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RESONANCE PAGE - 1

27
th
Indian National Mathematical Olympiad - 2012
Time : 4 hours February 05, 2012
Instructions :
* Calculators (in any form( and protractors are not allowed.
* Rulers and compasses are allowed.
* Answer all the questions. Maximum marks : 100
* Answer to each question should start on a new page. Clearly indicate the question number.
1. Let ABCD be a quadrilateral inscribed in a circle. Suppose AB =
2 2 +
and AB subtends 135º at the centre
of the circle. Find the maximum possible area of ABCD.
Sol. cos 135º =
2
2
r 2
) 2 2 ( r 2 + ÷

2
r
2
2
= 2r
2
– (2 +
2
)
2r
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2
1
1
= 2 +
2
2r
2
(
2
+ 1) = 2
2
+ 2
r
2
= 1
r = 1
Area of ABCD =
2
1
sin 135º +
2
1
(sin o + cos | + sin ¸)
=
2 2
1
+
2
1
(sin o + sin | + sin ¸)
s
2 2
1
+
2
3
sin
|
.
|

\
| ¸ + | + o
3
s
2 2
1
+
2
3
sin 75º { o + | + ¸ = 225º}
s
2 2
1
+
2
3
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
2 2
1 3
s
2 4
2
+
2 4
3 3 3 +
s
2 4
5 3 3 +
.
RESONANCE PAGE - 2
2. Let p
1
< p
2
< p
3
< p
4
and q
1
< q
2
< q
3
< q
4
be two sets of prime numbers such that p
4
– p
1
= 8 and
q
4
– q
1
= 8. Suppose p
1
> 5 and q
1
> 5. Prove that 30 divides p
1
– q
1
.
Sol. Since p
1
< p
2
< p
3
< p
4
and p
4
– p
1
= 8 ......(i)
q
1
< q
2
< q
3
< q
4
and q
4
– q
1
= 8 ......(ii)
We know that every prime greater than 3 must be of the form 6k + 1, 6k + 5, it can be deduced that p
1
and
q
1
must be of the form 6k + 5, 6 + 5.
Hence 6 divides p
1
– q
1
.
Further between a gap of 8 (5 odd numbers appear including 1 and last) e.g.
Also if 6k + 5 is prime than we want
6k + 5, 6(k + 1) + 1, 6(k + 1) + 5, 6(k + 2) + 1 to be prime for condition (i) or (ii) to be fulfilled. Clearly
6(k + 1) + 3 should be multiple of '3' as well as 5 i.e. 15
Now, if p
1
= q, then 10 divides p
1
– q
1
is trivially true else gap between p
1
– q
1
must be '30' because after
6(k + 1) + 3 another multiple of 15 will be even and '30' more than that can be odd and of the form 6r + 3 so
that remaining '4' can be prime is a gap of 8
Hence proved
3. Define a sequence ) ( ),... x ( f ), x ( f ), x ( f
2 1 0
of functions by
f
0
(x) = 1, f
1
(x) = x, (f
n
(x))
2
– 1 = f
n+1
(x) f
n–1
(x), for n > 1.
Prove that each f
n
(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients.
Sol. Putting n + 1 in place of n we get
2
1 n
f
+
(x) =
) x ( f
) 2 n ( +
) x ( f
n
+ 1 ...(1)
similarlly
) x ( f
2
) 1 n ( ÷
= ) x ( f
n
) x ( f
2 n÷
+ 1 ...(2)
multiply (1) & (2)
2 2
n
) 1 ) x ( f ( ÷ = ) x ( f
2 n+
f
n
2
(x) ) x ( f
2 n÷
+ 1 + ) x ( f
2 n+
) x ( f
n
+ ) x ( f ) x ( f
2 n n ÷
¬ ) x ( f
3
n
– ) x ( f 2
n
= ) x ( f
2 n+
) x ( f
n
) x ( f
2 n÷
+ ) x ( f
2 n+
+ ) x ( f
2 n÷
¬ ) x ( f
3
n
– 2 ) x ( f
n
= ) x ( f
2 n÷
) x ( f
2
1 n+
+ ) x ( f
2 n+
¬ ) x ( f
2 n+
= ) x ( f
3
n
– 2 ) x ( f
n
– ) x ( f
2 n÷
) x ( f
2
1 n+
since f
2
(x) = x
2
– 1, f
3
(x) = x
3
– 2x
so other polynomials are in the form of these (since they one polynomial with integer coefficient f
n
(x) will be
polynomial with integer coefficients.
4. Let ABC be a triangle. An interior point P of ABC is said to be good if we can find exactly 27 rays emanating
from P intersecting the sides of the triangle ABC such that the triangle is divided by these rays into 27
smaller triangles of equal area. Determine the number of good points for a given triangle ABC.
Sol. Three of these rays will be passing through vertices.
Remaining 24 rays are to distributed in three groups such that they from equal triangles.
Let x, y, z be number of rays on three sides.
¬ x + y + z = 24
Number of such points is equal to number of non-negative integral solutions
¬
2
26
24
2 24
C C =
+
5. Let ABC be an acute–angled triangle, let D,E,F be points on BC, CA, AB respectively such that AD is the
median, BE is the internal angle bisector and CF is the altitude. Suppose Z FDE = ZC, Z DEF = Z A and
ZEFD = ZB. Prove that ABC is equilateral.
Sol. AABC & DEF are similar
¬ FD = ka, DE = kb and FE = kc
In ABDF
cos B =
) BD ( ) BF ( 2
) FD ( – ) BD ( ) BF (
2 2 2
+
RESONANCE PAGE - 3
¬ cos B =
B cos
2
a
2
a k –
4
a
B cos a
2
2 2
2
2 2
+
¬ a
2
cos
2
B = a
2
cos
2
B +
4
a
2
– k
2
a
2
¬ k
2
=
4
1
¬ k =
2
1
¬ FD =
2
a
, DE =
2
b
and FE =
2
c
Now In ABFD
BD = DF ¬ Z DBF = ZBFD = B
¬ Z BDF = t – 2B ¬ Z EDC = 2B–C
¬ Z DEC = t – 2B
In A DEC by sine rule
) B 2 – ( sin 2
a
t
=
C sin 2
b
¬ 2 sin A sin C = 2 sin B sin 2B
¬ sin A sin C = 2 sin
2
B cos B
¬
B sin
A sin
.
B sin
C sin
= 2 cos B
¬
2
b
c a
= 2 cosB
¬
c a
b – c a
2 2 2
+
=
2
b
c a
¬ (b
2
– c
2
) (b
2
–a
2
) = 0
¬ b = c or b = a
Case- I b = c then
Sine rule in ADEC
c a
b a
) C – B 2 ( Sin
+
=
2
b
C Sin
b = c ¬ B = C
¬
b a
b a
B sin
+
=
2
b
B sin
¬
2
b
(a + b) = ab ¬ b
2
= ab
¬ b = a ¬ a = b = c
RESONANCE PAGE - 4
Case-II If a = b then CF is median
¬ AF = FE =
2
c
& Z AEF = A
By sine rule in A AFE
A sin 2
c
=
B 2 sin ) c a (
c b
+
¬ cos B =
) c a (
b
+
(a = b ¬ A= B)
¬
a 2
c
=
) c a (
b
+
¬ a = c ( a = b)
6. Let f : Z ÷ Z be an function satisfying f(0) =0, f(1) = 0 and
(i) f(xy) + f(x) f(y) = f(x) + f(y);
(ii) (f(x–y) – f(0)) f(x) f(y) = 0,
for all x,y e Z, simultaneously.
(a) Find the set of all possible values of the function f.
(b) If f(10) = 0 and f(2) = 0, find the sets of all integers n such that f(n) = 0.
Sol. Put x = y = 0 in (i)
f(0) f(0) = f(0) ¬ f(0) = 1
(ii) ¬ (f(x – y) – 1) f(x) f(y) = 0
put y = 0
(f(x) – 1) f(x) = 0 ¬ f(x) = 0 or 1
set of possible values of the function f(x) are 0, 1
(b) f(2) = 0 put y = 2
f(2x) = f(x) ¬ f(2) = f(4) = f(8) = 0
x = 5 ¬ f(10) = f(5) = 0
put y = 5 in (ii)
(f(x – 5) – 1) f(x) = 0
put x = 9 ¬ (f(4) – 1) f(9) = 0
f(2) = f(4) = 0 ¬ f(9) = 0
x = 7 (f(2) – 1) f(7) = 0 ¬ f(7) = 0
x = 6 (f(1) – 1)f(6) = 0 ¬ f(6) = 0 ¬ f(6) = 0 ¬ f(3) = 0
put x = 0 f(–5) = 1 f(–5) = 0
 f(2x) = f(x) ¬ n e {±5, ±10, ±20, ±40,....}

