal. You will try him so. as if Nature herself had made it. Among modern men. as if it came there by its own law and the nature of things. where is the true beginning. almost nothing of the same rank. in strictness. a man justly related to all things and men. sets them all forth to us in their round completeness. which can triumph over such obstructions. Let there be light. To the Poet.--that is to say withal. It is unexampled. so that he discerns the perfect structure of it. It is not a transitory glance of insight that will suffice. If you cannot do that. in short. tolerance. there is no hope for you. delineating of men and things. hold your peace about them. and it is not a truth that strikes every one. poor convex-concave mirror. poor in comparison with this. we could fashion such a result! The built house seems all so fit. is of a quite secondary order. He will be a Poet if he have: a Poet in word. more perfect than any other man. of some wide thing that he has witnessed. will construct a narrative. so that its embroilment becomes order? Can the man say. that calm creative perspicacity of Shakspeare. we said: poetic creation. what Nature meant. till the hour come for practically exterminating and extinguishing them! At bottom. what is this too but seeing the thing sufficiently? The word that will describe the thing. does the spirit of method stir in that confusion. . He must understand the thing. Does like join itself to like. the equal brother of all. a great intellect. is not the result of habits or accidents. Whether he write at all.--every way as it should be. will he accomplish this. we may call Shakspeare in this: he discerns. what condition he works under. loving. especially of men. The very perfection of the house. we say first of all.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 47 they are called. reflecting all objects with its own convexities and concavities. turn away your own and others' face from them. a Coriolanus. but the gift of Nature herself. what his own force and its relation to them is. The crabbed old Schoolmaster used to ask. How a man.--perhaps on his having had a singing-master. as to every other. To the seeing eye that something were discernible. a perfectly level mirror. what kind of picture and delineation he will give of it. it is of no use to keep stringing rhymes together. Perfect. It would become more apparent if we tried. a Poet in act. that Shakspeare is great. jingling sensibilities against each other. and out of chaos make a world? Precisely as there is light in himself. an understanding manifested. you can in some way or other genially relate yourself to them. a Falstaff. will the fitness of his answer be. you task the whole force of insight that is in the man. one finds. Which circumstance is vital and shall stand prominent. It is truly a lordly spectacle how this great soul takes in all kinds of men and objects. Goethe alone. follows of itself from such clear intense sight of the thing. a good man. you can weep over them. Something she did mean. Novum Organum. fit to be suppressed. it is in what I called Portrait-painting. visible there too? Great as the world. which unessential. as it is all men's. out of Shakspeare's dramatic materials. if we will understand it. at lowest. No twisted.--you can. earthy. and the inward mechanism also is all visible. knows as by instinct. I think. Creative. his whole victorious strength and greatness. Or indeed we may say again. what musical idea Nature has wrapped up in these often rough embodiments. _Fiat lux_. it is the Poet's first gift. material. and generic secret: it dissolves itself as in light before him. his valor. will depend on accidents: who knows on what extremely trivial accidents. reminds me of it. they show you the hour like others. but its inmost heart. when they brought him a new pupil. And is not Shakspeare's morality. whether in prose or in verse. in action or speculation. any of us for himself. If you can. that he have intellect enough. and the harmony that dwells there (for whatsoever exists has a harmony in the heart of it. how.

his sorrows. in fact. that if the Fox had not a certain vulpine morality. it should be considered too.. small. we might know all of them. Novalis beautifully remarks of him. like sap and forces working underground! Speech is great. conformable to all Truth whatsoever." as if these again were divisible. Then again. our apprehension of this matter is. and existed apart. Nature. If I say. Fortune and other Foxes. his courage. all of them. we must speak. that if we knew one of them. The latest generations of men will find new meanings in Shakspeare. If he have not the justice to put down his own selfishness at every turn. and other suitable vulpine gifts and graces. is essentially one and indivisible. deep as Nature herself. no less than in the stroke he strikes. We may say of the Fox too. through this noble sincere soul. that those Dramas of his are Products of Nature too. It is what I call an unconscious intellect. that his morality and insight are of the same dimensions. or get at the geese! If he spent his time in splenetic atrabiliar reflections on his own misery. promptitude. and consider it as the one inquiry needful: Are ye sure he's not a dunce? There is. we hear of a man's "intellectual nature." This well deserves meditating. how shall he know? His virtues. But there is more in Shakspeare's intellect than we have yet seen. the courage to stand by the dangerous-true at every turn. things separable. to the selfish and the pusillanimous forever a sealed book: what such can know of Nature is mean. different faces of the same internal unity of vulpine life!--These things are worth stating. and think I had included all under that. there is more virtue in it than he himself is aware of. by the way in which he sings. We ought to know withal. "new harmonies with the infinite structure of the Universe. that what we call imagination. for most part. Without hands a man might have feet. what is this but another side of the one vital Force whereby he is and works? All that a man does is physiognomical of him. his silent struggles known to himself. be virtuously related to it. feet and arms. his ill usage by Nature. a man must first love the thing. what we call the moral quality of a man. a thoroughly immoral man could not know anything at all! To know a thing. in regard to every man proposed for whatsoever function. the noblest worth of it is not there by plan or precontrivance. not speakable at all: like roots. he would catch no geese. Such a man's works. It seems to me. and had not courage. I say the degree of vision that dwells in a man is a correct measure of the man. How much in Shakspeare lies hid. what more does he know but this and the like of this? Nay. who is a voice of Nature. will lie recorded in his knowledge. remains to the bad. and preaches the same Self abroad in all these ways. practicality. and so forth. For. and could still walk: but. . no other entirely fatal person. or want of courage. what we can call knowing. the vital Force which dwells in him. all indissolubly connected with each other. If called to define Shakspeare's faculty. are but different figures of the same Power of Insight. is visible in the word he utters.--without morality. for the contrary of them acts with manifold very baleful perversion.--as the oak-tree grows from the Earth's bosom. in that way. modifications they require. imagination. concurrences with later ideas. with a symmetry grounded on Nature's own laws. in the opinion he has formed. as if a man had intellect. in this time: what limitations. your own candor will supply. What indeed are faculties? We talk of faculties as if they were distinct. but Silence is greater. intellect were impossible for him. much that was not known at all. for the uses of the day merely. in this world. if we are to speak at all. I find a great truth in this saying. that man's spiritual nature. It grows up from the deeps of Nature. sympathize with it: that is. Morality itself. understanding. physiognomically related. radically falsified thereby. That is a capital error. fancy. affinities with the higher powers and senses of man. as he has hands. consider it. new elucidations of their own human being. fancy. that these divisions are at bottom but names. and so forth. Shakspeare's Art is not Artifice. &c.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 48 really one might ask the same thing. whatsoever he with utmost conscious exertion and forethought shall accomplish. superficial. I am aware. He is one. that he get thus to be a part of herself. and to keep forever in mind. It is Nature's highest reward to a true simple great soul." and of his "moral nature. therefore. he could not even know where the geese were. I should say superiority of Intellect. with her truth.--But does not the very Fox know something of Nature? Exactly so: it knows where the geese lodge! The human Reynard. You may see how a man would fight. I have said all concerning him. grow up withal unconsciously. from the unknown deeps in him. as the mountains and waters shape themselves. very frequent everywhere in the world. But words ought not to harden into things for us. Necessities of language do perhaps prescribe such forms of utterance. that Shakspeare is the greatest of Intellects.

like sunshine on the deep sea. No man works save under conditions. Passages there are that come upon you like splendor out of Heaven. illuminating the very heart of the thing: you say. as Schlegel says.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 49 Withal the joyful tranquillity of this man is notable. all his plays reviewed as Hamlet.--as what man like him ever failed to have to do? It seems to me a heedless notion. It was with him. spoken once and forever. he heaps all manner of ridiculous nicknames on the butt he is bantering. in part. and did conquer. in its sort. Shakspeare had to write for the Globe Playhouse: his great soul had to crush itself. are to be found in Shakspeare.--as indeed all delineation by a great thinker will be. that we have no full impress of him there. jaded English. be done. All his works seem. if his own heroic heart had never suffered?--And now. still better. giving only here and there a note of the full utterance of the man. in contrast with all this. Not so. comparatively speaking. yet he is always in measure here. bursts of radiance. is! A thing which might. for instance. though he took it up in another strain. Disjecta membra are all that we find of any Poet. never. August Wilhelm Schlegel has a remark on his Historical Plays. how could a man delineate a Hamlet. conventional. I will not blame Dante for his misery: it is as battle without victory. There are right beautiful things in those Pieces. with the tools that were given. never what Johnson would remark as a specially "good hater. And then. Such laughter. "That is true. his genuine overflowing love of laughter! You would say. words that pierce and burn. at misery or poverty.--far other than the "indifference" you sometimes hear ascribed to Shakspeare." Even at stupidity and pretension this Shakspeare does not laugh otherwise than genially. but his Thought as he could translate it into the stone that was given. through the whole business. as it could. that will be recognized as true!" Such bursts. epic. Alas. and have the credit of wit. and we dismiss them covered with explosions of laughter: but we like the poor fellows only the better for our laughing. whose limbs were made in England!" There is a noble Patriotism in it. with his whole heart laughs. indispensable thing. it is always a genial laughter. that does so. a Coriolanus. make us feel that the surrounding matter is not radiant. he knew no English History but what he had learned from Shakspeare. His works are so many windows. in his way. tumbles and tosses him in all sorts of horse-play. This man too had a right stroke in him. Laughter means sympathy. The sculptor cannot set his own free Thought before us. cursory. however. it is. good laughter is not "the crackling of thorns under the pot. a Macbeth. protrusive. Henry Fifth and the others. through which we see a glimpse of the world that was in him. had it come to that! But I will say. is very beautiful to me. Nature seemed to this man also . The description of the two hosts: the worn-out. said. then. big with destiny. Dogberry and Verges tickle our very hearts. Marlborough. or of any man. We have no room to speak of Shakspeare's individual works. The great salient points are admirably seized. calm and strong. which is worth remembering. That battle of Agincourt strikes me as one of the most perfect things. which indeed together form one beautiful thing. all rounds itself off. There are really. you recollect. and hope they will get on well there. what we call laughing. Yet I call Shakspeare greater than Dante. one day. if we look to it. He calls them a kind of National Epic. and continue Presidents of the City-watch. It is some poor character only desiring to laugh. and then that deathless valor: "Ye good yeomen. though perhaps there is much still waiting to be said on that head. never knowing the troubles of other men. that he sat like a bird on the bough. Whoever looks intelligently at this Shakspeare may recognize that he too was a Prophet. wheresoever and whensoever there is an open human soul. will laugh at these things. not boisterous. when the battle shall begin. Not at mere weakness. in that he fought truly. written under cramping circumstances. with no man is it so. in no point does he exaggerate but only in laughter. into a kind of rhythmic coherence. temporary. but true battle. free and off-hand. of an insight analogous to the Prophetic. all the better for that. even as full as we have of many men. Had we. How could a man travel forward from rustic deer-poaching to such tragedy-writing. in Wilhelm Meister. and swum struggling for his life. our common one. few as memorable Histories. Fiery objurgations. and sang forth. you would say. into that and no other mould. so many suffering heroic hearts." But his laughter seems to pour from him in floods. the dread hour. A true English heart breathes. imperfect. and not fall in with sorrows by the way? Or. if not always the finest.--the first. Doubt it not. observe his mirthfulness. that it is. he had his own sorrows: those Sonnets of his will even testify expressly in what deep waters he had waded. There is a sound in it like the ring of steel. No man who can laugh. we anywhere have of Shakspeare's. of Shakspeare's works generally. as it is with us all.

of his supreme Prophethood. Such "indifference" was the fruit of his greatness withal: his whole heart was in his own grand sphere of worship (we may call it such). and did speak out with that great thunder-voice of his. we cannot give up our Shakspeare! . at bottom. at any rate. For our honor among foreign nations. that God wrote that! The Great Man here too. intolerance. "We are such stuff as Dreams are made of!" That scroll in Westminster Abbey. But call it worship.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 50 divine. harsh asceticism. as always. and also. Is he not an eye to us all. because he saw into those internal Splendors. but by actions. I think it had been better for him not to be so conscious! Alas. He is the grandest thing we have yet done. so that he could live without begging. like Mahomet. whom Sir Thomas Lucy. But the man sang. unspeakable. if we compute strictly. I feel that there is actually a kind of sacredness in the fact of such a man being sent into this Earth. or repeat: In spite of the sad state Hero-worship now lies in. call it what you will." as some do. and not rather an ambitious charlatan. every way an unconscious man. reaches deep down like them. why should he not. a futility and triviality. not unfit to make itself heard among the still more sacred Psalms. consider what this Shakspeare has actually become among us. whatsoever is truly great in him springs up from the inarticulate deeps. to the universal and perennial. was for sending to the Treadmill! We did not account him a god. should not we be forced to answer: Indian Empire. last like them? He is sincere as they. is a Force of Nature. for veracity and universality. though he says little about his Faith. more successful. Not in disharmony with these. was it not perhaps far better that this Shakspeare. but in harmony!--I cannot call this Shakspeare a "Sceptic. Official persons would answer doubtless in official language. and set of things. Mahomet will have exhausted himself and become obsolete. for our part too. as an ornament to our English Household. It was intrinsically an error that notion of Mahomet's. was conscious of no Heavenly message? He did not feel. even with Aeschylus or Homer. fanatical fierceness or perversion: a Revelation. high as Heaven. but a Babbler! Even in Arabia. But as for Mahomet. this that Shakspeare has brought us? For myself. or never have had any Shakspeare? Really it were a grave question. like him. poor Mahomet. by a history which were great! His Koran has become a stupid piece of prolix absurdity. while this Shakspeare. as I compute. whom the Earl of Southampton cast some kind glances on. he lasts forever with us. if we understood them. while he dwelt with us. is it not a right glorious thing. impurities. but we. No: neither unpatriotic. that he specially was the "Prophet of God:" and was he not greater than Mahomet in that? Greater. his indifference to the creeds and theological quarrels of his time misleading them. did not preach. these other controversies. some day. But I will say rather. that there rises a kind of universal Psalm out of this Shakspeare too. Well: this is our poor Warwickshire Peasant. as makes it a questionable step for me here and now to say. never have had any Indian Empire. so far as it goes. We called Dante the melodious Priest of Middle-Age Catholicism. Which Englishman we ever made.--while this Shakspeare may still pretend to be a Priest of Mankind. but this Shakspeare does not go.--on which point there were much to be said. that such a thousand-fold hidden beauty and divineness dwells in all Nature. dragging along with it such a coil of fables. a blessed heaven-sent Bringer of Light?--And. nor sceptic. the "Universal Church" of the Future and of all times? No narrow superstition. as we did in Dante's case. except musically. for unlimited periods to come! Compared with any speaker or singer one knows. like Odin. May we not call Shakspeare the still more melodious Priest of a true Catholicism. perversity and simulacrum. were not vital to him. which million of Englishmen. which let all men worship as they can! We may say without offence. as I have done. if they asked us. many thanks to him. we cannot do without Shakspeare! Indian Empire will go. would we not give up rather than the Stratford Peasant? There is no regiment of highest Dignitaries that we would sell him for. which few read with understanding. this Dante may still be young. Will you give up your Indian Empire or your Shakspeare.--as indeed such ever is. The truly great in him too was the unconscious: that he was a wild Arab lion of the desert. or no Indian Empire. is of the depth of any seer. what item is there that we would not surrender rather than him? Consider now. that Mahomet was a true Speaker at all. no Speaker. in this land of ours. deep as Tophet. by feelings. and has come down to us inextricably involved in error to this day. all that he was conscious of was a mere error. you English. vitally important to other men. though he says little about his Patriotism. of Arabia as of other places. intolerances. we do not believe. not by words which he thought to be great. who rose to be Manager of a Playhouse.

we produced him. under what sort of Parish-Constable soever. is an English King. really more valuable in that point of view than any other means or appliance whatsoever? We can fancy him as radiant aloft over all the Nations of Englishmen. as the noblest.] LECTURE IV. wheresoever. for example. too. of battle. And now. He must learn to speak. and does a great feat in keeping such a tract of Earth politically together. One knows very well that. and did faithfully perform that function in its common sense. leading them forward. Luther and Knox were by express vocation Priests. His cannons and Cossacks will all have rusted into nonentity. truly. [May 15. the thing all manner of sovereignties and governments are here to accomplish: what is it that will accomplish this? Acts of Parliament. But when this same way was a rough one. THE HERO AS PRIEST. This.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 51 Nay. apart from spiritualities. if he pleases. as the Prophet is their spiritual King with many captains: he guides them heavenward. to sing of this. But a Priest who is not this at all. is a character--of whom we had rather not speak in this place. burning with mild equable radiance. very great. in him too there is required to be a light of inspiration. The Priest too. not appearing in any protocol or treaty as a unity at all. I say. and in a more familiar manner unfolding the same to men. interpreting. English men and women are. He presides over the worship of the people. Something great in him. may think of that.--the outward shape of whom will depend on the time and the environment he finds himself in. is a kind of Prophet. yet the noble Italy is actually one: Italy produced its Dante. over us all. Italy can speak! The Czar of all the Russias. to be heard of all men and times. we speak and think by him. to fight and work for this. will hold but a small fraction of the English: in America. administrative prime-ministers cannot. in brotherlike intercourse. that given a great soul. there is given a Hero. scattered asunder. We have repeatedly endeavored to explain that all sorts of Heroes are intrinsically of the same material. the spiritual Captain. a thousand years hence. yet strongest of rallying-signs. confusion and danger. LUTHER. enduring manner. does not he shine."--which so few have an eye for! He is the Prophet shorn of his more awful splendor. bringing down. that he too be what we can call a voice from the unseen Heaven. Call it not fantastic. Parliament or combination of Parliaments. this Shakspeare is ours. in New Holland. whom no time or chance. even as the Prophet did. by faithful heroism in that kind. is the ideal of a Priest. in reducing ideals to practice. rather as Reformers than Priests. then there is given a man fit to speak of this. Yet it will suit us better here to consider them chiefly in their historical character. and considering him merely as a real. as the enlightener of daily life. east and west to the very Antipodes. tangibly useful possession. The unseen Heaven. PURITANISM. poor Italy lies dismembered. so that they do not fall out and fight. REFORMATION: KNOX. in the way wherein they were to go. Yes. in a great. there will be a Saxondom covering great spaces of the Globe. He has had no voice of genius. Our present discourse is to be of the Great Man as Priest. so in these. victorious. for there is much reality in it: Here. in crowned sovereignty. by wise guidance through this Earth and its work. I say. as we must name it. helping one another? This is justly regarded as the greatest practical problem. great latitude of tolerance is needful. a light from Heaven into the daily life of their people. He is a great dumb monster hitherto. before long. who does not any longer aim or try to be this. There have been other Priests perhaps equally notable. and in all times. they will say to one another: "Yes. marketable. indestructible.--We must here end what we had to say of the Hero-Poet." The most common-sense politician. that it produce a man who will speak forth melodiously what the heart of it means! Italy. as I understand it. open to the Divine Significance of Life. while that Dante's voice is still audible. can dethrone! This King Shakspeare. but live at peace. So in old times. He is the spiritual Captain of the people. from New York. for doing faithfully the office of a Leader of Worship. The Nation that has a Dante is bound together as no dumb Russia can be. England. but he cannot yet speak. Cossacks and cannons. America is parted from us. what is it that can keep all these together into virtually one Nation. who led . he is strong with so many bayonets. it is a great thing for a Nation that it get an articulate voice. in calmer times. we are of one blood and kind with him. as under God's guidance. so far as Parliament could part it. but it is a dumb greatness. From Paramatta. is the Uniter of them with the Unseen Holy. The ideal of him is. 1840. this Island of ours. gentlest.--the "open secret of the Universe.

building up Religions. Dante's Mountain of Purgatory does not stand "in the ocean of the other Hemisphere. dismembered: a more perilous service. Absolutely without originality there is no man. if peaceable Priests. I do not make much of "Progress of the Species. in one way or the other. of the divine truth of things. It is not there. in various situations. I remark sometimes. nor do I think you would care to hear much about it. heroic Forms of human Existence in this world." as handled in these times of ours. The mild shining of the Poet's light has to give place to the fierce lightning of the Reformer: unfortunately the Reformer too is a personage that cannot fail in History! The Poet indeed. false to him. new Reformers needed. the battling Reformer too is." when Columbus has once sailed thither! Men find no such thing extant in the other Hemisphere. He is a believer in the divine truth of things. but to faithful valorous conflict. there had been no melodious Dante. nay we can trace out the inevitable necessity of it in the nature of things. he invents and devises somewhat of his own. which once took in the whole Universe. If he be not first a Priest. but Luther's Protestantism must needs follow? Alas. knows that it. The talk on that subject is too often of the most extravagant. to Luther not well.--had in the course of another century become dubitable to common intellects. and was completely satisfactory in all parts of it to the highly discursive acute intellect of Dante. from Ulfila to Cranmer. a worshipper. which also may be carried on in the Heroic manner. would always suffice us! But it is not so. Obstructions are never wanting: the very things that were once indispensable furtherances become obstructions. reforming from day to day. seeing through the shows of things. Yet I may say. a Priest. were all well represented by those Malebolges.--a business often of enormous difficulty. Theories of Life worthy to be sung by a Dante. Curious how this should be necessary: yet necessary it is. and can never be embraced wholly or finally by any view or Theorem. could we go along always in the way of music. a seer. is a symptom that his epoch itself has reached perfection and is finished. new epochs. a needful and inevitable phenomenon. is strong and alone strong. rough Practical Endeavor. Purgatorios. how a Theorem or spiritual Representation. surely. be it higher or not. human Existence. more notable than any other. . or Prophecy. Every man. finds somewhat that was credible to his grandfather incredible to him. It is notable enough. especially to us who live under the fruit of his leading. and need to be shaken off.--all Systems of Belief. and Systems of Practice that spring from these. He is the warfaring and battling Priest. It must cease to be believed to be there. and in the history of Mankind we see it summed up into great historical amounts. as the rude creatures were by their Orpheus of old.--revolutions. Is not every true Reformer. I mean. by fresh discovery. one of the greatest in the world. be tamed and taught by our Poets.--we are now to see the reverse process. his view of the Universe. obsolete as Odin's Theorem! To Dante. who led his people.--which is an infinite Universe. from Odin to Walter Raleigh. enabled Shakspeare to speak. nothing will continue. So with all beliefs whatsoever in this world. exactly what his grandfather believed: he enlarges somewhat. How was this? Why could not Dante's Catholicism continue. or can believe. which also is necessary. but with the same mind he discovers farther. confused sort. and God's ways with men. Thus then. how good were it could we get so much as into the equable way. flatly incredible. inasmuch as they were our best Reformers. Practices of Life by a Shakspeare. and a more memorable one. and consequently his Theorem of the Universe. becomes. by the nature of him. with his mildness. Alas. not to quiet faithful labor as in smooth times. as we have seen Great Men.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 52 through that. Nay the finished Poet. and left behind us. with its fierceness? No wild Saint Dominics and Thebaid Eremites. from time to time. in any conceivable enlargement: he enlarges somewhat. the invisible. Scandinavian and other. inconsistent with some new thing he has discovered or observed. he will never be good for much as a Reformer. Or failing this rhythmic musical way. It is the history of every man. even this latter has not yet been realized. is not only a learner but a doer: he learns with the mind given him what has been. as I have stated somewhere. to every one of us. the fact itself seems certain enough. in times all violent. what is he but the product and ultimate adjustment of Reform. become deniable. and is now. that is. a Priest first of all? He appeals to Heaven's invisible justice against Earth's visible force. Doubtless it were finer. Nay I may ask. These two men we will account our best Priests. that before long there will be a new epoch. so we may call it. I say. No man whatever believes.

on the other hand. needs to believe firmly. in one or the other way. it is the chief of all the sins they see done under the sun. If he have to ask at every turn the world's suffrage. that we might march over and take the place! It is an incredible hypothesis. Thor's strong hammer smiting down Jotuns. towards sure victory but when he too. and make his own suffrage serve. that God was in it some way or other. only that this present little section of a generation might be saved and right. Dante's sublime Catholicism. the Arab turban and swift scimetar. and this or the other poor individual man. in all countries and times except our own. with an eye to the outward look of it. This is worth noting. fight not against the enemy but against ourselves. All fashions of arms. or visible . Every such man is a daily contributor to the inevitable downfall. if he cannot dispense with the world's suffrage. that when Belief waxes uncertain. here too we find. as we say. Luther's battle-voice. which has to represent all men. by eidola. We will not enter here into the theological question about Idolatry. a man who will do faithfully. I fancy. what kind of battle it was. and perhaps one may question whether any the most benighted mortal ever took it for more than a Symbol. Idol is Eidolon. what a melancholy notion is that. They all marched forward there. doubting and dishonest practice. cleared off as by explosion. Offences accumulate till they become insupportable. Luther too was of our spiritual Heroes. only that we might have the true ultimate knowledge! All generations of men were lost and wrong. only to fill up the ditch with their dead bodies. as having spent their life in blind condemnable error. he is a poor eye-servant. and how he comported himself in it. Whatsoever work he does. Odinism was Valor. but a Symbol of God. it is an important fact in the nature of man. not against us. As introductory to the whole. It is not God.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 53 If we add now the melancholy fact. the worshipping of dead Idols as the Divinity. a thing seen. we shall see material enough for revolution. which indeed belongs to all Prophets. and brand with inexpiable reprobation. before matters come to a settlement again. He will always do it. with his hypothesis and ultimate infallible credo. No thought that ever dwelt honestly as true in the heart of man but was an honest insight into God's truth on man's part. injustices and miseries everywhere more and more prevail. One of Mahomet's characteristics. to do battle against the same enemy. is a thing they cannot away with. the empire of Darkness and Wrong? Why should we misknow one another. Are not all true men that live. Christianism was Humility. that he tends to reckon his own insight as final. under Heaven's captaincy. Is not all worship whatsoever a worship by Symbols. and find in all human opinions and arrangements merely the fact that they were uncertain. he did not think that the poor image his own hands had made was God. but have to denounce continually. and errors. the work committed to him will be misdone. and defaced still worse by faithless. Such incredible hypothesis we have seen maintained with fierce emphasis. blasted asunder volcanically. Practice too becomes unsound. It is the grand theme of Prophets: Idolatry. I suppose. but that God was emblemed by it. Surely it were mournful enough to look only at this face of the matter. temporary. is but new creation on a wider scale. We are all under one Captain. rendered visible as an image or picture to the bodily eye. Scandinavians. and there are long troublous periods. dishonestly. soldiers of the same army. is but of the body. And now in this sense. and became a dead body. and has an essential truth in it which endures through all changes. Dante's march-melody. an everlasting possession for us all. and are then violently burst through. is unlimited implacable zeal against Idolatry. all generations since the beginning of the world. like the Russian soldiers into the ditch of Schweidnitz Fort. not of the essence or soul. The accumulation of offences is. a remark about Idolatry will perhaps be in place here. a Prophet to his country and time. by violent revolution or howsoever it be. wiser way than this. a symbol. enlisted. too literally exploded. parent of new misery to somebody or other. from mere difference of uniform? All uniforms shall be good. soldiers of the same host. or that ever lived. is a new offence. so they hold in them true valiant men. what was to be said?--Withal. has to be torn asunder by a Luther.--Let us now look a little at this Luther's fighting. a nobler kind of Valor. subject to the law of death! At bottom. but it must be in some wider. shall be welcome. one may ask. incredible now in theory. all genuine things are with us. Shakspeare's noble Feudalism. At all turns. all destruction. and goes upon it as such. it is not so: all death. And. with his sect of individual men. sank into the ditch. or things seen? Whether seen. has to end in a French Revolution. mere lost Pagans. Mahometans. as beautiful as it once looked and was. marching as over the dead bodies of all men.

