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Reproductive Health Bill

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Intrauterine device (IUD): The Reproductive Health Bill provides for universal distribution of family planning devices, and its enforcement. The Reproductive Health bills, popularly known as the RH Bill, are Philippine bills aiming to guarantee universal access to methods and information on birth control and maternal care. The bills have become the center of a contentious national debate. There are presently two bills with the same goals: House Bill No. 4244 or An Act Providing for a Comprehensive Policy on Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health, and Population and Development, and For Other Purposes introduced by Albay 1st district Representative Edcel Lagman, and Senate Bill No. 2378 or An Act Providing For a National Policy on Reproductive Health and Population and Development introduced by Senator Miriam Defensor Santiago. While there is general agreement about its provisions on maternal and child health, there is great debate on its key proposal that the Filipino taxpayer and the private sector will fund and undertake widespread distribution of family planning devices such as birth control pills (BCPs) and IUDs, as the government continues to disseminate information on their use through all health care centers. Private companies and the public and private elementary and secondary school system will be required to participate in this information and product dissemination as a way of controlling the population of the Philippines.[1] The bill is highly divisive, with experts, academics, religious institutions, and major political figures both supporting and opposing it, often criticizing the government and each other in the process. The issue is so divisive that at one point, the Catholic Bishops Conference of the Philippines threatened to excommunicate the President, Benigno Aquino III if he supported the bill.

The first time the Reproductive Health Bill was proposed was in 1998. During the present 15th Congress, the RH Bills filed are those authored by (1) House Minority Leader Edcel Lagman of Albay, HB 96; (2) Iloilo Rep. Janette Garin, HB 101, (3) Akbayan Representatives Kaka Bag-ao & Walden Bello; HB 513, (4) Muntinlupa Representative Rodolfo Biazon, HB 1160, (5) Iloilo Representative Augusto Syjuco, HB 1520, (6) Gabriela Rep. Luzviminda Ilagan. In the Senate, Sen. Michael Angelo F. Perolina has filed her own version of the RH bill which, she says, will be part of the country‘s commitment to international covenants. On January 31, 2011, the House of Representatives Committee on Population and Family Relations voted to consolidate all House versions of the bill, which is entitled An Act Providing for a Comprehensive Policy on Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health and Population Development and for Other Purposes.[2][3]
[edit] Stated purpose

One of the main concerns of the bill, according to the Explanatory Note, is that the population of the Philippines makes it ―the 12th most populous nation in the world today‖, that the Filipino women‘s fertility rate is ―at the upper bracket of 206 countries.‖ It states that studies and surveys ―show that the Filipinos are responsive to having smaller-sized families through free choice of family planning methods.‖ It also refers to studies which ―show that rapid population growth exacerbates poverty while poverty spawns rapid population growth.‖ And so it aims for improved quality of life through a ―consistent and coherent national population policy.‖
[edit] History

According to the Senate Policy Brief titled Promoting Reproductive Health, the history of reproductive health in the Philippines dates back to 1967 when leaders of 12 countries including the Philippines' Ferdinand Marcos signed the Declaration on Population.[4][5] The Philippines agreed that the population problem be considered as the principal element for long-term economic development. Thus, the Population Commission (Popcom) was created to push for a lower family size norm and provide information and services to lower fertility rates.[1] Starting 1967, the USAID started shouldering 80% of the total family planning commodities (contraceptives) of the country, which amounted to US$ 3 Million annually.[1]

US National Security Memorandum: paramount importance of world population control through programs of UN and USAID.

In 1975, the United States adopted as its policy the National Security Study Memorandum 200: Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S. Security and Overseas Interests (NSSM200). The policy gives "paramount importance" to population control measures and the promotion of contraception among 13 populous countries, including the Philippines to control rapid population growth which they deem to be inimical to the socio-political and economic growth of these countries and to the national interests of the United States, since the "U.S. economy will require large and increasing amounts of minerals from abroad", and these countries can produce destabilizing opposition forces against the United States.[6] It recommends the US leadership to "influence national leaders" and that "improved world-wide support for population-related efforts should be sought through increased emphasis on mass media and other population education and motivation programs by the U.N., USIA, and USAID."[6] Different presidents had different points of emphasis. President Marcos pushed for a systematic distribution of contraceptives all over the country, a policy that was called "coercive," by its leading administrator.[5] The Cory Aquino administration focused on giving couples the right to have the number of children they prefer, while the Ramos presidency shifted from population control to population management. Estrada used mixed methods of reducing fertility rates, while Arroyo focused on mainstreaming natural family planning, while stating that contraceptives are openly sold in the country.[1] In 1989, the Philippine Legislators‘ Committee on Population and Development (PLCPD) was established, "dedicated to the formulation of viable public policies requiring legislation on population management and socio-economic development." In 2000, the Philippines signed the Millennium Declaration and committed to attain the MDG goals by 2015, including promoting gender equality and health. In 2003, USAID started its phase out of a 33 year old program by which free contraceptives where given to the country. Aid recipients such as the Philippines faced the challenge to fund its own contraception program.[1] In 2004, the Department of Health introduced the Philippines Contraceptive Self-Reliance Strategy, arranging for the replacement of these donations with domestically provided contraceptives.[1] In August 2010, the government announced a collaborative work with the USAID in implementing a comprehensive marketing and communications strategy in favor of family planning called "May Plano Ako" (I Have a Plan).

[edit] Key definitions
House Bills 101 and 513, and Senate Bill 2378 define the term "reproductive health care" as follows: Reproductive Health Care - refers to the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters relating to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes. This implies that people are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life, that they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so, provided that these are not against the law. This further implies that

[7] Reproductive Rights are defined by House Bills 101. 513.[7] House Bill 96 replaces "other decisions" with "allied decisions. and Senate Bill 2378 as follows: the rights of individuals and couples. spacing and timing of their children." but is otherwise identical." but is otherwise identical. 3387. .[citation needed] [edit] Bill content [edit] Sections Philippine Population Density Map." They argue that this will lead to promiscuity among the young. to have the information and means to do so.[7] The opposition says that by supporting such definitions.[7] House Bill 96 replaces "have a satisfying and safe sex life" with "enjoy responsible and safe sex" but is otherwise identical in its definition. but RH is presented as something good. and contraceptives are not healthy. coercion and violence. House Bill 1160 omits "a satisfying and" but is otherwise identical. and to attain the highest standard of sexual and reproductive health. and replaces "attain" with "are afforded. Darker areas mean more population.women and men attain equal relationships in matters related to sexual relations and reproduction. House Bill 3387 omits the word "complete" before physical.[8] They say that the terminology is part of deceptive "verbal engineering" since RH is not in favor of reproduction. to decide freely and responsibly whether or not to have children. 1160. to make other decisions concerning reproduction free of discrimination. the number. since they are "people" and "individuals. the country will guarantee this same right of having "a satisfying and safe sex life" and the freedom of decision to unmarried children and teenagers.

14. 9. 13.The basic content of the Consolidated Reproductive Health Bill is divided into the following sections. 33. 30. all effective natural and modern methods of family planning that are medically safe and legal. non-judgmental and compassionate manner. 21. 27. 17.‖[3] . 1. 25. 8. 32. 20. without bias. 11. 7. 2. 3. 10. 24. 23.‖[3] Although abortion is recognized as illegal and punishable by law. 16. 6. 18. 12. 4. 19. 29. Title Declaration of Policy Guiding Principles Definition of Terms Midwives for Skilled Attendance Emergency Obstetric Care Access to Family Planning Maternal and Newborn Health Care in Crisis Situations Maternal Death Review Family Planning Supplies as Essential Medicines Procurement and Distribution of Family Planning Supplies Integration of Family Planning and Responsible Parenthood Component in Anti-Poverty Programs Roles of Local Government in Family Planning Programs Benefits for Serious and Life-Threatening Reproductive Health Conditions Mobile Health Care Service Mandatory Age-Appropriate Reproductive Health and Sexuality Education Additional Duty of the Local Population Officer Certificate of Compliance Capability Building of Barangay Health Workers Ideal Family Size Employers’ Responsibilities Pro Bono Services for Indigent Women Sexual And Reproductive Health Programs For Persons With Disabilities (PWDs) Right to Reproductive Health Care Information Implementing Mechanisms Reporting Requirements Congressional Oversight Committee Prohibited Acts Penalties Appropriations Implementing Rules and Regulations Separability Clause Repealing Clause Effectivity [edit] Summary of major provisions The bill mandates the government to ―promote. 28. 26. 31. 34. 22. the bill states that ―the government shall ensure that all women needing care for post-abortion complications shall be treated and counseled in a humane. 5. 15.

especially the poor to have the number of children they want and can care for. nutrition and eventually reduce poverty and hunger at the household level.[9] show that rapid population growth and high fertility rates.[17][18] (2) The bill takes away limited government funds . age-appropriate reproductive health and sexuality education is required from grade five to fourth year high school using ―life-skills and other approaches.[16] (7) at the heart of the bill is the free choice given to people on the use of reproductive health.[3] Under the bill. including family planning and prenatal care.[15](6) An SWS survey of 2008 showed that 71% of the respondents are in favor of the bill. especially the experience in Asia. especially among the poor.[3] The national government and local governments will ensure the availability of reproductive health care services.[3] Any person or public official who prohibits or restricts the delivery of legal and medically safe reproductive health care services will be meted penalty by imprisonment or a fine.‖[3] The bill also mandates the Department of Labor and Employment to guarantee the reproductive health rights of its female employees.[1][9][10] (3) Ten to eleven maternal deaths daily could be reduced if they had access to basic healthcare and essential minerals like iron and calcium. health. which the World Health Organization has listed as essential medicines.[3] [edit] Summary of support and criticism Proponents argue: (1) Economic studies. exacerbate poverty and make it harder for the government to address it. (4) Studies show that 44% of the pregnancies in the poorest quintile are unanticipated. enabling the people. at least 41% do not use any contraceptive method because of lack of information or access. and among the poorest women who would like to avoid pregnancy.[3] Employers are obliged to monitor pregnant working employees among their workforce and ensure they are provided paid half-day prenatal medical leaves for each month of the pregnancy period that they are employed. Companies with less than 200 workers are required to enter into partnership with health care providers in their area for the delivery of reproductive health services."[9] (5) use of contraception. according to the DOH.[10][11] (2) Empirical studies show that poverty incidence is higher among big families. according to the Guttmacher Institute. Opponents of the bill argue that: (1) "The world's leading scientific experts" have resolved the issues related to the bill and show that the "RH Bill is based on wrong economics" as the 2003 Rand Corporation study shows that "there is little cross-country evidence that population growth impedes or promotes economic growth".[9][10] and "Among the poorest families.[10][12] Smaller families and wider birth intervals could allow families to invest more in each child‘s education.The bill calls for a ―multi-dimensional approach‖ integrates a component of family planning and responsible parenthood into all government anti-poverty programs. 22% of married women of reproductive age express a desire to avoid pregnancies but are still not using any family planning method.[13][14] will lower the rate of abortions as it has done in other parts of the world.

about half that of women with only an elementary education (4. World Population Prospects: The 2008 Revision) coming from 3. who as such are human beings equally worthy of respect.[32] (6) The penal provisions constitute a violation of free choice and conscience.[30][31] The increased usage of contraceptives. premarital sex.[33] President Aquino stated he was not an author of the bill.[28][29] and confers other serious health risks. will eventually lead to more abortion. and Population.[23](4) People's freedom to access contraceptives is not restricted by any opposing law. which is about one third the TFR of the poorest quintile (5. Unbridled population growth stunts socioeconomic development and aggravates poverty.23 births per woman."[15] The University of the Philippines' School of Economics presented two papers in support of the bill: Population and Poverty: the Real Score (2004).[20] and the IUD[21] are abortifacient to fertilized eggs: they kill young human embryos.[23][24] (3) Leading secular social scientists like Nobel prize winner. being available in family planning NGOs.9 children per woman). George Akerlof and US National Defense Consultant. 1. providing contraceptives to those who ask for them. Gerardo Sicat. Poverty.3. by CIA World Fact Book). which implies that some babies are unwanted." while at the same time clarifying that it would be "extreme" to view "population growth as the principal cause of poverty that would justify the .957% (2010 est. do exacerbate poverty and make it harder for the government to address it.from treating many high priority medical and food needs and transfers them to fund harmful and deadly devices. etc. with a density over 300 per squared kilometer. and establishes religious persecution. The country is not a welfare state: taxpayer's money should not be used for personal practices that are harmful and immoral. The TFR for women with college education is 2. which include Solita Monsod. but he refuses to promote contraceptive use. and poverty). educating parents to be responsible. He also stated that he gives full support to a firm population policy.1 in 1960. The 2010 total fertility rate (TFR) is 3. Lionel Tiger."[34][35] [edit] Economic and demographic premises The Philippines is densely populated. Cayetano Paderanga. Ernesto M. "rapid population growth and high fertility rates. teenage pregnancies.5 children per woman).[22] making the bill unconstitutional. Politics and the Reproductive Health Bill (2008).85% (2005-2010 high variant estimate by the UN Population Division. especially among the poor. stores.04 (2007 Census). According to these economists. fatherless children. and Stella Alabastro-Quimbo. (5) A 2009 survey showed that 92% rejected the bill when informed of its detailed provisions and penalties.[36] In addition. the total fertility rate for the richest quintile of the population is 2. have shown empirical evidence that contraceptives have deleterious social effects (abortion. Pernia. it can be used to inform people of the harm of BCPs.[25][26] Harvard Director Edward Green concluded that the "best studies" show that more condoms promote the spread of AIDS.[37] Congressman Lagman states that the bill "recognizes the verifiable link between a huge population and poverty. or 1. from a TFR of 7 in 1960. and the population growth rate is 2.0.[27] Combined estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives (the most common type prescribed globally) are carcinogenic. He said that his position "is more aptly called responsible parenthood rather than reproductive health. female impoverishment.[19] The latest studies in scientific journals and organizations show that the ordinary birth control pill.

