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PROGRESS IN PHYSICS

October, 2007

SPECIAL REPORT

**A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields
**

Indranu Suhendro

Department of Physics, Karlstad University, Karlstad 651 88, Sweden

E-mail: spherical symmetry@yahoo.com

In this work, we attempt to describe the classical physical ﬁelds of gravity, electromagnetism, and the so-called intrinsic spin (chirality) in terms of a set of fully geometrized constitutive equations. In our formalism, we treat the four-dimensional space-time continuum as a deformable medium and the classical ﬁelds as intrinsic stress and spin ﬁelds generated by inﬁnitesimal displacements and rotations in the space-time continuum itself. In itself, the unifying continuum approach employed herein may suggest a possible uniﬁed ﬁeld theory of the known classical physical ﬁelds.

dimensional curvilinear coordinates of Riemannian geometry, nothing more. As such, any possible interaction between Many attempts have been made to incorporate the so-called the physical ﬁelds (e.g., the interaction between gravity and standard (Hookean) linear elasticity theory into general rela- electromagnetism) has not been investigated in detail. tivity in the hope to describe the dynamics of material bodies In the present work, we develop a fully geometrized conin a fully covariant four-dimensional manner. As we know, tinuum theory of space-time and the classical physical ﬁelds many of these attempts have concentrated solely on the treat- in which the actions of these physical ﬁelds contribute diment of material bodies as linearly elastic continua and not rectly to the dynamics of the space-time geometry itself. In quite generally on the treatment of space-time itself as a lin- this model, we therefore assume that a physical ﬁeld is diearly elastic, deformable continuum. In the former case, tak- rectly associated with each and every point in the region of ing into account the gravitational ﬁeld as the only intrinsic space-time occupied by the ﬁeld (or, a material body in the ﬁeld in the space-time continuum, it is therefore true that case of gravity). This allows us to describe the dynamics of the linearity attributed to the material bodies means that the the space-time geometry solely in terms of the translational general consideration is limited to weakly gravitating objects and rotational behavior of points within the occupied region. only. This is because the curvature tensor is in general quad- Consequently, the geometric quantities (objects) of the spaceratic in the the so-called connection which can be said to time continuum (e.g., curvature) are directly describable in represent the displacement ﬁeld in the space-time manifold. terms of purely kinematic variables such as displacement, However, in most cases, it is enough to consider an inﬁnitesi- spin, velocity, acceleration, and the particle symmetries themmal displacement ﬁeld only such that the linear theory works selves. perfectly well. However, for the sake of generality, we need As we have said above, at present, for the sake of simnot assume only the linear behavior of the properly-stressed plicity, we shall assume the inherently elastic behavior of the space-time continuum (and material bodies) such that the pos- space-time continuum. This, I believe, is adequate especially sible limiting consequences of the linear theory can be readily in most cosmological cases. Such an assumption is nothing overcome whenever it becomes necessary. Therefore, in the but intuitive, especially when considering the fact that we present work, we shall both consider both the linear and non- do not fully know the reality of the constituents of the fablinear formulations in terms of the response of the space-time ric of the Universe yet. As such, the possible limitations of geometry to inﬁnitesimal deformations and rotations with in- the present theory, if any, can be neglected considerably until trinsic generators. we fully understand how the fabric of the space-time continA few past attempts at the full description of the elas- uum is actually formed and how the properties of individual tic behavior of the space-time geometry in the presence of elementary particles might contribute to this formation. physical ﬁelds in the language of general relativity have been quite signiﬁcant. However, as standard general relativity de- 2 The fundamental geometric properties of a curved scribes only the ﬁeld of gravity in a purely geometric fashmanifold ion, these past attempts have generally never gone beyond the simple reformulation of the classical laws of elasticity in Let us present the fundamental geometric objects of an ni the presence of gravity which means that these classical laws dimensional curved manifold. Let !a = @Xa Ei = @a X i Ei @x of elasticity have merely been referred to the general four- (the Einstein summation convention is assumed throughout