..(ii) We know that every prime greater than 3 must be of the form 6k + 1. of functions by f0 (x) = 1. Sol. z be number of rays on three sides..F be points on BC... Prove that each fn(x) is a polynomial with integer coefficients.e.(1) similarlly f(2 1) ( x ) = f ( x ) f +1 n n n 2 ( x ) . Suppose p1 > 5 and q1 > 5. ABC & DEF are similar  FD = ka... Further between a gap of 8 (5 odd numbers appear including 1 and last) e. 6k + 5. (fn (x))2 – 1 = fn+1 (x) fn–1 (x). Let x. BE is the internal angle bisector and CF is the altitude.(i) q1 < q2 < q3 < q4 and q4 – q1 = 8 .2 RESONANCE .g. AB respectively such that AD is the median. 15 Now. for n  1. it can be deduced that p1 and q1 must be of the form 6k + 5. Clearly 6(k + 1) + 3 should be multiple of '3' as well as 5 i.. Hence 6 divides p1 – q1 . Let p1 < p2 < p3 < p4 and q1 < q2 < q3 < q4 be two sets of prime numbers such that p4 – p1 = 8 and q4 – q1 = 8.. An interior point P of ABC is said to be good if we can find exactly 27 rays emanating from P intersecting the sides of the triangle ABC such that the triangle is divided by these rays into 27 smaller triangles of equal area... f2 ( x ). Remaining 24 rays are to distributed in three groups such that they from equal triangles. 26 24  C2 Sol. Define a sequence  f0 ( x )..2. 6(k + 1) + 5. CA.  DEF =  A and EFD = B. 6 + 5. Putting n + 1 in place of n we get 2 fn1 (x) = f(n 2) ( x ) fn ( x ) + 1 .  x + y + z = 24 Number of such points is equal to number of non-negative integral solutions 24  2 C Sol. let D. if p1 = q. Let ABC be an acute–angled triangle. y...E.. 6(k + 1) + 1.  5. f1 (x) = x. f1( x ). 4.. Since p1 < p2 < p3 < p4 and p4 – p1 = 8 . Suppose  FDE = C. DE = kb and FE = kc In BDF cos B = (BF)2  (BD)2 – (FD)2 2(BF) (BD) PAGE . Also if 6k + 5 is prime than we want 6k + 5. Prove that ABC is equilateral. f3(x) = x3 – 2x so other polynomials are in the form of these (since they one polynomial with integer coefficient fn(x) will be polynomial with integer coefficients. Let ABC be a triangle. Determine the number of good points for a given triangle ABC. then 10 divides p1 – q1 is trivially true else gap between p1 – q1 must be '30' because after 6(k + 1) + 3 another multiple of 15 will be even and '30' more than that can be odd and of the form 6r + 3 so that remaining '4' can be prime is a gap of 8 Hence proved 3. 6(k + 2) + 1 to be prime for condition (i) or (ii) to be fulfilled.. Three of these rays will be passing through vertices. Prove that 30 divides p1 – q1.(2) multiply (1) & (2) 2 ( fn ( x )  1)2 = fn 2 ( x ) fn2(x) fn 2 ( x ) + 1 + fn 2 ( x ) fn ( x ) + fn ( x ) fn2 ( x ) 3  fn ( x ) – 2fn ( x ) = fn 2 ( x ) fn ( x ) fn 2 ( x ) + fn 2 ( x ) + fn 2 ( x ) 2 3  fn ( x ) – 2 fn ( x ) = fn 2 ( x ) fn1( x ) + fn 2 ( x ) 2 3  fn 2 ( x ) = fn ( x ) – 2 fn ( x ) – fn2 ( x ) fn1( x ) since f2(x) = x2 – 1. Sol.