It is still a Thing Seen. Condemnable Idolatry is insincere Idolatry. all good and it. for it is the beginning of all immorality. to the imagination. or the Caabah Black-Stone. All worship whatsoever must proceed by Symbols. in the era of the Prophets. significant of Godhead. and Worship of Formulas. religious or social. and would fain make themselves feel that they are filled. It is the property of every Hero." It is the final scene in all kinds of Worship and Symbolism. preparatory afar off to a new thing. so will the hollow shows of things. may be an object of pity. if you will. religious forms. but no substantial difference. the sure symptom that death is now nigh. in these days of ours. articulately or with deep speechless thought. however regular. but only pretend to be filled. thereby is worship first made possible for him. prosecutes it with inextinguishable aversion. and the worst Idolatry is only more idolatrous. seeing through it. accredited by Koreishes or Conclaves. and worships thereby. no man's mind is any longer honestly filled with his Idol or Symbol. One often hears it said that Protestantism introduced a new era. and even what one may call Sincere-Cant. cast into fatal magnetic sleep! Men are no longer sincere men. all Idolatry is comparative. are in this sense eidola. and not shows of things. Before the Prophet can arise who. He and it. All creeds. that. radically different from any the world had ever seen before: the era of "private judgment. or rather it is the impossibility henceforth of any morality whatsoever: the innermost moral soul is paralyzed thereby. and filled his inmost soul with indignation and aversion. was not exactly what suggested itself to his own thought.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 54 only to the inward eye. The most rigorous Puritan has his Confession of Faith. and intellectual Representation of Divine things. I find Luther to have been a Breaker of Idols. and came out of him in words to others. Let his heart be honestly full of it. was superior to the horse that worshipped nothing at all! Nay there was a kind of lasting merit in that poor act of his. But here enters the fatal circumstance of Idolatry. were not more hateful to Mahomet than Tetzel's Pardons of Sin. in one word. and you will leave him alone. Souls are no longer filled with their Fetish. which shall be true. he. the thing that had chiefly provoked the Prophet. Blamable Idolatry is Cant. brands it. liturgies. conceptions that fitly invest religious feelings. in every place and situation. analogous to what is still meritorious in Poets: recognition of a certain endless divine beauty and significance in stars and all natural objects whatsoever. too. The first stroke of honest demolition to an ancient thing grown false and idolatrous. in every time. and represent as the basis of all possible good. of contempt and avoidance. No more immoral act can be done by a human creature. made of timber and bees-wax. Why is Idolatry so hateful to Prophets? It seems to me as if. Sincere-Cant: that is worth thinking of! Every sort of Worship ends with this phasis. an Idol. Doubt has eaten out the heart of it: a human soul is seen clinging spasmodically to an Ark of the Covenant. yet as well as it can readily be made to be. to the intellect: this makes a superficial. unmolested there. and learnt. is the work of a Prophet: the prophet-work of that sixteenth century. Where. but cannot surely be an object of hatred." said Coleridge. The wooden gods of the Koreish. Protestantism. are at death-feud. and authentically divine! At first view it might seem as if Protestantism were entirely destructive to this that we call Hero-worship. By this revolt against the Pope. The rudest heathen that worshipped Canopus.--it will then be. any more! Whereby. the whole space of his dark narrow mind illuminated thereby. lies the evil of it? Some fatal evil must lie in it. According as he loves. no less than any other Prophet. decorous. by Idols:--we may say. made of sheepskin and ink. that he stand upon things. that he must never trust any Pope. as we saw. be intolerable and detestable to him. It is equivalent to what we call Formulism. if not well with him. which it half feels now to have become a Phantasm. or spiritual Hero-captain. This is one of the balefulest sights. or earnest prophetic men would not on all hands so reprobate it. many men must have begun dimly to doubt that it was little more. every man became his own Pope. "You do not believe. as the thing. and venerates. that he come back to reality. among other things. let him entirely believe in his Fetish. I do not wonder that the earnest man denounces this. Why should the Prophet so mercilessly condemn him? The poorest mortal worshipping his Fetish. while his heart is full of it." as they call it. knows it to be mere wood. then. the awful realities of things. were to Luther. for mankind. . in the worship of those poor wooden symbols. "you only believe that you believe. things seen. I should say.

whatsoever he believes. the spiritual is the beginning of the temporal. Eck had now become slaves in it. insincerity. Well done! At bottom. sure enough. by their private judgment. For observe one thing.--Now I need not deny that Protestantism was a revolt against spiritual sovereignties. half-belief and untruth that make it. instead of Kings. It is not honest inquiry that makes anarchy. in the most genuine way. One of my deepest convictions is. he was at home in that Catholicism of his. no mortal is . once more. not for another. he will reign. faithfully gone about. in this sense. has passed away forever from the world. whatever anarchic democracy it have produced.--or he would believe them and not hearsays. For the spiritual will always body itself forth in the temporal history of men. does by no means necessarily end in selfish independence. preaching sightless faith and passive obedience. that this of "private judgment" is. in the long-run. The believing man is the original man. wherever true men subsist. how much less with his fellow-men! He cannot unite with men. in the first place. or rather altogether lost sight of in this controversy: That it is not necessary a man should himself have discovered the truth he is to believe in. that it is not so. I see nothing possible but an anarchy. could ever compel the soul of a man to believe or to disbelieve: it is his own indefeasible light. Be genuine. had "judged "--so. have abdicated his right to be convinced. Let us remark. that the exercise of private judgment. But a man need not be great in order to be sincere. The heart of each is lying dead. and Dr. but only new at that epoch of the world. that judgment of his. that the enormous French Revolution itself was the third act. was the second act of it. it is as good as certain. if we will consider it.--and with boundless gratitude to that other! The merit of originality is not novelty. by some kind of conviction.--he. must first. but only of certain corrupt unfortunate epochs of Time. or tied shackles on himself. henceforth an impossibility? So we hear it said. therefore. Without sovereigns. as might seem. They. but it is error. There is no communion possible among men who believe only in hearsays. Ballot-boxes and Electoral suffrages: it seems made out that any Hero-sovereign. abolished or made sure of abolition. if so. with all the illumination and discernment that is in him. A true man believes with his whole judgment. the meaning of it. a free-seeing soul in it. it is sincerity. His "private judgment" indicated that. or loyal obedience of men to a man. Protestantism is the grand root from which our whole subsequent European History branches out. in things temporal or things spiritual. it was a return to Truth and Reality in opposition to Falsehood and Semblance. A false man. in full force. it was a return to all old sayings that ever had been said. only struggling to "believe that he believes. Liberty of private judgment. be sincere: that was. I find it to be a revolt against false sovereigns. not a new thing in the world. at bottom. Nay I will grant that English Puritanism. the painful but indispensable first preparative for true sovereigns getting place among us! This is worth explaining a little. by the grace of God alone! The sorriest sophistical Bellarmine. whereby all sovereignties earthly and spiritual were. A man can believe. as the first condition of him. And now I venture to assert. temporal and spiritual. There is nothing generically new or peculiar in the Reformation. I should despair of the world altogether. Popes and much else.--if many a poor Hogstraten. And now. a thing too often left out of view. true sovereigns. the cry is everywhere for Liberty and Equality. was always sincere. and believe there. it was no new saying. an original man. has no power of sympathy even with things. he is an anarchic man. the hatefulest of things. and has always so believed. Woe! and to the former. A man protesting against error is on the way towards uniting himself with all men that believe in truth. Independence and so forth. Dante had not put out his eyes. what he has received from another. and never so sincerely to believe in.--and there. isolation. Liberty of judgment? No iron chain. Every son of Adam can become a sincere man. Tetzel. to be the beginning of new genuine sovereignty and order. Odin with his whole mind. must at all times have existed in the world. but rather ends necessarily in the opposite of that. No sympathy even with things. and all true Followers of Odinism. or outward force of any kind. all hierarchy and subordination among men. and make his own. revolt against earthly sovereignties. he believes it for himself." will naturally manage it in some other way. as all kinds of Improvement and genuine Teaching are and have been. as the advisablest step he could take. Only in a world of sincere men is unity possible. that is not the necessity of Nature and all Time. Protestantism said to this latter. we said. But I find Protestantism. A Great Man.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 55 is not spiritual union. The right of private judgment will subsist. Mahomet believed with his whole mind.

your "private judgment. are original. the whole world and its history was waiting for this man. there was not a more entirely unimportant-looking pair of people than this Miner and his Wife. but life and strength. cost what it might. why may not every one of us be a Hero? A world all sincere. that he was born poor. it is great. though afar off. A man embraces truth with his eyes open. whose light was to flame as the beacon over long centuries and epochs of the world. is a worker not on semblance but on substance. all men in them. and brought up poor. by no means a final one. and by having something to see! Luther's message was deposition and abolition to all false Popes and Potentates. It leads us back to another Birth-hour.--quacks pretending to command over dupes. And yet what were all Emperors. sincere. with sad enough embroilments for us all. it behooved men to quit simulacra and return to fact. that did behoove to be done. for what words are there! The Age of Miracles past? The Age of Miracles is forever here!-I find it altogether suitable to Luther's function in this Earth. that we think only in silence. the pledge of inestimable benefits that are coming. There is true union. from Protestantism downwards. His parents. what we call ages of Faith. loyalty. the Hero-Teacher who has delivered him out of darkness into light. every work issues in a result: the general sum of such work is great. a Mighty Man. true. It was an accident that gave this honor to Eisleben. was not Luther himself reverenced as a true Pope. he came into the world there on the 10th of November. Is not such a one a true Hero and Serpent-queller. therefore. Luther's birthplace was Eisleben in Saxony.--of which it is fit that we say nothing. lies prostrate by his valor. for all of it. with a right gratitude and genuine loyalty of soul." no. poor mine-laborers in a village of that region. had gone to the Eisleben Winter-Fair: in the tumult of this scene the Frau Luther was taken with travail. accordingly. that a man be self-subsistent. is surely the farthest in the world from indisposing him to reverence and believe other men's truth! It only disposes. I see the blessedest result preparing itself: not abolition of Hero-worship. from . original. that day. in a still meaner environment. found refuge in some poor house there. With spurious Popes. the like will again be. or the most of men in them. Hero-worship never dies. but rather what I would call a whole World of Heroes. in comparison? There was born here. That were the right sort of Worshippers for Heroes: never could the truly Better be so reverenced as where all were True and Good!--But we must hasten to Luther and his Life. Eighteen Hundred years ago. Popes and Potentates. as genuine. she had gone with her husband to make her small merchandisings.--what can you do? Misery and mischief only. tends towards one goal. Though likely to last a long time. to buy the small winter-necessaries for her narrow hut or household. once more. none of it subtractive. Electoral suffrages. one of the poorest of men.--at right-angles to one another! In all this wild revolutionary work. singing for alms and bread. Loyalty and Sovereignty are everlasting in the world:--and there is this in them. In all ways. Falsehood. and doubtless wisely ordered to that end by the Providence presiding over him and us and all things. These are the great and fruitful ages: every worker. or what we call it. nor can die. and Believers having no private judgment. He had to beg. Hero-worship? Ah me. named Mohra. You cannot make an association out of insincere men. we will take. Whole ages. we must welcome it. All this of Liberty and Equality. it was he that conquered the world for us!--See. that they are grounded not on garnitures and semblances. as the penalty of sins that are past. perhaps to sell the lock of yarn she had been spinning. so far as the poor Earth can produce blessedness for men. worthy of all reverence! The black monster.--cannot help being. our one enemy in this world. in all spheres. Not by shutting your eyes. This poor Frau Luther. true kingship. to new genuine ones.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 56 doomed to be an insincere man. being verily such? Napoleon. a believing world: the like has been. and because his eyes are open: does he need to shut them before he can love his Teacher of truth? He alone can love. 1483. but by opening them. necessitates and invincibly compels him to disbelieve other men's dead formulas. but on realities and sincerities. If Hero mean sincere man. as the school-children in those times did. became a King. all true and blessed things. It is strange. or Spiritual Father. from amid boundless revolt of Sansculottism. and the boy she bore was named MARTIN LUTHER. you cannot build an edifice except by plummet and level. all of it is additive. hearsays and untruths. Independence and so forth. to be a temporary phenomenon. in the whole world. Strange enough to reflect upon it.

Kingships? They lie shrunk together--there! The Earth has opened on them. that he should be raised to Heaven! He that had known only misery. he should rise to importance in his Convent. had consented: he was now nineteen years of age. What is this Life of ours?--gone in a moment. as novice in his Convent. made him Professor in his new University of Wittenberg. he lived in terror of the unspeakable misery. but. he believed himself likely to die soon. Among things. and Eternity is. with little will in it either way. This was probably the first light-point in the history of Luther. as through life and to death he firmly did. was gaining more and more esteem with all good men. One hears with a new interest for poor Luther that. faithfully. had he to grow. in a moment they are not. formalities and mass-work. but it was to little purpose. His misery had not lessened. were got back again near Erfurt. for it had dwelt too long with semblance! A youth nursed up in wintry whirlwinds. at this time. Luther. But it was his task to get acquainted with realities. his final triumph over darkness. A brother monk too. a man's soul could be saved. not among the shows of things. in his country. this Luther. with his thunder-hammer. He says he was a pious monk. burnt up like a scroll. as a god: a Christian Odin. fancied that he was doomed to eternal reprobation. for the present. in desolate darkness and difficulty. his purer will now first decisively uttering itself. as it were. what we call his conversion. named the Wise. by fasts. yet with weak health. had cast his eye on him as a valuable person.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 57 door to door. as in all duties he did. is his deliverance from darkness. Chancellorships. all sorts of slave-work. This was the path to rise.--a right Thor once more. That he should now grow daily in peace and clearness. he fell dead at Luther's feet. Luther had struggled up through boyhood. increased into infinitude. It must have been a most blessed discovery. had to wander staggering as on the verge of bottomless Despair. he suffered greatly. that. the bolt struck Alexis. set him upon the study of Law. Hardship. in the peaceable sphere of common life. better and worse. determined to devote himself to God and God's service alone. strong as a true man. that he may step forth at last from his stormy Scandinavia. in both which capacities. were not his grievance: the deep earnest soul of the man had fallen into all manner of black scruples. in spite of all hindrances. a truly wise and just prince. then. struck to the heart. He was sent on missions by his Augustine Order. unfolding now the great talents and virtues implanted in him. displaying. the largest intellect. He determined to hold by that. of pious experience. he became a Monk in the Augustine Convent at Erfurt. ich bin ein frommer Monch gewesen. Luther learned now that a man was saved not by singing masses. He fell into the blackest wretchedness. into the blank Eternity! What are all earthly preferments. Alexis and he had been to see the old Luther people at Mansfeldt. as a man of talent and fidelity fit to do their business well: the Elector of Saxony. It could not become clear to him how. dubitations. eager to learn: his father judging doubtless that he might promote himself in the world. it was still as one light-point in an element all of darkness. This. which had brought this blessed help to him. was helpful. to smite asunder ugly enough Jotuns and Giant-monsters! Perhaps the turning incident of his life. and far worse than die. with his large greedy soul. The drudgeries he had to do. painfully struggling to work out the truth of this high act of his. It taught him another lesson than that of fasts and vigils. had rather. but by the infinite grace of God: a more credible hypothesis. was that death of his friend Alexis. In spite of all dissuasions from his father and others. as on the rock. rigorous Necessity was the poor boy's companion. no man nor no thing would put on a false face to flatter Martin Luther. for himself the most important of all epochs. at the gate of Erfurt. when a thunder-storm came on. A boy of rude figure. No wonder he should venerate the Bible. and mean slavery: the news was too blessed to be credible. full of all faculty and sensibility. and be found more and more useful in all honest business of life. He gradually got himself founded. at whatever cost: his task was to bring the whole world back to reality. Luther. Friedrich. He had never seen the Book before. by lightning. is a natural result. that of an old Latin Bible which he found in the Erfurt Library about this time. we may fancy. vigils. Was it not the humble sincere nature of the man? What was he. and keep acquainted with them. . He prized it as the Word of the Highest must be prized by such a man. Preacher too at Wittenberg.

resisted. an earnest. and enveloped all the world. having tried various softer methods.--arrived at Wittenberg. The bravest. wished. in the confessional of his Church. horrible and dismal as it looks. if he would not be found wanting at his own post. on mission from his Convent. had kindled into noble just wrath the bravest heart then living in this world. he might have held his peace about the abuses of Rome. But the Roman High-priesthood did come athwart him: afar off at Wittenberg he. not rebellious kind of man: they laid him instantly in a stone dungeon "three feet wide. six feet high. is false: but what is it to Luther? A mean man he. many which we have no record of. His clear task. His business was to guide his own footsteps wisely through the world. Luther. with all imaginable promises and safe-conducts. A humble. Pope Julius the Second. with Jerome. he should either have attained that. the rest. and not come athwart his little path.--spreading ever wider. was to do his own duty. and his body to be sent bound to Rome. peaceable a disposition ever filled the world with contention. and God on high. Perhaps no man of so humble. not prompt he to attack irreverently persons in authority. and produced the Protestant Reformation. must have filled the mind of Luther with amazement. A short argument. rising ever higher. however.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 58 It was in his twenty-seventh year that he first saw Rome. his thought was still far other than that of introducing separation in the Church. sent out carelessly in the way of trade. It was the way they had ended with Huss. We cannot but see that he would have loved privacy. The elegant Pagan. that no man's sins could be pardoned by them. It was the beginning of the whole Reformation. forward from this first public challenge of Tetzel. fire. It is curious to reflect what might have been the issue. or lost it forever! We will say nothing at all.--The elegant Pagan Pope cared little about this Monk and his doctrines. it was now kindled. had to step forth against Indulgences. not in his. That was not well done! I. aiming . and drove his scandalous trade there. for one. choked it in smoke and fire. how shall he reform a world? That was far from his thoughts. or of any man like Luther. why should he at all meddle with the world? It was the task of quite higher men than he. to deal with them! A modest quiet man. quiet diligence in the shade. if indeed any such exist now: Get first into the sphere of thought by which it is so much as possible to judge of Luther. He dooms the Monk's writings to be burnt by the hangman. left Providence. This Rome. struck again. that it was against his will he ever became a notoriety." burnt the true voice of him out of this world. we may then begin arguing with you. These words of mine. throne of God's High-priest on Earth. came to extremity. We know how it went. of its being some mean shopkeeper grudge. otherwise than distractedly. Luther's flock bought Indulgences. Notoriety: what would that do for him? The goal of his march through this world was the Infinite Heaven. by Leo Tenth. and force him to assault it! Conceivable enough that.--who merely wanted to raise a little money. of the Augustine Monk against the Dominican. 1517. the century before. in this case.--probably for a similar purpose. if also one of the humblest. and save his own soul alive. to have done with the noise of him: in a space of some three years. of that sorrowfulest of theories. could not get lived in honesty for it. this scene of false priests. to walk wisely in this world of confused wickedness. an indubitable goal for him: in a few years. or revolting against the Pope. had Roman Popery happened to pass this Luther by. I think. The Monk Tetzel. was struck at. words of truth and soberness. Poor Huss: he came to that Constance Council. as I say. that first kindled the wrath of Luther. by this fire-decree of his. Luther's heart's desire was to have this grief and other griefs amended. which perhaps he did not himself know how to utter. people pleaded to him that they had already got their sins pardoned. he remonstrated. and declare aloud that they were a futility and sorrowful mockery. pardon Luther for now altogether revolting against the Pope. is in God's hand. Let him do his own obscure duty in it well. solitary man. and for the rest seems to have been a Pagan rather than a Christian. peaceablest. through remonstrance and argument. He had come as to the Sacred City. till it became unquenchable. and he found it--what we know! Many thoughts it must have given the man. We will say to the people who maintain it. clothed not in the beauty of holiness. Father of Christendom. as I said. to go on in its great wasteful orbit. and what was going on at Rome. he thought good to end it by fire. on the last day of October. so far as he was anything. a false sluggard and coward at the very centre of the little space of ground that was his own and no other man's. but in far other vesture. and so it came to wager of battle between them! This is worth attending to in Luther's history. being sent thither. seven feet long. Luther.

I think! I take your Bull. one man. you with your tiaras. His speech. may be considered as the greatest scene in Modern European History. I stand solitary. thunders spiritual and temporal. I would on. in solemn words. stand on the Devil's Lie. Americas. on the morrow. it had come to this. "Were there as many Devils in Worms as there are roof-tiles. from which the whole subsequent history of civilization takes its rise. and are not so strong!-The Diet of Worms. human infirmity entered into it. whether he will recant or not. of cloth and parchment? It is an awful fact. the greatest moment in the Modern History of Men. answer them by the hangman and fire? You will burn me and them. Mahomet said. Here stand I. were partly his own. dignitaries spiritual and temporal. that Luther. Papal nuncios. English Puritanism.--It was on the 10th of December. not to recant: "Whosoever denieth me before men!" they cried to him. three years after the beginning of the business. are assembled there: Luther is to appear and answer for himself. it had all been otherwise! The European World was asking him: Am I to sink ever lower into falsehood. wise and honest tone. or else by plain just arguments: I cannot recant otherwise. many things doubtless which it were a blessing for him could he abolish altogether. and what not: "Free us. I tell you. you put wax and oil on them. God's Church is not a semblance. stands up for God's Truth. the petition of the whole world. to cast the falsehoods out of me. God alone can pardon sins. Formulism. Friends had reminded him of Huss. it is a bit of rag-paper with ink. and be cured and live?-- . with all the Princes of Germany. to promote God's truth on Earth. This thing of yours that you call a Pardon of Sins. that Life was a truth. the point. is nothing else. crowded the windows and house-tops." the whole world was looking on. patient of much. After multiplied negotiations. and save men's souls. The young Emperor Charles Fifth. and other Falsehood and corrupt Semblance had ruled long enough: and here once more was a man found who durst tell all men that God's-world stood not on semblances but on realities. with your treasuries and armories. England and its Parliaments. God's vicegerent on earth. Heaven and Hell are not semblances. The world's pomp and power sits there on this hand: on that. 1521. But as to what stood on sound truth and the Word of God. but on God's Truth. "with a great concourse of people. These idols of yours are wood. indeed. modest.--as in a kind of solemn petition and adjuration. loathsome accursed death. "by proofs of Scripture. with whatever paroxysm. partly derived from the Word of God. as he went to the Hall of the Diet." The people. with still more earnest warnings. we are to consider Luther as a Prophet Idol-breaker. and vast work these two centuries. I can do no other: God assist me!"--It is. Was it not in reality our petition too. and so much like it. The quiet German heart. for answer to the God's-message they strove to bring you? You are not God's vicegerent. friendless. the flies stick on them: they are not God. had at length got more than it could bear. not submissive to any more than that. The Pope should not have provoked that "shout"! It was the shout of the awakening of nations. triple-hats. It is the function of great men and teachers. submissive to whatsoever could lawfully claim submission.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 59 faithfully. Standing on this. you. French Revolution. blindness. You will do what you see good next: this is what I do. A large company of friends rode out to meet him. as we say. I a poor German Monk am stronger than you all. they are black wood! Luther said to the Pope. For it is neither safe nor prudent to do aught against conscience. Pagan Popeism. calling itself Father in God. or. a bringer-back of men to reality. unguarded anger. lying in dark bondage of soul. Europe and its work everywhere at present: the germ of it all lay there: had Luther in that moment done other. 1520. is that a vain semblance. Luther's appearance there on the 17th of April. Popeship. stagnant putrescence. and burn it. of two hours. I stand on this. he said. desert us not!" Luther did not desert us. as human inability would allow. he answered. the poor miner Hans Luther's Son. it rests with thee. as was said above. It is nothing else. and not a lie! At bottom. he would not be advised. as an emparchmented Lie." took this indignant step of burning the Pope's fire-decree "at the Elster-Gate of Wittenberg. disputations. advised him not to go. since you drive me to it. His writings. he could not recant it. spiritual Fatherhood of God's Church. How could he? "Confute me. distinguished itself by its respectful. some of them calling out to him. As to what was his own. it." Wittenberg looked on "with shoutings. you are another's than his. paralyzed under a black spectral Nightmare and triple-hatted Chimera." he concluded.

they are responsible. for some time yet. if we will look. We hope for a living peace. So long it will obtrude itself on the eye of us who reject it. would there were no greater danger to our Europe than the poor old Pope's revival! Thor may as soon try to revive.--to much dull-droning drowsy inanity that still calls itself Protestant. Luther did what every man that God has made has not only the right. Union. is coming for the world. To me it is proof of his greatness in all senses. let us not be unjust to the Old. contentions and disunion followed out of this Reformation. But. let whatsoever likes come in the place of it: with it we can have no farther trade!--Luther and his Protestantism is not responsible for wars.--we dare not! The thing is untrue. the noticeable fact that none of them began so long as he continued living. It lasts here for a purpose. not a lasting sort of life! Popery can build new chapels. go about as a living witness of it. without counting of costs. it was some other's blame! The Reformation might bring what results it liked when it came. the answer of the world is: Once for all. and say: See. or to stand when come. self-blinding or other dishonesty. Let it last as long as it can.-Of Luther I will add now. With union grounded on falsehood. till we in our practice too have appropriated whatsoever of truth was in it. indeed. but the Reformation simply could not help coming.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 60 Great wars. The controversy did not get to fighting so long as he was there. just so long. It was good then. The Old was true. The speculation that Popery is on the increase. its Napoleon. what is inclusive of all. who does not himself perish. But on Fact alone. the false Simulacra that forced him to protest. and ordering us to speak and act lies. The poor old Popehood will not die away entirely. Popery cannot come back. in reference to all these wars and bloodshed. undeniable. for minutes you cannot tell how it is going. while a pious life remains capable of being led by it. the light of our whole mind. Luther continued. and are yet far from ended. this thing behooved to be done. we cannot believe it. we will not have anything to do. this fact. When Hercules turned the purifying river into King Augeas's stables. listen to a few Protestant logic-choppings. They are lamentable. finds it henceforth a thing unbelievable. or. While a good work remains capable of being done by the Romish form. lamenting and accusing. will it be able either to come. your Popehood has become untrue. I have no doubt the confusion that resulted was considerable all around: but I think it was not Hercules's blame. Great talk and crimination has been made about these. No matter how good it was. but Protestantism has not died yet. a far nobler than any Popedom or Feudalism in their truest days. it will have no charm more for any man. that I hear of! Protestantism. if it no longer is. in prizing justly the indispensable blessings of the New. will be alive after it!--Drowsy inanities. Very curious: to count up a few Popish chapels. not on Semblance and Simulacrum. we were traitors against the Giver of all Truth. I never doubt. as with the ebbing of the sea: you look at the waves oscillating hither. nay there is in the soul of it a deathless good. of what rank or function . may pass for one of the idlest ever started.--not a pleasant. to all lengths. given us to walk by from Heaven above. at bottom. but lies under the sacred duty. German Literature and the French Revolution. not a dead one! And yet. Till all the soul of good that was in it have got itself transfused into the practical New. Away with it. what has Luther or his cause to do with them? It seems strange reasoning to charge the Reformation with all this. which last down to our day. any more than Paganism can. as Thor has done.--And withal this oscillation has a meaning. The cry of "No Popery" is foolish enough in these days. We may say. nor ought it. in a good degree. In Dante's days it needed no sophistry.--which also still lingers in some countries. to get itself reckoned true. Dost thou believe me?--No!--At what cost soever. what else is alive but Protestantism? The life of most else that one meets is a galvanic one merely. rather considerable signs of life! Nay. sure to come. to do: answered a Falsehood when it questioned him.--look in half a century where your Popehood is! Alas. but also not till then. Peace? A brutal lethargy is peaceable. it is with these things. will this or the other human soul adopt it. that call themselves Protestant are dead. look in half an hour where it is. if we durst pretend to think it true. the noisome grave is peaceable. the Old never dies till this happen. expostulating. not a few. We will not believe it. has in these days produced its Goethe. Then. but after all. Popeism is more alive than it. To all Popes and Popes' advocates. building new chapels and so forth. we will not try to believe it. if we consider. thither on the beach. welcome to do so. all Protestants. Protestantism is dead. organization spiritual and material. how good you say it is. swept away in it! Such is the usual course of revolutionists. sovereign of this greatest revolution. How seldom do we find a man that has stirred up some vast commotion.