34 I. Suhendro. A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields

1

Introduction

They are given by i i :::i 0 i1 i2 :::ip j1 j2 :::jp =2j1 j2 :::jp 2i1 :::ip = det B B @ p B ip : : : j1 ip : : : j2 ::: ::: ::: ::: ip i1 i2 jp jp : : : jp i1 j1 i1 j2 i2 j1 i2 j2 1 C C C A where 2j1 j2 :::jp = det (g ) are the covariant and contravariant components of the completely anti-symmetric Levi-Civita permutation tensor. ik =hEi . our C1 -diﬀerentiable manifold itself is a topological space. In addition. we have. Ek i = diag ( 1. Suhendro. Then it is easy to see that F i = F X i and f a = F xa . 1) : In four dimensions. with the ordinary permutation symbols being given as usual by j1 j2 :::jq and i1 i2 :::ip .e. The contravariant (coframe) basis b is then given b b via the orthogonal projection b . 1. 2007 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS Volume 4 this work) be the covariant (frame) basis spanning the ndimensional base manifold C1 with local coordinates xa = = xa X k . the one-forms dX linear map Tx (M) ! IR when applied to an arbitrary vector @ @ ﬁeld F 2 Tx (M) of the explicit form F = F i @X i = f a @xa . it can also be veriﬁed that @ ea = ea @b ea = ea eb a eb ec bc a ec cb . F = F X k = F k . !b i satisfying where g ab = is completely anti-symmetric. In fact the relation @b !a = c !c ab 35 I. relating the localized components of F to the general ones and vice versa. @b !a i = where the round index brackets indicate symmetrization and the square ones indicate anti-symmetrization. : gab = ik @a X i @b X k : The line-element of C1 is then given by ds2 = g = gab @i xa @k xb dX i where a We know that is a non-tensorial object. c ab c ! ab c c + c (ab) [ab] ant and contravariant components of the metric tensor will be used to raise and the (component) indices of vectors and tensors. by means of the local coordinate transformation given by xa = = xa ( ) in C1 x g (xN ) = ik dX i dX k @b ea = c e ab c ea e b describing the locally ﬂat tangent space Tx (M) of rigid frames at a point xN = xN (xa ) are given by ik = hEi . xn such that relative to a given chart (U. : : : . A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields . if ! is an arbitrary tensor. since its components transform as c ab = ec @b ea + ec ea e : b dX k = @i xa dX i .. from which we obtain the usual transformation laws for the contravariant components of a vector ﬁeld. @i = i . The dual basis to Ei spanning the locally ﬂat cotangent space Tx (M) will then be given by the k diﬀerential elements dX k via the relation dX k . The set of linearly in@ dependent local directional derivatives Ei = @X i = @i gives the coordinate basis of the locally ﬂat tangent space Tx (M) at a point x 2 C1 . i. respectively. The components of the metric tensor a . h (x)) on a neighborhood U of a local coordinate point. Then we have the expression where the tetrads of the moving frames are given by ea = a = @a x and ea = @ xa . then the object represented by i1 i2 :::ip i i :::i j1 j2 :::jp and 1 2 p = det(g) 2 p !j1 j2 :::jp = 1 p! i1 i2 :::ip j1 j2 :::jp !i1 i2 :::ip gab = h!a . Ek i= = diag (1. we also see that dX k . !a = a . the components of an arbitrary tensor ﬁeld T 2 C1 of rank (p. b .e. 1. q ) transform according to ab:::g ::: Tcd:::h = T::: @ xa @ xb : : : @ xg @c x @d x : : : @h x : 1 Let j1 j2 :::jp be the components of the generalized Kro2 p necker delta. where a are the components of the Kronecker delta (whose value is unity if the indices coincide or null otherwise). it can be described as a kind of displacement ﬁeld since it is what makes possible a comparison of vectors from point to point in C1 . k indeed act as a In fact and in general.. Again. Introducing a generally asymmetric connection covariant derivative via the gac g bc = b a @b !a = i. It is to be understood that the covari- = hc . 1.October. Here M denotes the topological space of the so-called n-tuples h (x) = h x1 . In addition. i.e. : : : . The components of the symmetric metric tensor g = = gab a b of the base manifold C1 are readily given by Given the existence of a local coordinate transformation via xi = xi (x ) in C1 . the above may be taken to be the components of the Minkowski metric tensor.. However. F i = @a X i f a and f i = @i xa F i . 1). They satisfy ea eb = b and ea ea = = .

A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields . and where itself.where r denotes covariant diﬀerentiation with respect to the ing a displacement) in the basis can be measured by the basis Christoﬀel symbols alone.e. 2007 ^ deﬁnes the so-called metricity condition. d and K acb g cd g be K a . we have (using the metric tensor to raise and lower rm T ab:::g = @m T ab:::g + a T pb:::g + b T ap:::g + : : : indices) pm cd:::h pm cd:::h cd:::h cd:::h g ab:::p p ab:::g p ab:::g : : : + pm Tcd:::h cm Tpd:::h dm Tcp:::h : : : p ab:::g ::: hm Tcd:::p ab:::g ab:::g c d ^ c Rab Rc acb = Bab ( ) + rc Kab Kad Kcb c ^ [ 2rb cac] + 2Kab dcd] [ rc gab = 0 abc b ac c ab ac eb ab ec such that (@m T )cd:::h = rm Tcd:::h . Suhendro. the so-called homothetic curvature vanishes: Hab Rc cab = @a c cb @b c ca = 0: as the components of the so-called cotwist tensor (antisymmetric in the ﬁrst two mixed indices). namely. we have the following decomposition theorem: d Rdabc = Wabc + d d c Rab gab R c + 1 a a = e @ e @b ec + eb c ec b c b d d [bc] 2 c gab b gac R where we have set c = e . 1 n(n 1) d b gac d c gab R.Volume 4 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS October. Note that (in this case) the Weyl tensor vanishes. The condition rc gab = 0 can be solved to give c ab R Raa = B ( ) ^ 4 g ab ra 1 = g cd (@b gda @d gab + @a gbd ) + 2 + cab] g cd gae edb] + gbe eda] [ [ [ 1 = g cd (@b gda 2 c [bc] ac b 2 g [ab] dcd] [ Kabc K acb c where Bab ( ) Bacb ( ) are the components of the syma metric Ricci tensor and B ( ) Ba ( ) is the Ricci scalar. This immediately translates into e d Bd ( ) = @ d @ d + e d are the components of the Riemann-Christoﬀel curvature ten1 where we have just applied the notion of a covariant derivative sor of C . For n = 2. to an arbitrary tensor ﬁeld T : Rd abc . such that for an arbitrary c which is valid for n > 2. the change (dur. Note that Kabc gad Kbc de Now since p b = b = @ ln det (g ) a ba ab p b = @ ln det (g ) + 2 b a ab [ab] from which it is customary to deﬁne c ab b ba = @d gab + @a gbd ) as the Christoﬀel symbols (symmetric in their two lower indices) and c Kab = cab] [ g cd gae edb] + gbe eda] [ [ we see that for a continuous metric determinant. From the components of the curvature tensor. we have 1 d R + g Rd n 2 b ac ac b 1 + (n 1) (n 2) d b gac scalar ﬁeld we have (ra rb rb ra ) =2 c [ab] c r : Rdabc = KG where d c gab The components of the curvature tensor R of C1 are then given via the relation 1 KG = R 2 (rq rp ::: where ab:::s ab:::s ab:::s rp rq ) Tcd:::r = Twd:::r Rwcpq + Tcw:::r Rwdpq + wb:::s Tcd:::r Rawpq ab:::w Tcd:::r Rswpq ab:::s + : : : + Tcd:::w Rwrpq 2 w ab:::s [pq] w Tcd:::r r aw:::s Tcd:::r Rb wpq is the Gaussian curvature of the surface. i. Any n-dimensional manifold (for which n > 1) with constant sectional curvature R and vanishing twist is called an Einstein space. Note that the components of the twist tensor are given by Introducing the traceless Weyl tensor W . It is described by the following simple relations: e d Rdabc = @b d @c d + e d ac ab ac eb ab ec d ( ) + ^ Kd d + Ke Kd ^c Kab = B abc b ac ac eb Rdabc = e d Kab Kec . r r Rab = 1 g R: n ab 36 I..