. Darker areas mean more poverty.government resorting to draconian and coercive measures to deal with the problem (e." They illustrate the connection between rapid population growth and poverty by comparing the economic growth and population growth rates of Thailand. corruption) and apply many other . showed that poverty incidence is higher among big families: 57. food and other natural resources. and the Philippines. Indonesia. poor governance. governance issues including corruption. wherein the first two grew more rapidly than the Philippines due to lower population growth rates.[11] [edit] Criticism of premises Opposing the bill. together with weak macroeconomic management.g. health. transportation. fertility reduction cuts the cost of social services with fewer people attending school or seeking medical care and as demand eases for housing.[1][10][38] The Asian Development Bank in 2004 also listed a large population as one of the major causes of poverty in the country. Jr.[12] Percentage of population living below poverty line (2003).3% of Filipino families with seven children are in poverty while only 23.g. water.[10] They stressed that "the experience from across Asia indicates that a population policy cum government-funded [family planning] program has been a critical complement to sound economic policy and poverty reduction. jobs."[9] In Population and Poverty. denial of basic services and subsidies to families with more than two children).8% of families who have two children live below the poverty threshold. employment issues. an underperforming agricultural sector and an unfinished land reform agenda. Aniceto Orbeta.[9] At the national level. Former Finance Secretary Roberto de Ocampo wrote that it is "truly disingenuous for anyone to proceed on the premise that the poor are to blame for the nation‘s poverty. nutrition and eventually reduce poverty and hunger at the household level. Proponents argue that smaller families and wider birth intervals resulting from the use of contraceptives allow families to invest more in each child‘s education." He emphasized that the government should apply the principle of first things first and focus on the root causes of the poverty (e.

which does not include population control. thus reducing poverty significantly. as Philippine population increased almost three times. The two party-list representatives strongly state that poverty is not due to over-population but because of inequality and corruption.alternatives to solve the problem (e. Economist Roberto de Vera refers to Nobel prize winner Simon Kuznets's study which concludes that ―no clear association appears to exist in the present sample of countries. and which name the Population Commission as a coordinating body. preventing them from getting good paying jobs. raising tax collection efficiency). Ahlburg (1996).g. giving up pork barrel. De Vera says that "similar conclusions have been arrived at by the US National Research Council in 1986 and in the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) Consultative Meeting of Economists in 1992" and the studies of Hanushek and Wommann (2007). two authors of the Reproductive Health Bill changed their stand on the provisions of the bill regarding population and development.[39][40] Instead of aiming at population decrease. between rates of growth of population and of product per capita. etc. De Vera stressed that the country should focus through education on cashing in on a possible ―demographic dividend.[39][40] In a recent development." which integrate responsible parenthood and family planning programs into antipoverty initiatives.. poverty decreased from 59% to 34%.[43] . Emerciana de Jesus and Luzviminda Ilagan wanted to delete three provisions which state that "gender equality and women empowerment are central elements of reproductive health and population and development.[18] Opponents also refer to a 2003 Rand Corporation study which concluded that "there is little cross-country evidence that population growth impedes or promotes economic growth."[17] In his Primer which critiques the bill. Sala-I-Martin (2004). Doppelhoffer.[39][40] The other Nobel Prize winner who expressed the same view is Gary Becker.. Miller.population neutralism has in fact been the predominant school in thinking among academics about population growth for the last half-century. East and West Germany whose birthrates were practically the same but whose economic growth was entirely different due to different governance factors.[40] He stressed that the more probable cause of poor families is not family size but the limited schooling of the household head: 78% to 90% of the poor households had heads with no high school diploma." Julian Simon compared parallel countries such as North and South Korea. or is likely to exist in other developed countries. He refers to studies which show that 90% of the time the poor want the children they have: as helpers in the farm and investment for a secure old age.[41][42] De Vera also states that from 1961–2000. Reps.‖ a period of rapid economic growth that can happens when the labor force is growing faster than the dependents (children and elderly).[33] They also point to the five factors for high economic growth and reduction of poverty shown by the 2008 Commission on Growth and Development headed by Nobel prize winner Michael Spence.

" said Clara Padilla of Engender Rights. Sorsogon) that the incidence of maternal death arising from such complications could be fully mitigated and brought down to zero simply by providing adequate basic and emergency obstetrics care and skilled medical personnel and services. (11) Prevention and treatment of infertility and (12) RH education for the youth.[1] . Cagayan and Sorsogon. and provisions on sex education done in schools. infant and child health and nutrition (3) Promotion of breast feeding (4) Prevention of abortion and management of post-abortion complications (5) Adolescent and youth health (6) Prevention and management of reproductive tract infections. according to the Senate Policy Brief on reproductive health." Regarding these figures. She reported that "Daily. experience has shown (as in Gattaran. There is general agreement on the health provisions of the RH bill. there are 11 women dying while giving birth in the Philippines." without any need for a law on the distribution of contraceptives. HIV/AIDS and STDs (7) Elimination of violence against women (8) Counseling on sexuality and sexual and reproductive health (9) Treatment of breast and reproductive tract cancers (10) Male involvement and participation in RH. Francisco Tatad of the International Right to Life Federation and former Senator wrote that "If correct. These preventable deaths could have been avoided if more Filipino women have access to reproductive health information and healthcare.[24] The key to solving maternal deaths.[13] The bill is "meant to prevent maternal deaths related to pregnancy and childbirth.[edit] Maternal health and deaths Birthing services are key to solving maternal deaths The proponents state that RH will mean: (1) Information and access to natural and modern family planning (2) Maternal. The Department of Health states that family planning can reduce maternal mortality by about 32 percent. except for the provisions on contraception and family planning devices that have moral and health implications. is the establishment of birthing centers.

citing development economist Lant Pritchett who said that the term "unmet need" is an elitist construct. an increase by more than one-third since the 2003 National Demographic and Housing Survey. Pritchett said that it is "based on a discrepancy. an imposition of a need on the poor. implying a significant unmet need for reproductive health services. The Catholic Church teaches the necessity of responsible parenthood and correct family planning (one child at a time depending on one's circumstances)." state some Ateneo de Manila University professors. Lagman stated that "Twenty-two percent of married Filipino women have an unmet need for family planning services.5 children) and actual fertility (3."[9][38] Basing itself on demographic surveys.[citation needed] [edit] Unmet need Using data from the 2008 National Demographic and Health Survey. disrespectful of their real preferences. The Bill provides that "The State shall assist couples. stated that the most common reasons why women with unmet need in the Philippines do not practice contraception are health concerns about contraceptive methods. Likhaan. a non-government organization for women's health. Their specific reasons include having sex infrequently. It teaches that modern natural family planning." "Our women are having more children than they desire. Bernardo Villegas wrote about the Myth of Unmet Family Planning Needs. while at the same time teaching that large families are a sign of God's blessings. as couples give themselves to each other as they are.identified by the analyst through the comparison of responses to items in separate blocks of the questionnaire" and is "an inference on the part of . experiencing lactational amenorrhea (temporary infertility while nursing) and being less fecund than normal. a method of fertility awareness. including a fear of side effects. 44% reported these reasons in 2008..5 children).[edit] Family planning Catholic Church: A large family is a sign of God's blessings (CCC 2373) The majority of Filipinos are in favor of family planning. The RH bill intends to help couples to have government funded access to artificial contraception methods as well.[44] Writing against the bill. parents and individuals to achieve their desired family size within the context of responsible parenthood for sustainable development and encourage them to have two children as the ideal family size. The second largest category of reasons is that many believe they are unlikely to become pregnant—41% in 2008. as seen in the gap between desired fertility (2.. is in accord with God's design.

The bill intends to provide universal access through government funding. Villegas stressed: "Because [the poor] have been deprived of the infrastructures they need. thus bloating the numbers to favor the pharmaceutical companies and those with a population control agenda. irrigation systems. the only economic resources they have are their children. such as farm-to-market roads. They argue that the Philippines should give priority to providing access to medicines that treat real diseases. promiscuous actions and needs artificially created by elitist. whose husband is absent.the researcher. including their vanity needs.[19][24] Birth control pill The UP School of Economics argues.. and taxpayers are not bound to provide for all the wants and desires of its citizenry. that the poor can afford condoms since they can pay for other items such as cellphone load.[24] They say that these family planning items are available to the citizens and many local government units and NGOs provide these for free. Opponents also argue that Philippine government is not a welfare state. the poor will use the cash for food and basic needs. thus exploding the myth." (2) "the health risks ."[9] They say that lack of access leads to a number of serious problems which demand attention: (1) "too many and too closely-spaced children raises the risk of illness and premature deaths (for mother and child alike). etc. imperialist and eugenicist forces. post-harvest facilities and other support services that the State neglected to provide them. not a condition reported by the respondents themselves. such as those offered by the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF) which supports the Family Planning Organizations of the Philippines and the 97 organizations of the Philippine NGO Council. complementing thus private sector initiatives for family planning services. are infecund. Congressman Teddyboy Locsin argued." He also challenged that he is willing to bet that if the government will provide cash money to the poor to buy condoms. echoed by a Business Mirror editorial. 22% of married women of reproductive age express a desire to avoid pregnancies but are still not using any family planning method. in contrast. because contraceptive use is extremely low among them and "Among the poorest families. that there is lack of access especially for poor people. The opposition argues that "Access to contraceptives is free and unrestricted" and that the proposed law is pushing an open door.[45] [edit] Access One of the main concerns of the proponents is the perceived lack of access to family planning devices such as contraceptives and sterilization. nor should taxpayers pay for drugs that are objectively dangerous (carcinogenic) and immoral." Pritchett argued this term is applied to women who are not sexually active.

the Faculty of Medicine of the catholic University of Santo Tomas." It provides that "the government shall ensure that all women needing care for post-abortion complications shall be treated and counseled in a humane. which concluded that the IUD brings about the "destruction of the early embryo. the Philippine Nurses Association (with at least 368. Thus the UP economists "strongly and unequivocally support" the thrust of the bill to enable "couples and individuals to decide freely and responsibly the number and spacing of their children and to have the information and means to carry out their decisions. the Bioethics Society of the Philippines.‖[48][49] After referring to many standard textbooks of medicine and human embryology to affirm this as true. founder of the Abay Pamilya Foundation.associated with mistimed and unwanted pregnancies are higher for adolescent mothers. They say that the embryo is an individual. in which a meta-analysis of 94 studies provides evidence that when a common birth control pill fails to prevent ovulation. Catholic Physicians‘ Guild of the Philippines stated that ―the antiabortion stance of the bill is contradicted by the promotion of contraceptive agents (IUD and hormonal contraceptives) which actually act after fertilization and are potentially abortifacient agents. "postfertilization effects are operative to prevent clinically recognized pregnancy. self-coordinated and self-organizing subject belonging to the species homo sapiens: a human being by nature and thus a person equally worthy of respect.[50] the anti-RH bill citizens argue that the human embryo already has the complete genetic code and is thus a distinct human life beginning its own new life cycle.‖[9] Proponents argue that government-funded access is the key to breaking the intergenerational poverty that many people are trapped in. as they are more likely to have complications during labor.589 members)." (3) women who have mistimed pregnancies are "constrained to rely more on public education and health services and other publicly provided goods and services." further complicating limited public resources.[22] .‖[46] Opposing the bill."[20] They also point to the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (2005).'"[48] and not from fertilization. (4) families are not able to achieve their desired family size." as the Constitution declares that ―the State shall equally protect the life of the mother and the life of the unborn from conception. noting at the same time that the Records of the Constitutional Commission state that ―Human life begins at fertilization. non-judgmental and compassionate manner. reported that "Lagman said in a House hearing that the bill would protect human life 'from implantation.[9][38] [edit] Abortion One of the bill's components is "prevention of abortion and management of post-abortion complications.[8] Jo Imbong." It also states that "abortion remains a crime and is punishable.‖[47] Opposition refers to a 2000 study of a scientific journal of the American Medical Association."[21] thus is deemed to kill five-day old babies.