There may be an absence of fear which arises from the absence of thought or affection. a great enemy of his. and it disappeared! The spot still remains there. continued firm at the centre of it. ever lived in that Teutonic Kindred. of silence. "His words are half-battles. With sure prompt insight he discriminates what is what: a strong just man. among others." of Leipzig. simplicity. I know few things more touching than those soft breathings of affection. Tolerance. his force of all sorts. of tolerance and moderation. unadulterated with any cant. which he took for the Evil One. full of pity and love. he was worn down with long labor. with fiend-defiance. I say. Duke George. I would ride into Leipzig. was all that down-pressed mood of despair and reprobation. The tiger before a stronger foe--flies: the tiger is not what we call valiant." They may be called so. with sickness. In the room of the Wartburg where he sat translating the Bible. can give no higher proof of fearlessness. he speaks forth what is the wise course. Good humor too. Far from that." writes he on one occasion. A rugged honesty. The essential quality of him was. the strange memorial of one of these conflicts. of the Peasants' War." What a reservoir of Dukes to ride into!-At the same time. Luther's Written Works give similar testimony of him. "that this does not proceed out of fear in me. a rugged sterling sense and strength. Luther's clear deep force of judgment. His defiance of the "Devils" in Worms was not a mere boast. to forbid his work: Luther started up. shows a noble strength. flung his inkstand at the spectre. against Hell itself. What. and a most small sneer has been grounded on it by some. only fierce and cruel. answers Luther. soft as a child's or a mother's. let him have three cassocks if he find benefit in them!" His conduct in the matter of Karlstadt's wild image-breaking. no accusation could be more unjust than this of mere ferocious violence brought against him. I call him a great Thinker. as many do. And indeed the mere grammatical diction is still legible enough. Luther's merit in literary history is of the greatest: his dialect became the language of all writing. Luther sat translating one of the Psalms. pure as water welling from the rock. So honest. from the presence of hatred and stupid fury. these Four-and-twenty Quartos of his. looking much to him for guidance: and he held it peaceable. that he could fight and conquer. abstinence from food: there rose before him some hideous indefinable Image. homeliness. nobleness and depth: this man could have been a Poet too! He had to work an Epic Poem. that he was a right piece of human Valor. and all men follow him in that. a curious monument of several things. We do not value the courage of the tiger highly! With Luther it was far otherwise. No more valiant man. The thing he will quail before exists not on this Earth or under it. He dashes out illumination from him."--far short of a Devil! "If I had business at Leipzig. a very genuine kind of tolerance: he distinguishes what is essential. of the Anabaptists. no mortal heart to be called braver. Richter says of Luther's words. The dialect of these speculations is now grown obsolete for us. A most gentle heart withal. I will say noble faculty of a man than in these. A man to do this must have a kingly faculty: he must have the gift to discern at all turns where the true heart of the matter lies. "Duke George is not equal to one Devil." Well. not write one. they still show you a black spot on the wall. very different from spasmodic violence. are very notable in these circumstances. Many times. and to plant himself courageously on that. as indeed his greatness of heart already betokens that. as a strong true man. mere coarse disobedient obstinacy and savagery. whose character is valor. that one has record of. But in no Books have I found a more robust. they err greatly who imagine that this man's courage was ferocity. A complaint comes to him that such and such a Reformed Preacher "will not preach without a cassock. It was a faith of Luther's that there were Devils. this turns up. and what is not. rude in their utterance. but one still reads them with a singular attraction. homely. in a scientific sense: but the man's heart that dare rise defiant. as indeed the truly valiant heart ever is.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 61 soever. face to face. nay tender affection. that other true men may rally round him there. . with quite other than literary objects. continually besetting men. in fact. genuine. He will not continue leader of men otherwise. written hastily. though it rained Duke Georges for nine days running. I have seen and defied innumerable Devils. in this great wild heart of Luther. what harm will a cassock do the man? "Let him have a cassock to preach in. in his writings. spiritual denizens of the Pit. the unessential may go very much as it will. as the like might be if now spoken.--Fearless enough! "The Devil is aware. They are not well written. Any apothecary's apprentice can now tell us what we are to think of this apparition. his smiting idiomatic phrases seem to cleave into the very secret of the matter.

on its fair taper stem. so still. green beautiful valleys with flowers! A right Spiritual Hero and Prophet. that golden yellow corn. down to Voltaireism itself. as God wills. a little bird has perched for the night: That little bird. Once. its golden head bent. once more. yet longs inexpressibly that she might live. Luther's face is to me expressive of him. The common speech of him has a rugged nobleness. he feels what nothing it is that we know. In his latter days. in the middle of the night: The great vault of Immensity.--for after all dogmatic creeds and articles. We must know that God is great. gone trustfully to rest there as in its home: the Maker of it has given it too a home!--Neither are mirthful turns wanting: there is a great free human heart in this man. honest. In Luther's Table-Talk. weak man. at God's kind bidding. will be thankful to Heaven. His behavior at the death-bed of his little Daughter. a posthumous Book of anecdotes and sayings collected by his friends. is that of Puritanism. modesty. Death-defiance on the one hand. and let him depart and be at rest. and trust. genuine. as we said. Awe-struck. The most interesting phasis which the Reformation anywhere assumes. and that perhaps the Day of Judgment is not far.--so simple. the essence of it sceptical contention: which indeed has jangled more and more.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 62 which we saw in his youth. is among the most affecting things. but rather now a theological jangling of argument. in courage. almost a repulsive face. Great. has produced it once again. Earnestness. gaunt. but as an Alpine mountain. One feels him to be a great brother man. As for him. which even got itself established as a Presbyterianism and National Church among the Scotch. affectionate shrinking tenderness the chief distinction of him. The basis of his life was Sadness. above it are the stars and deep Heaven of worlds. expressive. A rude plebeian face. we have many beautiful unconscious displays of the man. great in intellect. affections too keen and fine? It is the course such men as the poor Poet Cowper fall into. the emblem of rugged energy. and such love of music on the other." God supports it. most heartfelt. the flight of her little soul through those unknown realms. Laughter was in this Luther. His love of Music. It is a noble valor which is roused in a heart like this. spontaneous. and what sort of nature he had. between these two all great things had room. the most interesting now of all the Books proceeding from him. I could call these the two opposite poles of a great soul. He is resigned that his little Magdalene should die. huge:--who supports all that? "None ever saw the pillars of it. he expresses himself heartily weary of living. the summary of all these affections in him? Many a wild unutterability he spoke forth from him in the tones of his flute. but the outcome of pre-eminent thoughtful gentleness. he looks out from his solitary Patmos. but tears also were there. the element of all gentle and fine affections. the proper seat of it not the heart. idiomatic. tears and hard toil. or can know: His little Magdalene shall be with God. in Kranach's best portraits I find the true Luther. says Luther. where we cannot see. at first. gleams here and there with beautiful poetic tints. he longs for one thing: that God would release him from his labor. the bread of man!--In the garden at Wittenberg one evening at sunset. They understand little of the man who cite this in discredit of him!--I will call this Luther a true Great Man.--dumb. so great and loving. yet it has folded its little wings.--through Gustavus-Adolphus contentions onwards to French-Revolution ones! But in our Island there arose a Puritanism.--Returning home from Leipzig once. and sincere. he considers that God alone can and will regulate the course things are taking. especially for us English. the Castle of Coburg. that God is good. and many that are to come yet. all rich and waving there. affection and integrity. Islam is all. we can see. piercing far and wide into the Heavens. an unnamable melancholy. yet it is supported. not as a hewn obelisk. one of our most lovable and precious men. for whom these centuries. yet in the clefts of it fountains.--follows. is not this. unsubduable granite. giving to the rest the true stamp of nobleness. . all kindled into a heavenly blaze. Yet in the eyes especially there is a wild silent sorrow. a true Son of Nature and Fact. there for quite another purpose than being great! Ah yes. In Luther's own country Protestantism soon dwindled into a rather barren affair: not a religion or faith. indeed. in awe-struck thought. he says. Luther to a slight observer might have seemed a timid. for Luther too that is all. Tears also were appointed him.--the meek Earth. he is struck by the beauty of the harvest-fields: How it stands. once stirred up into defiance. as it were. not setting up to be great at all. after all triumphs and victories. with its huge crag-like brows and bones. long flights of clouds sailing through it. The Devils fled from his flute.

and wild savage creatures.--Hah! These men. i. for some time to come! We may censure Puritanism as we please. They thought the Earth would yield them food. In some senses. but still more important as Chief Priest and Founder. He did not doom . Look now at American Saxondom. and go with them into that waste wilderness. such as she writes in broad facts over great continents. to make of every alteration a revolution. of the Faith that became Scotland's. too. this is what I mean by a whole "nation of heroes. that strength. as a practiced fact? Did Hero-worship fail in Knox's case? Or are we made of other clay now? Did the Westminster Confession of Faith add some new property to the soul of man? God made the soul of man. and their brethren whom they were to leave behind. if he prove a true man! Well. We must spare a few words for Knox. it has cunning in its ten fingers. Black untamed forests are there. 1755). I think. we find. dissensions. A cause." a believing nation. He was there also as well as here. Hungry fierce barons. to prepare for Eternity by living well in this world of Time. it has firearms. full of continual broils. and no one of us. some material as of a body was there. all joined in solemn prayer. there too. and it has grown. under wider forms than the Presbyterian: there can be no lasting good done till then. not the idolatrous way. History will have something to say about this.--Impossible! say some. had a work! The weak thing. Their minister went down with them to the beach. hired a ship. for He also had made that. I doubt not. Puritanism has got weapons and sinews. little better perhaps than Ireland at this day. They clubbed their small means together. is the measure of all worth. war-navies. In Neal's History of the Puritans [Neal (London. but nobody can manage to laugh at it now. one of Nature's own Poems. worshipping in what they thought the true. a people in the last state of rudeness and destitution. but would find it a very rough defective thing. I say sometimes. external. may understand that it was a genuine thing. not able well to live in Holland. becomes strong one day. we might call it rather. if they tilled honestly. and at that little Fact of the sailing of the Mayflower. fierce fighting in abundance: but not braver or fiercer than that of their old Scandinavian Sea-king ancestors. it is a right thing. But we. Possible? Has it not been. whose exploits we have not found worth dwelling on! It is a country as yet without a soul: nothing developed in it but what is rude. for Nature has adopted it. if it can succeed. but obliged. A poor barren country. For it was properly the beginning of America: there were straggling settlers in America before. no way of changing a ministry but by hanging the old ministers on gibbets: this is a historical spectacle of no very singular significance! "Bravery" enough. Puritanism was only despicable. the little ship Mayflower. we had found a Poem here. fell forests. that will be a great soul! The like has been seen. laughable then. the internal life is kindled. and of exhibiting itself in History as such. as the Colombian Republics are at this day. but a Member of Christ's visible Church. I suppose. There needs not a great soul to make a hero. but the soul of it was first this. the noblest of causes kindles itself. the everlasting heaven would stretch. from Delft Haven in Holland! Were we of open sense as the Greeks were. that all goes by wager-of-battle in this world. Give a thing time. there needs a god-created soul which will be true to its origin. The like will be again seen. determine on settling in the New World. a true heart-communication with Heaven. overhead. weaker than a child.--whereby the meanest man becomes not a Citizen only.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 63 which came forth as a real business of the heart. And now at the Reformation. under the ribs of this outward material death. I can find properly but one epoch: we may say. and all men.--it is one of the strongest things under this sun at present! In the history of Scotland. well understood. and grows. remove mountains. in this world. 490] is an account of the ceremony of their departure: solemnity. it can steer ships. two hundred years ago. himself a brave and remarkable man. driven out of their own country. These poor men. not so much as able to form any arrangement with each other how to divide what they fleeced from these poor drudges. for it was a real act of worship. That God would have pity on His poor children. and has produced in the world very notable fruit. massacrings. like a beacon set on high. Oliver Cromwell's. if it be a true thing. but not so cruel as Star-chamber hangmen. New England's. they should be left in peace. it contains nothing of world-interest at all but this Reformation by Knox. semi-animal. and made ready to set sail. strength in its right arm. as it were. one may say it is the only phasis of Protestantism that ever got to the rank of being a Faith. high as Heaven. yet attainable from Earth. which one may consider him to be. a veritable Hero.

battling for very life. in a world filled with such. that all men who had a priest's heart and gift in them ought now to speak. He is the one Scotchman to whom. He "burst into tears. was censured. He had lived as Tutor in gentlemen's families. what we all call the "Glorious Revolution" a Habeas Corpus Act. In this entirely obscure way he had reached the age of forty. ought to look through the rumors and controversies enveloping the man. have to struggle. and ran out. That many men in the van do always. should have to plead like a culprit before the world. It was not a smooth business. I say. Scotch Industry. I find that without the Reformation they would not have been. that scene. he had made but a bad venture of it. greatly censured. Knoxes. Walter Scott. march into the ditch of Schweidnitz.--which gifts and heart one of their own number. and suffer. applies emphatically to Knox. He felt what a baptism he was called to be baptized withal. of all others. with universal three-times-three! It seems to me hard measure that this Scottish man. He felt what a small faculty was his for this great work. wander forlorn in exile. said suddenly. for our own sake. that the rear may pass over them dry-shod. like so many others. adopted the Reformation. I cannot apologize for Knox. appealing to all the audience: what then is his duty? The people answered affirmatively. Scotch Literature and Thought. he attempted to reply. like Russian soldiers. and seemed well content to guide his own steps by the light of it. A tumult in the High Church of Edinburgh spread into a universal battle and struggle over all these realms. Or what of Scotland? The Puritanism of Scotland became that of England. wrestling.--there came out. after fifty years' struggling.--before a beautiful Revolution of Eighty-eight can step over them in official pumps and silk-stockings. It is worth remembering. had it been far rougher. had: Had he not? said the Preacher. James Watt. David Hume. but it was welcome surely. the bravest of all Scotchmen! Had he been a poor Half-and-half. intrinsically for having been. and cheap at that price. in such way as it was then possible to be. of New England." Our primary characteristic of a Hero. the Preacher after finishing his exhortation to these fighters in the forlorn hope. we may really call a resurrection as from death. But we. whatever might be his other qualities or faults.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 64 any soul of man to live as a Hypothesis and Hearsay. and gain the honor? How many earnest rugged Cromwells. in rough miry places. Scotland had not been delivered. had to row in French galleys. was with the small body of Reformers who were standing siege in St. his country and the world owe a debt. Knox had lived forty years quietly obscure. and much else!--Alas. before he became conspicuous.--burst into a flood of tears. On the whole. is it not too true what we said. that he is sincere. I will remark that this post of Prophet to his Nation was not of his seeking. the truth alone is there for him. what men say of him. at what cost and costs soever. and Knox had been without blame. is among the truest of men. It is not denied anywhere that this. John Knox the name of him. Andrew's Castle. and fall. had got a college education. bemired. That there ought to be other speakers. He has to plead that Scotland would forgive him for having been worth to it any million "unblamable" Scotchmen that need no forgiveness! He bared his breast to the battle. in clouds and storms. the rest a mere shadow and deceptive . Free Parliaments. He was the son of poor parents. shot at through his windows. not fancying himself capable of more. it was a criminal forsaking of his post. he could have crouched into the corner. Robert Burns: I find Knox and the Reformation acting in the heart's core of every one of these persons and phenomena. become a Priest. he could say no word. poor Peasant Covenanters. these two hundred and fifty years or more. if such a man held the word that was in him silent. For one thing. preaching when any body of persons wished to hear his doctrine: resolute he to walk by the truth. and speak the truth when called to do it. He was in grievous trouble for some days. nowise unduly intruding it on others. The people began to live: they needed first of all to do that. had a right sore fighting life: if this world were his place of recompense. not ambitious of more. into the man himself. now after three hundred years. To him it is very indifferent. cheap at any price!--as life is. we. and fill it up with their dead bodies.--when one day in their chapel. With a singular instinct he holds to the truth and fact. and with the fatal work and fruit of such!-But to return: This that Knox did for his Nation. Poor Knox was obliged to stand up. and living now in clearness on the fruits of his victory. having got above all those details of his battle.

just in its very wrath. among her other qualities: "Who are you. and flung the thing into the river. He is an instance to us how a man. Knox had to go. "He lies there. when it can tolerate no longer. and put an end to them. In this sense Knox was. after all the talk there is and has been about it. at bottom. We find in Knox a good honest intellectual talent. one might ask. measured. and to see well what that is." said the Earl of Morton at his grave. to reprove her there. more than any of the moderns. when they fasten on us. in sincerity. on that and that only can he take his stand. becomes heroic: it is the grand gift he has. and such like. the Cause they had was the true one. Thieveries. It was unfortunately not possible to be polite with the Queen of Scotland. it is alone strong. or no one. The hapless Queen. should do it reverence. if she were made happy! Mary herself was not without sharpness enough. we say to them. the doing of the thing is our great concern.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 65 nonentity. unless one proved untrue to the Nation and Cause of Scotland. We do not "tolerate" Falsehoods. as compared with Luther: but in heartfelt instinctive adherence to truth. we are not altogether here to tolerate! We are here to resist. Reasonably answered! If the "subject" have truth to speak. Mother? Mother of God? said Knox. reading these colloquies of his with the Queen." He resembles. intolerant."--a piece of wood. in some wise way! I will not quarrel so much with the way. as we say. We are to take him for that. not require him to be other. and must and would prosper. "that presume to school the nobles and sovereign of this realm?"--"Madam. to control and vanquish withal. were not found in it. Well. in this darkest time. "who never feared the face of man. no transcendent one. I must say one's tragic feeling is rather disappointed. Kind honest affections dwelt in the much-enduring. rigid narrow-looking adherence to God's truth. cannot always be in the mildest humor! I am not prepared to say that Knox had a soft temper. inconsiderable man. intolerance. mistakes the purport and essence of them altogether.-We blame Knox for his intolerance. Yet. nor do I know that he had what we call an ill temper. A man who did not wish to see the land of his birth made a hunting-field for intriguing ambitious Guises. when the turn came to him: This is no Mother of God: this is "a pented bredd. he came on another errand. have been much commented upon." Knox was the constitutional opposition-party in Scotland: the Nobles of the country. it is not the "subject's" footing that will fail him here.--some officer or priest. one day. the harsh visits he used to make in her own palace. added Knox. are fitter to swim than to be worshipped!--This Knox cannot live but by fact: he clings to reality as the shipwrecked sailor to the cliff. Iniquities." said she once. The same inflexibility. thinks they are vulgar insolences of a plebeian priest to a delicate high lady. surely it is good that each of us be as tolerant as possible. such coarseness fills us with indignation. the whole world could not put it down. However feeble. forlorn the reality may seem. it was a pented bredd: worship it he would not. thou art not tolerable! We are here to extinguish Falsehoods. what Knox said. to be of courage. Such cruelty. "than that bearded men be forced to weep. An ill nature he decidedly had not. full surely. with paint on it! She is fitter for swimming.--a narrow. stern rebuke in the name of God to all that forsake truth: an Old-Hebrew Prophet in the guise of an Edinburgh Minister of the Sixteenth Century. They are not so coarse. Knox's conduct to Queen Mary. I think. whither Knox and the others. and what Knox meant. what is tolerance? Tolerance has to tolerate the unessential. than for being worshipped. I tell you." answered he. after their Castle of St. called by their station to take that post. A man sent to row in French Galleys. requiring that they. nay. Formulas and the Devil's Cause. What equal he has? The heart of him is of the true Prophet cast. Reality is of God's making. Thou art false. But. they seem to me about as fine as the circumstances would permit! Knox was not there to do the courtier. How many pented bredds. Whoever. . had been sent as Galley-slaves. It was not very cheap jesting there: but come of it what might. a subject born within the same. the blasphemous heretics. Tolerance has to be noble." said Morton. presented them an Image of the Virgin Mother. on the whole. these speeches. this thing to Knox was and must continue nothing other than the real truth. for teaching the Truth in his own land. pretending to be real. He told his fellow-prisoners. by sincerity itself. an Old-Hebrew Prophet.--but the still more hapless Country. Andrew's was taken. and the Cause of God trampled underfoot of Falsehoods. had no method of making himself agreeable! "Better that women weep. he has no superior. On reading the actual narrative of the business. In the Galleys of the River Loire.

unrealizable. wrestling with Popes and Principalities. cautious-hopeful. close at hand. was not true. bitterness alone. is it not what all zealous men. Tumult was not his element. shrieking fanatic. observing. a laugh in the eyes most of all. with faces that loved him! They go far wrong who think this Knox was a gloomy. he has very much the type of character we assign to the Scotch at present: a certain sardonic taciturnity is in him. and . do essentially wish. he did. take to hustling one another. He did mean that Kings and Prime Ministers. and is a "devout imagination" still. when he expostulated that it was not secular property. diplomatizing or whatever else they might be doing. illuminating laugh mounts up over the earnest visage. is curiously enlivened with this. unexpectedly enough. That he could rebuke Queens. quarrel about precedence. a cheery social man. that it remained after two centuries of effort. This Prophet of the Scotch is to me no hateful man!--He had a sore fight of an existence. When the two Prelates. not a loud laugh. as of all men's. insight enough. twitching one another's rochets. He hoped once to see such a thing realized. hates to be in it: but what then? Smooth Falsehood is not Order. proud enough whatever else they were. One word more as to the letter of Knox's work. and understand that this was their Law. and should be turned to true churchly uses. brother also to the low. as if he were a seditious rioting demagogue: precisely the reverse is seen to be the fact. with a shrug of the shoulders. if we examine! Knox wanted no pulling down of stone edifices. should walk according to the Gospel of Christ. this Knox has a vein of drollery in him. and a stouter heart than he himself knows of. This indeed is properly the sum of his offences. "pointed upwards with his finger. in defeat. If we think his scheme of truth was too narrow. it is a great sight for him every way! Not mockery. or Government of God. He had his pipe of Bourdeaux too. Cromwell wished it. or whatsoever else called.--each thing standing on the basis that belongs to it: Order and Falsehood cannot subsist together. brother to the high. to realize it.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 66 hard-worn. in public or private. a most shrewd. you would say. education. "Have you hope?" they asked him in his last moment. Practical. is precisely the thing to be struggled for! All Prophets. The unforgivable offence in him is. Such alone can bear rule in that kind. fought for it. at bottom. he strove to make the Government of Scotland a Theocracy. when he could no longer speak. though there is enough of that too. In other words. He has the power of holding his peace over many things which do not vitally concern him. we may rejoice that he could not realize it. in combination with his other qualities. spasmodic. Withal. to be no mean acrid man. life-long struggle. He has a true eye for the ridiculous. and the Petition. he wanted leprosy and darkness to be thrown out of the lives of men. and had such weight among those proud turbulent Nobles. His History. strong. that it was spiritual property. zealous Priests. Honor to him! His works have not died. But how shall we blame him for struggling to realize it? Theocracy. the essential sin. Not at all: he is one of the solidest of men. He was sore grieved when he saw greedy worldly Barons clutch hold of the Church's property. with its rough earnestness. quietly discerning man. They blame him for pulling down cathedrals. but at heart a healthful. it was the tragic feature of his life that he was forced to dwell so much in that. sagacious man. An honest-hearted. brotherly man. that thing he will speak of. "It is a devout imagination!" This was Knox's scheme of right and truth. it is the general sum-total of Disorder. Hildebrand wished a Theocracy. consciously or unconsciously. Prophets. In fact. Government of God. supreme over all laws. and so forth. Thy Kingdom come. which I like much. Order is Truth. but the spirit of it never. Every such man is the born enemy of Disorder." and so died. But a true. Mahomet attained it. whether called Priests. no longer an empty word. scorn. A sore fight: but he won it. Nay. sincere in his sympathy with both.--"They? what are they?" But the thing which does vitally concern him. he who was only "a subject born within the same:" this of itself will prove to us that he was found. He lifted his finger. that he wished to set up Priests over the head of Kings. in regard to cathedrals and the rest of it. entering Glasgow Cathedral. mean a Theocracy. and could maintain to the end a kind of virtual Presidency and Sovereignty in that wild realm. we find. and in a tone the whole world shall be made to hear: all the more emphatic for his long silence. worship. and at last flourishing their crosiers like quarter-staves. schools. patient. contention. rowing as a galley-slave. are there for that purpose. ever-battling man. The letter of his work dies. for which what pardon can there be? It is most true. and all manner of persons.--and the Regent Murray had to answer. march rapidly up. this he zealously endeavored after. in that old Edinburgh house of his. wandering as an exile. loving.

in such way as he has.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 67 must wish? That right and truth. in which we ourselves live and work. The world's manner of dealing with him is the most significant feature of the world's general position. he may be expected to continue. all that a man. reign supreme among men. Poets. and religiously follow his Law for twelve centuries: but that a wise great Johnson." "sincerity. he declares that abroad. who does what is in him to bring them in. are by the nature of them Priests. What he teaches. the inspired soul of him. which exists always. and at what point our impatience with their non-introduction ought to begin. some of them have ceased to be possible long since. till about a hundred years ago. in his squalid garret. we may get a glance. I say. all men ought to be more or less impatient always where they are not found introduced. the Hero from of old has had to cramp himself into strange shapes: the world knows not well at any time what to do with him. Hero-Gods. He. endeavoring to speak forth the inspiration that was in him by Printed Books. will one day seem a still absurder phasis of things!--Meanwhile. and strive for a Theocracy. and have a few coins and applauses thrown him. He is new. There are genuine Men of Letters. a Rousseau. a noble life. is a piece of the everlasting heart of Nature herself: all . Trivial: his being is in that. give him bread while living. Looking well at his life. or would not. in his rusty coat. by act or speech as it may be in declaring himself abroad. that men. and cannot any more show themselves in this world. a Burns. a very singular phenomenon. ever the highest. He is uttering forth. this is the Heavenly Ideal (well named in Knox's time.] LECTURE V. should be taken for some idle nondescript. is always a question. should take some wise great Odin for a god. as deep as is readily possible for us. and find place and subsistence by what the world would please to give him for doing that. as before hinted. Alas. into the life of those singular centuries which have produced him. Prophets. and say. or God's Law. BURNS. in the True. I say inspired. so foreign is his aspect in the world! It seemed absurd to us. and was once well known to be the highest. Priests are forms of Heroism that belong to the old ages. in toil. unseen to most. again. Divine and Eternal. can do. He is. with his copy-rights and copy-wrongs. a revealed "Will of God") towards which the Reformer will insist that all be more and more approximated. and not genuine. that he might live thereby. There will never be wanting Regent Murrays enough to shrug their shoulders. 1840. under the Temporary. JOHNSON. he has hardly lasted above a century in the world yet. in their rude admiration. of which class we are to speak to-day. and wears out. His life. make their appearance in the remotest times. He. THE HERO AS MAN OF LETTERS. such as he may be. subsists. and worship him as such. in that naked manner. in any case. this perhaps. as one of the main forms of Heroism for all future ages. ruling (for this is what he does). to make a God's Kingdom of this Earth. as in every kind there is a genuine and a spurious. ROUSSEAU. in various respects. The Hero as Man of Letters. whole nations and generations who would. or of Ready-writing which we call Printing. as I said. I think we may say safely. extant in the world to amuse idleness. from his grave. contradiction. then I say the Hero as Man of Letters will be found discharging a function for us which is ever honorable. calumny. "A devout imagination!" We will praise the Hero-priest rather. is the soul of all. after death. and namable in all times. and left to make its own bargain in the market-place. some wise great Mahomet for one god-inspired. is altogether a product of these new ages. but the inspired wisdom of a Heroic Soul never till then. Let them introduce themselves as far as they can contrive to do it! If they are the true faith of men.--is a rather curious spectacle! Few shapes of Heroism can be more unexpected. If hero be taken to mean genuine. this same Man-of-Letters Hero must be regarded as our most important modern person. signifies that. All true Reformers. was there seen any figure of a Great Soul living apart in that anomalous manner. How far such Ideals can ever be introduced into Practice. for what we call "originality. the whole world will do and make. and so long as the wondrous art of Writing. Never. as we said before. The Hero is he who lives in the inward sphere of things. The Earth will not become too godlike! [May 19." "genius. since it is the spiritual always that determines the material. Much had been sold and bought." the heroic quality we have no good name for.