we also have the following specialized idendimensional space-time manifold (continuum) S4 with local tities. indeed transform as components of a tensor [ ij:::s ﬁeld. after some lengthy algebra.October. noting that the components of the twist tensor. ticity tensor. the beautiful property of the Lie derivative (applied to an arbitrary tensor ﬁeld) is that it is connection-independent even in a curved manifold. the regular Bianchi identities: coordinates x in the manner described by the so-called a + Ba + Ba = 0 . i. D are the contravariant components of the We now deﬁne the so-called Lie derivative which can be four-dimensional displacement gradient tensor. 2007 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS Volume 4 In the above. Suhendro. f f f a a a [cd] R bfe + [de] R bfc + [ec] R bfd ra Rab 1 ab g R = 2 g ab 2 c Rd + a Rcdb a [da] c [cd] Hence. = 8 is the Ein derivative represented (in component notation) by stein coupling constant (in geometrized units). ^ ^ r e bcd c where now the Greek indices run from 0 to 3.contravariant components of the generalized (asymmetric) tor ﬁeld U and a tensor ﬁeld T . we obtain. for any metric-compatible manifold endowed with both cur. metric. R are the used to deﬁne a diﬀeomorphism invariant in C1 . Rab = Bab ( ) . With the where ) A = A(() = A @b U a = rb U a a Uc cb = rb U a a bc 2 a [bc] Uc B = B [ []] = B 37 I. + @c [db] eb [cd] ec [db] ed [bc] a T mb:::g U p + 2 b T am:::g U p + [mp] cd:::h [mp] cd:::h g ab:::g ab:::m : : : + 2 [mp] Tcd:::h U p 2 m ] Tmd:::h U p + [cp ab:::g ab:::g + 2 m ] Tcm:::h U p : : : 2 m ] Tcd:::m U p : [dp [hp +2 re Rabcd + rc Rabde + rd Rabec =2 = . In the above equation. Cosserat continuum theory. By microspin phenomena. and R = R is the generalized Ricci four-dimensional curvature scalar. both arbitrary.e. We will need the identities derived in this Section later on. Non-metric diﬀerential geometry is mixed components of the generalized four-dimensional elasbeyond the scope of our present consideration. it is seen that the LU Tkl:::r do transform as components of a tensor ﬁeld.. the invariant four-dimensional Ricci curvature tensor. in general. A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields . C are the compatible connection. i. theory of the classical physical ﬁelds capable of describing 1 microspin phenomena in addition to the gravitational and Gab Rab g R electromagnetic ﬁelds.3 The generalized four-dimensional linear constitutive ﬁeld equations vature and twist.ally asymmetric energy-momentum tensor. B bcd cdb dbc We start with the following constitutive equation in four dimensions: ^ Ba + r Ba + r Ba = 0 . ikl] . these hold in the case of a symmetric.. T are the contravariant components of the gener In general. namely. we can decompose our four-dimensional ab:::g ab:::g elasticity tensor into its holonomic and anholonomic parts as + Tcm:::h @d U m + : : : + Tcd:::m @h U m follows: mb:::g Tcd:::h @m U a am:::g Tcd::::h @m U b ^ ra B ab 1 2 d bec bde g ab B = 0 : T = C D = 1 R 1 g R 2 ::: ab:::m Tcd:::h @m U g C = A + B deﬁnes the Lie derivative of T with respect to help of the twist tensor and the relation U .e. R = B( ): Furthermore. Apparently. ab:::g ab:::g ab:::g LU Tcd:::h = @m Tcd:::h U m + Tmd:::h @c U m + Furthermore. we have introWe shall now present a four-dimensional linear continuum duced the generalized Einstein tensor. In the last of the above set of equations. we note especially that we can write ab:::g ab:::g + Tcm:::h rd U m + : : : + Tcd:::m rh U m am:::g Tcd::::h rm U b ab:::g ab:::g ab:::g LU Tcd:::h = rm Tcd:::h U m + Tmd:::h rc U m + mb:::g Tcd:::h rm U a Rdabc = B dabc ( ) . we mean 2 ab those phenomena generated by rotation of points in the fourIn particular. for a vec. the following generalized Bianchi identities: ::: ab:::m Tcd:::h rm U g + Rabcd + Racdb + Radbc = 2 @d abc] + @ b acd] + [ [ a + a e + a e + a e .