[52] Ang Kapatiran Party (AKP) in their Position Paper stated that "The Guttmacher Institute's own study in 2003 showed simultaneous increases both abortion rates and contraceptive use in the United States. and Singh 2005). involved in advancing international reproductive health.[54] and that RH includes the pill where "postfertilization effects are operative"[21] and the IUD which brings about the "destruction of the early embryo. Thus. in the absence of information on and access to any reliable means to prevent an unplanned and unwanted pregnancy. Cuba. their pregnancy occurred too soon after the last one (57%)."[53] The AKP argues that "Since contraceptives will not reduce unplanned pregnancy."[19] Opponents argue that new data thwarts the "myth" that contraception lowers abortions. Proponents argue that research by the Guttmacher Institute. said Clara Padilla of EnGender Rights Inc.5-day old human embryo called a blastocyst. they will not reduce abortion rates either and may increase them. argued thus: "Studies show that the majority of women who go for an abortion are married or in a consensual union (91%). and they already have enough children (54%).[21] ."[38] The bill. when the bill states that abortion remains a crime and is punishable. and South Korea. will "help reduce the number of abortions by providing increased access to information and services on modern contraceptive methods. Denmark." according to the American Medical Association and the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. When women who had attempted an abortion were asked their reasons for doing so. abortion has become a family planning method. their top three responses were: they could not afford the economic cost of raising another child (72%). Cabigon. that in turn will reduce the number of unwanted --and often aborted-. Netherlands. The proRH people accuse the anti-RH group of misleading the public by calling the bill an abortion bill. One in ten women (13%) who had attempted an abortion revealed that this was because her pregnancy resulted from forced sex (ibid. Proponents such as 14 Ateneo de Manila University professors.). reveals that the use of contraceptives can reduce abortion rates by 85%. since US Secretary Hillary Clinton said that RH includes abortion."[51] Opponents of the bill argue that the Guttmacher Institute is the research arm of International Planned Parenthood and that the latter is "the largest promoter of artificial birth control and abortion worldwide."[53] Both sides of the debate accuse the other side of deception and misleading the public. The anti-RH advocates accuse the RH supporters of deceiving the public regarding the true meaning of reproductive health. and poor (68%) (Juarez. the mother of three or more children (57%). which comprises 70-100 cells. terminating a pregnancy is an anguished choice they make in the face of severe constraints.pregnancies. Singapore. For these women. for these women.

Contraception. and the poor. since they desecrate sex which is intrinsically linked to new human beings whose lives are sacred. prowomen." urging Catholic authorities to withdraw their opposition the bill. Around 81% of Filipinos are Catholics. by enabling couples.[38] Citing Catholic documents and scientific studies. also makes spouses lie about their total self gift to their spouse. urged that the bill be passed to help them. a prominent Catholic University. children. especially the poor. We are thus deeply disturbed and saddened by calls made by some members of the Catholic Church to reject a proposed legislation that promises to improve the wellbeing of Filipino families."[38] Thus."[38] In response."[56] The catholic University of Santo Tomas's student . illegitimate children. we share the hope and mission of building a Church of the Poor. undomesticated men. says the church. pro-youth. and the Catholic Church teaches that extramarital sex and contraception are moral evils. 14 professors from Ateneo de Manila University. and pro-informed choice. to bring into the world only the number of children they believe they can care for and nurture to become healthy and productive members of our society. pro-poor. by not surrendering their personal fertility. adolescents. considering the empirical evidence of the dire socio-economic conditions of the Filipino poor." They emphasized that the bill "promotes quality of life.[edit] Contraceptives [edit] Morality and social effects Another central issue is the morality of contraception. they reasoned that "the RH Bill is pro-life. However. crimes and abortions." They announced that "Catholic social teachings recognize the primacy of the well-formed conscience over wooden compliance to directives from political and religious authorities.[55] Prolifers refer to economy Nobel prize winner George Akerlof who found that wide use of contraceptives led to premarital sex. they entitled their paper as "Catholics Can Support the RH Bill in Good Conscience. They argued: "As Catholics and Filipinos. the Ateneo administration announced its unity with Catholic teaching and that it had "serious objections to the present bill. especially the lives of women.

Smith. Nobel prize winner). thus part of infallible ordinary magisterium. The Varsitarian expressed shock about what they see as the professors' "erroneous conscience". moreover."[28][29] The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & . and "focuses primarily on providing services to curb the number of children of the poor.[27] breakdown of families. Harvard Director for AIDS). William E. and ignorance of economic science and medicine. responded to the faculty of the Ateneo. being unnatural and anti-life. expressed in the Encyclical Humanae Vitae issued only forty years ago in 1964. but of a breakdown in moral sense that gives order to society.[59] Prestigious secular and anti-Catholic social scientists are also reported to have found empirical evidence linking contraception and a variety of social ills: more premarital sex.‖ The editorial of the Philippine Daily Inquirer. stated that Catholic teaching is "only" a religious teaching and should not be imposed with intolerance on a secular state." that the bill disrespects poor people. opponents of the bill said that science and secular moral reasoning show the objective truth that contraception is evil and disastrous for society.. Dr.[25] heightened spread of AIDS (Edward C. Angelita Miguel-Aguirre refers to metaanalyses at scientific journals that show oral contraceptives (OCs) are unsafe. discipline. love and respect for life. while doing little to remedy their situation."[31] The World Health Organization (WHO) announced the findings of The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) in 2007 that "there is sufficient evidence in humans for the carcinogecity of combined estrogen-progestogen contraceptives. which they believe contraception does. Green.[58] taught by bishops around the world. poverty. weakening family life. They say that Catholic Church doctrine on contraception has been the same since its beginning. trouble in the relationship between the sexes.[61] [edit] Health reasons In Medical Issues in the Reproductive Health Bill. by treating them as mere machines.[58] They stress that it is the errors of conscience pushed by the "dictatorship of relativism" --rather than the objective truth and the good--. S. and Joseph W.[19] A meta-analysis of the Stroke Journal concluded that OCs confer "risk of first ischemic stroke. May."[57] Proponents such as Lagman also stressed that official Catholic teaching itself. female impoverishment. including Janet E. Thus they cite the 15 non-religious reasons against contraception provided by the Ethics Guide of the secular BBC which includes the loss of potential beneficent human life.that is imposing itself on people. social pathology (George Akerlof. crimes by unmarried men. is not infallible. to do evil that good may come of it. which included ranking prelates and theologians. Peter Kreeft. causing widespread moral promiscuity. decline of marriage.J. and single motherhood (Lionel Tiger).paper. but from those who strip human beings of moral dignity and responsibility. open and reasonable parenthood in today‘s circumstances.[26][60] Opponents argue that misery is not the result of the church which they say is the largest charitable organization in the world. recommended that the Church change its teaching on contraception as it concluded that ―the regulation of conception appears necessary for many couples who wish to achieve a responsible.[42] 42 prominent international Catholic scholars. Responding to the Inquirer. even for the gravest reasons. and abortion. saying that ―It is never lawful. fatherless children. nor does misery come from parents who bring up children in faithfulness. and therefore a secular state should stand by this evidence. Koterski.[15] He said that the Papal Commission on Birth Control.

000. (6) Diabetes .Metabolism also concluded in 2005 that "a rigorous meta-analysis of the literature suggests that current use of low-dose OCs significantly increases the risk of both cardiac and vascular arterial events.000. WHO stated that these drugs "have been questioned" and "will be reviewed" by its Expert Committee.000 women are: (1) Heart diseases .The risk of dying within a year of using pills is 1 in 200. (5) Tuberculosis 23. Expanding modern contraceptive use to all women at risk for unintended pregnancy would prevent 2." says the main proponent. abortions would decline by 500."[19] Proponents such as E. But the risk of dying from a pregnancy is 1 in 10.. Likhaan made the following projection: "If all women who wanted to avoid pregnancy used modern methods.[14] The World Health Organization announced scientific findings that the pill causes cancer and kept it in its list of essential medicines Opponents also say that being pregnant with a child is not a disease but a blessing.000 and miscarriages would decline by 200.45. . Unintended births would drop by 800. It would also reap savings on medical care for pregnant women and newborns that would more than offset the additional spending on modern contraception.6 million fewer pregnancies each year in the Philippines.."[30] In its list of essential medicines. "shows that all the possible medical risks connected with contraceptives are infinitely lower than the risks of an actual pregnancy and everyday activities. and that there are real diseases among the leading causes of mortality that should take on a higher priority. Ansioco of Democratic Socialist Women of the Philippines argued that "The World Health Organization (WHO) includes contraceptives in its Model Lists of Essential Drugs" and thus are safe medicines. Aguirre of the Makati Medical Society also said that "The health risks of the pill actually outweighs by far the risks of pregnancy and childbirth to a woman's health. and the daily death toll per 100.[13][14] "Medical and scientific evidence.63. They refer to data from the Department of Health as to the leading causes of death in the Philippines. (7) Lower chronic respiratory diseases – 16.000. there would be 1. given the limited budget..22.80. The risk of dying from a vasectomy is 1 in 1 million and the risk of dying from using an IUD is 1 in 10 million.100 maternal deaths each year.000.. (3) Cancer .51." . (4) Pneumonia . (2) Vascular diseases ."[15] In Facts on Barriers to Contraceptive Use in the Philippines.[24][62] Dr.

[63][64] Pro-life groups refer to the Director of Harvard's Aid Prevention Center. said that in 1987. where there was an intense campaign for the "100% Condom Use Program". Thailand had 112 AIDS cases. more or less the same number as the Philippines (135). foreign-funded political lobby groups to create a bandwagon effect. the score is 84 percent in favor.[65] [edit] Opinion polls Proponents refer to many surveys conducted by two prominent locally based organizations (SWS and Pulse Asia) which show majority support for the bill. and 6 percent opposed. and a mere 8 percent opposed. Mahar Mangahas reported that the "survey found 71 percent in favor [of the RH Bill]. Edward C.[edit] HIV/AIDS The RH bill provides for "prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS and other. Green. Senator Tatad remarked that an objective measure of Filipino . Saying that nation-wide surveys are financed by wealthy. By the year 2003.. by adequately trained teachers starting from Grade 5 up to Fourth Year High School. versus 11 percent opposed. Dr. who said that the "best evidence" agrees with Benedict XVI's statement that condom distribution risked exacerbating the spread of the virus. whose population is around 30% greater than Thailand's. rather than sex education in school.[66] SWS President and RH Bill proponent. a non-government advocacy group.935 cases in the Philippines. there were around 750. Director of AIDS-Free Philippines. Among those who learned of the bill for the first time because of the survey.000 cases in Thailand. STIs/STDs. On the other side of the debate. They stressed that what is needed is chastity education.[51] Primary among the means is distribution of condoms. 21 percent undecided."[67] In December 2010. 69% of the Filipinos are in favor of the bill. Pulse Asia announced based on the results of an October 2010 survey.." especially since the number of HIV cases among the young nearly tripled from 41 in 2007 to 110 in 2008. The proponents applauded government efforts last February 2010 when it distributed condoms in some areas of Manila. showed that 68 percent of Filipinos agree that there should be a law requiring government to distribute legal contraceptives. because availability of condoms leads to riskier sexual behavior. Proponents refer to the latest UNESCO study dated December 2009 which concluded that sexuality education did not encourage early initiation into sex." Opposition to the bill is concerned about early sexualization of the youth and say that sex education promoters themselves state that it has led to more teenage pregnancies and illegitimacy. while there were only 1. A survey conducted in 2008 by the Social Weather Stations. Among those who originally knew of the bill. commissioned by the Forum for Family Planning and Development (FFPD). the score is 59 percent in favor. the bill provides for mandatory reproductive health education and that it be taught in "an age-appropriate manner. especially taught by their parents.[16][66] Pulse Asia reported that in an October 2008 survey "most Filipinos are aware of the reproductive health bill pending at the House of Representatives (68%) and are in favor of the bill (63%).[27] [edit] Sex Education To achieve its goals. Rene Josef Bullecer.