It means. there was given what we may call a life in the Divine Idea of the World. struggles not.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 68 men's life is. which all manner of Heroes. practicalities and shows of the world. what there is at present no name for: The unspeakable Divine Significance. among all the great things that have come to pass in them. a Priest. no wish that he should continue happy among us! This is Fichte's notion of the Man of Letters. are here to teach. that all "Appearance. of which he was a distinguished teacher. perennial. Odin in his: it is the thing which all thinking hearts. the workmanship and temple of a God. vision of the inward divine mystery: and strangely. But at present. a "Bungler. and make manifest to us. To that man too. Intrinsically it is the same function which the old generations named a man Prophet. of wonder and terror." To the mass of men no such Divine Idea is recognizable in the world. speaking and keeping silence as an ancient Hero. some forty years ago at Erlangen. to me a noble spectacle: a great heroic ancient man. Goethe. a sacredness: he is the light of the world. Goethe. among the superficialities. a Prophet. heroic. are sent into the world to do. is there to proclaim this in such sort as he can. Him we must leave to future times. no man capable of affording such. out of his Books." In the true Literary Man there is thus ever. continually unfolding the Godlike to men: Men of Letters are a perpetual Priesthood. by speech or by act. to live wholly in it. Illuminated all. he may be a "Hodman. what he calls the "Divine Idea of the World. to the great majority of you.--guiding it. this same Divine Idea: in every new generation it will manifest itself in a new dialect. though one of the quietest. heroic in what he said and did.--but the weak many know not the fact. And it were a very pleasant plan for me here to discourse of his heroism: for I consider him to be a true Hero. says Fichte. Fichte calls the Man of Letters." and has in short no mercy for him. and are untrue to it. I consider that. On the Nature of the Literary Man. Speak as I might. or as he prefers to phrase it. like every Hero. in its own form. as for the one good." Fichte. Fichte discriminates with sharp zeal the true Literary Man. But the Man of Letters is sent hither specially that he may discern for himself. Stumper. and perhaps still more in what he did not say and did not do. teaching all men that a God is still present in their life. would remain problematic. vague. from multitudes of false unheroic. Whoever lives not wholly in this Divine Idea. but in mild celestial radiance. Priest. in what pomps and prosperities he like. am striving imperfectly to name. or living partially in it. says Fichte. the world's Priest. what we here call the Hero as Man of Letters. for the last hundred years. not dreaming that there is anything divine under them. the strong few are strong. high-bred. by far the notablest of all Literary Men is Fichte's countryman.--the Presence of the God who made every man and thing. precisely what we here mean. acknowledged or not by the world. in the guise of a most modern. because it cannot be hidden from them. is but as a vesture for the "Divine Idea of the World. declares first: That all things which we see or work with in this Earth." Or at best. no Literary Man.--he is. that lies in the being of every man. as the essence of them. full of splendor.--really a Prophecy in these most unprophetic times. such is the general state of knowledge about Goethe. a highly remarkable Course of Lectures on this subject: "_Ueber das Wesen des Gelehrten_. for the last hundred and fifty years. with which we need not quarrel. let him live where else he like. are as a kind of vesture or sensuous Appearance: that under all there lies. he is. of every thing. . in one dialect or another. if he belong to the prosaic provinces. in a strange way. In this point of view. It is his way of naming what I here. Mahomet taught this in his dialect. Fichte the German Philosopher delivered. no impression but a false one could be realized. " Fichte even calls him elsewhere a "Nonentity. in most times. in its dark pilgrimage through the waste of Time. by other words. therefore. The Man of Letters. it were worse than useless to attempt speaking of him in this case. not in fierce impure fire-splendor as of Mahomet." for "that which lies at the bottom of Appearance. in conformity with the Transcendental Philosophy. high-cultivated Man of Letters! We have had no such spectacle." this is the Reality which "lies at the bottom of all Appearance. to my mind. by far the greatest. especially we ourselves and all persons. the world rises imaged once more as godlike. they live merely. and he is there for the purpose of doing that. Our chosen specimen of the Hero as Literary Man would be this Goethe. from age to age. Divinity for doing. like a sacred Pillar of Fire. Such is Fichte's phraseology." whatsoever we see in the world.

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Johnson, Burns, Rousseau, three great figures from a prior time, from a far inferior state of circumstances, will suit us better here. Three men of the Eighteenth Century; the conditions of their life far more resemble what those of ours still are in England, than what Goethe's in Germany were. Alas, these men did not conquer like him; they fought bravely, and fell. They were not heroic bringers of the light, but heroic seekers of it. They lived under galling conditions; struggling as under mountains of impediment, and could not unfold themselves into clearness, or victorious interpretation of that "Divine Idea." It is rather the Tombs of three Literary Heroes that I have to show you. There are the monumental heaps, under which three spiritual giants lie buried. Very mournful, but also great and full of interest for us. We will linger by them for a while. Complaint is often made, in these times, of what we call the disorganized condition of society: how ill many forces of society fulfil their work; how many powerful are seen working in a wasteful, chaotic, altogether unarranged manner. It is too just a complaint, as we all know. But perhaps if we look at this of Books and the Writers of Books, we shall find here, as it were, the summary of all other disorganizations;--a sort of heart, from which, and to which all other confusion circulates in the world! Considering what Book writers do in the world, and what the world does with Book writers, I should say, It is the most anomalous thing the world at present has to show.--We should get into a sea far beyond sounding, did we attempt to give account of this: but we must glance at it for the sake of our subject. The worst element in the life of these three Literary Heroes was, that they found their business and position such a chaos. On the beaten road there is tolerable travelling; but it is sore work, and many have to perish, fashioning a path through the impassable! Our pious Fathers, feeling well what importance lay in the speaking of man to men, founded churches, made endowments, regulations; everywhere in the civilized world there is a Pulpit, environed with all manner of complex dignified appurtenances and furtherances, that therefrom a man with the tongue may, to best advantage, address his fellow-men. They felt that this was the most important thing; that without this there was no good thing. It is a right pious work, that of theirs; beautiful to behold! But now with the art of Writing, with the art of Printing, a total change has come over that business. The Writer of a Book, is not he a Preacher preaching not to this parish or that, on this day or that, but to all men in all times and places? Surely it is of the last importance that he do his work right, whoever do it wrong;--that the eye report not falsely, for then all the other members are astray! Well; how he may do his work, whether he do it right or wrong, or do it at all, is a point which no man in the world has taken the pains to think of. To a certain shopkeeper, trying to get some money for his books, if lucky, he is of some importance; to no other man of any. Whence he came, whither he is bound, by what ways he arrived, by what he might be furthered on his course, no one asks. He is an accident in society. He wanders like a wild Ishmaelite, in a world of which he is as the spiritual light, either the guidance or the misguidance! Certainly the Art of Writing is the most miraculous of all things man has devised. Odin's Runes were the first form of the work of a Hero; Books written words, are still miraculous Runes, the latest form! In Books lies the soul of the whole Past Time; the articulate audible voice of the Past, when the body and material substance of it has altogether vanished like a dream. Mighty fleets and armies, harbors and arsenals, vast cities, high-domed, many-engined,--they are precious, great: but what do they become? Agamemnon, the many Agamemnons, Pericleses, and their Greece; all is gone now to some ruined fragments, dumb mournful wrecks and blocks: but the Books of Greece! There Greece, to every thinker, still very literally lives: can be called up again into life. No magic Rune is stranger than a Book. All that Mankind has done, thought, gained or been: it is lying as in magic preservation in the pages of Books. They are the chosen possession of men. Do not Books still accomplish miracles, as Runes were fabled to do? They persuade men. Not the wretchedest circulating-library novel, which foolish girls thumb and con in remote villages, but will help to regulate the actual practical weddings and households of those foolish girls. So "Celia" felt, so "Clifford" acted: the foolish Theorem of Life, stamped into those young brains, comes out as a solid Practice one day. Consider whether any Rune in the wildest imagination of Mythologist ever did such wonders as, on the actual firm Earth, some Books have done! What built St. Paul's Cathedral? Look at the heart of the matter, it was that divine Hebrew BOOK,--the word partly of the man Moses, an outlaw tending his Midianitish herds, four thousand years ago,

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in the wildernesses of Sinai! It is the strangest of things, yet nothing is truer. With the art of Writing, of which Printing is a simple, an inevitable and comparatively insignificant corollary, the true reign of miracles for mankind commenced. It related, with a wondrous new contiguity and perpetual closeness, the Past and Distant with the Present in time and place; all times and all places with this our actual Here and Now. All things were altered for men; all modes of important work of men: teaching, preaching, governing, and all else. To look at Teaching, for instance. Universities are a notable, respectable product of the modern ages. Their existence too is modified, to the very basis of it, by the existence of Books. Universities arose while there were yet no Books procurable; while a man, for a single Book, had to give an estate of land. That, in those circumstances, when a man had some knowledge to communicate, he should do it by gathering the learners round him, face to face, was a necessity for him. If you wanted to know what Abelard knew, you must go and listen to Abelard. Thousands, as many as thirty thousand, went to hear Abelard and that metaphysical theology of his. And now for any other teacher who had also something of his own to teach, there was a great convenience opened: so many thousands eager to learn were already assembled yonder; of all places the best place for him was that. For any third teacher it was better still; and grew ever the better, the more teachers there came. It only needed now that the King took notice of this new phenomenon; combined or agglomerated the various schools into one school; gave it edifices, privileges, encouragements, and named it Universitas, or School of all Sciences: the University of Paris, in its essential characters, was there. The model of all subsequent Universities; which down even to these days, for six centuries now, have gone on to found themselves. Such, I conceive, was the origin of Universities. It is clear, however, that with this simple circumstance, facility of getting Books, the whole conditions of the business from top to bottom were changed. Once invent Printing, you metamorphosed all Universities, or superseded them! The Teacher needed not now to gather men personally round him, that he might speak to them what he knew: print it in a Book, and all learners far and wide, for a trifle, had it each at his own fireside, much more effectually to learn it!--Doubtless there is still peculiar virtue in Speech; even writers of Books may still, in some circumstances, find it convenient to speak also,--witness our present meeting here! There is, one would say, and must ever remain while man has a tongue, a distinct province for Speech as well as for Writing and Printing. In regard to all things this must remain; to Universities among others. But the limits of the two have nowhere yet been pointed out, ascertained; much less put in practice: the University which would completely take in that great new fact, of the existence of Printed Books, and stand on a clear footing for the Nineteenth Century as the Paris one did for the Thirteenth, has not yet come into existence. If we think of it, all that a University, or final highest School can do for us, is still but what the first School began doing,--teach us to read. We learn to read, in various languages, in various sciences; we learn the alphabet and letters of all manner of Books. But the place where we are to get knowledge, even theoretic knowledge, is the Books themselves! It depends on what we read, after all manner of Professors have done their best for us. The true University of these days is a Collection of Books. But to the Church itself, as I hinted already, all is changed, in its preaching, in its working, by the introduction of Books. The Church is the working recognized Union of our Priests or Prophets, of those who by wise teaching guide the souls of men. While there was no Writing, even while there was no Easy-writing, or Printing, the preaching of the voice was the natural sole method of performing this. But now with Books! --He that can write a true Book, to persuade England, is not he the Bishop and Archbishop, the Primate of England and of All England? I many a time say, the writers of Newspapers, Pamphlets, Poems, Books, these are the real working effective Church of a modern country. Nay not only our preaching, but even our worship, is not it too accomplished by means of Printed Books? The noble sentiment which a gifted soul has clothed for us in melodious words, which brings melody into our hearts,--is not this essentially, if we will understand it, of the nature of worship? There are many, in all countries, who, in this confused time, have no other method of worship. He who, in any way, shows us better than we knew before that a lily of the fields is beautiful, does he not show it us as an effluence of the Fountain of all Beauty; as the handwriting, made visible there, of the great Maker of the Universe? He has sung for us, made us sing with him, a little verse of a sacred Psalm. Essentially so. How much more he who sings, who says, or in any way brings home to our heart

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the noble doings, feelings, darings and endurances of a brother man! He has verily touched our hearts as with a live coal from the altar. Perhaps there is no worship more authentic. Literature, so far as it is Literature, is an "apocalypse of Nature," a revealing of the "open secret." It may well enough be named, in Fichte's style, a "continuous revelation" of the Godlike in the Terrestrial and Common. The Godlike does ever, in very truth, endure there; is brought out, now in this dialect, now in that, with various degrees of clearness: all true gifted Singers and Speakers are, consciously or unconsciously, doing so. The dark stormful indignation of a Byron, so wayward and perverse, may have touches of it; nay the withered mockery of a French sceptic,--his mockery of the False, a love and worship of the True. How much more the sphere-harmony of a Shakspeare, of a Goethe; the cathedral music of a Milton! They are something too, those humble genuine lark-notes of a Burns,--skylark, starting from the humble furrow, far overhead into the blue depths, and singing to us so genuinely there! For all true singing is of the nature of worship; as indeed all true working may be said to be,--whereof such singing is but the record, and fit melodious representation, to us. Fragments of a real "Church Liturgy" and "Body of Homilies," strangely disguised from the common eye, are to be found weltering in that huge froth-ocean of Printed Speech we loosely call Literature! Books are our Church too. Or turning now to the Government of men. Witenagemote, old Parliament, was a great thing. The affairs of the nation were there deliberated and decided; what we were to do as a nation. But does not, though the name Parliament subsists, the parliamentary debate go on now, everywhere and at all times, in a far more comprehensive way, out of Parliament altogether? Burke said there were Three Estates in Parliament; but, in the Reporters' Gallery yonder, there sat a Fourth Estate more important far than they all. It is not a figure of speech, or a witty saying; it is a literal fact,--very momentous to us in these times. Literature is our Parliament too. Printing, which comes necessarily out of Writing, I say often, is equivalent to Democracy: invent Writing, Democracy is inevitable. Writing brings Printing; brings universal everyday extempore Printing, as we see at present. Whoever can speak, speaking now to the whole nation, becomes a power, a branch of government, with inalienable weight in law-making, in all acts of authority. It matters not what rank he has, what revenues or garnitures. the requisite thing is, that he have a tongue which others will listen to; this and nothing more is requisite. The nation is governed by all that has tongue in the nation: Democracy is virtually there. Add only, that whatsoever power exists will have itself, by and by, organized; working secretly under bandages, obscurations, obstructions, it will never rest till it get to work free, unencumbered, visible to all. Democracy virtually extant will insist on becoming palpably extant.-On all sides, are we not driven to the conclusion that, of the things which man can do or make here below, by far the most momentous, wonderful and worthy are the things we call Books! Those poor bits of rag-paper with black ink on them;--from the Daily Newspaper to the sacred Hebrew BOOK, what have they not done, what are they not doing!--For indeed, whatever be the outward form of the thing (bits of paper, as we say, and black ink), is it not verily, at bottom, the highest act of man's faculty that produces a Book? It is the Thought of man; the true thaumaturgic virtue; by which man works all things whatsoever. All that he does, and brings to pass, is the vesture of a Thought. This London City, with all its houses, palaces, steam-engines, cathedrals, and huge immeasurable traffic and tumult, what is it but a Thought, but millions of Thoughts made into One;--a huge immeasurable Spirit of a THOUGHT, embodied in brick, in iron, smoke, dust, Palaces, Parliaments, Hackney Coaches, Katherine Docks, and the rest of it! Not a brick was made but some man had to think of the making of that brick.--The thing we called "bits of paper with traces of black ink," is the purest embodiment a Thought of man can have. No wonder it is, in all ways, the activest and noblest. All this, of the importance and supreme importance of the Man of Letters in modern Society, and how the Press is to such a degree superseding the Pulpit, the Senate, the Senatus Academicus and much else, has been admitted for a good while; and recognized often enough, in late times, with a sort of sentimental triumph and wonderment. It seems to me, the Sentimental by and by will have to give place to the Practical. If Men of Letters are so incalculably influential, actually performing such work for us from age to age, and even from day to day, then I think we may conclude that Men of Letters will not always wander like unrecognized

What the best arrangement were. all settled. vanity. universal struggle of these constitutes. Who knows but. I will say rather that. encumbered with all manner of complexities. or any good one. the making of it right. with whatever pangs. every species of worldly Distress and Degradation. as a thing worthless. inextricably complex. How to regulate that struggle? There is the whole question. towards the upper regions and rewards of society. above all. poor and plebeian. But if you ask. it is no evil to be poor. That one man wear the clothes. It was itself founded on Poverty. and even spurn it back. as I said above. this is not right. there is yet a long way. none of us could say. Strong men are born there. To beg. men setting up to be Spiritual Heroes. one is weary of hearing about the omnipotence of money.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 72 unregulated Ishmaelites among us! Whatsoever thing. and learned from them the priceless lessons they have to teach. as we said. and step forth one day with palpably articulated. on Sorrow. of a function which is done by quite another: there can be no profit in this. till the nobleness of those who did so had made it honored of some! Begging is not in our course at the present time: but for the rest of it. were instituted in the Christian Church. To the best. in truth. when it wishes to get farther. this wild welter of a chaos which is called Literary Life: this too is a kind of ordeal! There is clear truth in the idea that a struggle from the lower classes of society. The manifold. who will say that a Johnson is not perhaps the better for being poor? It is needful for him. One remark I must not omit.--to be. till they had learned to make it too do for them! Money. Which is the worst? I answer: This which we now have. for a genuine man. For Men of Letters. ill-conditioned egoism of all sorts.--till they had tried what was in it too. who ought to stand elsewhere than there. to be cast out of his heart. and take the wages. for long times to come! Sure enough.--what a business. that there ought to be Literary Men poor. If you asked me what were the best possible organization for the Men of Letters in modern society. and confine it there. The best. are bred in his heart. as in every heart. as they now are. one of the thousand arriving saved. the fit assigner of them. Pride. Poverty may still enter as an important element? What if our Men of Letters. Contradiction. And yet. that will bring out even an approximate solution. grounded the most accurately on the actual facts of their position and of the world's position. universally visible power. that Chaos should sit umpire in it. alas. it is wrong. made out even less than Burns. We must know the province of it. was no beautiful business. and must constitute. it is that of many successive men turned earnestly upon it. nine hundred and ninety-nine lost by the way. alas. or harnessed to the yoke of Printer Cave. advancing on us. This ordeal. your Rousseau driven into mad exasperation. but it cannot do all. as yet hidden in the bosom of centuries: this is a prophecy one can risk. a most natural and even necessary development of the spirit of Christianity. a whirl of distracted atoms." bound still to this same ugly Poverty. they do infallibly set . has virtual unnoticed power will cast off its wrappages. torn out of it. at the mercy of blind Chance. your Burns dying broken-hearted as a Gauger.--nor an honorable one in any eye. bandages. Besides. Byron. to know that outward profit. and be despised of all the world. in coarse woollen cloak with a rope round your loins. endowments and all furtherance of cash. bodies of good men doomed to beg. one cancelling the other. a kind of "involuntary monastic order. what is called the progress of society. has missed a good opportunity of schooling.--I should beg to say that the problem far exceeded my faculty! It is not one man's faculty. your royal Johnson languishing inactive in garrets. will do little towards the business. must ever continue. On the whole. is clearly enough the worst regulation. For so soon as men get to discern the importance of a thing. That royal or parliamentary grants of money are by no means the chief thing wanted! To give our Men of Letters stipends. that he who has not known those things.--how is the Burns to be recognized that merits these? He must pass through the ordeal. can do much. is far from us! And yet there can be no doubt but it is coming. born rich and noble. the proper season for them. were still then. in that same "best possible organization" as yet far off. that success of any kind is not the goal he has to aim at. as for all other sorts of men. kindling French Revolutions by his paradoxes: this. need. To leave it as it is. and go barefoot. this is the worst. were the money-furtherances. We may say. cast forth from it. the arrangement of furtherance and regulation. this that we call Organization of the Literary Guild is still a great way off.--to show whether they are genuine or not! Mendicant Orders. Crucifixion. and prove himself. at all rates.

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about arranging it, facilitating, forwarding it; and rest not till, in some approximate degree, they have accomplished that. I say, of all Priesthoods, Aristocracies, Governing Classes at present extant in the world, there is no class comparable for importance to that Priesthood of the Writers of Books. This is a fact which he who runs may read,--and draw inferences from. "Literature will take care of itself," answered Mr. Pitt, when applied to for some help for Burns. "Yes," adds Mr. Southey, "it will take care of itself; and of you too, if you do not look to it!" The result to individual Men of Letters is not the momentous one; they are but individuals, an infinitesimal fraction of the great body; they can struggle on, and live or else die, as they have been wont. But it deeply concerns the whole society, whether it will set its light on high places, to walk thereby; or trample it under foot, and scatter it in all ways of wild waste (not without conflagration), as heretofore! Light is the one thing wanted for the world. Put wisdom in the head of the world, the world will fight its battle victoriously, and be the best world man can make it. I called this anomaly of a disorganic Literary Class the heart of all other anomalies, at once product and parent; some good arrangement for that would be as the punctum saliens of a new vitality and just arrangement for all. Already, in some European countries, in France, in Prussia, one traces some beginnings of an arrangement for the Literary Class; indicating the gradual possibility of such. I believe that it is possible; that it will have to be possible. By far the most interesting fact I hear about the Chinese is one on which we cannot arrive at clearness, but which excites endless curiosity even in the dim state: this namely, that they do attempt to make their Men of Letters their Governors! It would be rash to say, one understood how this was done, or with what degree of success it was done. All such things must be very unsuccessful; yet a small degree of success is precious; the very attempt how precious! There does seem to be, all over China, a more or less active search everywhere to discover the men of talent that grow up in the young generation. Schools there are for every one: a foolish sort of training, yet still a sort. The youths who distinguish themselves in the lower school are promoted into favorable stations in the higher, that they may still more distinguish themselves,--forward and forward: it appears to be out of these that the Official Persons, and incipient Governors, are taken. These are they whom they try first, whether they can govern or not. And surely with the best hope: for they are the men that have already shown intellect. Try them: they have not governed or administered as yet; perhaps they cannot; but there is no doubt they have some Understanding,--without which no man can! Neither is Understanding a tool, as we are too apt to figure; "it is a hand which can handle any tool." Try these men: they are of all others the best worth trying.--Surely there is no kind of government, constitution, revolution, social apparatus or arrangement, that I know of in this world, so promising to one's scientific curiosity as this. The man of intellect at the top of affairs: this is the aim of all constitutions and revolutions, if they have any aim. For the man of true intellect, as I assert and believe always, is the noble-hearted man withal, the true, just, humane and valiant man. Get him for governor, all is got; fail to get him, though you had Constitutions plentiful as blackberries, and a Parliament in every village, there is nothing yet got!-These things look strange, truly; and are not such as we commonly speculate upon. But we are fallen into strange times; these things will require to be speculated upon; to be rendered practicable, to be in some way put in practice. These, and many others. On all hands of us, there is the announcement, audible enough, that the old Empire of Routine has ended; that to say a thing has long been, is no reason for its continuing to be. The things which have been are fallen into decay, are fallen into incompetence; large masses of mankind, in every society of our Europe, are no longer capable of living at all by the things which have been. When millions of men can no longer by their utmost exertion gain food for themselves, and "the third man for thirty-six weeks each year is short of third-rate potatoes," the things which have been must decidedly prepare to alter themselves!--I will now quit this of the organization of Men of Letters. Alas, the evil that pressed heaviest on those Literary Heroes of ours was not the want of organization for Men of Letters, but a far deeper one; out of which, indeed, this and so many other evils for the Literary Man, and for all men, had, as from their fountain, taken rise. That our Hero as Man of Letters had to travel without highway, companionless, through an inorganic chaos,--and to leave his own life and faculty lying there, as a

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partial contribution towards pushing some highway through it: this, had not his faculty itself been so perverted and paralyzed, he might have put up with, might have considered to be but the common lot of Heroes. His fatal misery was the spiritual paralysis, so we may name it, of the Age in which his life lay; whereby his life too, do what he might, was half paralyzed! The Eighteenth was a Sceptical Century; in which little word there is a whole Pandora's Box of miseries. Scepticism means not intellectual Doubt alone, but moral Doubt; all sorts of infidelity, insincerity, spiritual paralysis. Perhaps, in few centuries that one could specify since the world began, was a life of Heroism more difficult for a man. That was not an age of Faith,--an age of Heroes! The very possibility of Heroism had been, as it were, formally abnegated in the minds of all. Heroism was gone forever; Triviality, Formulism and Commonplace were come forever. The "age of miracles" had been, or perhaps had not been; but it was not any longer. An effete world; wherein Wonder, Greatness, Godhood could not now dwell;--in one word, a godless world! How mean, dwarfish are their ways of thinking, in this time,--compared not with the Christian Shakspeares and Miltons, but with the old Pagan Skalds, with any species of believing men! The living TREE Igdrasil, with the melodious prophetic waving of its world-wide boughs, deep-rooted as Hela, has died out into the clanking of a World-MACHINE. "Tree" and "Machine:" contrast these two things. I, for my share, declare the world to be no machine! I say that it does not go by wheel-and-pinion "motives" self-interests, checks, balances; that there is something far other in it than the clank of spinning-jennies, and parliamentary majorities; and, on the whole, that it is not a machine at all!--The old Norse Heathen had a truer motion of God's-world than these poor Machine-Sceptics: the old Heathen Norse were sincere men. But for these poor Sceptics there was no sincerity, no truth. Half-truth and hearsay was called truth. Truth, for most men, meant plausibility; to be measured by the number of votes you could get. They had lost any notion that sincerity was possible, or of what sincerity was. How many Plausibilities asking, with unaffected surprise and the air of offended virtue, What! am not I sincere? Spiritual Paralysis, I say, nothing left but a Mechanical life, was the characteristic of that century. For the common man, unless happily he stood below his century and belonged to another prior one, it was impossible to be a Believer, a Hero; he lay buried, unconscious, under these baleful influences. To the strongest man, only with infinite struggle and confusion was it possible to work himself half loose; and lead as it were, in an enchanted, most tragical way, a spiritual death-in-life, and be a Half-Hero! Scepticism is the name we give to all this; as the chief symptom, as the chief origin of all this. Concerning which so much were to be said! It would take many Discourses, not a small fraction of one Discourse, to state what one feels about that Eighteenth Century and its ways. As indeed this, and the like of this, which we now call Scepticism, is precisely the black malady and life-foe, against which all teaching and discoursing since man's life began has directed itself: the battle of Belief against Unbelief is the never-ending battle! Neither is it in the way of crimination that one would wish to speak. Scepticism, for that century, we must consider as the decay of old ways of believing, the preparation afar off for new better and wider ways,--an inevitable thing. We will not blame men for it; we will lament their hard fate. We will understand that destruction of old forms is not destruction of everlasting substances; that Scepticism, as sorrowful and hateful as we see it, is not an end but a beginning. The other day speaking, without prior purpose that way, of Bentham's theory of man and man's life, I chanced to call it a more beggarly one than Mahomet's. I am bound to say, now when it is once uttered, that such is my deliberate opinion. Not that one would mean offence against the man Jeremy Bentham, or those who respect and believe him. Bentham himself, and even the creed of Bentham, seems to me comparatively worthy of praise. It is a determinate being what all the world, in a cowardly half-and-half manner, was tending to be. Let us have the crisis; we shall either have death or the cure. I call this gross, steam-engine Utilitarianism an approach towards new Faith. It was a laying-down of cant; a saying to oneself: "Well then, this world is a dead iron machine, the god of it Gravitation and selfish Hunger; let us see what, by checking and balancing, and good adjustment of tooth and pinion, can be made of it!" Benthamism has something complete, manful, in such fearless committal of itself to what it finds true; you may call it Heroic, though a Heroism with its eyes put out! It is the culminating point, and fearless ultimatum, of what lay in the half-and-half state, pervading

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man's whole existence in that Eighteenth Century. It seems to me, all deniers of Godhood, and all lip-believers of it, are bound to be Benthamites, if they have courage and honesty. Benthamism is an eyeless Heroism: the Human Species, like a hapless blinded Samson grinding in the Philistine Mill, clasps convulsively the pillars of its Mill; brings huge ruin down, but ultimately deliverance withal. Of Bentham I meant to say no harm. But this I do say, and would wish all men to know and lay to heart, that he who discerns nothing but Mechanism in the Universe has in the fatalest way missed the secret of the Universe altogether. That all Godhood should vanish out of men's conception of this Universe seems to me precisely the most brutal error,--I will not disparage Heathenism by calling it a Heathen error,--that men could fall into. It is not true; it is false at the very heart of it. A man who thinks so will think wrong about all things in the world; this original sin will vitiate all other conclusions he can form. One might call it the most lamentable of Delusions,--not forgetting Witchcraft itself! Witchcraft worshipped at least a living Devil; but this worships a dead iron Devil; no God, not even a Devil! Whatsoever is noble, divine, inspired, drops thereby out of life. There remains everywhere in life a despicable caput-mortuum; the mechanical hull, all soul fled out of it. How can a man act heroically? The "Doctrine of Motives" will teach him that it is, under more or less disguise, nothing but a wretched love of Pleasure, fear of Pain; that Hunger, of applause, of cash, of whatsoever victual it may be, is the ultimate fact of man's life. Atheism, in brief;--which does indeed frightfully punish itself. The man, I say, is become spiritually a paralytic man; this godlike Universe a dead mechanical steam-engine, all working by motives, checks, balances, and I know not what; wherein, as in the detestable belly of some Phalaris'-Bull of his own contriving, he the poor Phalaris sits miserably dying! Belief I define to be the healthy act of a man's mind. It is a mysterious indescribable process, that of getting to believe;--indescribable, as all vital acts are. We have our mind given us, not that it may cavil and argue, but that it may see into something, give us clear belief and understanding about something, whereon we are then to proceed to act. Doubt, truly, is not itself a crime. Certainly we do not rush out, clutch up the first thing we find, and straightway believe that! All manner of doubt, inquiry, [Gr.] skepsis as it is named, about all manner of objects, dwells in every reasonable mind. It is the mystic working of the mind, on the object it is getting to know and believe. Belief comes out of all this, above ground, like the tree from its hidden roots. But now if, even on common things, we require that a man keep his doubts silent, and not babble of them till they in some measure become affirmations or denials; how much more in regard to the highest things, impossible to speak of in words at all! That a man parade his doubt, and get to imagine that debating and logic (which means at best only the manner of telling us your thought, your belief or disbelief, about a thing) is the triumph and true work of what intellect he has: alas, this is as if you should overturn the tree, and instead of green boughs, leaves and fruits, show us ugly taloned roots turned up into the air,--and no growth, only death and misery going on! For the Scepticism, as I said, is not intellectual only; it is moral also; a chronic atrophy and disease of the whole soul. A man lives by believing something; not by debating and arguing about many things. A sad case for him when all that he can manage to believe is something he can button in his pocket, and with one or the other organ eat and digest! Lower than that he will not get. We call those ages in which he gets so low the mournfulest, sickest and meanest of all ages. The world's heart is palsied, sick: how can any limb of it be whole? Genuine Acting ceases in all departments of the world's work; dexterous Similitude of Acting begins. The world's wages are pocketed, the world's work is not done. Heroes have gone out; Quacks have come in. Accordingly, what Century, since the end of the Roman world, which also was a time of scepticism, simulacra and universal decadence, so abounds with Quacks as that Eighteenth? Consider them, with their tumid sentimental vaporing about virtue, benevolence,--the wretched Quack-squadron, Cagliostro at the head of them! Few men were without quackery; they had got to consider it a necessary ingredient and amalgam for truth. Chatham, our brave Chatham himself, comes down to the House, all wrapt and bandaged; he "has crawled out in great bodily suffering," and so on;--forgets, says Walpole, that he is acting the sick man; in the fire of debate, snatches his arm from the sling, and oratorically swings and brandishes it! Chatham himself lives the strangest mimetic life, half-hero, half-quack, all along. For indeed the world is full of dupes; and you have to gain the world's suffrage! How the duties of the world will be done in that case, what quantities of