in a somewhat restrictive case. . As such. we can express the fully covariant components of the generalized four-dimensional elasticity tensor in terms of the covariant components of the symmetric metric tensor g (satisfying. e is a constant proportional to the electric charge. Here the continuous scalar function F represents the integrable part of the four-dimensional macroscopic displacement ﬁeld vector while the remaining parts are given by via + 2 = c1 + c2 + 22e c3 ' + e' = + + 2e' where are the components of the non-integrable four38 will directly attribute the cotwist tensor to the intrinsic spin ﬁelds of the theory. .e. However. and ' are the components of the electromagnetic four-potential vector.. Meanwhile. Suhendro. from the cotwist tensor. the intrinsic four-dimensional microscopic (micropolar) spin tensor is given by A = g g + (g g + g g ) B = ! (g g g g ) 1 S = (r 2 r ) : An inﬁnitesimal displacement (diﬀeomorphism) in the space-time manifold S4 from an initial point P to a neighboring point Q is given as usual by Note that this tensor vanishes when the points are not allowed to rotate such as in conventional (standard) cases. we would in general expect the intrinsic spin ﬁelds to remain in the case of a semi-symmetric connection.dition [ ] = 0. let us deﬁne a geometric spin vector via A K = 2 ] : [ 1 ! = D[ ] = (r 2 = @F + : r ) : Let us now decompose the four-dimensional inﬁnitesimal displacement ﬁeld vector as follows: Now. the familiar classical ﬁelds. are intrinsic geometric objects in the theory. It is therefore seen that 1 = (r 2 r ) : Likewise. . the gravitational and electromagnetic ﬁelds. . i. in connection with the spin ﬁelds represented by . by means of the conwhere are the components of the four-dimensional inﬁnite. and ' are linearly independent of each other. as before. and ! are constitutive invariants that are not necessarily constant. we especially note that. The intrinsic four-dimensional macroscopic spin (“angular momentum”) tensor is then given by = g g + (g g + g g ) + ! (g g g g ) where . I. the electromagnetic ﬁeld tensor is given by In this case. 2007 such that C = C : Therefore.. the above expression reduces to the usual simal displacement ﬁeld vector. A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields . the selection A = c1 + c2 + 2 e c3 ' = 2 i. We also see that our space-time continuum can be considered as a dynamically polarizable medium possessing chirality. We assume that in general . Furthermore.Volume 4 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS October. are the components of the four-dimensional microscopic (micropolar) intrinsic spin vector. for which A = 0 and so we cannot carry this proposition any further. g g = ) as C = g g + g g + g g = dimensional macroscopic displacement ﬁeld vector.e. and ' . The generally asymmetric Maxwellian relation four-dimensional displacement gradient tensor is then given F = @ ' @ ' : by x (Q) = x (P ) + F = r ' r ' : D = r : The decomposition D = D( ) + D[ ] and the supplementary inﬁnitesimal point-rotation condition [ ] = 0 allow us to deﬁne the symmetric four-dimensional displacement (“dilation”) tensor by We can now write the intrinsic spin tensor as ! = + S + eF : 1 1 = D( ) = (r + r ) = L g 2 2 = from which the “dilation” scalar is given by 1 = D = g L g = r 2 as well as the anti-symmetric four-dimensional intrinsic spin (vorticity) tensor by Hence the full electromagnetic content of the theory becomes visible. .

The present theory shows that in a curved space 1 1 time with a particular spherical symmetry and in a ﬂat Min F F g F F J = 4 4 kowski space-time (both space-times are solutions to the is traceless. . For this purpose. in a sense analogous to that of the or. If we denote the material density and the pressure by and p. respectively. for the generalized Ricci curvature tensor. ) ! : 1 + ( + ) L g . This is true whether the electromagnetic ﬁeld is Hence. the generally asym. metric character of the energy-momentum tensor means that we have a material object in motion is generally subject to distributed 1 R = (4 + + ) = = g L g : body couples. however. we see that the holonomic part of the gen. and ! are constant. however. then our expression We may note that. 2007 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS Volume 4 At this point.e. is a solution to the ordinary expression ) ! : pg Inserting the value of . we see that the motion described by this condition is still more general than the pure geodesic motion for point-particles.October. 2 We also have Now.divergence eralized four-dimensional elasticity tensor given by A is r T = g r ( ) + r D + responsible for (centrally symmetric) gravitational phenomena while the anholonomic part given by B owes its ex+ r D + D r istence to the (con)twist tensor which is responsible for the existence of the intrinsic spin ﬁelds in our consideration. we obtain 1 the following asymmetric constitutive ﬁeld equation: T = T = (4 + + ) = R: T( ) = 1 g g L g 2 Let us brieﬂy relate our description to the standard material description given by general relativity. we may note that the covariant sible for the spin ﬁelds to exist. A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields 39 1 F F 4 1 g F F 4 1 R( ) = 8 g + ( + ) L g 2 . . In general. = T( ) = u u 4p 4 + + R( ) = g + ( + ) R[ ] = ( . 2 1 = 2g [] R + R [] : T( ) = g + ( + ) T[ ] = ( Alternatively. Suhendro. we see that the components of the energy 1 = 1 r R momentum tensor can now be expressed as r T g R = + D r T = g + D + D : In other words. homogeneous Universe. i. T[ ] = ( ) ( + S + e F ) : possibly on large cosmological scales. equation = 0. for which the constitutive invariants . . 2 In an isotropic. One possible geometry that I. the correspondence between the generalized Ricci present or not since the (symmetric) energy-momentum tencurvature tensor and the physical ﬁelds in our theory becomes sor of the electromagnetic ﬁeld given by complete.for the energy-momentum tensor relates the generalized Ricci dinary mechanics of continuous media. Still in the case of an isotropic. homogeneous Universe. the above expression reduces to r T = g r + r D + r D : If we require the above divergence to vanish.. . then it can be directly veriﬁed that R = T where 1 g T = ( g + D + ) 2 1 (2 + + ) : 2 = In other words. need not vanish in general since Furthermore. we can alternatively write R[ ] = 8 ( ) ( + S + eF ) : where u are the covariant components of the unit velocity vector.curvature scalar directly to the “dilation” scalar. let us assume that the intrinsic spin ﬁelds other than the electromagnetic ﬁeld are negligible. L g = 0) it is in general still posAt this point.