000 to 12.[68] [edit] Rallies and TV Debate From late 2010 to the present. stated that these punitive provisions "are tantamount to an affront to civil liberties and smack of religious persecution.[86] There is "mandatory" sex education starting grade 5.000.09% oppose it."[32] Mangahas acknowledged that the SWS surveys did not include the penalties.000.[76][77] Manila Knights of Columbus March (March 2011) .50.[70] Manila (Feb) 10." a violation of free choice and conscience.[7] Former Finance Secretary.58% of votes cast reject the RH bill while 30."[33] .preference is the consistent top electoral success of the pro-life party-list. and "totalitarian" in its approach to dissenters.[69]. Manila (March 25) 40. were merely aware of it. Golez were present.42% support it. 69. The pro-life rallies against the bill where in: Mindanao . because the participants were not fully informed of the bill. Lito Atienza.[80] San Pablo..8. The survey concluded that 92% of people in Metro Manila rejected the bill. may be imprisoned or fined if they fail to provide reproductive health care services such as providing services like ligation and vasectomy.. including faith-based hospital administrators.[78] Legazpi .000. Roberto de Ocampo.20.91% support the RH bill while 36. including Rep.2000. In the separate online poll held on the Harapan microsite that livestreamed the debate. which have been called "coercive. "85 percent are not aware that once passed the RH bill would allow teenagers to secure 'abortifacient devices and substances' without their parents‘ knowledge and consent.000. Quezon .4000.000.[74] Lucena .[71] Bacolod .[72] Cebu 10.000. there have been rallies for and against the bill.00) to Fifty Thousand Pesos (P50.[83] CBCP complex .[82] The pro-RH rallies were: Batasan .1500.000. and malicious "disinformation" is penalized.[75] Maasin.00).000. Lagman and Rep.[24] President of Prolife Philippines.[73] Balanga 10.[81] Quiapo (Oct) 1500.[7] All health care service providers.[7] Imprisonment ranges from (1) month to six (6) months or a fine ranging from Ten Thousand Pesos (P10. even from its supporters.6000 to 7000. said that the surveys conducted by SWS and Pulse Asia were misleading. Leyte . According to the ABS-CBN news which reported on the results: "In the SMS poll.[85] [edit] Penalties One of the strongest criticism against the bill. and informed that it was about health and "modern methods". centers on the penal provisions.1000[84] A TV Debate was also hosted by ABS-CBN last May 2011..90 percent do not agree that Congress should appropriate P2 billion to the detriment of other essential medicines for free children‘s vaccinations.4000.[79] Iloilo . treatment of dreaded diseases and other more important health and medical concerns. Instead he referred to the Filipino Family survey of December 2009 conducted by the HB&A International (an affiliate of Louis Harris & Associates) together with the personnel of Asia Research Organization (the Philippine affiliate of Gallup International). Leaders of both sides. Buhay Hayaan Yumabong (Let Life Flourish).7000.000. The same may happen to employers who do not provide free services to employees. 63.

explained that the concept of separation of church and state is directed towards the state. and not favor any particular religion. Proponents state that the non-passage of the bill will mean keeping the Philippines in a backward state and unable to achieve the Millennium Development Goals." [edit] Separation of church and state Because 81% of Filipinos are Catholics. Also the poor will not have free access to family planning support that many have expressed desires to have. state that the church should not meddle in matters of the state. the absence of the law makes it easier to block the program. and thus will have more children than they can care for. Fr. Dr. S. and they invoke the principle of separation of church and state to stop the church. Joaquin Bernas. as it is a political concept. the Catholic Church exerts a strong influence in public life.. . Felipe Medalla. supervisors. Technically it means ―non-establishment of religion‖.J. It will mean reneging on international commitments and will slow down modernization. and will not have the money to invest in education to break the intergenerational poverty they are trapped in. parents. not political matters. teachers and other moral educators from expressing their views and educating their wards on the morality of their personal and social actions.Defending the bill. as the Constitution stated that ―No law shall be passed respecting an establishment of religion . rather than the church.‖ It means that the state should be guided by the principle that it should support no specific religion. former dean of the School of Economics of UP. It does not prevent the church. [edit] Culture war and its implications Millenium Development Goals at the UN The national debate is seen as part of a wider culture war. on the other hand. especially the points on poverty alleviation and maternal health.[87][88] Passage or non-passage of the bill have negative implications depending on the views.. one of the drafters of the Philippine Constitution and a prominent lawyer and writer. Its staunch opposition to the bill has drawn the ire of non-Catholics and Catholics alike who support the bill. said that "Although the poor‘s access to family planning services can be improved even without the law. This means that government funding should not be allocated for building churches or mosques. and should focus on religious matters. Proponents.

and to use Philippines' own national funds to kill the youngest Filipinos. using United Nations Agencies for its own national interests. the bill was scheduled to go before the House Appropriations Committee. IPPF and UNFPA the latter two both well known for their global agenda to legalize abortion. On February 7. February 16. 2011. and encourage immorality. 2011. and great reduction of poverty. and for the education and development of Filipinos. and that its "2008 lobbying fund of two billion pesos comes from the David and Lucile Packard Foundation. a chance for complete modernization without destruction of human life and promotion of immorality.Proponents also accuse the Catholic Church of holding the Philippines "hostage" and violating the separation of church and state. 2011 the bill was endorsed by the House Appropriations Committee with amendment and referred back to the Population Committee for finalizing the language. six different bills were consolidated into a single RH Bill which was then unanimously approved for plenary debate by the House Committee on Population and Family Relations. They see the bill as an act of disrespect and ingratitude to the Catholic Church that works for the poor and the sick. but will not promote its use. harm its own mothers. [edit] President and Cabinet President Noynoy Aquino will provide contraceptives to parents who ask. .[39][40] [edit] Status [edit] Legislature On January 31. Opponents of the bill see the bill as allowing the Filipinos to be fooled by the deceptive manipulations of American imperialism and eugenicist control."[88] They say that a two-child policy will make the country fail to cash in on a possible demographic dividend of rapid economic growth.[89] They argue that a decreased population growth will lead to improved quality of life and economic development.[24][88] They accuse the Philippine Legislator's Committee on Population and Development as "essentially a foreign body" that has drafted the bills.

President Noynoy Aquino during the presidential campaign said that it confounds him why he is always associated with the RH Bill and reiterated that he is neither an author nor a co-author, much less did he sign the committee report regarding the bill. He said that "he will fully support the crafting of a firm policy that will address the serious problem on population."[34] At the same time, Aquino said that "artificial contraception was a matter of choice and conscience and that health professionals who fool people into using artificial contraceptives should be penalized. As a Catholic, Aquino said he himself was not promoting artificial contraception but believes that the government should be able to provide it to Filipinos who ask for it." Aquino stressed: "I‘m a Catholic, I‘m not promoting it. My position is more aptly called responsible parenthood rather than reproductive health."[35] According to Rina Jimenez David who is pro-RH, during the ―Women Deliver Philippines‖ Conference held September 2010, Dinky Soliman, Aquino's Secretary of Social Welfare and Development, said that "choice and access‖ constituted the keystone of the Aquino government‘s policy, reiterating the administration‘s support for the pending reproductive health bills.[90] The Cabinet and the CBCP have agreed to have a joint campaign providing full information on the advantages and risks of contraceptives, natural and artificial family planning and responsible parenthood. They have established a technical working group for this purpose. They also agreed that government will not be an "instrument to enforce or violate the conscience of the people about these issues."
[edit] Compromise and alternatives

Senate PresidentJuan Ponce Enrile, Congressman Roilo Golez and Buhay party-list separately filed bills that seek to restrict abortion and birth control use. These bills have been seen either as a nullification of the RH Bill, its alternative, or as a way of achieving unity among the populace, since the RH Bill proponents have stated their concern in preventing abortion. Presidential candidate Gilbert Teodoro or Gibo suggested a cash transfer from the government to individuals wanting access to family planning methods, whether natural or artificial. The individuals can then make use of the cash they receive to purchase birth control devices they may choose, thus guaranteeing freedom of choice.[91] The Loyola School of Theology and the John J. Carroll Institute on State and Church Issues issued 9 "Talking Points" on the RH Bill. Among other points, they proposed a study on the meaning of conception in the Constitution, and if it means fertilization, abortifacients "are to be banned even now and regardless of whether the RH Bill is passed". They also proposed "parallel programs for providing information and training, one for Natural Family Planning (NFP) and another for artificial methods of family planning".[92] Columnist Jose Sison of the Philippine Star criticized this: ―a Catholic School of theology has actually proposed in public, the use of tax payers‘ money to train Filipinos to employ methods that are objectively and intrinsically evil‖ and cites "empirical evidence and scientific proofs confirming the harmful and evil effects of contraceptives to individuals and to society."[93]

[edit] Recent Events

In September 2010, Aquino during this visit to the US reiterated his stand that he is in favor of responsible parenthood and respects the decision of each couple as to the number of children they want, and if they need the government support for contraception, then the government will provide it. This statement has created a furor as Catholic church leaders say that Aquino has sold out the Filipino soul in exchange for some "measly" aid from the United States. The President of the Catholic Bishops Conference said that there can possibly be an excommunication of the President if he continues on with his stance. Pro RH Bill Senators encouraged the President to be steadfast to do his duties towards the state. The President's spokesperson Edwin Lacierda explained that the President "has not changed his stand" and is reaching out to the prelates and said that the President himself has not made any decision in support of the Reproductive Health Bill as he is still studying the document. Lacierda said that the Executive Branch "is not involved in the passage of the RH bill, saying the measure's fate rests solely on the legislative branch." Filipino Freethinkers, an association of agnostics, atheists, progressives, etc., who have been very active in the fight in favor of the RH bill, stepped up the pressure, creating more controversy that fired up renewed interest in the bill on both sides. On 30 September 2010, one of the freethinkers, Carlos Celdran staged a protest action against the Catholic Church, holding a sign which read "DAMASO" -- a reference to the villainous, corrupt clergyman Father Dámaso of the novel Noli Me Tangere by Filipino revolutionary writer Jose Rizal -- and shouting "stop getting involved in politics!" A fan page, Free Carlos Celdran was created in Facebook, which generated 23,808 fans in 24 hours. Francisco Montalvan of the Inquirer said that in the end the Damasos are the scheming, corrupt and deceptive people, implying that the "pro-death advocates" are these, while the Cardinal Rosales who started a nationwide fund for the poor is very far from Damaso. Meanwhile, the Imam Council of the Philippines, the top leaders of the Moslem population which at 4.5 M constitutes 5% of the Philippine population, declared that they are against contraceptives since using them "underestimates God," and "makes one lose morality in the process." During the first public hearing on Nov 24, the chair of the Committee on Population handling the bill said that there is no instruction from the Speaker of the House to expedite the bill. Upon the call of anti-RH congressmen, the Committee Chair decided to refer the bill also to the Committee on Health, since the bill is about Reproductive Health. Leader of the pro-RH group, Elizabeth Ansioco, said that the bill is doomed if it is referred to the Committee on Health. Anti-RH Deputy Speaker Congressman Pablo Garcia said the members of the Committee on Health know of the WHO announcement on the carcinogenicity of combined estrogen-progestogen oral contraceptives. House Speaker Belmonte said that Congress is not likely to rush the legislation of the bill and will tackle it in plenary early next year. Belmonte said it is better that highly contentious bills be given more attention. On 3 December, the Senate cut the proposed budget of P 880M for contraceptives down to P 8M for condoms since other contraceptives violated the Constitution's ban on abortifacients, and Senator Tito Sotto III said that his constituents never asked for contraceptives.

Iglesia ni Cristo (INC) has expressed support for the Reproductive Health (RH) Bill. In a letter to House population and family relations committee chairman Rep. Rogelio Espina on October 2010, INC Executive Minister Eduardo Manalo said the bill needs to be passed.

[edit] International reactions
[edit] European Union

European Union Ambassador to the Philippines Alistair MacDonald said "We have all seen the figures on illegal abortion a year in the Philippines and I very much hope that both Houses of Congress will take these issues into account in producing a reproductive health legislation which will really help people make their own choices and to provide for their families."[94] MacDonald said that lack of effective access to reproductive health services in the Philippines was 'antithetical' to the country‘s struggle against poverty and "It seems to me extremely unlikely that the Philippines will be able to meet its commitment under the MDGs under the present policy."[94] MacDonald noted that the total fertility rate for the richest quintile of the population is 2.0, while the total fertility rate of the poorest quintile is 5.9. The total fertility rate for women with a college education is 2.3, about half that of women with only elementary education (4.5). He mentioned that the lack of access to RH services is anti-women, citing the slow decline in the maternal mortality ratio in the Philippines. He also said surveys suggest that the total wanted fertility rate for the Philippines is 2.4 children, or below the actual TFR of 3.3 children.[94]
[edit] International scholars

An international group of conservative catholic scholars, including George Weigel, Mary Ann Glendon, Thomas Lickona have expressed opposition to the bill in a one-page ad in the major newspapers of the Philippines, entitled Population Control Does Not Reduce Poverty. They refer to the RAND Corporation study of 2003, which states that "Most economic analysis has examined the statistical correlation between population and economic growth and found little significant connection... there is little cross-country evidence that population growth impedes or promotes economic growth... The neutralist theory has been the dominant view since the mid1980s... population neutralism has in fact been the predominant school in thinking among academics about population growth for the last half-century."[17] The international scholars stressed that "Corruption, lack of education, and lack of opportunity cause poverty. The poor are victims of poverty, not the cause of poverty... HB 96 seeks to establish a government-managed program of population management and demographic targets in the Philippines. This policy is based on incorrect economics assumptions."