There are the mountains which they hurled abroad in their confused War of the Giants. though a Truth clad in hell-fire! How different was the Luther's pilgrimage. with its unblessed Products. We should look to ourselves: there is great merit here in the "duty of staying at home"! And. Let us not follow it too far. The world's being saved will not save us. let the world go how it will. even as in the beginning of days! One man once knowing this. That they fought truly is the highest praise. when you call it a Sceptical World. girt with mere traditions. Old truths had fallen nigh dumb. their strength and life spent. Times in which there was properly no truth in life. suppositions. as I said. many men. a heroic world! It will then be a victorious world. a new century is already come. are Phantasms. gross Benthamism. and be victorious or not victorious. and as good as gone. no new intimation. all men. No landmark on the Earth.--The strong man will ever find work. what I suppose is known to most of you. Insincerity. Chartisms. was perhaps more difficult than in any. Here and there one does now find a man who knows. a believing world.-Now it was under such conditions. for the world's sake. that the whole tribe of social pestilences. It lies there clear. An unbelieving Eighteenth Century is but an exception. but as wise and realities. that he himself is alive. which means difficulty. and for our own. not this alone. with all their poison-dews. hollow Formulism. what need not be spoken or written a second time. not trying to speak. It seems to me. they now lie buried. and look a little to my own saving.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 76 error. with many Heroes in it. This must alter. the Tombs of three fallen Heroes! They fell for us too. which means sorrow and misery. not dead or paralytic. to say truth. Or indeed what of the world and its victories? Men speak too much about the world. a godless untruth of a world! It is out of this.--which we define to be a Truth once more. and no Plausibility and Falsity. in that dusk of the world. in those times of Johnson. which means failure. has he not a Life of his own to lead? One Life. I never heard of "world's" being "saved" in any other way. making a way for us. expressly or incidentally. for whosoever will take the spectacles off his eyes and honestly look. as of old. With a mournful sympathy we will contemplate. disorganization. had yet dawned.--their chief necessity to be. To this and the other noisy. and would forever continue such. is already past. from the Johnson's. Till this alter. Bookseller Osborne and Fourpence-halfpenny a day. what is that to having no loadstar in the Heaven! We need not wonder that none of those Three men rose to victory. we need not compute. no second chance to us forevermore! It were well for us to live not as fools and simulacra. Not obstruction. alas. as I consider.--such as now and then occurs. we will rejoice greatly that Scepticism. They concern us here as the singular Prophets . under which. only semblant. to some and to many. to the full measure of his strength. that our Men of Letters had to live. will gradually accumulate in all provinces of the world's business." and could be burnt out of one's way: poor Johnson's were far more difficult to burn. composedly stepping aside: Thou art not true. go thy way!--Yes. That mania of saving worlds is itself a piece of the Eighteenth Century with its windy sentimentalism. which I am more competent to!--In brief. as solid as they look. Each one of us here. not even any French Revolution. must by and by come to know it. French Revolutions. with its assured goal. and. you lay your finger here on the heart of the world's maladies. that this world is a Truth. My one hope of the world. if not three living victorious Heroes. to know! For such a man the Unbelieving Century. But to make out a victory. That Man's Life here below was a Sincerity and Fact. beautiful and awful. instinct with Godhood. the new lay yet hidden. nothing can beneficially alter. For the saving of the world I will trust confidently to the Maker of the world. and that the world is alive. pain. and what not. but the light of his own soul was taken from him. I have already written of these three Literary Heroes. are going. No intimation. preparing speedily to vanish. thou art not extant. my inexpugnable consolation in looking at the miseries of the world. very great-looking Simulacrum with the whole world huzzaing at its heels. and other unheroic atheistic Insincerity is visibly and even rapidly declining. a little gleam of Time between two Eternities. he can say. have derived their being. An insincere world. The old unblessed Products and Performances. unintelligible! Mahomet's Formulas were of "wood waxed and oiled. I prophesy that the world will once more become sincere. in those circumstances of our poor Hero as Man of Letters. grown now incredible. nor the world's being lost destroy us. is that this is altering. never till then. on the whole. Mechanical Atheism.

with his scrofulous diseases. sovereign Ruler! On the whole. no rest or regular motion for them." That Church of St. at any rate! On such shoes as we ourselves can get. by nature. if you will. borrowing or begging man. a man must not complain of his "element. Clement Danes. unspeakable. A thing "to be looked at with reverence. one of our great English souls. poor Johnson had to go about girt with continual hypochondria. artificial. Nay. This to a degree that eminently distinguishes them from the poor artificial mass of their contemporaries. and renders them worthy to be considered as Speakers. Original Men. seamy-faced. and plant themselves on the everlasting truth of things. if there were nothing better! The largest soul that was in all England. only small mean souls are otherwise. with his shoes worn out. is to me a venerable place. It is a type of the man's life. Very curious how. perhaps the sorrow and the nobleness were intimately and even inseparably connected with each other. he found the old opinions credible for him. At all events. a whole world of squalor. and the aspect they and their world exhibit.--clouds. Johnson's life could have been other than a painful one. Live in an element of diseased sorrow. They were men of such magnitude that they could not live on unrealities. On frost and mud.--on the reality and substance which Nature gives us. if they got not footing there. mud.--Poet.--not a second-hand. might lead us into reflections enough! I call them. physical and spiritual pain. in any the favorablest outward circumstances.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 77 of that singular age. reverent to what is over them. very miserable. with awe. in that poor Paper-age. with his great greedy heart. with what thoughts. eagerly devouring what spiritual thing he could come at: school-languages and other merely grammatical stuff. and the rawboned Servitor. a true man's. lifting them. the happier was it for him that he could so stand: but in all formulas that he could stand by. as Prophets in that age of theirs. of the everlasting truth. An original man. Indeed. Genuine Men more or less. I have always considered him to be. To a certain extent. One remembers always that story of the shoes at Oxford: the rough. it is thriftless work doing so. which shoots in on him dull incurable misery: the Nessus'-shirt not to be stript off. yet of nobleness and manfulness withal. there needed to be a most genuine substance. on the thing she has given another than us!-And yet with all this rugged pride of manhood and self-help. how the charitable Gentleman Commoner secretly places a new pair at his door. and unspeakable chaos of thoughts. Hearsays. confused misery and want. rudeness. indubitable." Yet a giant invincible soul. with pity. once more. so much left undeveloped in him to the last: in a kindlier element what might he not have been. for most part unconsciously. divine-infernal. frost. I could not find a better proof of what I said the other day. A strong and noble man. . As for Johnson. in winter-season. but not beggary: we cannot stand beggary! Rude stubborn self-help here. hunger or what you will. he was a man of truths and facts. isolated. he is there to make it better!--Johnson's youth was poor. He is well worth study in regard to that. had said to him. not on the semblance. was there ever soul more tenderly affectionate. and provision made for it of "fourpence-halfpenny a day. the great Fact of this Universe glared in. He stood by the old formulas. in return for his nobleness. where Johnson still worshipped in the era of Voltaire. in some measure. but honestly on that." or the like. faithfully. for such they virtually were. For we are to say that Johnson was far other than a mere man of words and formulas. forever wonderful. froth and all inanity gave way under them: there was no footing for them but on firm earth. under this point of view. His time is bad: well then. thick-quilted with Pedantries. loyally submissive to what was really higher than he? Great souls are always loyally submissive. which is his own natural skin! In this manner he had to live. they were Sons of Nature once more in an age of Artifice. fit for him. how he managed at all under such circumstances: that is a thing worth seeing. That the sincere man was by nature the obedient man. and in a right heroic manner lived under them. Figure him there. hopeless. The world might have had more of profitable work out of him. but his effort against the world's work could never have been a light one. this pitching away of the shoes. upon this man too! How he harmonized his Formulas with it. stalking mournful as a stranger in this Earth. Nature. The essence of originality is not that it be new: Johnson believed altogether in the old. struggling to be genuine. it does not seem possible that." of his "time. Let us stand on our own basis. By Nature herself a noble necessity was laid on them to be so. that only in a World of Heroes was there loyal Obedience to the Heroic. Priest.--pitches them out of window! Wet feet. Like a Hercules with the burning Nessus'-shirt on him. or less. looking at them near. so barren. rawboned College Servitor stalking about. with his dim eyes. all three.

finds out a way of doing somewhat. found wherever man is found. we will forsake the Highway. The highest Gospel he preached we may describe as a kind of Moral Prudence: "in a world where much is to be done. truth which he feels to be true." no. because never questioned or capable of question. Mirabeau. the Path ever widening itself as more travel it. leading toward some sacred or high object. of wretched god-forgetting Unbelief. yet with improvements. nay even though he seem to forget it or deny it. and will ever be. at second-hand: to that kind of man all this is still nothing. the greatest perhaps that was possible at that time. too.--coupled. He is under the noble necessity of being true. at the starting of them. Formula is method. they are indispensably good. it is the easiest method. Idols." And now see: the second men travels naturally in the footsteps of his foregoer. a poet. not to starve. were it but of fitly saluting his fellow-man. into limbs and skin." as Mahomet says! I call this. he has articulated the dim-struggling thought that dwelt in his own and many hearts. I call these two things joined together. but let it be in your own real torn shoes: "that will be better for you. He must have truth. What we call "Formulas" are not in their origin bad. Think of it once more. Are not all dialects "artificial"? Artificial things are not all false. the beginning of a "Path.--fearful and wonderful. at the farther end. is ever present to him.--you were miserable then. on this hand and on that. these are his footsteps.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 78 It was in virtue of his sincerity.--nay every true Product of Nature will infallibly shape itself. which once had such currency and celebrity. and see with pleasure how neither of them remains ineffectual. speaks by it. at all events with enlargements. He has a basis of sincerity. Thus it ever is. and gone out of existence. though in the current artificial dialect." He has no suspicion of his being particularly sincere. or "scholar" as he calls himself. are talking everywhere their commonplace doctrines. Formulas fashion themselves as Paths do. are now as it were disowned by the young . with changes where such seem good. Neither of them is as chaff sown. of a substance that is already there: they had not been there otherwise. Johnson was a Prophet to his people.--till at last there is a broad Highway whereon the whole world may travel and drive. whither many men are bent. which they have learned by logic. Much as we talk against Formulas. you may call them the skin. In the footsteps of his foregoer. Formulas all begin by being full of substance. Consider it. One man. Regulated Things in the world have come into existence. by rote. How shall he stand otherwise? His whole soul. we may say all artificial things are. Practices. true. any more than Mahomet's was: but I recognize the everlasting element of heart-sincerity in both. full of heartfelt earnest impulse. but to live--without stealing! A noble unconsciousness is in him.--of his being particularly anything! A hard-struggling. the Highway shall be right welcome! When the City is gone. at all moments. a great Gospel. and little is to be known. weary-hearted man. Innumerable commonplace men are debating. as beaten Highways. that they were. "Clear your mind of Cant!" Have no trade with Cant: stand on the cold mud in the frosty weather. how little Johnson boasts of his "sincerity. Cromwell. Johnson's way of thinking about this world is not mine. are not idolatrous till they become doubtful.--as all like him always do. powerless. Napoleon: all the Great Men I ever heard of have this as the primary material of them. While there remains a City or Shrine. unrecognized. tells him that there is no standing. of his speaking still in some sort from the heart of Nature. deep-feeling heart Nature is a Fact: all hearsay is hearsay. mad: how could you do or work at all? Such Gospel Johnson preached and taught. An inventor was needed to do that." see how you will do it! A thing well worth preaching.--were it of uttering his soul's reverence for the Highest. He does not "engrave Truth on his watch-seal. that Johnson was a Prophet. Mahomet. the indispensablest furniture of our habitation in this world. The man whom Nature has appointed to do great things is. habitude. in all ways. the unspeakable greatness of this Mystery of Life.-Mark. first of all. the articulation into shape. as we said. In this manner all Institutions. theoretically and practically. or any Reality to drive to. furnished with that openness to Nature which renders him incapable of being insincere! To his large. "A world where much is to be done. let him acknowledge it or not. This is his way of doing that. in both of them is something which the seedfield will grow. Johnson's Writings. but he stands by truth. empty for the worshipper's heart. works and lives by it. I hope no one of us is ignorant withal of the high significance of true Formulas. and little is to be known:" do not sink yourselves in boundless bottomless abysses of Doubt. open. trying hard to get some honest livelihood in the world. preached a Gospel to them. with this other great Gospel.

must be granted to poor Bozzy. It should stand rather. A face full of misery.Monarque_ to his valet-de-chambre. led it well. it stands there like a great solid square-built edifice. A high but narrow contracted intensity in it: bony brows. deep. We need forever. No man can be a _Grand. spasmodic man. Heroes. namely. its general solidity." Brave old Samuel: ultimus Romanorum! Of Rousseau and his Heroism I cannot say so much. or indeed men of any sort in these times. we may hope. intense rather than strong. On the whole. that no man is a Hero to his valet-de-chambre.--which. that he guided his difficult confused existence wisely. all smoke is capable of becoming! Rousseau has not depth or width. he had still a loadstar. under what obstructions and perversions soever. finished. in this as in other senses. stepping or rather stalking along in a very solemn way." there is no good in emitting smoke till you have made it into fire. He had not "the talent of Silence. Yet the fact of his reverence for Johnson will ever remain noteworthy. that waste chaos of Scepticism in religion and politics. symmetrically complete: you judge that a true Builder did it.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 79 generation. excel in! The suffering man ought really "to consume his own smoke.--a sadly contracted . which few Frenchmen. he means things by them. So many beautiful styles and books. even ignoble misery. something mean. tumid or not. like a brave man.--ever welcome. The foolish conceited Scotch Laird. grown obsolete now." an invaluable talent. One word. in spite of our haste. he would change his course for nothing in these confused vortices of the lower sea of Time. bearing death and hunger. and a certain worship of them! We will also take the liberty to deny altogether that of the witty Frenchman. plebeian there.--admirable to no valet. Strip your Louis Quatorze of his king-gear. Poor Rousseau's face is to me expressive of him.--bewildered. A wondrous buckram style.--and one of the world's wants. He that can walk under the heaviest weight without staggering. he is the strong man. is no right man. A morbid. a worship for Heroes. a measured grandiloquence. Or if so. that Boswell's admiration was well bestowed. A fundamental mistake to call vehemence and rigidity strength! A man is not strong who takes convulsion-fits. The Valet does not know a Hero when he sees him! Alas. the most conceited man of his time. approaching in such awe-struck attitude the great dusty irascible Pedagogue in his mean garret there: it is a genuine reverence for Excellence. no: it requires a kind of Hero to do that. shall we not say. and there is left nothing but a poor forked radish with a head fantastically carved. to remind ourselves of that. is for most part want of such. one might have traced there a great intellect. it is not the Hero's blame. in his poverty. redeemed only by intensity: the face of what is called a Fanatic. of this great mournful Johnson too. till the time come for speaking and acting. with nothing in them. will never become obsolete. There is in it a kind of architectural nobleness. in which there is something bewildered-looking. he would in nowise strike his flag.--the best he could get to then. For the phraseology. that he could have found no soul in all England so worthy of bending down before? Shall we not say. A man who cannot _hold his peace_. exist always. excitable. honesty. strait-set eyes. inflated. Johnson's opinions are fast becoming obsolete: but his style of thinking and of living. Not wholly without a loadstar in the Eternal. but the Valet's: that his soul. insight and successful method. in his dust and dimness. and was so in many senses. in the metaphorical sense too. They are sincere words. with the sick body and the rusty coat: he made it do for him. sometimes a tumid size of phraseology not in proportion to the contents of it: all this you will put up with. a genuine man. it would seem. peering with lynx-eagerness. It is not wonderful. in life-theory and life-practice. as the brave all need to have: with his eye set on that. like a right valiant man? That waste chaos of Authorship by trade. is a mean valet-soul! He expects his Hero to advance in royal stage-trappings. especially in these loud-shrieking days. though six men cannot hold him then. trains borne behind him. at a time when neither Heroes nor worship were surmised to exist. at best.--a man is a malefactor to the world who writes such! They are the avoidable kind!--Had Johnson left nothing but his Dictionary. not calm force for difficulty. gluttonous creature. He passes for a mean. it may be called the best of all Dictionaries. has always something within it. He is not what I call a strong man. "To the Spirit of Lies. and also of the antagonism against that. the first characteristic of true greatness. Looking to its clearness of definition. trumpets sounding before him. with measured step. I find in Johnson's Books the indisputablest traces of a great intellect and great heart. those of his.

too real to him! The contortions of a dying gladiator: the crowded amphitheatre looks on with entertainment. A man of some rank from the country. to him they were not laughing or theatrical. One should have tolerance for a man. like himself." said Jean Jacques. leave him to try yet what he will do. He got it spoken out. artificial bedizenment. Nay what are all errors and perversities of his. "Monsieur. Theorem. but a Fact. there has arisen in this man the ineradicable feeling and knowledge that this Life of ours is true: not a Scepticism. Monsieur!"--A man of this sort was far gone. aimless confused miseries and vagabondisms. a mean Hunger. In earnest. with all his drawbacks. hope lasts for every man. You come to see what a poor life I lead. under . but the gladiator is in agonies and dying. to be a kind of madness in him: his Ideas possessed him like demons. at a Goethe. and as the Time could! Strangely through all that defacement. gloomed all evening. not the good sort of Books. under all disadvantages and disorganizations. with his contrat-social. by a path he cannot yet find? Men are led by strange ways. even of savage life in Nature. Not white sunlight: something operatic. and will discriminate them ever afterwards. but the blinkard dazzlement and staggerings to and fro of a man sent on an errand he is too weak for. As he could. as none of these French Philosophers were. there is in the inmost heart of poor Rousseau a spark of real heavenly fire. has seen the difference of the True from the Sham-True. with his passionate appeals to Mothers. While life lasts. fierce moody ways! He could not live with anybody. are what I call unhealthy. "I know why you come here.--"He would not be seen there for the world!" The curtain did happen nevertheless to be drawn aside: the Pit recognized Jean Jacques. if we will interpret them kindly. In Rousseau we are called to look rather at the fearful amount of evil which. finds Jean Jacques full of the sourest unintelligible humor. even at a Walter Scott! He who has once seen into this. I am afraid he was a very vain man. an awful Reality. Nay. greatly celebrated still among his countrymen. at last. and down onwards to the present astonishing convulsionary "Literature of Desperation. The glib Countess remained entirely convinced that his anger was not at being seen. and used to sit with him.--as clearly as he could. did once more touch upon Reality." it is everywhere abundant. And yet this Rousseau. with his celebrations of Nature. I do not say much. one carrot and three onions. even those stealings of ribbons. which is indeed the source and summary of all faults and miseries whatsoever. hope of him. had ordered him to speak it out. from these perversions and contortions of poor Jean Jacques. Madame de Stael has something of it. There had come. but at not being applauded when seen. We had to observe in Johnson how much good a Prophet. almost delirations. a kind of rose-pink. or Persiflage. that is all: go and tell the whole world that. then ill and dimly. hungry for the praises of men. was still the motive principle of him. Pierre. hurried him so about. if ever man was. as we say. if not well and clearly. how little is in my poor pot that is boiling there. nothing but suspicion. with flaming eyes. for a certain theatrical interest. There is a sensuality in Rousseau. You remember Genlis's experience of him. among the French since his time. rather feeble nature. How the whole nature of the man is poisoned. Egoism. it makes pictures of a certain gorgeous attractiveness: but they are not genuinely poetical. of an earnestness too great for his otherwise sensitive. Of Rousseau's literary talents. who visited him often.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 80 Hero! We name him here because. comes one day. expressing all reverence and affection for him. struggle towards Reality. he has the first and chief characteristic of a Hero: he is heartily in earnest. can accomplish for the world. if you like. spake no other than surly words. look into the pot! There is half a pound of meat. Well. self-isolation. out of the element of that withered mocking Philosophism. for light laughter. and they are many. The whole world got itself supplied with anecdotes. Nature had made that revelation to him. He had not perfected himself into victory over mere Desire. drove him over steep places!-The fault and misery of Rousseau was what we easily name by a single word. degradation and almost madness. Alas. was doing the function of a Prophet to his Time. he bargaining for a strict incognito. It is frequent. and which indeed in the end drove him into the strangest incoherences. Look at a Shakspeare. That same rose-pink is not the right hue. but took no great notice of him! He expressed the bitterest indignation. She took Jean Jacques to the Theatre. Combined with such an intellectual gift as his. one would say. His Books. Once more. St. Scepticism and Persiflage. in many sorts. or rather it is universal.

here too was a piece of the right Saxon stuff: strong as the Harz-rock. known only to a small province of the country he lived in. born only to hard manual toil. The largest soul of all the British lands came among us in the shape of a hard-handed Scottish Peasant. mimes for most part. Factor as the Scotch call him. that of Rousseau. and writing. Like a little well in the rocky desert places.--and indeed of many generations of such as him. even what he did write. True. yet with wells of living softness in it! A wild impetuous whirlwind of passion and faculty slumbered quiet there. nothing is lost.--like a sudden splendor of Heaven in the artificial Vauxhall! People knew not what to make of it. or capable to be. so wide otherwise. it begins to be understood. It was a curious phenomenon. unbelieving second-hand Eighteenth Century. in the withered. I will say. But he stood to it valiantly. in a rustic special dialect. Burns says. though struggling half-blindly. The Steward. and such like. may accompany the good. Among those second-hand acting-figures. The French Revolution found its Evangelist in Rousseau. no shelter for them. a poor toiling man. once more a giant Original Man.--nobody publishing newspaper paragraphs about his nobleness. He has gained a certain recognition. That he should have tempted so many to penetrate through the rough husk of that dialect of his. Robert is there the outcome of him. true simplicity of strength. homely.--but he could not be hindered from setting the world on fire.--a silent Hero and Poet. What could the world.--guillotine a great many of them! Enough now of Rousseau. if any way possible. no lot could be more perverse then Burns's. The letters "threw us all into tears:" figure it. He could be cooped into garrets. a wise. and those children. unconquerable man. you may well ask. he had grown to feel deeply that the world was not his friend nor the world's law. learnt what good society was. of whom Robert was one! In this Earth. "which threw us all into tears. fighting like an unseen Hero. nor anything he tried to get a living by. Surely we may say. laughed at as a maniac. in the guise of a Robert Burns. rustic."--not that. he was not lost. Banished into Paris garrets. They took it for a piece of the Vauxhall fire-work. his brave heroine of a wife. he had a sore unequal battle all his days. fretted. by personal inspection of this and the other. in the general language of England. did not succeed in any. with its lightning-fire. in the gloomy company of his own Thoughts and Necessities there. helped well to produce a whole delirium in France generally. Historically it is a most pregnant spectacle. it let itself be so taken. but declares that in no meeting of men did he ever enjoy better discourse than at the hearth of this peasant. Had he written." The brave. that such a man should not have been set in flat hostility with the world. honest. poor. the governors of the world. the preferability of the savage to the civilized. This Burns appeared under every disadvantage: uninstructed. rooted in the depths of the world. is proof that there lay something far from common within it. A noble rough genuineness. when it came to that. faithful. I say always. that one of the most considerable Saxon men of the Eighteenth Century was an Ayrshire Peasant named Robert Burns. And his poor "seven acres of nursery-ground. such heavenly melody dwelling in the heart of it. who take rank with the Heroic among men: and he was born in a poor Ayrshire hut.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 81 such disorganization. The brave Father. hard-suffering Father. His semi-delirious speculations on the miseries of civilized life. The tragedy of Burns's life is known to all of you. do with such a man? Difficult to say what the governors of the world could do with him! What he could do with them is unhappily clear enough. of the Eighteenth Century. among the artificial pasteboard figures and productions. used to send letters and threatenings. Yes. voting pieces of plate to him! However. left to starve like a wild beast in his cage.--swallowing down how many sore sufferings daily into silence. and is continuing to do so over all quarters of our wide Saxon world: wheresoever a Saxon dialect is spoken. one of those men who reach down to the perennial Deeps. would prosper with him. hard-toiling. if discrepancy between place held and place merited constitute perverseness of lot for a man. one of our greatest men. as in bitterness of death. It was expedient.--rock. Once more a very wasteful life-drama was enacted under the sun. exasperated till the heart of him went mad. I doubt not he had already become universally recognized as being. tried various things. with its . was involved in continual difficulties. that of a Hero starting up. His Father. nor the miserable patch of clay-farm. driven from post to pillar. alas. against that! Perhaps no man had such a false reception from his fellow-men. without whom the son had never been a speaking one! Burns's Schoolmaster came afterwards to London.

or such like. we have no need. in both cases. all that he did under such obstructions. generous valor and manfulness that was in him. All kinds of gifts: from the gracefulest utterances of courtesy. mistakes it as we say. to the highest fire of passionate speech. has told me that Robert. unutterably fatal. stript cutting peats in the bog. A large fund of Hope dwells in him. capable too in both of manifesting themselves as the tenderest noble affections. Very notable. in his young days. as in the company of persons above him. and always when he did speak. superiority of vision.--where shall we readily find a better-gifted man? Among the great men of the Eighteenth Century. bounds forth victorious over them. spite of his tragical history. laughter. the rugged downrightness. Power of Thinking.--such as is the beginning of all to every man? You would think it strange if I called Burns the most gifted British soul we had in all that century of his: and yet I believe the day is coming when there will be little danger in saying so. sense and heart. last year. and come crowding to hear this man speak! Waiters and ostlers:--they too were men. coupled with his other deep and earnest qualities. the man who cannot think and see. loud floods of mirth. politicized. was usually the gayest of speech. It is a flash of insight into some object or other: so do both these men speak." Of your thinking-faculty. "He spoke rather little than much. clear piercing insight.--and leaves him standing like a Futility there! He is the fatal man. in all places and situations of the world. energy.--But indeed.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor soft dewy pity. he is not a mourning man. expressed in conversation. Burns too could have governed. and wrote: "You are to work. in managing of kingdoms. a fellow of infinite frolic. for that only are you wanted. wild laughter. it was to throw new light on the matter. His writings. By nature. but the general result of a naturally vigorous original mind expressing itself in that way. It is as the lion shaking "dew-drops from his mane. were not. power of true insight. soft wailings of affection. and hallucinate. at all times. the Peasant-god! 82 Burns's Brother Gilbert. are they not the outcome properly of warm generous affection. "sat rather silent in those early days. from a venerable gentleman long familiar with him. and here was a man! I have heard much about his speech. takes it for one thing. his healthy robustness every way. The types of the two men are not dissimilar. The same raging passions. which I have more than once alluded to. The thing that he says is worth remembering. all was in him. the greatest in this land. Wit. indeed by nation. I can well believe it. and it is another thing." as old Marquis Mirabeau calls it). sincerity: these were in both." I know not why any one should ever speak otherwise!--But if we look at his general force of soul. than he ever afterwards knew him. in ruling of great ever-memorable epochs! But they said to him reprovingly. precisely the thing that was wanted. what indeed is true of all Poets good for much. That it was speech distinguished by always having something in it. but only grope. a primal element of sunshine and joyfulness. Alas. This basis of mirth ("fond gaillard. Mirabeau has much more of bluster.--and worth mentioning. laconic emphasis. you are to gauge beer there. where no good speech. but only inarticulate rage was possible: this might have bellowed forth Ushers de Breze and the like. forward. yet look at them intrinsically. There is the same burly thick-necked strength of body as of soul. I sometimes feel as if Burns might be found to resemble Mirabeau more than any other. Lockhart has recorded. They differ widely in vesture. as few could. and made itself visible to all men. that his poetry was not any particular faculty. debated in National Assemblies. and missee the nature of the thing he works with? He mis-sees it. of the sort like Burns's.--like the old Norse Thor. not think. a noisy." this old man told me. Professor Stewart remarked very justly. on what the old Marquis calls a fond gaillard. unresting man. But the characteristic of Mirabeau too is veracity and sense. in keeping silence over so much." This is beautiful: but still more beautiful that which Mr. that laughs at the shaking of the spear. a man of much sense and worth. the courage which had to exhibit itself in capture of smuggling schooners in the Solway Frith. far pleasanter to hear there." as the swift-bounding horse. Burns's gifts. The fatal man. is one of the most attractive characteristics of Burns.--"Why complain of this?" say some: "Strength is mournfully denied its arena. Hope. but one of the best things I ever heard of it was. is he not always the unthinking man. penetration. are only a poor fragment of him. Witty duchesses celebrate him as a man whose speech "led them off their feet. are the theme of all that ever heard him. in spite of their hardship. by course of breeding. Mirth. He shakes his sorrows gallantly aside. put in the high places of men. his Official Superiors said. though we know what is to be said and answered! As if Thought. How the waiters and ostlers at inns would get out of bed. directness. that was true .--built.