upon setting = 1 . in a somewhat concise manner. we simply have R = W . Q = Q[ ][][] . alized elasticity tensor. We start with the non-linear constitutive ﬁeld equation R = W + 2 B + ! + (g D + g D g D + (g D + g D g D + (g g g g ) : K = K = K = K : g D ) + g D ) + Letting K = P + Q . we can write K = b1 g g g + b2 g (g g + g + g ) + + b3 g (g g g g ) + b4 g (g g + g g ) + In standard general relativity. this gives the explicit form of the Riemann-Christoﬀel curvature tensor in terms of the + b5 g (g g g g ) + b6 g (g g + g g ) + Lie derivative L g = 2 . b2 . = 1 . This condition is relatively weaker than the case of a space-time + b11 g (g g g g ) : with constant sectional curvature. P = P( )()() . Suhendro. in terms of the anholonomic part of the gener. . .. 2 2 2 6 + a3 g g g + a4 g g g + a5 g g g + and = 1 + a6 g g g + a7 g g g + a8 g g g + R = W + 2 (g g g g ) + + a9 g g g + a10 g g g + a11 g g g + + (g D + g D g D g D ) + + a12 g g g + a13 g g g + a14 g g g + + (g D + g D g D g D ) + + a15 g g g + (g g g g ) : where the ﬁfteen constitutive invariants a1 . For a space-time satisfying the + b7 g (g g g g ) + b8 g (g g + g g ) + symmetry L g = 0.e.Volume 4 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS October. A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields . 2007 complies with such a space-time symmetry is the geometry of distant parallelism with vanishing space-time curvature (but non-vanishing Riemann-Christoﬀel curvature) and nonvanishing twist. for which the g D Weyl tensor vanishes.not necessarily constant. . . with the help of the Weyl tensor W . In general. 4 The generalized four-dimensional non-linear constitutive ﬁeld equations The energy-momentum tensor is therefore given by T = + b1 2 +2 b2 +2 b3 ! ! g + + + 2 b9 D ! + R = W + 1 + + (g D + g D 2 + (g g g g ) : + D + D + 2 (b4 + b6 ) + 2 (b5 + b7 ) ! + 2 b8 D + 2 b10 D + 2 b11 D ! : In reference to the preceding section. The resulting non-linear constitutive ﬁeld equations will therefore not be limited to weak ﬁelds only. a15 are Therefore. the twist of the space-time continuum vanishes. . a non-linear extension of the 40 I. In this situation our intrinsic spin ﬁelds vanish and consequently. . + b9 g (g g g g ) + b10 g (g g + g g ) + the space-time is devoid of material sources or “empty”. we have We shall set formulation presented in the preceding section. we are left simply with we have P = P = P = P . we have the decomposition R = W + 1 1 1 + (g R + g R g R g R ) + T = C D + K DD = R g R 2 2 1 where + (g g g g ) R : 6 K = a1 g g g + a2 g g g + We obtain. . R = const. In the special case of a pure gravitational ﬁeld. a2 . let us now present. = 1 . it can be shown that the full curvature tensor contains terms quadratic in the displacement gradient tensor and this gives us the reason to express the energy-momentum tensor which is quadratic in the displacement gradient tensor. g D ) + b11 . . i. Now let us recall that in four dimensions. Q = Q = Q = Q : Introducing the eleven constitutive invariants b1 .