[edit] References
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Population and Poverty: the Real Score. Felipe M. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Medalla. Implications for the Philippines". Emmanuel S. Medalla. 9.S. Paderanga. Solon. "New polls on reproductive health". Jr. Sicat.". Monsod. Alonzo. Pernia. Mapa. 18. Gerardo P. Emmanuel S. ^ a b c d e f g "RH Bill . ^ a b c d Edcel Lagman (2008-08-03). 14. Teresa J. "Poverty in the Philippines". Raul V. Stella Alabastro-Quimbo. Dante B. Ruperto P. "Medical Issues in the Reproductive Health Bill". Tecson (December 2004) (PDF). Fabella. Monsod. World Health Organization. ^ a b Raul Nidoy (2010-11-07). Tan. ^ a b c "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines". Abrenica. The Manila Times (The Manila Times Publishing Corp. Tecson (2008-08-11). Rand Corporation.. Aleli P. Dennis Claire S. ^ a b ADB (2004). "RH bill OK’d at House committee level". Edita A. Retrieved February 1. Ramon L. Solita C. Gerardo P. ^ a b c d e f Ruperto P. Philippine Daily Inquirer. "Declaration on Population". and Gwendolyn R.). 2003. 5. ^ a b c Elizabeth Angsioco (2008-10-08). 2010 Presidentiables. "Arguments for the Reproductive Health Bill". Likhaan. The Truths and Half Truths about Reproductive Health. 2008 March. Fidelina Natividad-Carlos. Tan. 8. "Population and Poverty: A Review of the Evidence.inquirer. Joseph J. Asian Development Bank. Raul V. Clarete. Ma. Maria Socorro Gochoco-Bautista. Joseph J. Dante B. Canlas. 11. Politics and the Reproductive Health Bill". Edita A. de Dios. Maria Joy V. Studies in Family Planning. Security and Overseas Interests (NSSM 200)". Orville C. JSTOR 1965194. ^ a b Gregory Gaston (2008). DP2004-15. "Misconceptions and Clarifications on Issues Related to Humanae Vitae and the Reproductive "Health" Bill in Philippine Congress. Links. Capuno. Diokno. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dalangin-Fernandez. ^ a b Antonio de los Reyes (2002). ^ a b c d e f g h i j Ernesto M. Cayetano W. Mendoza. Stella A. "Science Facts on the RH Bills". ^ a b US Department of National Security (1974). Agustin L. 19. Capuno. Orville C. Benjamin E. Diokno. ^ a b Aniceto Orbeta. Sicat. 7. Rolando A. 6. 13.Philippines: full text of reproductive health and related measures". ^ 12 World Leaders (January 1968). 2011. Kraft. 4. May 2010. Paderanga. Aleli dela Paz-Kraft. Mendoza. 16. "Population. Balisacan. . Lira (February 1. Maria Nimfa F. Monsod. Solon. 10. "Facts and Fallacies on the Reproductive Health Bill". Canlas. Fabella. "National Security Study Memorandum 200: Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U. Philippine Journal of Development (Philippine Institute for Development Studies) XXX (56): 198–227. 12. Felipe M. Clarete. Nimfa F. USAID. Emmanuel F. Quimbo. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Pernia. Arsenio M. Ramon L. Rolando A. Danao. Esguerra. Ho. ^ a b Mahar Mangahas (2008-10-18). Danao. ^ a b c "The Demographic Dividend: A New Perspective on the Economic Consequences of Population Change". politics. Cayetano W. Arsenio M. University of the Philippines Alumni Association. Arcenas. "Coercive Population Ploys in the Philippines". de Dios. Alonzo. (2003). Solita C. Benjamin E. Poverty. Population Research Institute. University of the Philippines School of Economics. Toby Melissa C. Avenues (San Carlos Seminary Graduate School of Theology). Esguerra. Ernesto M. 17. Jr.3. The Bishops-Legislators Caucus of the Philippines. ^ a b c d e Angelita Miguel-Aguirre (2008-08-11). Socorro Gochoco-Bautista. 2011). and Gwendolyn R. Balisacan. Emmanuel F.

^ a b UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research. "Procreative Rights and Reproductive Wrongs". 27. Frits R. Scribd.STR. ^ a b Peter Kreeft. First Things. "CATHOLICS CAN SUPPORT THE RH BILL IN GOOD CONSCIENCE". Mikolajczyk (2005). Stafford. 37. ^ Lee Brago. Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction (HRP) (2005). Paulina A. Philippine Daily Inquirer. ^ a b c Roberto de Ocampo (2009-11-27). and Ale Algra (2002). ^ a b John Jalsevac (2008-07-25).2002. "How they stand on population". ^ a b c Bess Twiston Davies (2009-03-16). ^ a b c d e f g Francisco Tatad (2008-09-14). Essah. 28. 29.E. Responsible Parenthood. ^ "The World Factbook . Helmerhorst. "Aquino eases up on reproductive health bill". Arch Fam Med 9 (2): 126–33. "Human Personhood Begins at Conception".61324. Virginia: Castello Institute. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (W.1210/jc. doi:10. ^ a b Mary Eberstadt (August/Sept 2008). "Association between the Current Use of Low-Dose Oral Contraceptives and Cardiovascular Arterial Disease: A Meta-Analysis". "A Position Paper on the Reproductive Health Bills". Stroke (American Heart Association. 36. The Bishops-Legislators Caucus of the Philippines. Maurice A. 32. doi:10. Yolanda van der Graaf. 25. 33. ""Heaps of Empirical Evidence" Vindicate Pope Paul VI's Dire Warnings 40 Years Ago About Contraceptive Culture". Retrieved 2009. ^ a b Larimore WL.0000015345. "Postfertilization effects of oral contraceptives and their relationship to informed consent" (PDF).S. PMID 10693729.2. PMID 12501086. ^ a b Macon Ramos-Araneta (2010-01-09). Retrieved 2010-10-05. Inc. 2011. Raymond Aguas.20. Press release. 24. McClish. ^ a b c d Roberto de Vera (2008-08-11). 2010). Life Site News (Lifeissues. Bea C. Central Intelligence Angency. The Times (Times Newspapers Ltd). ^ a b Philip Tubeza (2010-03-15). ^ a b Ang Kapatiran Party (2010-11-15). Phnix. ^ a b c d Joseph B. Frans M. Pia (December 28. and John E. and Population Development Consolidated Bill". van den Bosch. doi:10. 34. 2010 Presidentiables. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism (The Endocrine Society) 90 (7): 3863–3870. 23. "Kill ‘Bill’?". ^ a b Various (2010-03-06). PMID 15814774.2004-1958. 21. 30. Stanford and Rafael T. 22. IARC Monographs on the Evaluation of Carcinogenic Risks to Humans (International Agency for Research on Cancer) 91. ^ a b Jeanet M. Retrieved January 29. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Liane Pena Alampay.1067/mob. et al (2008-10-15).128091. "Harvard Aids expert says Pope 'correct' on condoms and spread of HIV: The head of Harvard's Aids Prevention Centre says condom use does not lower HIV infection rates". "A Primer on the proposed Reproductive Health. Tanis. The Truths and Half Truths about Reproductive Health. Edward . 38. 2007. 39. "Poll thumbs down reproductive bill". U.) 33 (5): 1202–1208.A.3F. Manila Standard. 31. Philippine Star. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Bollen. Kemmeren.1161/01. Stanford JB (2000). doi:10. ^ a b c d e f g Marita Castro Guevara. PMID 11988591.M.1001/archfami. ^ a b Jean-Patrice Baillargeon. Medical Ethics Policy Monograph. "Carcinogenicity of combined hormonal contraceptives and combined menopausal treatment". 35.Philippines". ^ a b "Combined Estrogen-Progestogen Contraceptives" (PDF). Saunders Comp) 187: 1699–1708.126. Nestler (2005). "EU hopes Congress will approve RH bill". "Risk of Arterial Thrombosis in Relation to Oral Contraceptives (RATIO) Study: Oral Contraceptives and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke". Donna K.9. 26. "The Vindication of Humanae Vitae".B. Rosendaal. "Mechanisms of action of intrauterine devices: Update and estimation of postfertilization effects".

^ "LEADING CAUSES OF MORTALITY". Rev. 54. 50... "Statement on Reproductive Health Bill 5043". ^ "Transcript of Secretary Clinton's statement to G8 Ministers".. O. 49. 2008. Catholic Social Science Review (Society of Catholic Social Scientists) 10: 325–338.P. 51. ^ Joseph Ratzinger (2002). ^ Bernardo Villegas (2010-08-29). GMANews. 47. Human Life International. ^ Vicenzo Fagiolo (1989). Data Shows Otherwise". ^ Mahar Mangahas (2009-11-20). GMA News Online. 57. Sexuality Education Guidelines 66. 801. ^ Varsitarian (2008-12-12). 5043". "A Position Paper on the Reproductive Health Bills". 56. Richard S. Retrieved 2010-10-22. ^ Calonzo. 53. Philippine Daily Inquirer. ^ a b Johanna Camille Sisante (2008-10-15).gmanews. 42. Robert G Kennedy. "Solons laud SWS survey on family planning". 2 RH authors want population control provisions scrapped. ^ a b Clara Padilla (2010-04-11). "Humanae Vitae 25 Years Later". Likhaan.". "Reckless and irresponsible". ^ "Facts on Barriers to Contraceptive Use in the Philippines". Romanus Cessario. ^ Records of the Constitutional Commission IV: 761.TV (GMA). Manila Bulletin. 1997. . "God and the World". Ateneo de Manila University. Retrieved 1 June 2011. Smith. 48. March 2010.40. Philippine Daily Inquirer. "AN INTERNATIONAL ACADEMIC RESPONSE TO SOME ATENEO DE MANILA PROFESSORS’ STATEMENT ON REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH". " 43. ^ Prof Janet E. ^ a b Jo Imbong (2008-08-16). "Guttmacher Institute Claims Contraception Lowers Abortions. 46. 63. Chaput (1998). "The Socio-Economic Sophisms of the RH Bill 5043". Phnix. 44. 65. and International Case Studies Showing Condom Ineffectiveness Against HIV/AIDS". 59. Bradford Wilcox (2005). Varsitarian. ^ a b Varsitarian (2008-11-20). Natural Family Planning Outreach. mediocre. "When Does Life Begin? Scientists Speak. ^ W. "Med experts slam birth control bill". ^ Brian Clowes (2006). "A National Perfidy". 41. 58. jlp-law. "Condoms. Catholic Culture. "Voting with our Gonads". 45. Andreo.. Trade Union Congress of the Philippines. 55. anti-poor". 60. "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". 52. Joseph W. Department of Health. Philippine Daily Inquirer. 67. "The myth of unmet family planning needs". ^ a b Raul Nidoy (2010-03-13). "Of Human Life". http://www. Telling the Truth: AIDS Rates for Thailand and the Philippines. S. Impact Magazine. "Business groups work for RH compromise". Meyers. 1986-09-18. Pulse Asia. ^ Pulse Asia (2008). Philippine Daily Inquirer. Life Site News ( 64. "Two errors in editorial on contraception". ^ Steven Ertelt (2009-10-15). STD. ^ UNESCO. Koterski. "Pulse Asia's October 2008 Nationwide Survey on Reproductive Health and the Reproductive Health Bill". 61. ^ Rene Josef Bullecer. May 2010.J. ^ "Full text of House Bill No. University of Santo Tomas. Archdiocese of Denver. et al (2008). ^ Charles J. ^ Clinicquotes. Life Site News (Lifeissues. Teenagers. 62. ^ Bienvenido Nebres (2008-10-23). First Things First. ^ Tony Roxas (September 2009). The Facts of Life & Marriage: Social Science & the Vindication of Christian Moral Teaching. ^ a b c d e Society of Catholic Social Scientists Philippines (2005). Center for Reproductive Rights. PhD. ^ a b Ang Kapatiran Party (2010-09-04).

cbcpnews. ^ Society for the Protection of the Unborn (August 2008). S. Carroll. 4244 Senate Bill No.iloilonewstoday.philstar.inquirer. ^ 72.philstar. ^ a b c Linda Valenzona (2008-10-21).aspx?articleId=656684 74.html 70. "One big fight".com/?q=node/14959 77. ^ Conrado de Quiros (2010-10-04). "Continuing dialogue on RHB".69. Joaquin Bernas. 2010)".net/inquirerheadlines/regions/view/20110313-325287/Thousandsin-Laguna-Quezon-Leyte-march-vs-RH-bill 76.inquirer. ^ http://newsinfo. ^ a b c Pia Lee-Brago (2010-12-28).com/Article. Fr. Philippine Daily Inquirer. 92.J.cbcpnews. Philippine Star. 88. ^ 90. ^ 84. Society for the Protection of the Unborn (SPUC) 73. "EU hopes Congress will approve RH bill".com/?q=node/15092 79. ^ http://newsinfo. ^ http://www. 94. "The Filipino front in the culture wars" / http://www.cbcpnews. London 83. London. Eric 89. ^ John Carrol. S. filed July 1 .sunstar. Philippine Daily Inquirer.. (2010-10-11).php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1002:weneed-to-debate-on-rh-bill-says-garin&catid=98:local-news 81. ^ http://www. 86. ^ Bernardo Villegas (2010-04-22).inquirer. 93. ^ Jose Sison (2010-11-08). ^ http://filipinofreethinkers. ^ http://newsinfo.cbcpnews. Genilo.cbcpnews. "Nagging questions".com/?q=node/5026 80. ^ Fr.abs-cbnnews. "Talking Points for Dialogue on the Reproductive Health Bill (HB 96. ^ http://www. Philippine Star. Manila Bulletin. 2378 . UK. Philippine Daily Inquirer. ^ http://www.J. "Hostage".cbcpnews. "A ceasefire in the culture war?".com. ^ ^ Rina Jimenez-David (2010-08-21). (2009-12-08). Ateneo de Manila 78. and Fr.abs-cbnnews. [edit] Readings and external links   House Bill No. ^ http://www. 87. S. John J.aspx?articleId=669859&publicationSubCategoryId=63 71. ^ http://newsinfo.inquirer. ^ http://www. ^ 75. 91. ^ http://www. "Commentary on the Philippine Reproductive Health Bill".