a 2 cos 2 B  cos B =  2 a2 – k 2a 2 4 a2 cos B 2 a2 cos2 B = a2 cos2B +  a2 – k2a2 4 k2 =  1 4 1 2 a b c . = 2 cos B sin B sin B  ac  b2 = 2 cosB  ac a 2  c 2 – b2 = 2 ac b  (b2 – c2) (b2 –a2) = 0  b = c or b = a Case.I b = c then Sine rule in DEC Sin (2 B – C) Sin C ab = b a c 2 b=cB=C sin B sin B = b ab 2 a b   b (a + b) = ab 2 a=b=c b2 = ab  b=a   PAGE .3 RESONANCE . DE = and FE = 2 2 2 k=  FD =  Now In BFD BD = DF   DBF = BFD = B   BDF =  – 2B   EDC = 2B–C   DEC =  – 2B In  DEC by sine rule a b 2 sin (  – 2B) = 2 sin C   2 sin A sin C = 2 sin B sin 2B sin A sin C = 2 sin2B cos B sin A sin C .

} PAGE .. Sol. (a) Find the set of all possible values of the function f.. (b) If f(10)  0 and f(2) = 0. 1 (b) f(2) = 0 put y = 2 f(2x) = f(x)  f(2) = f(4) = f(8) = 0 x = 5  f(10) = f(5)  0 put y = 5 in (ii) (f(x – 5) – 1) f(x) = 0 put x = 9  (f(4) – 1) f(9) = 0 f(2) = f(4) = 0  f(9) = 0 x = 7 (f(2) – 1) f(7) = 0  f(7) = 0 x = 6 (f(1) – 1)f(6) = 0  f(6) = 0  f(6) = 0  f(3) = 0 put x = 0 f(–5) = 1 f(–5)  0  f(2x) = f(x)  n  {±5. ±10. for all x. f(1) = 0 and (i) f(xy) + f(x) f(y) = f(x) + f(y). simultaneously. Let f : Z  Z be an function satisfying f(0) 0.. ±40. find the sets of all integers n such that f(n)  0. ±20. Put x = y = 0 in (i) f(0) f(0) = f(0)  f(0) = 1 (ii)  (f(x – y) – 1) f(x) f(y) = 0 put y = 0 (f(x) – 1) f(x) = 0  f(x) = 0 or 1  set of possible values of the function f(x) are 0.y  Z.4 RESONANCE .Case-II If a = b then CF is median AF = FE =  c 2 &  AEF = A By sine rule in  AFE c bc 2 sin A = (a  c ) sin 2B c b = (a  c ) 2a b cos B = (a  c ) (a = b  A= B)  a = c ( a = b)   6. (ii) (f(x–y) – f(0)) f(x) f(y) = 0..