c11 = 2b10 . 41 I. 2 1 c + c . f8 = c10 . A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields . f7 = c9 . However. f9 = c11 . h4 = 4 c4 + c10 + c12 : ) ! + 2 (b4 + b6 ) ! + (b8 + b10 ) D + (b9 + b11 ) D ! D ! : We also have T = 1 + 2 2 + 3 where we have set + 4 ! ! Finally.. c8 = 2 (b5 + b7 ) . 2007 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS Volume 4 In other words. g g ) + + f5 g + + f6 g D + f7 D D g + g g ! + g ! g + g for the sake of simplicity. + D ! g g + D g D g + f10 D ! g + D ! g D ! g (2b2 + b8 + b10 ) . f2 = 1 f3 = 1 f4 = 1 f6 = c8 . Suhendro. by presenting the most general structure of the non-linear continuum theory in this section. the apparent main diﬃculty lies in the fact that there are too many constitutive invariants that need to be exactly determined. c3 = c4 = c7 = 2 (b4 + b6 ) . R = h1 + h2 2 + h3 where + h4 ! ! +( + ) T[ ] = ( D 2 (b4 + b6 ) + (b8 + b10 ) D + D + (b9 + b11 ) D ! + D ! h1 = 4 c1 + c5 + c6 . 3 3 6 2 1 c4 + (c10 c12 ) . For the generalized Ricci curvature tensor. 2 R[ ] = (c5 c6 ) ! + c8 ! + 1 + (c9 + c11 ) D D + 2 o 1 + (c10 +c12 ) D ! D ! : 2 n f5 = c7 .e. we obtain g ! g D g ! + g D + g D D R = c1 + c2 2+c 3 + c4 ! ! g + + c5 D + c6 D + c7 + c8 ! + c9 D + o + c10 D ! + c11 D + c12 D ! where + D g + + f8 D ! g + D ! g D ! g + f9 D D where g D ! g 1 c1 = (2 + + ) . we have acquired a quite general picture of the most general behavior of the space-time continuum in the presence of the classical ﬁelds. we obtain. h2 = 4 c2 + c5 . c12 = 2b11 . for the curvature tensor. 2 = 4 b1 + 2 ( b4 + b6 ) . c6 = . 3 6 f10 = c12 : At this point.October. 4 = 8 b3 + 2 ( b9 n R = W + + f1 + f2 (g g g 2+f 3 + f4 ! ! g b11 ) . c5 = . As such. n R( ) = c1 + c2 2 + c3 + + + c4 ! ! g + (c5 + c6 ) + c7 1 + (c9 + c11 ) D + D + 2 o 1 + (c10 + c12 ) D ! + D ! . 2 c2 = (b1 + b4 + b6 ) . h3 = 4 c3 + c9 + c11 . f1 = c1 = + . the linear theory is comparatively preferable since it only contains three constitutive invariants. i. The generalized Ricci curvature scalar is then 2 + 2b 2 T( ) = + b1 + 2b3 ! ! g + . c9 = 2b8 . 3 = 8 b2 + 2 (b8 + b10 ) . the following expression: 1 = 4 + + . c10 = 2b9 . (2b3 + b9 b11 ) . 3 2 6 7 2 1 c + (c9 + c11 ) .

where a and b are constants of motion. At this point. by recasting them in a four-dimensional manner. if However. In the above equations we have introduced the following invariants: 1 =2 = g u = d dx = . Ds 42 1 = h h (r u + r u ) = 4 1 1 ^ ^ = h h r u + r u h h K u . we see that our equations of motion describe a “minimal” geodesic motion (with intrinsic spin) when =0. w. the equations of motion will be derived by generalizing the ordinary Frenet equations of orientable points along an arbitrary curve in three-dimensional Euclidean space. w). The local equations of motion along arbitrary curves in the space-time continuum S4 can be described by the quadruplet of unit space-time vectors (u. any material motion in S4 will not follow the condition = 0. may be deﬁned as (a set of) local tangent vectors in the (threedimensional) hypersurface (t) such that the unit vector z is normal to it. Ds Dv = w u . v = v ! .Volume 4 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS October. More explicitly. in general. v. the parametric representation ' = g d = u (x . 4 2 [ ] = r u . i.. z ) orthogonal to each other where the ﬁrst three unit vectors. Furthermore. Ds Dz = 'w : Ds u = u ! . As usual. such that. in general. Ds Dz = 'w . This way. This is true especially for the motion of a physical object with structure. w = w ! . a = Du : Ds I. ds ds Du Du . the twist scalar measures the twist of the curve ` in S4 due to microspin. i. Ds Dv = w . we note that.e. the following set of equations of motion of points. Ds Dw = v + 'z . point-like particles. the world-line can be parametrized by a scalar & via s = = a& + b. v. the unit velocity vector is given by D where the operator Ds = u r represents the absolute covariant derivative. With respect to the anholonomic space-time basis ! = @ = ! x (X k ) = ei @X i . 2007 5 The equations of motion Let us now investigate the local translational-rotational motion of points in the space-time continuum S4 . Ds Dz Dz 1=2 : Ds Ds 1 = g u u . Consider an inﬁnitesimal displacement in the manner described in the preceding section. it can be shown that the gradient of the unit velocity vector can be decomposed according to Du = 0. 4 2 ( ) 1 r u )= = h h (r u 4 1 1 ^ ^ = h h r u r u h h K u . s) ds describes space-time curves whose tangents are everywhere directed along the direction of a particle’s motion. Du = v . In other words. Keeping the initial position ﬁxed. It is therefore clear that 0 for a moving ﬁnite physical object (with structure) whose material points cannot be homogeneously oriented. Ds Dw = v + ' z . In general.e. Ds Ds Dv = 2 u v z . the hypersurface (t) is given as the time section t = x0 = const of S4 . z = z ! . Of course. A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields .. along an arbitrary curve ` in the space-time continuum S4 : r u = where + 1 + h + u a 6 h = g u u . we will also include eﬀects of microspin generated by the twist of space-time. any physical object can be regarded as a collection of points (with diﬀerent orientations) obeying our general equations of motion. Suhendro. at any proper time given by the world-line s. or the triplet (u. we can write In particular. we obtain.