can we say that these generations are very first-rate?--And yet our heroic Men of Letters do teach. hindered his industry. the matter and fact of it is not alterable by any power under the sky. answer I! Complaining profits little. was as nothing to this. no place was remote enough from them. these Lion-hunters were the ruin and death of Burns. so in his Life. priest. Hero-worship.--solitary enough now. all gone.--is a thing I. Tranquil. as of all in him. So in his Poetry.--inflated till he burst. the prime merit of this. as some one has said. which will show what man. not in the least make him a better or other man! Alas. lightning: the world can take its choice. into miseries. Rousseau had worshippers enough. princes calling on him in his mean garret." that the celebrity is but the candle-light. is a point that concerns ourselves mainly. make him a worse man. for one.--Odin. or what you like to call them. we shall have to believe it. This month he is a ruined peasant. govern. there are a hundred that will stand adversity.--his visit to Edinburgh. The world can alter the manner of that. with its French Revolution just breaking out. is verily of the nature of a message from on high. prophet. believing it. but for one man who can stand prosperity. not gradually. but at once from the Artillery Lieutenancy in the Regiment La Fere. It is as if Napoleon had been made a King of. The world has to obey him who thinks and sees in the world. the new Truth. still only in his twenty-seventh year. Burns. If we think of it. "there is no resurrection of the body." For his worshippers too a most questionable thing! If doing Hero-worship well or badly be the test of vital well-being or ill-being to a generation.--not cruel. and become a dead lion. for whom. In that sense.-My last remark is on that notablest phasis of Burns's history. and has to copy music for his own living. is truth. priests. health. handing down jewelled Duchesses to dinner. not inflated. It." says he. that the "rank is but the guinea-stamp.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 83 from of old. That a Europe. was ever so sorely tried.--with unspeakable difference of profit for the world! The manner of it is very alterable. the beautiful doing reverence to the poor moon-struck man. What name or welcome we give him or it. or what we call him. The song he sings is not of fantasticalities. Often it seems to me as if his demeanor there were the highest proof he gave of what a fund of worth and genuine manhood was in him. all common Lionism. He could not get his Lionism forgotten. it is of a thing felt. he is flying to the West Indies to escape disgrace and a jail. Light. I admire much the way in which Burns met all this. his wages seven pounds a year. or. cannot rejoice at!-Once more we have to say here. Not whether we call an Odin god. A sort of savage sincerity. but whether we believe the word he tells us: there it all lies. and so little forgot himself. If it be a true word. the world getting ever more desolate for him. which ruins innumerable men. The Life of Burns is what we may call a great tragic sincerity. the two ends of his life not to be brought into harmony. It is tragical to think of! These men came but to see . new deeper revealing of the Secret of this Universe. can either have it as blessed continuous summer sunshine. prying about the door. unless he look to it. the cynosure of all eyes! Adversity is sometimes hard upon a man. really there. far from that. neither awkwardness nor affectation: he feels that he there is the man Robert Burns. faults. few heavier burdens could be laid on the strength of a man. Johnson had his Boswell for worshipper. we shall have to do it. these Men of Letters too were not without a kind of Hero-worship: but what a strange condition has that got into now! The waiters and ostlers of Scotch inns. there is something of the savage in all great men. It was they that rendered it impossible for him to live! They gathered round him in his Farm. peace of mind. as I have observed elsewhere. unastonished. it may readily. Burns? Well. not abashed. character. a wretched inflated wind-bag. Perhaps no man one could point out. and of his Life generally. are kings. For himself a most portentous contradiction. but wild." worse than a living dog!--Burns is admirable here. and must and will have itself obeyed. alas. were doing unconscious reverence to the Heroic. eager to catch any word that fell from Burns. He falls into discontents. and these gone from him: next month he is in the blaze of rank and beauty. failing that. or as unblessed black thunder and tornado. He sits at the tables of grandees. intrinsically there is no preventing it by any means whatever. and the worse for the arena. And yet. finds no need of a Burns except for gauging beer." Doubtless. stating of the truth may profit. He cannot even get his music copied: "By dint of dining out. So sudden. wrestling naked with the truth of things. honestly as he was disposed to do so. "I run the risk of dying by starvation at home. that the chief quality of Burns is the sincerity of him. is no longer even a ploughman. the great.

The Commander over Men. French Revolutions. discontented. and loyally reverence him: you have a perfect government for that country. Alas. present themselves here: on the most of which we must resolutely for the present forbear to speak at all. worship (worth-ship). raise him to the supreme place. French Revolutions. Great honor to the Fire-flies! But--! [May 22. Roi: our own name is still better. he means also the truest-hearted. No bricklayer builds a wall perfectly perpendicular. Find in any country the Ablest Man that exists there. and find their welfare in doing so. He has forgotten himself: but the Law of Gravitation does not forget to act on him. above all. so that he may actually have room to guide according to his faculty of doing it. Reform Bills. We will esteem him no wise man. too querulously "measure by a scale of perfection the meagre product of reality" in this poor world of ours. constitution-building. quack. questionable. Ideals must ever lie a very great way off. parliamentary debating. of all social procedure whatsoever in this world! Hustings-speeches. Unable Simulacrum of Ability. whatsoever of earthly or of spiritual dignity we can fancy to reside in a man. Brick must lie on brick as it may and can."--so. fatuous man. an ideal country. in "order to bring twelve impartial men into a jury-box. You have put the too Unable Man at the head of affairs! The too ignoble. Konning. by much stronger reason. we will esteem him a sickly. if he throw plummet and level quite away from him. King. who must have done with his job. that if they be not approximated to at all. and indeed unfathomable regions. And yet. as Schiller says. foolish man. well or ill accomplished. It is in the perfect state. to furnish us with constant practical teaching. that we could anywhere or anyhow learn. like a good bricklayer. administration. and the rest of it. the whole matter goes to wreck! Infallibly. He is practically the summary for us of all the various figures of Heroism.--which accordingly lie unadministered. Parliamentary motions. that the finding of your Ableman and getting him invested with the symbols of ability. may I say here. or whatever we call it. is in a bad way. Able-man. and that all legislation. We come now to the last form of Heroism. and illuminate the ways with at night. just as it comes to hand--! Such bricklayer. it is never to be forgotten that Ideals do exist. we know very well that Ideals can never be completely embodied in practice. CROMWELL. justest. leaves it so.--is the business. nor no hatred to him. Numerous considerations. which they much admire. the Noblest Man: what he _tells us to do_ must be precisely the wisest. to do! Our doing and life were then. that were the ideal of constitutions. he to whose will our wills are to be subordinated. and loyally surrender themselves. and we will right thankfully content ourselves with any not intolerable approximation thereto! Let no man. well regulated. parliamentary eloquence.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 84 him. no ballot-box. THE HERO AS KING. They came to get a little amusement.--and the Hero's life went for it! Richter says. Regulator. He is called Rex.--the thing which it will in all ways behoove US. or else nothing. The Ablest Man. in a word. or other machinery whatsoever can improve it a whit. in all manner of administration of human things. to command over us. that which we call Kingship. royalty. social explosions in ancient or modern times. it was out of no sympathy with him. so far as government could regulate it. voting. they got their amusement. unvaliant. which means Can-ning. must adjust himself with quack. to tell us for the day and hour what we are to do. which people stick upon spits. mathematically this is not possible. or natural necessity whatever. Priest. embodies itself here. may be reckoned the most important of Great Men. in the Island of Sumatra there is a kind of "Light-chafers. on the other hand. a certain degree of perpendicularity suffices him. 1840. with right loyal thankfulness and nothing doubting. fittest. As Burke said that perhaps fair Trial by Jury was the soul of Government.] LECTURE VI. of putting the Able Man there. kinghood. NAPOLEON: MODERN REVOLUTIONISM. Persons of condition can thus travel with a pleasant radiance. and he. went on." large Fire-flies. You have forgotten that there is any rule. pointing towards deep. Teacher. he and his wall rush down into confused welter of ruin!-This is the history of all rebellions. And yet if he sway too much from the perpendicular. with dignity. I think. all mean at heart this. fermenting into . and pile brick on brick heedless.

woe to him that refuses it when it is! God's law is in that. There is no act more moral between men than that of rule and obedience. that of having your Ableman to seek. however the Parchment-laws may run: there is a Divine Right or else a Diabolic Wrong at the heart of every claim that one man makes upon another. an "expediency. There is a God in this world. as out of nightmare. seeking after! The true King." moulders unread now in the Public Libraries of this country. "What is gravitation? Brick lies on brick there!" Alas. The miserable millions burst forth into Sansculottism. there is nothing divine whatever in the association of men. have toppled. and a Divinity inspired him with faculty and right to rule over you to all lengths: this. all was Doubt.--But we will leave the Polemic stuff of a dead century to lie quiet on its bookshelves. I say. The inward being wrong. all outward went ever more and more wrong. about the "Divine right of Kings. as it ought. Once more the voice of awakened nations. there is verily either a Divine Right or else a Diabolic Wrong. tumbled. said to himself. "You. and relations that men god-created can form among each other. or some other sort of madness: bricks and bricklayer lie as a fatal chaos!-Much sorry stuff. The builder cast away his plummet. The bricklayer with his bricks. I esteem the modern error. and in the inward or spiritual. self-styled Papa. as guide of the practical. no longer heedful of plummet or the law of gravitation. To assert that in whatever man you chose to lay hold of (by this or the other plan of clutching at him).--guide of the spiritual. Certainly it is a fearful business. you are--a Chimera. "Aux armes!" when the people had burst up against all manner of Chimeras. and that in short. and have long been. and brazenly went about pretending to pardon men's sins for metallic coined money.--what can we do with this but leave it to rot silently in the Public Libraries? But I will say withal.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 85 unmeasured masses of failure. Far be it from us to disturb the calm process by which it is disappearing harmlessly from the earth. and in all human Authorities. This too is a true saying. a still more despicable error. and that is what these Divine-right men meant. It were truer to say. That the King is head of the Church. They are times of revolution. you are no Father in God at all. Nature's laws do none of them forget to act. Woe to him that claims obedience when it is not due. That all goes by self-interest and the checking and balancing of greedy knaveries. Disbelief. than that of a "divine right" in people called Kings. that is rather the end. half-infernal. does it not still sound strange to many of us. in these ages. was a great matter. in those repositories! At the same time.--there straightway came to reside a divine virtue. has ever something of the Pontiff in him. whom I know not how to name in polite language!"--from that onwards to the shout which rose round Camille Desmoulins in the Palais-Royal. The "law of gravitation" acts. of indigent misery: in the outward. and called King. not to let the immense rubbish go without leaving us. one or the other of these two! For it is false altogether. which it is important for us and all men to keep in mind. what the last Sceptical Century taught us. something true. It can do none of us harm to reflect on this: in all the relations of life it will concern us. and it all welters as we see! But the beginning of it was not the French Revolution. that this world is a steam-engine. King. in Loyalty and Royalty. and not knowing in what manner to proceed about it! That is the world's sad predicament in these times of ours. That in Kings. does look out from all ruling and obedience. or Able-man." diplomacy. and to do much else which in the everlasting truth of Nature it did not now do: here lay the vital malady. as out of . That we knew in some tolerable measure how to find him. the assertion that there is a God's-truth in the business of god-created men.--I find a natural historical sequence. that all is not a kind of grimace. the highest of these. That the thing which still called itself Christian Church had become a Falsehood. and that all men were ready to acknowledge his divine right when found: this is precisely the healing which a sick world is everywhere. written some hundred years ago or more. from which all practice has its rise. some soul of it behind--I will say that it did mean something. we can hope. the beginning was three centuries farther back: in the Reformation of Luther.--starting confusedly. one knows not what!-From that first necessary assertion of Luther's. miserable millions stretch out the hand for their due supply. I say. so that he became a kind of god. and a God's-sanction. and he has a divine right over me. and claps a round piece of metal on the head of. from all moral acts of men. Find me the true Konning. natural as it is to an unbelieving century. and it is not there. That shout too. or else the violation of such. so frightful. Belief died away.

without the French Revolution. is itself a falsehood. The certainty of Heroes being sent us. in a world otherwise all of baseless sea and waves." with the faith that. or the world will take fire under it. testifying once more that Nature is preternatural. since they would not have it otherwise. if it be not made good. this would remain. what enormous difficulties lie there. Sentence of Death is written down in Heaven against all that. So many base plated coins . if we can believe it. turned into a "Machine. with a world of inconsistencies. Infernal. Here is a Truth. in the midst of that.--little better than Racine's. horrors of French Revolution or what else. that the French Revolution was a general act of insanity. the most solacing fact one sees in the world at present.--gone now happily into the region of Dreams and the Picturesque!--To such comfortable philosophers. as it were gone mad. that the French Nation had.--he may easily find other work to do than laboring in the Sansculottic province at this time of day! To me. empty Routine has ended. namely Nothing! Plausibility has ended. creeds. dust-clouds. in these circumstances. There is an everlasting hope in it for the management of the world. the Three Days of July. then diabolic. could not any longer produce Great Men:--I can tell her. This. on that "madness" quietus. a temporary conversion of France and large sections of the world into a kind of Bedlam. that it has to become Reality. surrounded. a level immensity of foolish small men would suffice. can await patiently. they say. And surely. to make that same mad French Revolution good! The sons and grandsons of those men. has been proclaimed to all men.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 86 death-sleep. no Authority needed any longer. we will now trust nothing. sickened. sunk away. reigns of terror. We will hail the French Revolution. patiently strive to do his work. they will have it made good. into some dim feeling that Life was real. if not divine. Poor Niebuhr. but a genuine product of this Earth where we all live." was as if effete now. Cost what it may. no more of it! We have had such forgeries. A true Apocalypse. that of "Hero-worship" becomes a fact inexpressibly precious. our necessity. dying because Louis Fourteenth looked sternly on him once. as ever. one would not know what to make of an age like this at all. that it was verily a Fact. Hero-worship would have sounded very strange to those workers and fighters in the French Revolution. that God's-world was not an expediency and diplomacy! Infernal. since not celestial or terrestrial! Hollowness. since they would not but have it so!-A common theory among considerable parties of men in England and elsewhere used to be. considering the other side of the matter. Not reverence for Great Men. much has ended. then.--yes. we cannot do without Great Men!--But neither have I any quarrel with that of "Liberty and Equality. as I said: a Truth clad in hell-fire. was not a transitory ebullition of Bedlam. Truly. our faculty. The Event had risen and raged. The world had stood some considerable shocks. to reverence Heroes when sent: it shines like a polestar through smoke-clouds. in all countries. we have to return to truth. arrangements. societies that men ever instituted. and that the world in general would do well everywhere to regard it as such. Had all traditions. will have themselves shot. They are the wisest who will learn it soonest. sentence of Death is now proclaimed on the Earth against it: this he with his eyes may see. peace impossible till it be! The earnest man. Long confused generations before it be learned. in those days. as with a Trump of Doom. might have been expected to survive the Three Days too. as shipwrecked mariners might the sternest rock. must have been a surprising phenomenon. no phenomenon could be more alarming. To philosophers who had made up their life-system. the Prussian Professor and Historian. "Liberty and Equality. insincerity has to cease. but was a madness and nonentity. though a terrible one. in its time. she may give up the trade altogether. or even wish. the inexorable demand for solution of them is pressing on. fell broken-hearted in consequence. persist in the enterprise: they do not disown it. out shooting and being shot. that Semblance is not Reality. fearfully fast. Here is the French Nation risen again. and all manner of down-rushing and conflagration. and be found turning on its axis after even them! The Three Days told all mortals that the old French Revolution. and died of the Three Days! It was surely not a very heroic death. mad as it might look. 183O. not any hope or belief.--burn it into what it is. that Great Men could again appear in the world! Nature. I should say. wise great men being impossible. to this false withered artificial time. it would seem. has proved false. and how fast. sincerity of some sort has to begin. Hero-worship. in musketry and death-struggle. reverence for such Authorities. It was a natural faith then and there.

into purpose and use. and Kingship itself first took rise. Thus too all human things." if it is not to be a mere empty grimace. The history of these men is what we have now to look at. which will suggest on the other side what I have not room to say. cramps himself to it. that first.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 87 passing in the market.--the product of entire sceptical blindness. And Loyalty. among other things. The Puritans. that nevertheless every Great Man. new genuine Substances unexpectedly unfold themselves indestructible. We have had many civil wars in England.--him to whose whole soul anarchy is hostile. are still possible.--and even that we can do very well without gold!" I find this. but is impelled withal. whose notion is that these are the life and safety of the world. that every created man. but it were more just to call them haters of untrue Forms. wars of Simon de Montfort. Divine right. His "Dreams" and superstitions. hateful. in that universal cry of Liberty and Equality.--Curious: in those days when Hero-worship was the most incredible thing to every one. We are all born enemies of Disorder: it is tragical for us all to be concerned in image-breaking and down-pulling. it is false altogether. and find it very natural. No chaos but it seeks a centre to revolve round. have an affectionate. He would have it the world was a College of that kind. Hero-worship exists forever. May we not say. He is placed suddenly. at the head not of a College but of a Nation. Like a weak man. it is doubly tragical. I say. Cromwell. the manner in which Kings were made. He seems an anarchist.--a recognition that there does dwell in that presence of our brother something divine. whose whole world is forms. Napoleon step forth again as Kings. He thinks they ought to go by the old decent regulations. is by the nature of him a son of Order. I will call it a section once more of that great universal war which alone makes up the true History of the World." They were Poets too. lovable kind of character. he drives with spasmodic vehemence towards his purpose. and indeed a painful element of anarchy does encumber him at every step. more a man than we. not of Disorder? It is a tragical position for a true man to work in revolutions. for the Great Man. While man is man. to regulate the most complex deep-reaching interests of men. And yet surely it is but the transition from false to true. He is like a College-Tutor. into a thing ruled. "Bending before men. moreover. fierce destroyers of Forms. nay that their salvation will lie in extending and improving these. is again exhibited in the history of these Two. as our last phasis of Heroism. it extends from divine adoration down to the lowest practical regions of life. is Hero-worship. He is an ill-starred Pedant. nothing. not dishonest an unfortunate Pedant rather than anything worse. in a way which all have to credit. as I said. when Kingship itself seems dead and abolished. at which they laugh so. and till that. College-rules. regular. and everywhere: not Loyalty alone. that devised all those graceful courtesies which make life noble! Courtesy is not a falsehood or grimace. heeding no voice of prudence. the belief has now become common that no gold any longer exists. Considered as the whole truth. and the world was not that. chaotic. every man's is. But that war of the Puritans has a significance which belongs to no one of the others. how it does come out nevertheless. at all moments. is a "revelation in the Flesh. as matters then stood. which are not very memorable. wars enough. seem mere savage Iconoclasts. no cry of pity: He will have his College-rules obeyed by his Collegians. Trusting to your candor. religious Worship itself. Poor Laud seems to me to have been weak and ill-starred. and assert itself practically. death. raging in the thickest of the madness. there is not a man in them. while so many of our late Heroes have worked rather as revolutionary men. it need not be such. is found to mean divine might withal! While old false Formulas are getting trampled everywhere into destruction. Alas. He is here to make what was disorderly. was not his . against men intent on the semblances and forms of things. with that unalterable luckless notion of his. constrains them into square fitness. I hope we know how to respect Laud and his King as well as them. as yet only struggling to see. take it on the great scale. some Cromwell or Napoleon is the necessary finish of a Sansculottism. Is not all work of man in this world a making of Order? The carpenter finds rough trees. maddest French Sansculottisms. Disorder is dissolution. as Novalis said. His very life means that. In rebellious ages. The old ages are brought back to us. shapes them.--the war of Belief against Unbelief! The struggle of men intent on the real essence of things. He is the missionary of Order. better dispensed with than practiced. towards Order. every genuine man. to many. wars of Red and White Roses. do and must work towards Order. His mission is Order. nay still inevitable.

wide as the world.--men with their life grounded on reality and justice. No form at all rather than such! It stood preaching in its bare pulpit. with his multiplied ceremonial bowings. shall. with many results for all of us.--we have to excuse it for saying. We have our Habeas-Corpus. a person making. Forms which grow round a substance. if we rightly understand that. not on tradition.--like the bones of the leading Puritans. was what these poor Rochesters. what we call free men. and will become." than the earnest Prophet intent on the essence of the matter! Puritanism found such forms insupportable. I assert. are as old nearly as the world.--it is hateful.--why then there must be men found to rebel against Semblance. "set speeches. the character of the Puritans began to clear itself. Everywhere the formed world is the only habitable one. is preferable to any semblance. or else must. In the age which directly followed that of the Puritans. however dignified. intent on his "College-rules. No fear of that. Its work nevertheless went on accomplishing itself. in all human things. a man preaching from his earnest soul into the earnest souls of men: is not this virtually the essence of all Churches whatsoever? The nakedest." worshipping of hollow shows. knew not how to form itself into utterance at all. a natural spontaneity in forms. he will find himself clothes. there must be men in the inside of them! Semblance. and much besides this. in the manner we have it described. They went to fierce battle over England in that age. I invite you to reflect on this.--what should we say of a man coming forward to represent or utter it for you in the way of upholsterer-mummery? Such a man. our free Representation of the People. prompted by no spontaneous reality within. Puritanism was hung on gibbets. are mute. struck down. Given the living man. for it has become a lie! These two Antagonisms at war here. All true work of a man. We can partly understand what those poor Puritans meant. Religion and all else naturally clothes itself in forms. whatsoever courtesies you see to be grimaces. Catherine Creed's Church. Nay. what we call. It is what the old Prophets called "Idolatry. exclamations: surely it is rather the rigorous formal Pedant. that all men are. And indeed. was the work of the Puritans. and preferred formless silence to any utterance there possible. what all earnest men do and will reject. gesticulations. The naked formlessness of Puritanism is not the thing I praise in the Puritans. bad. will correspond to the real nature and purport of it. There must be a veracity. savagest reality. As the briefest definition. Besides. and fought out their confused controversy to a certain length. trampled on such forms. there will be found clothes for him. Charles Second and his Rochesters were not the kind of men you would set to judge what the worth or meaning of such men might have been. But suppose now it were some matter of vital concernment. earnest solemnity from empty pageant. If Semblance do. had forgotten." is not he an offence? In the mere drawing-room. acknowledgment. as these things became gradually manifest.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor doom stern enough? Whatever wrongs he did. In the commonest meeting of men. in the case of Laud and the Puritans. good. will be true.--praising only the spirit which had rendered that inevitable! All substances clothe themselves in forms: but there are suitable true forms. must actually not divorce itself from Reality. struck dumb with its excess of feeling. if it be real. That there could be any faith or truth in the life of a man.--let him depart swiftly. some transcendent matter (as Divine Worship is). hang the author of it on what gibbet you like. with nothing but the Bible in its hand. if he love himself! You have lost your only son. . But the suit-of-clothes pretending that it is both clothes and man--! We cannot "fight the French" by three hundred thousand red uniforms. it is the thing I pity. one might say. unendurable. must and will accomplish itself. Laud dedicating that St. their cause or themselves were little likely to have justice done them. without even tears: an importunate man importunately offers to celebrate Funeral Games for him in the manner of the Greeks! Such mummery is not only not to be accepted. about which your whole soul. I say. forms which are consciously put round a substance. It distinguishes true from false in Ceremonial Form. actually no fear at all. and the age they ushered in. and then there are untrue unsuitable. are a thing you wish to get away from. which has become unjust and a chimera! This in part. were they not all frightfully avenged on him? 88 It is meritorious to insist on forms. it will clothe itself with due semblance by and by.

gilt sceptres. courage. But he stood bare. They are very noble men. infinite talent. break forth into any fire of brotherly love for these men? They are become dreadfully dull men! One breaks down often enough in the constitutional eloquence of the admirable Pym. our poor Cromwell. I found that it would not do. are admitted to be a kind of Heroes. taken down from the gibbet. does this constitutional tolerance of the Eighteenth century for the other happier Puritans seem to be a very great matter. I plead guilty to valuing such a man beyond all other sorts of men. step along in their stately way. Small thanks to a man for keeping his hands clean. Monarchies of Man. One Puritan. Smooth-shaven Respectabilities not a few one finds. A man of ability. in reality. that. hypocritical Tartuffe. after all. But the heart remains cold before them. with very indifferent success! At bottom. chiefly of all. with his "seventhly and lastly. Ship-moneys. but that it is heavy. the fancy alone endeavors to get up some worship of them. with these noble Pyms and Hampdens. to whom in no small degree we owe what makes us a free England: it would not be safe for anybody to designate these men as wicked now. disgraceful ignorance of Constitutional Philosophy to insist on the other thing!--Liberty to tax oneself? Not to pay out money from your pocket except on reason shown? No century. I have read diligently what books and documents about them I could come at. duplicity. and have a certain reverence paid them by earnest men. with their measured euphemisms. so of the Sceptic: He does not know a Hero when he sees him! The Valet expected purple mantles. is the sort of man for one." or what else he may call them. Selfish ambition. bodyguards and flourishes of trumpets: the Sceptic of the Eighteenth century looks for regulated respectable Formulas. Him neither saint nor sinner will acquit of great wickedness. They tell us. who would not touch the work but with gloves on! Neither. Elliot. "Principles. that they should have liberty to worship in their own way. and gain the suffrages of an enlightened sceptical Eighteenth century! It is. The great savage Baresark: he could write no euphemistic Monarchy of Man. whom I believe to have been right worthy and useful men. the same thing that both the Valet and he expect: the garnitures of some acknowledged royalty. and find no hearty apologist anywhere. parliamentary eloquences. And then there come contrasts with Washington and others. as good as canonized. heart to heart.--with the honestest wish to admire. to love and worship them like Heroes. it is but a piece of Formulism and Scepticism. It was a sorrowful thing to consider that the foundation of our English Liberties should have been laid by "Superstition. This view of Cromwell seems to me the not unnatural product of a century like the Eighteenth. Few Puritans of note but find their apologists somewhere. did not work with glib regularity. dishonesty. these. nay Ludlow. and almost he alone. and so forth: but he betrayed the Cause. for you there is little or nothing now surviving there! One leaves all these Nobilities standing in their niches of honor: the rugged outcast Cromwell. had no straight story to tell for himself anywhere. before deciding to revolt against his . turning all that noble Struggle for constitutional Liberty into a sorry farce played for his own benefit: this and worse is the character they give of Cromwell. Liberty to tax themselves: that was the thing they should have demanded! It was Superstition." which can plead for itself in a handsome articulate manner. Fanaticism. One might say." You find that it may be the admirablest thing in the world. but I am sorry to say." These Puritans came forward with Calvinistic incredible Creeds. at bottom. Eliot. but a rather barren one would have fixed on that as the first right of man! I should say. in a word. barren as brick-clay. on the whole. not cased in euphemistic coat-of-mail. For my own share.--heavy as lead. whose noble work he stole for himself. with the naked truth of things! That. a most constitutional. Hampden. What man's heart does. Westminster Confessions. above all. political Conscript Fathers. did not speak. far be it from me to say or insinuate a word of disparagement against such characters as Hampden. Anti-Laudisms. and ruined into a futility and deformity. that are not good for much. a fierce. like the rest.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 89 Their memories were. which then they will acknowledge! The King coming to them in the rugged unformulistic state shall be no King. on the contrary. a style of speech and conduct which has got to seem "respectable. if the real truth must be told. one after another. nay a certain portion of them are now. unblamable. he grappled like a giant. philosophies. he is the man of them all in whom one still finds human stuff. Vane himself. Hutchinson. Pym. As we said of the Valet. face to face. I think. coarse. Pym. demanding. dignified set of men. A just man will generally have better cause than money in what shape soever. I think. seems to hang yet on the gibbet. in these days.