"CATHOLICS CAN SUPPORT THE RH BILL IN GOOD CONSCIENCE". Responsible Parenthood and Population and Development and Other Purposes". Jr. "House Bill No. 2010 Presidentiables. Toby Melissa C. Felipe M. "Population and Poverty: A Review of the Evidence. Alonzo. DP2004-15. Health and Welfare Inc. Ernesto M. Oplan Pepe. Gerardo P. Esguerra. "Population. Mendoza. Agustin L. Canlas. Nimfa F. Danao.). Philippine Journal of Development (Philippine Institute for Development Studies) XXX (56): 198–227. Stella Alabastro-Quimbo. Alonzo. Links. Dennis Claire S. Diokno. Solon. Ruperto P. Teresa J. Solon. Rolando A. Felipe M. Edcel Lagman (2008-08-03). Capuno. Joseph J. Clarete. and Gwendolyn R. Ho. Elizabeth Angsioco (2008-10-08). Ramon L. de Dios. Pernia. Cayetano W. University of the Philippines School of Economics. Emmanuel S. 96: An Act Providing For a National Policy on Reproductive Health. Mendoza. Ma. Maria Joy V. Sicat. Balisacan. Ruperto P. Philippine NGO Council on Population. Dante B. Socorro Gochoco-Bautista. and Gwendolyn R. Solita C. Dante B. PB-09-03. Medalla. "Facts and Fallacies on the Reproductive Health Bill". Capuno. (PDF) Promoting Reproductive Health: A Unified Strategy to Achieve the MDGs. Jaromay Laurente Pamaos Law Offices. Emmanuel S. Aleli P. Joseph J. Benjamin E. Implications for the Philippines". Liane Pena Alampay. Philippine Daily Inquirer. Raymond Aguas. Monsod. Arsenio M. Fidelina Natividad-Carlos.[edit] Supporting the RH Bill  Edcel Lagman (2010-06-01). Sicat. Monsod. Arcenas.. Paderanga. Tan. et al (2008-10-15). Tecson (2008-08-11). Mapa. Canlas. de Dios. "KALUSUGAN NG KABABAIHAN: Making Women Matter in the 2010 Elections". Stella A. 2010 Presidentiables. Clarete. Solita C. Fabella. Ernesto M. Cayetano W. Rational Hero. Orville C. Likhaan. Danao. "A Forum on           . Emmanuel F. web log. Esguerra. Politics and the Reproductive Health Bill". 5043 (Reproductive Health and Population Development Act of 2008)". Orville C. Marita Castro Guevara. Jr. Paderanga. Aleli dela Paz-Kraft. Poverty. Maria Socorro Gochoco-Bautista. Emmanuel F. Kraft. Benjamin E. Population and Poverty: the Real Score. Edita A. Quimbo. Diokno. Abrenica. Senate of the Philippines Economic Planning Office. Monsod.*Elizabeth Aguiling-Pangalangan (2010). Pernia. "Full text of House Bill No. Maria Nimfa F. Rolando A. May 2010. Elizabeth Angsioco (2010-03-04). Raul V. July 2009. Balisacan. "Facts on Barriers to Contraceptive Use in the Philippines". "Arguments for the Reproductive Health Bill". Gerardo P. Edita A. The Manila Times (The Manila Times Publishing Corp. (2003). Tecson (December 2004) (PDF). Medalla. 2008-09-22. Raul V. Tan. Fabella. Arsenio M. Ramon L. Aniceto Orbeta.

University of the Philippines Alumni Association. Population Research Institute.             [edit] Other readings  Full text of NSSM 200 (US government source) . Society of Catholic Social Scientists Philippines (2005). "Procreative Rights and Reproductive Wrongs". Shame of the Nation Series (Philippine Institute for Development Studies). Pro life Philippines. "Misconceptions and Clarifications on Issues Related to Humanae Vitae and the Reproductive "Health" Bill in Philippine Congress. Gregory Gaston (2008). Scibd.". "Commentary on the Philippine Reproductive Health Bill". UK. London UK. "A Primer on the proposed Reproductive Health. "Questions about the Reproductive Health Act". "A Position Paper on the Reproductive Health Bills". Francisco Tatad (2008-09-14). Impact Magazine. Jo Imbong (2008-08-16). "Voting with our Gonads". Philippine Daily Inquirer. Avenues (San Carlos Seminary Graduate School of Theology). Alliance for the Family (2008-11-06). [edit] Opposing the RH Bill  Antonio de los Reyes (2002). Alliance for the Family. Phnix. "Why pop-control is not the solution to poverty". London.Population. Society for the Protection of the Unborn (SPUC) Website. "Reckless and irresponsible". "Coercive Population Ploys in the Philippines". Scribd. Roberto de Vera (2008-08-11). Raul Nidoy (2010-11-07). "The Socio-Economic Sophisms of the RH Bill 5043".  Clara Padilla (2010-04-11). "Science Facts on the RH Bills". Angelita Miguel-Aguirre (2008-08-11). Philippine Daily Inquirer. Monograph. and Population Development Consolidated Bill". Prolife Philippines. Ang Kapatiran Party (2010-11-15). Tony Roxas (September 2009). Catholic Social Science Review (Society of Catholic Social Scientists) 10: 325–338. Development and Reproductive Health". "Medical Issues in the Reproductive Health Bill". Responsible Parenthood. "A National Perfidy". Society for the Protection of the Unborn (August 2008).

then they are basing their argument on the notion that knowledge and information leads not to a prosperous nation. including pushing once again the need for cheaper medicines. nor a neo-conservative view. and in some instances. abortion. which in much of its provisions. and misses the most important of all debates. much of the commentary of which has gone way south. If you wish to have a debate on pro life. A bloated bill this has become. is simply that this bill is redundant and has actually been hijacked by those trying to use it for propaganda purposes to suit their own ideological and/or political motivations. because this might lead to promiscuity. From where I stand. and/or abortion. and the church stand. It is a view based on the belief that government must first look at its existing departments and streamline their roles. This is a bill that gives more power to government. such as The Catholic Church. the bill may just be a spark to that debate. more red tape. and more bureaucracy. when in fact. are not strong enough of a motivation for me to support this bill. contraceptives. the debate is misconstrued.he Redundancy of RH Bill 5043 November 2. if you don‘t have the stomach to read further commentary on more RH related words. and into deep philosophical differences between those who are for or against the church meddling in state affairs. 2008 By Nick 33 Comments Share10 The Reproductive Health and Population Development Act of 2008. current laws and agencies can already do what is being proposed. Here is my final verdict on the matter. If proponents say that this will be the solution towards providing for a better population control policy. or sit. it is a view based on the provisions contained therein. should already be implemented by existing agencies. Making our current system a continuing model of inefficiency. separation of church and state. Existing departments can already do much of what is inherent in the current RH Bill. and the role of the church in our nation‘s progress as it deals with population. take education head on. euthanasia. defining life. The debate has taken a life of its own. If we streamline our current departments of government. or RH Bill 5043. murder. abortion. as it stands. it will not be because we have not addressed the fundamental issue of the implementation of such a law. of which. but it is not about that . exerting too much government control on matters it has no right to meddle in. It is not a catholic point of view. and enforce existing laws and bills. If those who oppose. pushed towards ideological extremes. how and why should any part of this bill be implemented. In either case. then the RH Bill need not be necessary. has been at the center of much of the heated debate which has been revolving around such issues as poverty. the strong points.

if it is a debate on population and the related factors including contraception and abortion. different interpretations. And I will hammer on this point until it sinks in. One side of the debate says tuh-mey-toh.debate inasmuch as it is about the need for our nation to progress and if that progression is indeed tied to whether or not population is a key factor to the hindrance of this progress. all going off on tangents. this bill may only take 1 page to actually be effective and non-redundant. It is the creation of a piece of paper that is being used by its proponents to effectively loosen the power of the church. what are the main functions of the Family Health Office? The Family Health Office formulates or develops policies. if level heads surface. and yet. same bill. It also provides technical assistance in public health program/project planning. In general. Our focus should be efficiency. because the current RH bill. as it stands now. is actually a potato. here is a FAQ as to the ―Family Health Programs‖ of The Department of Health. of which government implementation is severely lacking. implementation and evaluation. The RH Bill is tantamount to a non-binding resolution. the other side says tuh-mah-toh. we already have agencies created for such. standards and guidelines for public health services. Child and Adolescent Health * Care of the unborn * Immediate newborn care * Newborn screening * Infant and young child feeding (including Breastfeeding) * Full immunization * Adequate nutrition (including Micronutrients/food fortification) * Early childhood care and development * Regular growth monitoring and promotion * Oral health promotion and care * Appropriate management of illnesses . And still. Case in point. simply because it creates more bureaucracy without the need to actually strengthen existing ones. different ideologies. does not do anything much than sound off on existing responsibilities that should be handled by existing agencies and departments of government. What are the major public health programs under the Family Health Office?   Family Planning (Artificial and Natural) Reproductive Health What are the different public health services does these programs provides? A. At the end of the day.

* Deworming * Promotion of child safety/injury prevention B. which is fine. money spent. The proponents of the bill may have had the goal of loosening the Church‘s hold on the state. so that such emergencies are reduced. irrespective of the background of that case. in the bill. the stipulation that medical care must be extended to those who are requiring emergency treatment in cases of pregnancy and those of maternity cases. Leglislating is serious business. or even those that need post-abortion attention. and preventative care emphasized. Womens‘s Health * Family Planning services * Prevention and Management of Abortion and its Complications * Women and Children Protection Unit So. But this is a bill that has copy-paste written all over it and has failed to realize that the DOH is already mandated and tasked to provide such provisions that have been made. . the imposing of the Catholic Church on the progress of our nation should also be declared unconstitutional. time lost. it should be a push towards a proper health care plan. and in the end. there is no concurrent state within our republic. Take for example. but through civil society. I mean. Inasmuch as this seems like a responsible statement to make. abortion. Maternal Health * Preparatory services prior to pregnancy * Quality prenatal care * Safe delivery * Quality postpartum care * Newborn Care C. And in this instance. and the stranglehold that the Catholic Church has held on our state. and family planning. in all cases. just don‘t insult our intelligence by crafting a redundant piece of legislation. the most responsible and legal act is to extend medical care to all medical emergencies. especially in terms of population control. The Church is not our state. such a move towards this goal should not be handled through legislation. period. this statement goes at the heart of health care in general. such statements flies against the face of the fact that emergency care must be provided to everyone. Redundant. when I say redundant. it‘s right there in writing. all of which could be channeled towards crafting a more comprehensive health care program. Already. But I do applaud this bill because it has stirred the pot on the issues that has been festering. If The Memorandum of Agreement is unconstitutional.

let the discussion take place. and the point. it is a redundant bill. population. which is the cheaper medicines bill. and the role of The Catholic Church. Act on their mandate. over and over. because it is already stated plain and clear in the constitution. by a redundant bill. Furthermore. going to the heart of our culture. The RH Bill has become nothing more than the talking point with which both sides can argue their points on abortion. not to mention a competing bill regarding medicine. Take a stand against the imposition of the Catholic Church to legislate from its high horse. Pro or Anti RH Bill? Maybe we should be discussing pro or Anti efficiency of government institutions that should already be doing what is contained in the RH Bill. even if its premise lies in population control as one of the means to alleviate poverty. regarding emergency care for maternity patients. not important. but maybe towards your local DOH offices and push for them to stop sitting on their asses. Why has this bill received such great fanfare? Because it is once again. now let‘s move on to . fine. but this is not the bill with which anything positive will result. and will not help in our need to help our nation progress. a copy paste type of legislation. but don‘t insult the Filipino people. waste valuable legislative hours. this should already be taken care of irregardless of whether or not this bill passes. Fine. that should be waged. The RH Bill is not a silver bullet cure of what ails our nation. or is false. as I will have to stress. I have to say. That‘s contrary to the point. All the arguments regarding population is fine by me. that the debate is no longer about the bill itself. it is about philosophical differences. both sides are wrong for reasons that are clear. It‘s simply the main propaganda tool for which proponents need to lodge an attack on the church. nor is The RH Bill the proponent for pro Abortion and anti-life. The fact is. and the time of our legislators. It is our society‘s need to rest on the church for its morals that should be questioned. but don‘t push a piece of legislation that is nothing short of redundant. it has done so. as stated. here on this article. right to life. because I actually happen to agree. which would make medicine including contraceptives more affordable. and actually do something they were supposed to be doing in the first place. It is not that what is contained in the bill is irrelevant. We should be looking towards DOH since many of the provisions mentioned are already mandated by DOH. and the need for many to finally try to separate the church‘s role in our affairs of state. not with the use of taxpayers money. March not on the streets.The Church is already supposed to not meddle in the affairs of state. no amount of legislation can repeal this. is that the bill is redundant. mission accomplished. At the risk of alienating myself from both sides of the debate.

did I mention that this bill is redundant? Well. educators and other stakeholders expressed their support to turn the 10-year basic education cycle to 12 years. a litmus test. and students continue to oppose the plan of the Department of Education (DepEd) to implement the Enhanced K+12 program. And oh. without anyone really looking at the implementation of such a scheme. And so. and as Manolo would suggest. just wanted to make sure you got my point. to slowly chip away at the church.‖ PBEd reiterated that the additional years in basic education cannot be separated from the issue of poor quality of the education system.‖ The PBEd stated that over and above the poor quality and lack of teachers. textbooks and workbooks and facilities. veered away so much so. Philippines — While parents. that this is becoming a test case. 2010. PBEd expressed support to Education Secretary Armin Luistro for prioritizing the K+12 proposal saying ―it is finally moving forward as various stakeholders have been brought into a serious consultation process aiming to develop a model for implementation that will bring the least disruption with the most benefit to the education system. that it is no longer about Reproductive Health per se. a group of top businessmen who are pushing for education reforms. and the realization. that the debate has gone south.actually making certain departments and the current government accountable for its lack of implementation of its mandate given to it by the people. ―Forcing into 10 years a curriculum that is learned by the rest of the world in 12 has resulted in poor performance by our students. The fact is. Popularity: 7% [?] K+12 Program Supported By INA HERNANDO-MALIPOT October 8. In an official statement. . 7:05pm MANILA. continues to make learning a growing challenge for more and more of the students. welcomed government‘s strong resolve to finally put in place a decades-old proposal for a K+12 basic education cycle. Philippine Business for Education (PBEd). the bill and the debate moves ahead. but a debate on the religious merits of issues that should not be tied to it in the first place. teachers.