+ K D D D 3 det (g ) p 1 2 D R . in general. Alternatively. our theory can best be described by the following Lagrangian density: where Now L = L1 + L2 + L3 Z @L (r ) d = @ (r ) r Z S4 r 1p L1 = det (g ) R (r L2 = p S4 @L @ (r ) S4 @L d @ (r ) d = r @L @ (r ) d D ) 1 C D D + 2 1 D T . Note that here we have only explicitly assumed that = r . the covariant components of the “dilation” and intrinsic spin tensors. 6 The variational principle for the theory Z S4 I= Z S4 @L @L @L T + + ! + @T @ @! @L + (r ) d = 0 : @ (r ) Z Let us now derive the ﬁeld equations of the present theory by means of the variational principle. respectively. u (r r we obtain 1 1 + A + B ! ! + 2 2 1 1 + P + Q ! ! ! 3 3 D T + u (r ) (f u ) d p where d = det (g ) dx0 dx1 dx2 dx3 is the proper fourdimensional diﬀerential volume. we obtain 1 ( ) 1 R g R = 2 = A + P g T T ( ) = 43 I. We may also note that the variations T . with the help of the identities u r r u = r u r u (r u ) r u = = r a (r u ) r u . From @@L = 0. we obtain 1p det (g ) R L1 = Hence we have p 1 g R (r 2 D ) : ! = r[ ] . T is (the change in) the temperature. since the ﬁrst term on the right-hand-side of the ﬁrst line is an absolute diﬀerential that can be transformed away on the boundary of integration by means of the divergence theorem.e. Hence we have I= Z S4 @L @L T + @T @ + r @L ! @! d = 0 L3 = det (g ) u (r ) (f u ) . we then have r r ) u = R u u 2 u u . Considering thermodynamic eﬀects. .. and f is a generally varying scalar entity. ! . = r( ) . L = det (g ) T (r D ) + 1 1 + C D D + K D D D 2 3 T + u (r ) (f u ) : D i. p Writing L = det (g ) L and employing the variational principle. @L @ (r ) where is a thermal coeﬃcient.October. Z S4 T r( ) + T r( ) ! + K[ ] = ] : [ Meanwhile. Suhendro. 2007 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS Volume 4 Note that We then arrive at the following invariant integral: h u = = u = g u = 0. K( ) g [ ] + g [ ] I= . and are arbitrary. A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields . @L From @T = 0. we can express L as follows: where each term in the integrand is independent of the others. [ ] r D = r a (r u )(r u ) R u u +2 ] u r u [ Ds for the “rate of shear” of a moving material object with respect to the world-line.

i. the symmetric contravariant components of the energyIf we restrict our attention to point-like particles. A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields . uA (where A = 1. the Finally. U have the same symmetry properties as P . Likewise. 3) we obtain the ordinary continuity equation. We ﬁrst see that moment. Ds L = L( ) + L[ ] is comparable to the displacement gradient tensor. 2007 i. 2.. the asymmetric tensor given by a = u r a = b = Du . we have Z r S = ( In other words. we have the conservation law T = 1 R 1 g R = 2 r T = 0 : In this case. E have the same symmetry properties as A . Let us now discuss the so-called couple stress. via l = r (fu ) . the equation of motion D r T = (a or + (b9 + b9 ) D ! D D ! . and V have the same symmetry properties as Q . respectively. a = 0. Suhendro. this conservation law is true regardless of whether the energy-momentum tensor is symmetric or not. b ) b ) : r R 1 g R = (a 2 1 = c8 ! + (c9 + c11 ) D 2 1 + (c10 + c11 ) D ! D ! : 2 + 44 I.e. dimensional) object. the condition r J = 0 gives ! = 1 2 2 ! = 1 (r r ) : 2 1 ( 2 ) 2 : ) ! 1 [ ] R D = r u : Ds In the weak-ﬁeld limit for which u = 1.e. H = U + V : Let us deﬁne the “extended” shear scalar and the mass current density vector. Let us now introduce a completely anti-symmetric thirdrank spin tensor via S = As a direct consequence.. We denote the couple stress tensor by the second @L rank tensor ﬁeld M . by These are assumed to possess the same symmetry properties as C and K .e. respectively. the body momentum tensor. Introducing a new inﬁnitesimal spin potential via . J = u : We can now readily identify the acceleration vector and the body force per unit mass. let the covariant dual form of the intrinsic spin tensor be given by 1 l + f (1 r J ) u : In the conservative case. force vanishes since it cannot act on a structureless (zeroIn other words. respectively... And since the motion is geodesic.. i.Volume 4 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS October. In analogy to the linear constitutive re= T + u f u : lations relating the energy-momentum tensor to the displace@ (r ) ment gradient tensor. we see that @ + rA uA = 0 : @t Finally. (r T + b r S = T [ ] a ) d = 0 where N = S4 N = 2 (b4 + b6 ) ! + (b8 + b10 ) D i.e.e. we now show in detail that the fourth variation couple per unit area which is also known as the distributed yields an important equation of motion. F have the same symmetry properties as B . i. we write Hence = C D + K D D g T : r @L = r T + r (f u ) + @ (r ) M =J L +H L L where + f u r r (u ) u u r u : J = E + F .