A superficial unbelieving generation only. or pretend to find true!" He will answer: "No. and "had fancies about the Town-cross. To men who believe in no reality at all. predicting that he should be King of England. as chimeras ought to be left. but I cannot have my moral Self annihilated. can still work. Pyms and Ship-money will be the theme of much constitutional eloquence. by God's help. Such an excitable deep-feeling nature. but the thing that I find. pretend to say you are worshipping God. when you are not doing it: believe not the thing that you find true. and it is so desirable to you. on the whole. I think! He must try some other climate than this. is otherwise indisputably known. Cromwell was full of hypochondria. could form such notions of Great Men. and I will resist you to the death. the joint product of hatred and darkness. and revolt against you." We will not astonish ourselves that the meaning of such men as the Puritans remained dim to it. after being represented as the very prince of liars. Nay I cannot believe the like. in which a good man will be thankful to see any kind of Government maintain itself in a not insupportable manner: and here in England. is not the symptom of falsehood." "hypocrisy. since you can. He had often been sent for at midnight. and no lie spoken by him. it seems to me. this theory of Cromwell's falsity has been incredible to me. it will not go well with him. The Huntingdon Physician told Sir Philip Warwick himself. "Acknowledge a Lie. spoke truth. who never. but always some cunning counterfeit of truth. if not as fire does. accusations and confusions. then as ice does: and the irreducible Cromwell will remain a chaotic mass of "madness. in universal material Scarcity and Nonentity. Not Hunger alone produced even the French Revolution. in his young years. no! You may take my purse. of any Great Man whatever. hypochondriac humor of Oliver. What little we know of his earlier obscure years. The purse is any Highwayman's who might meet me with a loaded pistol: but the Self is mine and God my Maker's. They are not portraits of the man. and leave me alone to my work here. I am still here. Hampdens. take it. as it were the Voice of this world's Maker still speaking to us. and thereby become indisputably false in the eyes of all! We will leave the Eighteenth century with its "liberty to tax itself. Where is your proof of Mahomet's Pigeon? No proof!--Let us leave all these calumnious chimeras. front all manner of extremities. thought himself near dying. Multitudes of Great Men figure in History as false selfish men. palpable to the sense. Tax-gatherer? Money? He will say: "Take my money. striving to be fervid. it is the symptom and promise of quite other than falsehood! . Ours is a most confused world. after all the money you have taken from me!" But if they come to him. does it not all betoken an earnest. no. Is it not strange that. From of old. distorted as it has come down to us. affectionate. I believe this the less. unintelligible shadows. but the feeling of the insupportable all-pervading Falsehood which had now embodied itself in Hunger. Not one that I could yet get sight of. or Devil in person.--probably no more than of the other black Spectre." and much else.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 90 Government. It has been the soul of all just revolts among men. we do not see into them as men that could have existed at all. the intensest of all realities. in that rugged stubborn strength of his. it seems to me the one reason which could justify revolting." These things are significant. great or small?--No. with no eye but for the surfaces and semblances of things. they are distracted phantasms of him. there should not yet have been one falsehood brought clearly home to him? A prince of liars. Looking at the man's life with our own eyes. how shall a real human soul. in defence of that!"-Really. the essence of all real souls. to this hour. sincere kind of man? His nervous melancholic temperament indicates rather a seriousness too deep for him. we cannot figure Cromwell as a Falsity and Fatuity. this of the Puritans. Of those stories of "Spectres. we are not bound to believe much.--which will glitter. oversensitive. if he is not ready to pay a great many taxes which he can see very small reason in. gross. such a century will needs reject as an amorphous heap of rubbish. to whom the Officer saw him sell himself before Worcester Fight! But the mournful. it is not yours. Can a great soul be possible without a conscience in it. Why should we? There is no evidence of it. or hardly ever. after all the mountains of calumny this man has been subject to. and say. It is like Pococke asking Grotius." of the white Spectre in broad daylight.--and take yourself away with it. a very different hypothesis suggests itself.--be intelligible? What it cannot reduce into constitutional doctrines relative to "taxing. the longer I study him and his career. but if we will consider it. I will confess. they are but figures for us. Mr. and." or other the like material interest.

need it seem hypocritical. this and all else lies there. or. and the earnest portal of Death and Eternity. how he comes out once into public view. A man who. The unhappy Charles. this awakening of a great true soul from the worldly slough." says the story. His prayers to God. anxious indeed as for their own existence. you have made wager of battle with him: it is he to die. too. Ives and Ely. he still." frivolities and formalities." or other falsity? The man's hopes. derived from personal knowledge of him. abandons all this: not much above twenty. through the death-hail of so many battles. finding himself treated with outward respect as a King. were fixed on the other Higher World. living quite apart from contemplations of God. far more likely. Nor will his participation in the King's death involve him in condemnation with us. worshipping not God but their own "love-locks. religious. having vanquished Charles First. through the furious clash of a world all set in conflict." as they well name it. are honest successes of a brave man. everywhere we have to note the decisive practical eye of this man. He comforts persecuted ministers. No one else will go to law with Authority. into some of the dissipations of youth. A man whose word will not inform you at all what he means or will do. his successes through the war." says he. its prizes are not the thing that can enrich him. In this way he has lived till past forty. and this poor Earth of ours was the threshold either of Heaven or of Hell! Oliver's life at St. is not a man you can bargain with. "Gain influence"? His influence is the most legitimate. is fond of preachers. it lies there.--to see that Time and its shows all rested on Eternity. how he drives towards the practical and practicable. in that matter of the Bedford Fens. I do believe. could not and would not understand:--whose thought did not in any measure represent to him the real fact of the matter. this "conversion. mercy after mercy. daily assembles his servants round him to worship God. were most anxious to do so. but it could not be. He courts no notice: what could notice here do for him? "Ever in his great Taskmaster's eye. very natural. has a genuine insight into what is fact. once for all. for a little period. though found false. in those final Hampton-Court negotiations. He tills the earth. were still for believing Charles. and carried him forward so far. or else you. through desperate-looking envelopments at Dunbar. he returns back into obscurity. I maintain. living without God in the world. apprehensive now of the Independents. to the "crowning mercy" of Worcester Fight: all this is good and genuine for a deep-hearted Calvinistic Cromwell. I mean. unbelievable again and again. whose word did not at all represent his thought. It is very interesting. Reconciliation is problematic. It is now pretty generally admitted that the Parliament. "we are to have a little bit of paper?" No!-In fact. reasonable and determined man. who had preserved him safe. speedily repents. In all this what "hypocrisy. The large Presbyterian party. is it not altogether as that of a true and devout man? He has renounced the world and its ways. to redeem the time. It is a stern business killing of a King! But if you once go to war with him. "He pays back what money he had won at gambling.--he does not think any gain of that kind could be really his. he reads his Bible. in their despair. Alas. as a sober industrious Farmer. his aim to get well thither. had no way of making any tenable arrangement with him. Not so Cromwell: "For all our fighting. fancied that he might play off party against party. they both discovered that he was deceiving them. Forsaken there of all but the name of Kingship.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 91 The young Oliver is sent to study Law.--exhorts his neighbors to be wise. is impossible. Only to vain unbelieving Cavaliers. as a just. nay can himself preach. You must get out of that man's way. We may say this of him without cruelty. may be possible. who has more resolution in the heart of him. does not belong to a false . or is said to have fallen. Such an intellect." It is striking. old age is now in view of him. he is married. since no other is willing to come: in resistance to a public grievance. more light in the head of him than other men. and smuggle himself into his old power by deceiving both. settled as an altogether grave and quiet man. to his Bible and his Plough. therefore he will. his spoken thanks to the God of Victory. shows himself as a man fatally incapable of being dealt with. nay worse. That matter once settled. Once at war. by walking well through his humble course in this world. with deep pity rather: but it is true and undeniable. but if so." "cant. to see into the awful truth of things. he. or put him out of yours! The Presbyterians. falls. it was at this point that he suddenly became "ambitious"! I do not interpret his Parliamentary mission in that way! His successes in Parliament." "ambition.

whose heart was in the work. with the eye to see. or it would not exist! First recognize what is true. from victory to victory. to be soldiers for them: this is advice by a man who saw. For being a man worth any thousand men. or else go on to be forever governed by the Unheroic. "Know the men that are to be trusted:" alas. is far mistaken. For this world. man grappling with man in fire-eyed rage. to try it by that! Do that therefore. Why. into dilettantism. Not a Hero only is needed. Till it do come. suffrages. no sleek officiality. The vulpine intellect "detects" him. insincerity. in official language. by whatever name you might call him. virtually the King of England. which considers itself to be knowledge. which is much. The wild rude Sincerity. Till this be remedied in some measure. No more conclusively genuine set of fighters ever trod the soil of England. what curse is so fatal? The heart lying dead. he is scouted as a counterfeit. unbelieving world is the natural property of the Quack." but we.--the Hero comes almost in vain to it otherwise! Yes. should advance. what have we? Ballot-boxes. we shall then discern what is false. with the heart to dare. They had set more than their own lives on the cast. this is yet. till the Huntingdon Farmer became. French Revolutions:--if we are as Valets. To us it is no dilettante work. the insincere.--the infernal element in man called forth." Why not? These words were spoken to men who stood as before a Higher than Kings. is not glib in answering from the witness-box: in your small-debt pie-powder court. Is this your King? The Hero wastes his heroic faculty in bootless contradiction from the unworthy. men fearing God. but know withal the men that are to be trusted! Till we know that. is an argument for two centuries whether he was a man at all. of all dupes. there were no remedy in these. flimsy riotous persons. from post to post. For himself he does accomplish a heroic life. a world not of Valets. but the substance of him continues. confusion. What intellect remains is merely the vulpine intellect. It is his. By ballot-boxes we alter the figure of our Quack. somewhat better. . and for a hundred and fifty years he cannot have a vote from us. God's greatest gift to this Earth is sneeringly flung away. what is all our knowledge.--The successes of Cromwell seem to me a very natural thing! Since he was not shot in battle. and "detects" in that fashion. and properly never till then. How they were to dismiss their city-tapsters. I would kill the King. That a true King be sent them is of small use. That such a man. expediences: the true man is needed to discern even practical truth. Lamentable this! I say. the response your Knox. when we see him. Cromwell's advice about the Parliament's Army. horrid internecine fight. not fit to pass in the shops as a common guinea. plausibilities. The sincere alone can recognize sincerity. a fighting "for the King. cannot understand that. Dupes indeed are many: but. The Valet-World has to be governed by the Sham-Hero.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 92 man: the false man sees false shows. but for the world he accomplishes comparatively nothing. since that is the thing to be done. there is nothing remedied. he is its! In brief. it is far from us: but it must come. or of any other land. one of two things: We shall either learn to know a Hero. they do not know him when sent. The miraculous talisman is a paltry plated coin. what good are all these? A heroic Cromwell comes. the acknowledged Strongest Man in England. this must be remedied. thank God. how shall we even so much as "detect"? For the vulpine sharpness. and of the Father of quacks and quackeries! Misery. unveracity are alone possible there. in these days. and for all worlds. early in the contest. The Parliament may call it. there is none so fatally situated as he who lives in undue terror of being duped. if you see into Fact! Cromwell's Ironsides were the embodiment of this insight of his. requires no magic to explain it!-Truly it is a sad thing for a people. your Cromwell gets. the eye cannot see. and can accomplish little. they were an inevitable thing. as for a man. the world has truth in it. They say scornfully. and choose substantial yeomen. which is all. by the King merely dressed in King-gear. which was so blamed: "If the King should meet me in battle. Fact answers. but a world fit for him. and without any other fear. for our share.--had we ballot-boxes clattering at every street-corner. not to know Sincerity when they see it. very far from us. "Detect quacks"? Yes do. it is visibly coming. Neither will we blame greatly that word of Cromwell's to them. They have brought it to the calling-forth of War. and do not know the Hero when we see him. a true Governor and Captain. direct from Nature. to fall into Scepticism. for Heaven's sake. it is sheer rough death and earnest. The world does exist.

a man with his whole soul seeing. It is the character of a prophetic man. Intellect is not speaking and logicizing. and in his way of life little call to attempt naming or uttering that. had weight. These are the free outpouring utterances of what is in the heart: method is not required in them. sincerity are all that is required. incondite.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 93 Poor Cromwell. an impressive speaker. With his sharp power of vision. till some definite resolution rose among them. With that rude passionate voice of his. We find he was. In tears. get better light? Was not the purpose so formed like to be precisely the best. nay despised and disliked it. though he could not speak in Parliament. what one can call a purpose. confused. armed Soldiers of Christ. but Mammonish. manhood. Tugend (Taugend. All his great enterprises were commenced with prayer. is not fair-spoken immaculate regularity. Samuel Johnson too is that kind of man. but the material with which he was to clothe it in utterance was not there. as man's misery always does. wisest. diplomatic Clarendons! Consider him. advices. rhapsodic preaching. "Hypocrisy"? One begins to be weary of all that. he might preach. They.--Cromwell's prayers were likely to be "eloquent. unformed black of darkness! And yet withal this hypochondria.--wide as the world. The light which now rose upon them. Courage and the Faculty to do. resolute power of action. and struggling to see. On this ground. by any means at all. Rude. a great unnamed sea of Thought round him all his days. be such prayer a spoken. and he looked so strange. visions of the Devil. The man's misery. I apprehend. to make His light shine before them. They never formed a purpose. the Pillar of Fire by night. as they look.--how could a human soul.--devout prostration of the earnest struggling soul before the Highest. what was it but the very greatness of the man? The depth and tenderness of his wild affections: the quantity of sympathy he had with things. not to forsake the Cause that was His. who had drawn the sword against a great black devouring world not Christian. they never were alone with the truth of a thing at all. He disregarded eloquence. and men wished to know what." and much more than that. and cries to the great God. didactic Chillingworths. that was to guide them on their desolate perilous way. above all. the mastery he would yet get over things: this was his hypochondria. what the Germans well name it. Devilish. plausibilities. a little band of Christian Brothers. The ray as of pure starlight and fire.--he did harder things than writing of Books. To himself the internal meaning was sun-clear. nervous dreams. Cromwell's habit of prayer is a notable feature of him. depth. some "door of hope. the Giver of all Light. almost semi-madness. or be it a voiceless. even in Parliament. I doubt not he could have learned to write Books withal. His was the heart of a man who could pray. for hours. one who. with his wild sincerity.--the quantity of insight he would yet get into the heart of things. how he might be great in extempore prayer. among the elegant Euphemisms.--they cried to God in their straits. A kind of chaotic man. I explain to myself Cromwell's reputed confusion of speech. spoke always without premeditation of the words he was to use. An outer hull of chaotic confusion. as they felt themselves to be. and pray alternately. he was always understood to mean something. it is seeing and ascertaining. In dark inextricable-looking difficulties. have no right to speak on such matters. too. the one to be followed without hesitation any more? To them it was as the shining of Heaven's own Splendor in the waste-howling darkness. what all speakers aim to be. This kind of man is precisely he who is fit for doing manfully all things you will set him on doing.--great Cromwell! The inarticulate Prophet. He had lived silent. and to have given the Printer precisely what they found on their own note-paper. warmth. herohood. and speak fluently enough. acting a play before the world. Virtues. and yet such a clear determinate man's-energy working in the heart of that. came of his greatness. in fervent prayers. The Reporters. struggling to utter himself. get guidance by any other method than intrinsically by that same. the wide element of mournful black enveloping him. They who call it so. with his savage depth. They went about balancing expediencies. Virtue." as they would name it. from the first. But indeed his actual Speeches. Prophet who could not speak. in their extreme need. And withal. This basis of the matter Cromwell had in him. what a strange proof is it of Cromwell's being the premeditative ever-calculating hypocrite. gathering votes. too. dow-ing or Dough-tinesS). inarticulate one? There is no other method. working in such an element of boundless hypochondria. Was it not such? Can a man's soul. in those days seem to have been singularly candid. to have pity on them. half-distracted. for days. were not nearly so ineloquent. One understands moreover how. articulate. Consider that. his Officers and he used to assemble. to this hour. That to the last . it is first of all. disclosed itself. dainty little Falklands. Sorrow-stricken.

each party understood him to be meaning this. I suppose. with that unfathomable cunning of his. to find him not of their party. at the time when he was ploughing the marsh lands of Cambridgeshire. not one! Of what man that ever wound himself through such a coil of things will you say so much?-But in fact there are two errors. whom he did answer. what we call an error. an unwound skein of possibilities. but of his own party. All parties found themselves deceived in him. as I said. which pervert to the very basis our judgments formed about such men as Cromwell. But would it be a kindness always. And think for an instant how different the fact is! How much does one of us foresee of his own life? Short way ahead of us it is all dim. as in this Cromwell's case. which he then step by step dramatically unfolded. among such people. But with regard to Cromwell's "lying. is what the wise and faithful man would aim to answer in such a case. if he explained to them the deeper insight he had. What absurdities would fall away of themselves. omits it . with all manner of cunning. were this one undeniable fact kept honestly in view by History! Historians indeed will tell you that they do keep it in view. that he was! This is a radical perversion. about their "ambition. This Cromwell had not his life lying all in that fashion of Program. doing loud work in the world. to you incredible: break that beneath him. what his thoughts were about everything?--Cromwell.] Upokrites. or Play-actor. widely prevalent. is it a duty always or often. he sinks to endless depths! "I might have my hand full of truth. their own little compact hypothesis must have gone wholly to wreck. managed all this in a manner we must admire for its perfection. before flinging them out to the public? If the words were true words. to disturb them in that? Many a man. not.--the hollow. are to be seen everywhere.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 94 he took no more charge of his Speeches! How came he not to study his words a little. Was it his blame? At all seasons of his history he must have felt. Not one proved falsehood. If he walk wearing his heart upon his sleeve for daws to peck at. intrinsically. A man always is to be himself the judge how much of his mind he will show to other men. There are impertinent inquiries made: your rule is." said Fontenelle. conventionality. deceptive dramaturgy. whose whole activity depends on some conviction which to you is palpably a limited one. It must have been as a great true-seeing man that he managed this too. how. as he went on. to have been the nature of it. nay perhaps they could not now have worked in their own province. to him indubitable. "and open only my little finger. or believing it. But now. misinformed." "falsity." all this? What would you think of calling the general of an army a dissembler because he did not tell every corporal and private soldier. they must either have shuddered aghast at it. one and all. of apprehensions. spoke often in the dialect of small subaltern parties. scheming [Gr. to leave the inquirer uninformed on that matter. the chief of liars. His career lay all mapped out: a program of the whole drama. no doubt of it. And we call it "dissimulation. but to him it was in no measure so. his journey will not extend far! There is no use for any man's taking up his abode in a house built of glass. not of a false man in such times. We see it so. most active. and behold he turns out to have been meaning that! He was. Cromwell. It is the inevitable position of a great man among small men. imperfect. even to those he would have work along with him." And if this be the fact even in matters of doctrine. is not all this the inevitable fortune. attemptabilities. scene after scene! Not so. which he needed then. but precisely as dark as he was! This. only to enact dramatically. cry they.--but look whether such is practically the fact! Vulgar History. Small men. I should rather say. if you can help it. Hence their rage. who pleased to put the question. vague-looming hopes. how much more in all departments of practice! He that cannot withal keep his mind to himself cannot practice any considerable thing whatever. An endless vortex of such questioning "corporals" rolled confusedly round him through his whole course. This. Each little party thought him all its own. They could not have worked in his province any more. heard him even say so. The vulgar Historian of a Cromwell fancies that he had determined on being Protector of England. could one hit the right phrase of response. or something like this. they could be left to shift for themselves." we will make one remark. but simply of a superior man? Such a man must have reticences in him." and such like. uttered to them a part of his mind. stands only on some thin traditionality. The first is what I might call substituting the goal of their career for the course and starting-point of it. useful. all but universal in such cases.

see with the brother man's eyes at all points of his course what things he saw.--what could paradings. God's Word. A great man? A poor morbid prurient empty man. or more than Shakspeare. than for a throne among men. Such a man will say: "Keep your gilt carriages and huzzaing mobs. was there not in his life a weight of meaning. by want of money. and be seen of all the market-place. unless you will look at him. The world-wide soul wrapt up in its thoughts. and read his Bible. Silence. was already there. To remember it duly with rigorous perfection. each in his department. he is a small poor man that is ambitious so. and ribbons in the hat. Great Men are not ambitious in that sense. will disappear. the greatest soul in England in his day. who goes about producing himself. the great Empire of Silence: higher than the stars.--he had been content to plough the ground. I believe no great man. to spout. write paragraphs about him. We exaggerate the ambition of Great Men. and Life from the down-hill slope was all seen to be limited. know his course and him. not urged to writing. who could enact a brother man's biography. Because there is nothing in himself. and nothing other. scattered here and there. as they were. In good truth. words with little meaning. actions with little worth. To call such a man "ambitious. and all else was little to him. Like a forest which had no roots.--which must soon wither and be no forest. no notice would make him other than he already was. your important businesses.--I hope we English will long maintain our grand talent pour le silence. in its sorrows. your influentialities. He cannot walk on quiet paths. wonder at him. a terror and a splendor as of Heaven itself? His existence there as man set him beyond the need of gilding. I will say again: The great silent men! Looking round on the noisy inanity of the world. cultivate speech exclusively." to figure him as the prurient wind-bag described above. "Corsica Boswell" flaunted at public shows with printed ribbons round his hat. "Decide this. refers to this same "ambition" itself. keep your red-tape clerks. as it were begging everybody for God's sake. as old Samuel Johnson says he was. or speak. decide that. was ever much tormented in this way. not in the lump. nay impossible. deeper than the Kingdoms of Death! It alone is great. do for it? Ah yes. and all a measurable matter how it went. Of some great silent Samuel. even the best kinds of History only remember it now and then." which in utmost sorrow of heart no man can perfectly decide! What could gilt carriages do for this man? From of old. struggling to force everybody. Let others that cannot do without standing on barrel-heads. pruriently anxious about his gifts and claims. "Why do not you too get up and speak.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 95 altogether. he cannot live. Judgment and Eternity: these already lay as the background of whatsoever he thought or did. which I think the generality commit. which no speech of a mortal could name. A country that has none or few of these is in a bad way. I advise you to keep out of his way. that he might ride in gilt carriages to Whitehall. not infinite but finite. one might ask. not his greatness. Till his hair was grown gray. silently thinking. whom no Morning Newspaper makes mention of! They are the salt of the Earth. All his life lay begirt as in a sea of nameless Thoughts. It is the emptiness of the man. if we honestly so much as try to represent them so. Cromwell. A very Shakspeare for faculty. but the great old Samuel stayed at home. Death. in short. promulgate your . Your Cromwell. silently working. as the Puritan prophets of that time had read it: this was great. The noble silent men. what good could it do him to be "noticed" by noisy crowds of people? God his Maker already noticed him. in sequence. Half or more of all the thick-plied perversions which distort our image of Cromwell. There is a time to speak. one loves to reflect on the great Empire of Silence. there is too much of life in me already!" Old Samuel Johnson. requires indeed a rare faculty. Examine the man who lives in misery because he does not shine above other men.--become a most green forest without roots! Solomon says. seems to me the poorest solecism. leave me alone. he hungers and thirsts that you would find something in him. and set him over the heads of men! Such a creature is among the wretchedest sights seen under this sun. without selling himself to Falsehood. but also a time to keep silence. we mistake what the nature of it is. fitter for the ward of a hospital. Leave me alone. He. all else is small. and have clerks with bundles of papers haunting him. not so much as a genuine man who had health and real substance in him of whatever magnitude. as few "Historians" are like to do. which had all turned into leaves and boughs. He in his old days could not support it any longer. Woe for us if we had nothing but what we can show. rare. to acknowledge him a great man. as in the fact it stood. But a second error. was not ambitious. as they are thrown down before us.

in its own dialect. Where is Cato's statue?"-But now. there is an irrepressible tendency in every man to develop himself according to the magnitude which Nature has made him of. that it was possible for him to do priceless divine work for his country and the whole world. to seek the place! Mirabeau's ambition to be Prime Minister. the devoutest wisest men. was it not then the very thing to do? The strongest practical intellect in England dared to answer. no compulsion strong enough to speak it. Perhaps the place was his. nay it is a duty.--that such a course was false. but the fitness of the man for the place withal: that is the question. true zealous Preachers of the truth flung into dungeons. and even the summary of duties for a man. the undisputed Hero of all England. in his shrouded-up existence. Long years he had looked upon it. This is proper. to work what thing you have the faculty for. that it was possible. From of old. inevitable. happily I have yet had the ability to keep it in me. Not the coveting of the place alone. set on pillories. in silence. and the dawn of hope had become clear light of victory and certainty. "I am continent of my thought hitherto. whether it is bad or not. to act out. And now behold the dawn of it. seeing no remedy on Earth.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 96 system. He spoke there. Was it not true. perhaps he had a natural right. Yes! This I call a noble true purpose. is it not. of a self-seen truth. the Right will get a voice for itself: inexpressible well-grounded hope has come again into the Earth. And then the 'honor'? Alas. too amply. let me say that there are two kinds of ambition. I say. God's truth? And if true.--on and on. there is to be once more a Parliament. well might Gibbon mourn over him. experienced in the whole chaos of most rough practice.--but as Cato said of the statue: So many statues in that Forum of yours. by way of counterpoise to this of Silence. let it be accounted altogether poor and miserable. counting all affliction and contradiction small. what nature has laid in him. it might be so and should be so.--what of this? It was possible that the Law of Christ's Gospel could now establish itself in the world! The Theocracy which John Knox in his pulpit might dream of as a "devout imagination. fit. you had revealed to the brave old Samuel Johnson. that the prayer he prayed daily. yes. unjust. may it not be better if they ask. and hastened thither. I say. Was not such a Parliament worth being a member of? Cromwell threw down his ploughs. Coleridge beautifully remarks that the infant learns to speak by this necessity it feels. all England stirs itself. like a strong true giant of a man." this practical man. into noble utterance and determination to act. one wholly blamable. "Thy kingdom come. for example. Nature has provided that the great silent Samuel shall not be silent too long. its once so formidable enemies all swept from before it. the other laudable and inevitable." was at length to be fulfilled! If you had convinced his judgment of this. where we get a glimpse of them. and had even felt that he could do none. and he was now quit of it. till the Cause triumphed. through cannon-tumult and all else. to speak out. has provided amply that the silent great man shall strive to speak withal. who could do no good. yet sitting broken-hearted because they had flung him out. how shall we blame it. That he stood there as the strongest soul of England. the noblest that could enter into the heart of . casting all sorrows and misgivings under his feet.--the whole dark element of his existence blazing into articulate radiance of light and lightning? It were a true ambition this! And think now how it actually was with Cromwell. if he were "the only man in France that could have done any good there"? Hopefuler perhaps had he not so clearly felt how much good he could do! But a poor Necker. that he the mournful silent Samuel was called to take a part in it! Would not the whole soul of the man have flamed up into a divine clearness." he will answer. you have two things to take into view. "Seekest thou great things. rather! Fancy. The meaning of life here on earth might be defined as consisting in this: To unfold your self. That the perfect Heavenly Law might be made Law on this Earth. seek them not:" this is most true. were to rule the land: in some considerable degree.--Nature. practicable. dared to consider as capable of being realized. the first law of our existence. and even obligation. and could not last forever.--We will say therefore: To decide about ambition. And yet. after twelve years silent waiting. It is a necessity for the human being.--rugged bursts of earnestness. God's Gospel-cause trodden under foot of the unworthy: all this had lain heavy on his soul. Those that were highest in Christ's Church. trusting well that a remedy in Heaven's goodness would come. found your sect?" "Truly. the sufferings of God's Church. their ears crops off. He worked there. it is for serving myself to live by. in prayer. he fought and strove. whips. My 'system' is not for promulgation first of all. The selfish wish to shine over others. That is the great purpose of it to me.