Want some proof? Ask yourself where our best doctors. So why the heck add more years? Why not just rejuvenate the system and bring the old teaching system back? Instead of spending billions of pesos of taxpayers money on a new system. wouldn't it be better to buy new and better books and build new and better school buildings? . They are in the rest of the world. Studies have shown that every additional year of schooling improves the income potential of a student as she/he enters the world of work. 12/10/2010 .16:49 � accapistrano K +12 is dumb and backwards. We have to catch up with the slow heads of our neighbors do we? And mind you.‖    Login or register to post comments Print Email Recommended articles        CoA Bares PCSO Audit Findings President Retains & Supports Puno Gov't Steps Up Drive Against Malnutrition Oil Spill Spotted Near N. decades ago Philippine education is regarded as one of the best in the world. engineers. teachers are educated decades ago.PBEd also believed that making kinder and an additional two years available to all in the public basic education system is another pro-poor and poverty-combating initiative of the Aquino administration. The rest of the world is learning at 12 years something we have done for decades at 10 years. Philippines is the only country who have 10-year basic education according to UNESCO. they were equipped with technical-vocational skills for them to be employed if they cannot afford to finish a degree course. 10/09/2010 . Nice goin'.09:21 � NUQUE_YU_08 it is acceptable to add two years in the basic education because as for now. ―The K+12 gives to the masses the extra years of schooling that for many years has only been available in private elite education institutions. Harbor WHO Issues New Guidelines to Treat. Diagnose Nervous Disorder Who's Noynoy’s New Crush? President Aquino Vows to Achieve More Beyond 100 Days Comments Fri.  Login or register to post comments Sat. It will surely help less fortunate children to be employed because after their basic education.

however do the proponents ever put into consideration the actual situation of our fellow Filipinos in the hinterlands? This is one big reason why so much resistance is faced by this program because they never include in their information how they are going to address the actual problems of our present education system. State Budget & Taxes MANILA. he comes out with a new idea "to so called" improved the system but never layout a feasible plan that is acceptable to the least privileged among us. DepEd to announce K+12 program Tuesday By Tarra Quismundo Philippine Daily Inquirer First Posted 02:04:00 10/05/2010 Filed Under: Education. . Education Secretary Armin Luistro has so far declined to give details of the program other than it will involve a transition of around four to five years beginning next year. ?This all sounds very nice. The proposal aims to produce employable 18-year-old high school graduates by giving them a longer time to study and master employable skills. 10/09/2010 . Bienvenido Nebres. but if you get down to the ground. it doesn?t make sense. This is what happened because people who sits in the department comes from a highly privileged and "intellectual" member of the society. the president of Ateneo de Manila University. The announcement coincides with Teachers? Day celebrations and marks the start of nationwide consultations about the plan. could not see how the Aquino administration?s proposed two-year extension of the 10-year basic education cycle would lift the quality of education. The Department of Education (DepEd) will announce on Tuesday the administration?s priority program to catch up with the rest of the world having a 12-year basic education cycle in spite of admitted lack of funds and the need to amend the 1982 education law.? Luistro said. Login or register to post comments Sat. It seems that every time a new secretary of Deped is installed.? Nebres told a forum last week on the proposed K+12 (Kindergarten plus 12) program. ?It?s a series of different steps.09:40 � eduardo nufable The k+12 program of Deped is laudable. Philippines?How will an additional two years improve basic education when schools are forced to hold classes in three shifts and students can?t understand their lessons because they are hungry? Fr.

We can?t keep it as it is because the curriculum is too crammed. said the extended cycle aimed to give students more time to study a curriculum that was crammed in the current 10 years. Filipinos have to learn 20 percent more worth of lessons per year than children their age in other countries. as reflected in results of the 2003 TIMMS (Trends in International Math and Science Study). with the national average at 46 percent. officials said. ?The biggest resource you are adding is time. Quijano said. would include the chosen 12-year model.? Ocampo said. So if you think about it. Filipino students fade even deeper into the background on the international stage. If we?re so smart going to 10. according to UNESCO. Ten years is not enough. associate dean at the University of the Philippines College of Education.? Luz said. One only has to see public school students? achievement test scores to see that our system has failed the Filipino student. achievement scores are very low. a former education undersecretary closely involved in the K+12 draft. identify where the additional two years would be added and detail how the cycle extension would be paced. What will be announced Tuesday. like will we have a Grade 7 or will it be a linear system? It?s possible also that we will see the advantages and disadvantages of the models we considered. Education Undersecretary Alberto Muyot said the scores were ?really scary.? she said. RP left behind The Philippines is the only country with a 10-year cycle. it?s really not working. Under the present system. Juan Miguel Luz.? Average National Achievement Test (NAT) scores of elementary school students are at a failing 64 percent. The number further slides in high school. Public consultations will then ensue. which model will give the most benefit. ?At least we will see where the years will be added. said Dina Ocampo. ?If you look at the data. how come we?re not rich? How come we?re not more successful? We?ve fooled ourselves into thinking we can do it in 10 years.Chosen model Education Undersecretary Yolanda Quijano said that curriculum details would still be fleshed out. .

?If ever. placed the country 41st among 45 participating countries. ?In all the models I?ve seen. which mandates government to fund public education for ?six or seven grades.? Isagani Cruz.. Another hurdle is an amendment of the education law. said at a forum last week. The Philippine Business for Education (PBEd).? he said. We also don?t want to hurt the tertiary institutions. ?Every time you amend a law.? Salazar said.? Salazar told the Inquirer. There?s going to be a long transition. estimates that the extension will cost between P56 billion and P65 billion a year for additional classrooms and teachers. taken by second year high school students.? he said. There will be no blank years. according to its president. K+12 won‘t happen until after Aquino term By Tarra Quismundo Philippine Daily Inquirer First Posted 03:43:00 10/06/2010 .. it will be extremely minimal and might only need redirection. an education reform group closely involved in the K+12 draft. at certain years. The budget department. ?It doesn?t mean that by next year.Results of the test. it takes forever and ever. lagging at the bottom with African countries. fourth year students will go to fifth year. Filipino students scored an average 35 percent. former education undersecretary and a K+12 consultant. No budget allocation Muyot admitted that the DepEd did not specify allocations for K+12 in its proposed budget for next year because the program would be in a transition stage. four to six years down the line. the additional 12th year will not be in place until. at the earliest. Salazar said private colleges and universities had expressed support of K+12 in spite of concerns that adding years would result in zero high school graduates. has slashed DepEd?s original budget proposal of P300 billion to P207 million. and thus college entrants. including preschool? in elementary and four years of high school. Minimal funding Salazar believes the need for major funding and an amendment of the education law won?t be necessary during the transition years. in fact. Chito Salazar. barely above students from Ghana and Botswana. ?We?re all looking for ways that will be least disruptive on the system..

Luistro said. That was the plan that the Department of Education (DepEd) unveiled Tuesday to put the country?s basic education up to speed with the rest of the world. DepEd officials said. 4-year transition Curiously. sports. meaning 12 years from the current 10 years. four years of junior high school and two years of senior high school. It?s not going to happen though until the Aquino administration?s term is over in 2016.000 teachers earlier Tuesday. ?The two years of senior high school intend to provide time for students to consolidate acquired academic skills and competencies. music and arts. to coincide with World Teachers? Day. . six years in elementary (Grades 1 to 6). Luistro said the program hoped to lift the quality of Philippine education to international standards and graduate 18-year-olds holistically mature for employment. Mr. four years in junior high school (Grades 7 to 10) and the additional two years in senior high (Grades 11 to 12) for specialized learning of employable skills. not counting kindergarten. The curriculum will allow specialization in science and technology. when funding and transition measures are put in place. As the implementation plan integrates a four-year transition program. Aquino did not mention the plan when he spoke before some 5. to flesh out details of the program?s phased implementation. The DepEd plans to create a K+12 Task Force. business and entrepreneurship. the first batch of senior high school students is expected to be in the system by school year 2016-2017. Planned since 1925 Citing the dismal performance of Filipino graduates. The program includes. This plan has been on the drawing boards since 1925. there will be six years of elementary school. agriculture and fisheries. Education Secretary Armin Luistro unveiled the 12-year model called K-6-4-2. Philippines?The K+12 is going to be K+6+4+2.? Luistro said in a news conference. the basic education cycle the department had been working on to fulfill a campaign promise by President Benigno Aquino III. Simply put.Filed Under: Education MANILA. chaired by the department but with representation from different stakeholders. officials said.

finetuning the initial draft and making a decision on whether or not to go ahead with the program based on public pulse. which officials said would also require the amendment of a 1982 law fixing basic education to at most 11 years. be more emotionally mature. If we?re so smart going to 10. different parties together. and be legally employable for better earnings. Luistro?s announcement capped two months of discussions with academics. Under the present system.The Philippines now is the only country in Asia with a 10-year education cycle. ?The biggest resource you are adding is time. By school year 2012-2013.? Luistro said.? Luistro said. education reform advocates and DepEd officials and marked the start of regional consultations that would culminate in a national summit early next year. Ten years is not enough. teachers and other resources. he said. I don?t imagine that this plan is perfect. said Education Undersecretary Yolanda Quijano. study materials. and in international exams in math and science. but it is a plan that is realistic enough. We will go to different regions and consult as much as possible. students entering Grade 1 in elementary and first year in high school will be the first batches of 12-year cycle students. 2011 will be a year spent on consultations. proactive and involved in public and civic affairs and be adequately prepared for the world of work. Luistro said. entrepreneurship or higher education. Law amendment Government will then decide whether to pursue the plan. falling behind compliance with international accords on education equivalency. Filipinos in general score dismally in achievement tests. he said. Not a final plan According to DepEd?s implementation plan. be socially aware. ?We envision that our graduates will acquire mastery of basic competencies. affordable and could bring different groups. how come we?re not rich? How come we?re not more successful? We?ve fooled ourselves into thinking we can do it in 10 years. ?It is not a final plan. . Other students already midstream will no longer be affected by the extension.? said former Education Undersecretary Juan Miguel Luz. Critics argued that the two-year extension was premature given the still unresolved shortages in classrooms. along with a high dropout rate. K+12 supporters said that the extended cycle aimed to give students more time to study a curriculum that was crammed in the current 10 years. Filipinos have to learn 20 percent more worth of lessons per year than children their age in other countries.

it actually targets to solve. which they can otherwise use in looking for a job. and graduates will easily get a job in a shorter period of time. a K+12 advocate that estimated a total cost (not annual as earlier reported) of between P56 billion and P65 billion for the construction of additional infrastructure. both for government and the parents. look at it at the other point view.? said Luistro. and will take additional years away from students. P216 million textbooks and P1. Savings for parents The total amount is close to an estimate made by the Philippine Business for Education. . Many believe that adding 2 more years to basic education will be more expensive. these problems. Parents will have to spend less money in sending their children to school. are questioning the feasibility of the K+12 proposal of the Department of Education (DepEd).? he said. admits that it is a Herculean task to pass and implement the K+12 proposal. Luistro said this was being threshed out in DepEd?s implementation plan DepEd's K+12 plan: Learning from the Netherlands By Dheza Marie Aguilar. In effect. ABS-CBN Europe News Bureau Posted at 11/17/2010 3:05 PM | Updated as of 11/17/2010 8:13 PM NETHERLANDS .Undersecretary for Finance and Administration Francisco Varela said the estimated cost of additional classrooms and furniture was P44 billion. Asked if the additional of two years in high school will result in zero enrollment in college at certain years. These are the two main issues why a lot of Filipinos.Time and money.8 billion on school maintenance and operations.1 billion will pay for additional teachers. ?This is minus two instead of plus two. in the long run. Parents spend for at least four years of college before they can have an employable child. While Oscar Sañez. parents are actually saving two years of college education. parents and students alike. Another P15. member of the Presidential Task Force on Education and President of Business Outsourcing Association of the Philippines. lawmakers. Luistro said parents worried at the added expense should look at how the program could save them on college tuition. ?The benefits of the K+12 proposal far outweigh the additional costs that will be incurred by both government and families.