Z . At the moment. we obtain Final remarks M [ ] = F Z + V Z Z : We therefore have the constitutive relation M = J L + H L L : Let us investigate the last variation Z S4 r @H @ (r ) d = 0 We have seen that the classical ﬁelds of physics can be uniﬁed in a simple manner by treating space-time itself as a four-dimensional ﬁnite (but unbounded) elastic medium capable of undergoing extensions (dilations) and internal pointrotations in the presence of material-energy ﬁelds. I is the moment of inertia. and s are the components of the angular velocity vector. Suhendro. we must note that this apparent simplicity still leaves the constitutive invariants undetermined. Letting L( ) = X and L[ ] = Z . A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields . @H From @M = 0. Z = r[ ] : @H From @X i. the corresponding action integral is 2 T [] u 2 S r u + r (hu ) + + hu r I r (u ) s Iu r s : We now deﬁne the angular acceleration by @H = r M @ (r ) J= Z S4 M r( ) X + M r[ ] Z + = u r s = 1 1 + E X X + F Z Z + 2 2 1 1 + U X X X + V Z Z Z 3 3 Ds Ds I (r J ) s and the angular body force per unit mass by = 1 D l + h Ds 2 (r ) S u + u (r ) (h p Z Is ) d : where = r (hu ). we leave this aspect of the theory to more specialized 45 I. writing H = det (g )H and performing the variation J = 0. In the present framework. we have J= S4 @H @H M + X + @M @X S4 r M 2 T [] u + S r u + + I d = 0 : + @H Z @Z r @H @ (r ) d = 0 Hence we obtain the equation of motion with arbitrary variations M . we obtain 7 M ( ) = E X + U X X : @H From @Z 1 [] R u + S r u + (I ) : = 0. Firstly. 2007 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS Volume 4 We can now form the second Lagrangian density of our theory as p 1 H = det (g ) M (r L ) + J L L + 2 1 + H L L L 2 (r ) S u + 3 (r ) (h Is ) +u in necessary detail. @H = M @ (r ) Then we see that 2 S u + u (h Is ) : r where h is a scalar function.October. l We have Z As before.e.. the classical physical ﬁelds indeed appear on an equal footing as they are of purely geometric character. In addition. r M = 2 = 0. r M = 2 T [] N u + S r u + (I ) X = r( ) . we obtain X . and .

177. In other words. N. Pergamon. it is often not suﬃcient to model the space-time continuum itself as continuous. Gen. the fully non-linear formulation of the present theory should be very satisfactory for describing the dynamics of astrophysical objects especially various ﬂuids which exhibit the characteristics of non-degenerate relativistic and non-Newtonian ﬂuids. This is precisely what we have done in this work. However. We have seen that the general dynamical behavior of a material body as determined by the equations of motion given in Section 5. Such discontinuities can be seen as topological defects in the space-time continuum. Rabounski and S. Furthermore. it can be said. one must ﬁrst identify them with the internal geometric properties of the space-time continuum. Nauk USSR. As such. we have also constructed a framework in which the motion of a point-like particle is always subject to the conservation law of matter and energy regardless of the particle’s intrinsic spin. Mechanics of Cosserat media — an introduction. J. such disturbances are equivalent to three-dimensional representations of material waves (not necessarily gravitational waves). 1167.. It remains to be seen how this might correspond to any conventional quantum description of the space-time continuum. D. Suhendro. Forest S. In fact. v. 2. one may deﬁne the so-called microrotational inertial ﬁeld. Rather. the metric must therefore be quantized. 4. is intrinsically related to the underlying geometry of the space-time continuum which in turn is largely determined by the constitutive relations given in Sections 3 and 4. Dokl. I. Paris. Holographic four-dimensional continua with cellular. Crothers for their kind assistance and the numerous discussions devoted to making this work appear in a somewhat more readable form. there exist intrinsic length scales associated with these additional degrees of freedom. On microscopic scales. compressibility. the structure of the spacetime continuum can indeed appear to be granular. This way. such trajectories can be represented as curves of zero length in the space-time continuum. v. In common with standard general relativity. 70. isotropic. Furthermore. 2007 References 1. Grav. In this context. In such a case. that we expect the constitutive invariants of the theory to be functions of the known physical properties of matter such as material density. In various cases. Such hypersurfaces can be seen as disturbances in the space-time continuum. in general. M. 1995. a region of the space-time continuum is said to be statical if it can be covered by a space-time coordinate system relative to which the components of the metric tensor are independent of time. and Lifshitz E. we emphasize that the initial microspin variables are not to be freely chosen to be included in the so-called elasticity scalar functional of the space-time continuum which is equivalent to a Lagrangian density. 1967. A Four-Dimensional Continuum Theory of Space-Time and the Classical Physical Fields . Ecole des Mines de Paris. Akad. ﬁbrous. Sakharov A. Landau L. energy density. In other words. Due to 46 possible eﬀects arising from this consideration. one may formulate the dynamic discontinuity conditions as purely geometric and kinematic compatibility conditions over the hypersurfaces. one must primarily unfold their underlying geometric existence in the space-time continuum itself. 2005. material waves are propagated into a ﬁxed (three-dimensional) curved space along trajectories normal to the family of hypersurfaces given by the successive positions of a material body in the ﬁxed space. It may be that such a region can be covered by one or more such coordinate systems. 2007 Accepted on July 04. material symmetry. we have successfully built a signiﬁcant theoretical framework that holds in all classical physical situations. This three-dimensional boundary can be represented by a time-like hypersurface. we note that geometric discontinuities can also be incorporated into the present theory. We would also like to remark that once the constitutive invariants are determined and incorporated into the possible equations of state. the rather predominant presence of twisting paths may give rise to particles exhibiting micropolar structure. Sokolov S. 27. the internal rotation of the points in the space-time continuum is seen as representing the intrinsic spin of elementary particles. The microscopic substructure of the space-time continuum provides us room for additional degrees of freedom. etc. 2007 attempts. In Section 6. and homogeneous. D. 1975. Theory of elasticity. 3. Finally. We also note that a material body in our continuum representation of space-time can be regarded as the threedimensional boundary of a so-called world-tube such that outside the world-tube the region is said to be free or empty. In geometrizing microspin phenomena. Rel. Submitted on June 22. Correspondingly.Volume 4 PROGRESS IN PHYSICS October. or foamy structure may indeed represent admissible semi-classical models of the Universe which can be realized in the framework of the present theory. Acknowledgements I would like to sincerely thank D.

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