what one may call the Hero-Cavalier. what becomes of men when they cannot find a Chief Man. for one. extensively applied since. The Scotch Nation was all but unanimous in Puritanism. come upon me here with an admission that Cromwell was sincere at first. that he fell into no faults. I. and a multitude following him. They are most touching words. does the like. as in this English end of the Island was always far from being the case." seems to me a rather sorry business." "immaculate conducts. vulpine knowingness sits yet at its hopeless problem. but a mass of Darkness! I will venture to say that such never befell a great deep Cromwell. and this was his welcome. but the Sun had not himself grown a Dimness. no very immeasurable man. Inanity. He had adherents by the hundred or the ten. and this problem is becoming to all men a palpably hopeless one. the vulpine intellect. his strength is gone. the noblest of all the Cavaliers. no insincerities among the rest. its alertness and expertness in "detecting hypocrites. its toils and sins all ended now. his strength is got by touching the Earth. who ever had in the heart of him any such purpose at all. an accomplished. and some other places! Till at length. One would say.--History. Fancy it: that it were made manifest to one of us. but for a Cromwell. known to God and him! The Sun was dimmed many a time. gets balefully incrusted with spots. very far from all. I think. and their enemies can. mummer. . Cromwell's last words. the virtual King of England. Broken prayers to God. to educe an Honesty from their united action. that I can get sight of. One man. the matter begins to stagnate. I think. but also by Heaven's great grace. But there was no great Cromwell among them. Insincerities. a George Washington." He was a rugged Orson. Think of it seriously. The instant his real work were out in the matter of Kingship. it is what any genuine man could do. will not call the man a Hypocrite! Hypocrite. The Sun flings forth impurities. very many faults daily and hourly: it was too well known to him. or durst commit himself to the truth. We will not assert that Cromwell was an immaculate man. as the highest good to England and all lands. the subjectless King can do something. not much. shows it only this once in such a degree. They had no leader. that He would judge him and this Cause. It is strikingly shown. and the scattered Cavalier party in that country had one: Montrose. the life of him a mere theatricality. and now he was. Well. "Given a world of Knaves. look at it. hungry for the shouts of mobs? The man had made obscurity do very well for him till his head was gray. He breathed out his wild great soul. you may see in Chancery Law-Courts. Had England rallied all round him. We have had but one such Statesman in England. gallant-hearted. but gradually became a "Hypocrite" as things opened round him.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 97 Statesman or man? For a Knox to take it up was something. faults. This Montrose. how indispensable everywhere a King is."--how cumbrous a problem. are those of a Christian heroic man. and all that we had longed and prayed for. He was no dilettante professor of "perfections. He since man could not. the most heroic phasis that "Faith in the Bible" was appointed to exhibit here below.--doubtless with many a fall therein. poor tremulous. but it does not quench itself. on the other a King without subjects! The subjects without King can do nothing. not all. and would do. Nature's own lionhearted Son. diplomatic Argyles and such like: none of them had a heart true enough for the truth. on the one hand subjects without a King. in all movements of men. by Heaven's just anger. rending his rough way through actual true work. how we could make the Right supremely victorious over Wrong. Cannot a man do without King's Coaches and Cloaks? Is it such a blessedness to have clerks forever pestering you with bundles of papers in red tape? A simple Diocletian prefers planting of cabbages.--why. never. lift him up from the Earth. splendid man. Antaeus-like.--to Mahomet and many others. England might have been a Christian land! As it is. as he lay waiting for death. you will find something in it. one man. with his great sound sense and experience of what our world was.--away with it! Let us remark. hesitating. then. I must say. with its knowingness. in this manner. opponents by the million. his Mother. a sincere "Fanatic" at first. meanwhile. lift him up into Hypocrisy. empty barren quack. Sincere hero hearts do not sink in this miserable manner. there as he stood recognized unblamed. zealous and of one mind about it. in this very War. and become no Sun at all. into the presence of his Maker.-But with regard to Cromwell and his purposes: Hume. I account it the culminating point of Protestantism. an attainable fact! Well. in the course of fifteen hundred years. This of the Fanatic-Hypocrite is Hume's theory of it. in justice yet in pity.

whether they called him so or not. Constitutional Formulas of one sort or the other. equable electoral division into districts. and decide. they against him were powerless! Perhaps of all the persons in that Puritan struggle. to make Pride's Purges. in this land! For three years. It is in weight and force. Let us see a little how this was. that in their splenetic envious despair. and the rest of it! A very questionable. few of them so much as guns in their hands. silenced indeed but not exterminated. the practical question arose. is what no one can pardon him. talk. however contrary to Formula. that we are the majority! And now with your Formulas and Reform Bills. the great numerical majority of England was always indifferent to our Cause. to be a fixed pillar in the welter of uncertainty. master of all Scotland. They could make no answer. these men were hurrying through the House a kind of Reform Bill. Chief Man of the victorious party in England: but it seems he could not do without the King's Cloak.--a King among them. not in the way of Formula. perhaps no Parliament could in such case make any answer but even that of talk. talk! Nevertheless the question must and shall be answered. to which He through us has given the victory. this question had been sounded in the ears of the Parliament. lies the rub for Cromwell. sweeps them. who sit there as supreme authority. that this poor Parliament still would not. it seemed to them that they also should have something to say in it! We will not "for all our fighting have nothing but a little piece of paper. Cromwell says. dashes at the drilled Puritan armies like a wild whirlwind. What was to be done with it? How will you govern these Nations. they who had purchased this victory with their blood. but he was a man. free suffrage of Englishmen? Why. the whole . but of practicable Fact! How they did finally answer. becoming fast odious. free suffrage." We understand that the Law of God's Gospel. all lying now subdued at the feet of the Puritan Parliament. which Providence in a wondrous way has given up to your disposal? Clearly those hundred surviving members of the Long Parliament. which we must answer or be devoured by it! And who are you that prate of Constitutional Formulas." right of Election. Perhaps it lies in the nature of parliamentary bodies. He was at one period.--and Cromwell's patience failed him. for a short while. England. The likeliest is. adjourned it. but without the one. He had fairly grown to be King in England. whom the nation already calls Rump Parliament. and indeed could not dissolve and disperse. To see and dare. and sold himself to perdition in order to get it. merely looked at it and submitted to it. however. The diligent Godwin himself admits that he cannot make it out.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 98 with a handful of Irish or Highland savages. He asked of the Parliament. to expel and banish by the law of the stronger whosoever would not let your Cause prosper: there are but fifty or threescore of you left there. but to Cromwell. According to this version: At the uttermost crisis. Reform Bill. shall establish itself. debating in these days. there could be none more complicated. and the fifty or sixty Rump Members on the other. though I believe it is not the true one. the Royalists themselves. What is to be done?--It was a question which theoretical constitution-builders may find easy to answer. His other proceedings have all found advocates. or indeed for them an unquestionable thing. some five times over. nothing but talk. from the field before him. the single indispensable one was verily Cromwell. for the tenth or twentieth time. but this dismissal of the Rump Parliament and assumption of the Protectorship. You sixty men there. remains obscure to this day. One man. looking there into the real practical facts of it. What it was they would decide upon? It was for the Parliament to say. but too favorable. to the whole nation. But we will take the favorablest hypothesis ever started for the Parliament. it was suddenly told Cromwell that the Rump in its despair was answering in a very singular way. Scotland. the favorablest. you cannot continue to sit there: who or what then is to follow? "Free Parliament. Ireland. Yet the Soldiers too. time after time. that when it came to the point of actually dispersing. even despicable. Tell us what we shall do.--the thing is a hungry Fact coming on us. a million zealous men. rights of Parliament? You have had to kill your King.--Parliament to be chosen by the whole of England. they again. from first to last. when Cromwell and his Officers were met on the one hand. and stand generally justified. to keep out the Army at least. perhaps outnumber us. not by counting of heads. cannot continue forever to sit. or try to establish itself. Precisely here.

say and vow before God and men. in such bursting fulness of meaning. His first Parliament. it is a certainty. therefore. They were scornfully called Barebones's Parliament: the man's name. and you as a Parliament could assemble together. but to act it rather! A helplessness of utterance. there was no alternative but Anarchy or that. delivered up their power again into the hands of the Lord General Cromwell. in an inarticulate. saved from suicide thereby!--I believe the Puritan People did. shaped as they could what was to come. the world wholly thrown into chaos round him." God's finger guided us on. but cannot. So likewise to his third Parliament. into bottomless questions as to the Protector's right.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 99 matter. and worked. interrupted them in that rapid speed of their Reform Bill. influence and attachment to the true Cause: these are assembled to shape out a plan. but Puritan England was. Such is the undeniable Fact of his position and England's. before long. worked out and sanctioned as they could in the circumstances be. the one they call Barebones's Parliament. at this unexampled juncture. with public solemnity. and theatrical contrivances of men. could applaud him. Instrument of Government. was not Barebones. a Convocation of the Notables. and we came at last to clear height of victory. "Commander-in-chief of all the Forces raised and to be raised. properly his first regular Parliament. did assemble. in real truth. "You have had . You would say. God's Cause triumphant in these Nations. is.--a trial on the part of these Puritan Notables how far the Law of Christ could become the Law of this England. he says.--but got. What will he do with it? After deliberation. and always better to the last. to do with it what he liked and could. men of deep piety I suppose the most of them were. Puritan England might accept it or not. as to "usurpation. shall again launch itself to sea. Cromwell's concluding Speech to these men is a remarkable one. as incompetent. it is blind blasphemers that will persist in calling them so! He insists with a heavy sulphurous wrathful emphasis on this. it seems. and likelihood. and I will do the best I can with it!" Protectorship. find some Parliament to support him. at the pass matters had now come to. but most earnest-looking. nothing between England and utter Anarchy but him alone. all these Speeches are. As he well might. What will he do with it? The Lord General Cromwell. and had at the earliest legal day to be dismissed. which we have won. so to speak. but Barbone. by God's strength and our own right hands. Most rude. of me or of men.--Can we not forgive him? Can we not understand him? John Milton.--a good enough man. by the Judges. The strong daring man. The Reality had swept the Formulas away before it. by the leading Official people. and broke down. small even as a likelihood? And it is not a likelihood." and so forth. they had their difficulties. "Council of Officers and Persons of interest in the Nation:" and as for the thing itself. so many victories and events. their work. "Yes. There were men of sense among them. chosen by the rule laid down in the Instrument of Government. and say in what manner all this could be organized. not used to speak the great inorganic thought of him. has dared appeal to the genuine Fact of this England. He talks much about "births of Providence:" All these changes. it was a sincere helpless man. accept this anomalous act of Oliver's. it seems. chaotic. You were to help with your wise counsel in doing that. men of some quality. and do now hold here. become a mere hope. I fancy.--ordered them to begone." he hereby sees himself. sorely won by our swords. and played it all off like a precontrived puppet-show by wood and wire! These things were foreseen by no man. grumbling. he and they together made it good. in similar rebuke for their pedantries and obstinacies. Nor was it a jest. has set all manner of Formulas and logical superficialities against him. Cromwell walked down to these refractory Members. at least. and never knew fully what to say to it!-Oliver's second Parliament. as it were the one available Authority left in England. endeavoring to reform the Court of Chancery! They dissolved themselves. will formally. it was a most serious reality. were not forethoughts. most men who were realities in England might see into the necessity of that. who looked on it all near at hand. had foreseen it all. From all quarters of England the leading Ministers and chief Puritan Officials nominate the men most distinguished by religious reputation. As if a Cromwell in that dark huge game he had been playing. there and then. They sanctioned what was past. and talk there no more. reduced into rational feasibility among the affairs of men. But in their Parliamentary articulate way. yet on the whole grateful and real way.--these are the external forms of the thing. They failed. undeniably enough. Whether it will support him or not? It is curious to see how he struggles to govern in some constitutional way. no man could tell what a day would bring forth: they were "births of Providence. he decides that he will accept it. the Fact is so.

constitutionalities. begs that he would be reconciled to him. Try to believe that he means something. I while God leaves me life!--Why did he not give it up. You look through them only into the infinite vague of Black and the Inane. are far more obscure than Cromwell's Speeches. nay into the possibility of him. that. but only God's voice from the battle-whirlwind. domestic. his old brother in arms. written in shallow sceptical generations that could not know or conceive of a deep believing man. now very old. while the Reality is here! I will go on. there remained nothing but the way of Despotism. and we know not when it will return. theories and crotchets. for being President among you! That opportunity is gone. say the most: a hypocrite shrouding himself in confused Jesuitic jargon! To me they do not seem so. "Heats and jealousies. conciliatory style. to kill the Cause and him. Pombal. as indeed they lived all an honest God-fearing Household there: if she heard a shot go off. a meaning in the great heart of this inarticulate man! You will. retire into obscurity again.-Cromwell's third Parliament split on the same rock as his second. cherishing true Gospel ministers. involved chaotic things the printed Speeches of Cromwell are. and I my informal struggles. was to be in some measure made the Law of this land. unintelligible to you. Military Dictators. doing the best I can to make England a Christian England. Charles Stuart and the Cavaliers waited to kill him. bottomless cavillings and questionings about written laws for my coming here. It is Blindness laying down the Laws of Optics. there is no retreat. Formula shall not carry it. not an enigmatic chimera. dear to him from of old: the rigorous Hutchinson. This Prime Minister could retire no-whither except into his tomb. the Right and True. surely the same power which makes you a Parliament. his strong arm growing weary with its long work! I think always too of his poor Mother. says how much it grieves him to be misunderstood. a reflex and creation of that?-Parliaments having failed. then by the sword. Pitt. appointing just judges. she thought it was her son killed. Scepticism writing about Belief may have great gifts. and "God be judge between you and me!"-We said above what shapeless. "God be judge between you and me!" These are his final words to them: Take you your constitution-formulas in your hand." in a most fraternal. for thc first time. Heavy. to govern them.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 100 such an opportunity as no Parliament in England ever had. the Queen of Protestant Christianity. and their word was a law while it held: but this Prime Minister was one that could not get resigned. no return. greater than old Rome. much against his will. his old battle-mate. protecting oppressed Protestants abroad. these induced slow sober quiet Englishmen to lay down their ploughs and work.--And the man's head now white. purposes. rules yet in this land." Christ's Law. One is sorry for Cromwell in his old days. not Christ's Law.--and would send the whole matter into Chaos again. that she might see with her own eyes that he was yet living. at home. In place of that. For him there was no giving of it up! Prime ministers have governed countries. The . if not by act of Parliament. a right brave woman. since the Law would not acknowledge him? cry several. coming to see him on some indispensable business. wise managers. what in the name of wonder is your Parliamenteership. made me a Protector!" If my Protectorship is nothing. Old Colonel Hutchinson. and something more. to coerce the Royalist and other gainsayers. sullenly goes his way. Wilfully ambiguous. cased in his Republican formula. you have got into your idle pedantries. His complaint is incessant of the heavy burden Providence has laid on him. Choiseul." mere crabbed whims. each with his district. You have had your constitutional Logic. unintelligible. Ever the constitutional Formula: How came you there? Show us some Notary parchment! Blind pedants:--"Why. I. Hutchinson. deserted by true fellow-soldiers. but it is really ultra vires there. He had to come to her at least once a day. begin to see that he was a man. Let him once resign. since you will not help me. because I have no Notary's parchment. as his wife relates it. living in that Palace of his. That is where they mistake. I will say rather. Once embarked. and fly into red fury of confused war against the best-conditioned of Kings! Try if you can find that true.--Cromwell "follows him to the door. and Mammon's Law. realities and acts. they afforded the first glimpses I could ever get into the reality of this Cromwell. incredible to you. which he must bear till death. The Histories and Biographies written of this Cromwell." says Lord Clarendon himself: "heats and jealousies. search lovingly what that may be: you will find a real speech lying imprisoned in these broken rude tortuous utterances.

It was not to men's judgment that he appealed. This was the length the man carried it. and involves him and his work in ruin."--place in History forsooth!--has been a place of ignominy. place in History? His dead body was hung in chains. this day. Bourrienne tells us. content to lie latent. compared with our great chaotic inarticulate Cromwell's. "let us go by what actually is God's Truth. much more difficult to hush up. undeniable in all seasons and circumstances. through long years. there broke out a far deeper explosion. and so forth. prompt. every way articulate character is in itself perhaps small. It had been. his "place in History. the explosive confused return of mankind to Reality and Fact. are but as the high stilts on which the man is seen standing. ruinous penalty is exacted for them. let us discern withal that the man had a certain instinctive ineradicable feeling for reality. The French Revolution. there are no excuses. His savans. in 1688. they cannot live on semblance. and here. let us go by the Bible!" "In Church. as we step on it!--Let the Hero rest. with such truth as it has. They had proved it. will apply much better to Napoleon than it did to Cromwell. No man will believe the liar next time even when he speaks truth. for lower than that savage Sansculottism men cannot go. was thought to be Nonentity: he had to begin not out of the Puritan Bible. He has an instinct of Nature better than his culture was. They stand there on the nakedest haggard Fact." said Cromwell. in spite of all. ambition. Fame. gets the victory over him at last. only a far inferior sort. in the long-run. by all manner of logic. Meritorious to get so far." said Luther. you cannot of nothing make something. The old cry of wolf!--A Lie is no-thing. step over his body sunk in the ditch there. while Cromwell abode mainly in our little England. and lose your labor into the bargain. We call our English Puritanism the second act: "Well then. In fact. An element of blamable ambition shows itself. what good can it ever be to promulgate lies? The lies are found out. "False as a bulletin" became a proverb in Napoleon's time. from the first. the stature of the man is not altered thereby." we have a portentous mixture of the Quack withal! Hume's notion of the Fanatic-Hypocrite. by the name of French Revolution. It is properly the third and final act of Protestantism. nor have men judged him very well. Yet Napoleon had a sincerity: we are to distinguish between what is superficial and what is fundamental in insincerity. in that voyage to Egypt were one evening busily occupied arguing that there could be no God.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 101 poor old Mother!--What had this man gained. Instead of "dumb Prophet struggling to speak. Latency. I find in him no such sincerity as in Cromwell. better for Napoleon too if he had not told any. He makes what excuse he could for it: that it was necessary to mislead the enemy. to their satisfaction. Napoleon looking up into the stars. or third act. A man in no case has liberty to tell lies. His compact." Men have to return to reality. when it is of the last importance that he be believed. got its King. His enormous victories which reached over all Europe. On the whole. the meaning of all Silence. and like to be long known. meant to be found extant next day. . to Mahomet or the like. the Bible is true. but out of poor Sceptical Encyclopedies. to his last day. which were many and most blamable. We have still to glance for a moment at Napoleon. Napoleon does by no means seem to me so great a man as Cromwell. so long as he had any basis. "walking with God. accomplish much for us? We walk smoothly over his great rough heroic life. The French explosion. if a man have any purpose reaching beyond the hour and day. you make nothing at last. We need not spurn it. we may well call the final one. and its results made smooth. our second modern King. then burst out as in blaze of Heaven's lightning! Napoleon lived in an age when God was no longer believed. Across these outer manoeuverings and quackeries of his. and faith and strength in that alone: latent thought and valor. with the Awful Unnamable of this Universe. now that they were perishing of Semblance and Sham. accusation. what had he gained? He had a life of sore strife and toil. blackness and disgrace. who knows if it is not rash in me to be among the first that ever ventured to pronounce him not a knave and liar. "In Church and State. in this man.--who had no Notary parchment to show for himself. like the English one. Precisely a century and a year after this of Puritanism had got itself hushed up into decent composure. Did he not." as he called it. but a genuinely honest man! Peace to him. and did base himself upon fact. to keep up his own men's courage. No silent walking. and may and must begin again confidently to build up from that.--where indeed taken strictly it has hardly any truth at all. known to all mortals.

the great Fact stares him in the face: "Who made all that?" So too in Practice: he. making little answer. He did not know true from false now when he looked at them. nay what he actually managed to do? Through Wagrams. genuine so far as it went? That this new enormous Democracy asserting itself here in the French Revolution is an unsuppressible Fact. Such a faith in Democracy. one would say. On that Twentieth of June (1792). he knew that Democracy. all other deceptions follow naturally more and more. and put him there. up at Paris. it includes whatever the French Revolution or any Revolution. Napoleon. asked for a pair of scissors. how necessary a strong Authority is. that he should believe a lie. to tame it. and demonstration how glorious it was. sees. not as a wasting destruction alone: is not this still what he partly aimed at. thinking to make it more real thereby! His hollow Pope's-Concordat. "_la vaccine de la religion_:" his ceremonial Coronations. what we must call a genuinely true one. it is that carries Napoleon through all his great work. And yet by the nature of him. He rose naturally to be the King. Bourrienne and he sat in a coffee-house. There was an eye to see in this man. in his first period. and took his conscience and enthusiasm along with it. was a true Democrat. felt by himself to be the method of extirpating it. consecrations by the old Italian Chimera in Notre-Dame. Say nothing. yet hatred of anarchy. with the old false Feudalities which he once saw clearly to be false. to his poor discontented followers. not unnaturally. triumph after triumph. with its old forces and institutions. and has a right to feel. to the horror of his upholstery functionary. But at this point. cannot put down. why quarrel with one another? There is no result in it. so that its intrinsic purpose can be made good. and be able to live among other organisms and formed things. clips one of the gold tassels from a window-curtain. On the Tenth of August he wonders why there is no man to command these poor Swiss. he produced it at the right moment. that the enormous French Revolution meant only that! The man was "given up to strong delusion. however. Messieurs: but who made all that?" The Atheistic logic runs off from him like water. without any chimera: were not these the real emblems of . Some days afterwards. To bridle in that great devouring. it comes to nothing that one can do. the practical heart of the matter. as the true purport of his life. and how cheap withal. put it in his pocket. "nothing but the half-million of men who had died to put an end to all that"! Cromwell's Inauguration was by the Sword and Bible. if it were a true thing at all. Popedoms. as every man that can be great. Chief-consulship.--a faith. Napoleon. he feels. and even the whole truth. or have victory in this world. What a paltry patchwork of theatrical paper-mantles. took to believing in Semblances. Self and false ambition had now become his god: self-deception once yielded to. through all entanglements. it is notable how he still. all talk and no work! What wonder it runs all wrong? We shall have to go and put our Petit Caporal there!" They went.--till the poor Lieutenant of La Fere. The implements to him who can handle them:" this actually is the truth. victory over Europe. with praises. the fatal charlatan-element got the upper hand. I think. could not be an anarchy: the man had a heart-hatred for anarchy. which the whole world. as the mob rolled by: Napoleon expresses the deepest contempt for persons in authority that they do not restrain this rabble. Sword and Bible were borne before him. All men saw that he was such. his inspiration is: "Triumph to the French Revolution. they and France at large." as Augereau said. it was not gold but tinsel! In St. this was a true insight of his. The common soldiers used to say on the march: "These babbling Avocats. strove to connect himself with Austrian Dynasties. He apostatized from his old faith in Facts. Helena. that it may become organic. And accordingly was there not what we can call a faith in him. Emperorship. could mean.--"wanting nothing to complete the pomp of it. Through his brilliant Italian Campaigns. pretending to be a re-establishment of Catholicism. and walked on. self-devouring French Revolution. he is like a piece of silent strength in the middle of their morbid querulousness there. When the steward of his Tuileries Palace was exhibiting the new upholstery. a soul to dare and do. the real. insists on the practical. above all.--considered that he would found "his Dynasty" and so forth. "Very ingenious. how the Revolution cannot prosper or last without such. might seem to himself the greatest of all men that had been in the world for some ages. if one can do nothing!" He speaks often so. they would conquer if there were. assertion of it against these Austrian Simulacra that pretend to call it a Simulacrum!" Withal. fostered too by his military trade. drives straight towards that. "Why talk and complain. tinsel and mummery.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 102 answers. Austerlitzes. to his last days.--the fearfulest penalty a man pays for yielding to untruth of heart. And did he not interpret the dim purport of it well? "_La carriere ouverte aux talens_.--he triumphed so far." a fearful but most sure thing. had this man wrapt his own great reality in. onwards to the Peace of Leoben.

what was it with all the noise it made? A flash as of gunpowder wide-spread. or had his best regiment drowned in the sea. as I think. however huge it may look. in all of us this charlatan-element exists. in a double sense. into the secret of Mankind's ways and vitalest interests in this world. in a turbid atmosphere of French fanfaronade. saw no fact deeper in man than Hunger and this! He was mistaken. The heavier this Napoleon trampled on the world. Having once parted with Reality. With six months. For here finally these wide roamings of ours through so many times and places. as indeed what great man is other? Left in too rude a state. could make out to be other. a blazing-up as of dry heath. I say. But alas.--waiting their day! Which day came: Germany rose round him. England itself. what Nature with her laws will sanction. Palm! It was a palpable tyrannous murderous injustice. strong. in search and study of Heroes. I promised to break ground on it. The rest was all smoke and waste. not to be too grave about it. its stars above and kind soil beneath. To what of reality was in him. mournfully as man seldom did. Alas. genuine. It is a great subject. Napoleon's working. as he liked. it and the like of it. the beautiful. I heartily thank you all. The Duke of Weimar told his friends always. all-hoping favor and kindness. is by Nature only an appendage of France. It enters deeply." So it was by Nature. a falsehood. which no man. if also much pain. clear-seeing. has enveloped itself. and the World is still moving on its axis. he says. were the temptation strong enough. for a pedestal to France and him: the world had quite other purposes in view! Napoleon's astonishment is extreme. he tumbles helpless in Vacuity. For an hour the whole Universe seems wrapt in smoke and flame. which he once had. He seems to feel the most unaffected surprise that it has all gone so. what help now? He had gone that way of his. one day. I am sorry for it: there was pleasure for me in this business. and say. no rescue for him. we might have done better.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor 103 Puritanism. Helena. and die. half-dissolved itself. something of what is best in England. as they thought of it. "Lead us not into temptation"! But it is fatal. patient candor. and could not last. Like a man that should build upon cloud. that it be developed. that France was not all-great. I am not sure but he had better have lost his best park of artillery. The accomplished and distinguished. It goes out: the Universe with its old mountains and streams. Injustice pays itself with frightful compound-interest." that he should believe the thing to be which is not! The compact. France is great. La carriere ouverte aux talens: that great true Message.--What Napoleon did will in the long-run amount to what he did justly. and a most grave and wide one. and pretended to stand by them now! But this poor Napoleon mistook: he believed too much in the Dupability of men. Good be with you all! . with these abrupt utterances thrown out isolated. alas! His notions of the world. are to terminate. "Strong delusion. holding it tyrannously down. He had to sink there. he is France. and. the fiercer would the world's recoil against him be. The thing into which it enters as a cognizable ingredient is doomed to be altogether transitory. as he expresses them there at St. The world was not disposed to be trodden down underfoot. suppressed fire flashed in the eyes of men. is in itself small.--this poor Napoleon: a great implement too soon wasted. a rude-draught never completed. this which. I know not whether I have even managed to do that. his house and he fall down in confused wreck. and built together. It burnt deep into the hearts of men. the wise. is still there. to be bound into masses. but only for an hour. this Napoleonism was unjust. till it was useless: our last Great Man! Our last. its true decoration and insignia? It had used them both in a very real manner. To be of courage. which has yet to articulate and fulfil itself everywhere. unexplained. that he is flung out on the rock here. are almost tragical to consider. and Nature also had gone her way. than shot that poor German Bookseller. Tolerance. and all-great: and at bottom. and might be developed. It is true doctrine. and depart out of the world. that he was not France. With many feelings. to that and nothing more. and is well worth explaining at present. "another Isle of Oleron to France. by Napoleon-Nature. let him paint an inch thick. I have named Hero-worship. and yet look how in fact--HERE AM I! He cannot understand it: inconceivable that the reality has not corresponded to his program of it. I have had to tear it up in the rudest manner in order to get into it at all. has your tolerance been put to the trial. he left in a most inarticulate state. instead of six days. Often enough. which I will not speak of at present. accordingly. and break his great heart. have listened patiently to my rude words. decisive Italian nature of him. He was a great ebauche.

and the Heroic in History A free ebook from http://manybooks. by Carlyle On Heroes.Information prepared by the Project Gutenberg legal advisor End of Project Gutenberg's Etext of Heroes and Hero Worship. 104 .