critical thinking in solving complex issues and the level of maturity of students towards the appreciation and love for their country. These are communication skills. ―The prospective is that we need an education reform. According to her. there are three main things that are missing from our graduates. .‖ said Sañez. supports the proposal of increasing years in the basic education in the Philippines. Sañez said the government should be committed not only in terms of budget allocation but in carrying out the implementation of the reform. If you can get a grant plus regular government budget. If we don‘t do this. there are Filipinos all over the world. all the more na magiging competitive tayo hindi lamang sa ibang bansa ngunit pwede din natin itong gamitin sa ating bansa. This is a good step in improving the competitiveness of the Philippines in the area of skills and workforce development. and changing the methodology of teaching in the country which has been very structural or lecture-type from the beginning. She also agrees that a lengthened educational system will be more economical for parents.‖ said Sañez in an exclusive interview with Balitang Europe in the Netherlands. re-training of the teachers. he added. ―Whether we like it or not. mga 50 or less billion pesos a year you will be able to implement. Targeting skills’ gaps According to Sañez. not only in English but in effectively communicating ideas across in a professional and persuasive way.The K+12 proposal will involve a complete overhaul of the educational system in the country. many of our graduates will continue to fail relative to the other students in other countries competing with the Philippines for the same talent. former professor and lecturer at the Ateneo de Davao University and Erasmus University in the Netherlands. The reform. which will be implemented throughout a 4-year period. will also be gradually implemented in 4 years to avoid colleges and universities from closing down due to lack of enrollments. To achieve these. This means bringing in new technology and knowledge from other countries. acquiring new software and knowledge from other countries and involving companies into providing the right kind of jobs for new graduates.‖ said Dee. More years in high school Cora Dee. The K+12 educational reform proposal has a budget requirement of approximately P200 billion. in the long term. Kung mag-improve and educational system natin. increasing the number of classrooms. adhering to the international standard of education is the only way that the Filipinos can compete even more in the global work field. from adding two years to the basic education. the world has become so small that wherever you are. ―You don‘t have to spend the additional P200 billion in one year.

a student from Mindoro who migrated to Canada. Meanwhile for Mick dela Rosa. The type of high school that a student will go to is determined by their performances in the elementary level. She said that this does not really enhance the talents and skills of the students.‖ said Abarquez. Dee thinks that it is better to increase the years in high school all together. When I was in Vancouver. But more than the reform. 5 or 6 years based on the skills and abilities of the students. I have to choose more sciences na classes so its up to me kung alin ang kukuhanin kong pre-requisites sa college. believes that educational reforms will put the Philippines at par with global standards. In the Netherlands high school education is divided into 4.‖ she said. ―I think it is a very good proposal. . According to Dee. Since ang Pilipinas 10-year pa rin ang education. When she was applying for a course in the university. Sa atin kasi. Abarquez thinks that the government should focus more on giving the teachers a bigger salary and more incentives. Mylene Abarquez. dahil gusto kong maging nurse. She said that the Philippines can be inspired by the Dutch. Mixed reactions Filipino students in the Netherlands have mixed reactions to the proposed educational reform. left behind na tayo. from vocational study. Another student from The Hague University. dapat two years na lang iyong high school. applied or technical courses and research or scientific field. respectively. This will also help students and parents on deciding whether to pursue a degree which will take a longer period of time or finishing a study that will give them jobs at the soonest possible time like vocational and technical education.But as opposed to the one year additional in elementary and one year in high school. 9th in the rank of best educational system in the world by the Program for International Student Assessment. focusing and developing the specific skills of students in high school will make them perform better in the tertiary level. Queenly Tolentino. She said that if the teachers are more motivated to educate. all the subjects are given na ng teacher. But in my experience. she had to take two additional years of high school in order to qualify for university. ―Ang labanan kasi ngayon intense na eh. a better quality of education will follow. the money that will be spent on educational reform should instead be put to improving teaching conditions like more classrooms and books. Kailangan dagdagan nila para internationally competitive tayo. This is why she supports the K+12 proposal. Tolentino also opposes the current lecture-type of teaching in the country. another Pinoy student in the Netherlands taking up International Business and Management Studies. experienced first-hand the disadvantage of the 10-year basic education system that the Philippines currently has.

we will win over the sceptics. We want to start it during the term of the President. dubbed K+12. textbooks and teachers to the supporters of a 12-year basic education curriculum.‖ said dela Rosa. Luistro said the program is ―less disruptive. ―Certainly. whether through educational reform or improved facilities and benefits for teachers DepEd to release initial draft of K+12 program on Oct. these students believe that the Aquino government should focus on improving the educational system in the country.‖ he said.―Sa tingin ko hindi na. Yong curriculum na meron tayo. 2010 6:57 am MANILA. Education Secretary Armin Luistro said the initial draft of the proposed program. would be on Oct. the official DepEd model will be a fruit of all this studies and discussion. Kahit napa-ideal ng curriculum once ilagay mo na sa sistema. If you are looking for what is needed for life skills. Though he acknowledged the opposition of some sectors to the K+12. which has polarized the education sector with one group believing that the government should focus its resources on addressing problems such as lack of classrooms. for parental obligations and skills for the industry. Luistro insisted the program‘s viability. Sept. in time for the World Teachers Day celebration. adding that it would be implemented before the term of President Benigno ―Noynoy‖ Aquino III ends on 2016. ok na eh. affordable and realistic.‖ Luistro said in an interview after he spoke at the 3rd NOTED National Tri-Level Conference of Teachers and Educators at the University of Asia and the Pacific in Ortigas Center. Despite differences in opinions. 30 — The Department of Education (DepEd) is confident of winning the sceptics of the proposed additional two years to the current 10-year basic education curriculum as it holds consultations with various stakeholders preparatory to the release of the initial draft of the program. 5 October 1. wala kang enough na facility hindi din magagamit. On October 5 with prayers and the power of idea. we want to start it as soon as possible. ―I am confident on October 5 the model. this is it.‖ The K+12 is a product of all the studies and consultations conducted by the department since 1995. Sa implementation ang nagiging problema. The DepEd chief said all he asked of the critics is ―openness‖ in the discussion of the controversial issue. . Pasig City. 5.

the centerpiece of the Aquino administration‘s effort to address shortcomings in the country‘s education sector. especially those who may not be able to pursue college education. The official said this would be done through ―substantial‖ changes in the curriculum to address the problem brought by the low number of graduates in the basic education system who managed to enter and finish college and gain meaningful employment. including previous studies. would provide learning and life skills to adults so that they can start working and lead respectable lives in the community. ―Although it sounds nice but when you get to the ground. Citing statistics gathered by the department. Ateneo De Manila University (AdMU) president Fr. Luistro said only 66 percent of the total high school population managed to graduate with only 27 percent enrolling in college or university and a dismal 16 percent completing tertiary education. ―One of the basic deficiencies of the current 10-year education program is that a high school diploma is really respected as a way. The PTFE is a multi-sectoral body created by then president Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo last year to come up measures on how to upgrade the quality of Philippine basic and higher education. He said the program. Luistro said he want an ―enhanced curriculum‖ with the end product of making sure that graduates have the required competencies. Worse.Luistro has repeatedly touted the benefits of the plan in the face of criticism. it is not well-received. teachers and textbooks. with the skills necessary for them to land a job and lead productive lives. toilets and other facilities. he said the program may even distract the government from focusing on resolving the lack of school rooms. Nebres further argued that adding two more years to schooling may result to more children unable to complete schooling. as a passport to a respectable employment. Several education experts have voiced their opposition to the plan during last Tuesday‘s consultative meeting held at the DepEd main office. saying it will help equip high school graduates.‖ Luistro said earlier. We should keep the ten years and fixed the problems first. He cited a report conducted by the Presidential Task Force on Education (PTFE) that the plan may only benefit 20 to 30 percent of school children. .‖ Nebres said. Bienvenido Nebres said the government should defer the implementation of the plan until it addresses the various problems facing the country‘s basic education sector.

Another participant in the meeting. 5. the business community and the media): 1. ―The current system also reinforces the misperception that basic education is just a preparatory step for higher education. they do not reach the legal employable age of 18 when they graduate from high school today. International test results consistently show Filipino students lagging way behind practically everybody else in the world. ―Most graduates are too young to enter the labor force. especially the professionals.5 billion since there are facilities. October 14. One reason is that students do not get adequate instructional time or time on task. ―It‘s nice in a Powerpoint presentation but I suggest the DepEd should resolve the problems of today and then we decided later. well-heeled and articulate leaders from the academe. (PNA) RMA/HCT n his MINI CRITIQUE column that appears in The Philippine Star. In the 2008 mathematics exam. Former Commission on Higher Education (CHED) Chairman Emmanuel Angeles also said that putting in additional years should be done not in the basic education but instead a ―preuniversity‖ scheme should take its place since it is ―doable. ―The short duration of the basic education program also puts the millions of overseas Filipino workers (OFWs). and those who intend to study . ―This quality of education is reflected in the inadequate preparation of high school graduates for the world of work or entrepreneurship or higher education.‖ If ten years were adequate.‖ she said. ―The congested curriculum partly explains the present state of education. 4. practical and advantageous‖ to the government. ―Can we just fix first what we needed to fix first not with rocket science but with basic tools because adding two more years will not fix the mess we are currently in.‖ 3. ―The poor quality of basic education is reflected in the low achievement scores of Filipino students. Isagani Cruz summarized the following pros and cons on the K+12 debate: The PROS (which is basically the side of the government.‖ Twelve years of content are crammed into ten years. 7. ―Enhancing the quality of basic education in the Philippines is urgent and critical.‖ Coseteng said. how come employers do not hire fresh high school graduates? How come most high school graduates flunk the UPCAT? 6. 2010.‖ 2. adequate number of faculty and learning materials in the higher education compared to the former. we came in dead last. former Senator and now president of the University of the Philippines Preparatory School Nikki Coseteng echoed the same concerns.‖ Why prioritize the minority of high school graduates that go to college? 8.‖ Since most children start Grade 1 when they are 6 years old. Angeles said adding two more years to the elementary and secondary education will cost the government an additional P57 billion while the pre-university scheme will cost only P11. for example.

―The government has not yet shown the arguments of the opposition to be fallacious. at a disadvantage. The drop-out rate will increase because of the two extra years. The problem is the content. even with only ten years of basic education. On the other hand. who are condemned to international jobs not befitting their professional status due to our not having a 12-year basic education cycle. 6. Why do we have to follow what the rest of the world is doing? We are better than all of them. Filipinos right now are accepted in prestigious graduate schools in the world. Cruz characterizes the opposition (anti) as being ―very vocal airing its arguments not only in newspapers.‖ Cruz writes. As far as the curriculum is concerned. 3. A high school diploma will not get anybody anywhere. we need to have better education.abroad. why do we require them to get parental consent before they get married? The CONS (which are basically the madlang people whose pocketbooks would be adversely impacted by the proposed additional 2 years of basic education): 1. DepEd should fix the current subjects instead of adding new ones. While students are stuck in Grades 11 and 12. colleges and universities will have no freshmen for two years. 8. The government does not have the money to pay for two more years of free education. and intellectually mature.‖ The best examples are our engineering graduates. of basic education. not the length. as far as I can see. . psychologically. 7. but even in the parliament of the streets. not more education. This will spell financial disaster for many private Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). We can do in ten years what everyone else in the world takes 12 years to do. they have refused to even listen to the government.‖ If we believe that 17-year-old high school graduates are emotionally.‖ ―As of this writing. Parents have to shell out more money (for transportation and food) for the education of their children. Every family dreams of having a child graduate from college. since it does not even have the money to fully support today‘s ten years. on radio. As an editorial put it. qualified teachers. and on television. Our graduates are not automatically recognized as professionals abroad.‖ Since this is a public debate.‖ writes Cruz. DepEd must first solve the lack of classrooms. and error-free textbooks. 2. 9. Cruz contends that ―we have to move from constructive speeches to rebuttal‖. ―The short basic education program affects the human development of the Filipino children. 4. because business firms will not hire fresh high school graduates. ―I have not heard the opposition rebut the arguments of the government. furniture and equipment. In fact. 5.

Aquino said he had met with some bishops to discuss the controversy and another meeting with them was in the works. Family planning. Enough yakety yak already! What we need are objective. actual (empirical) cost-benefit and pedagogical studies to support or debunk the claims of either side. Christine Avendaño Philippine Daily Inquirer First Posted 00:44:00 10/04/2010 Filed Under: Churches (organisations). said that in the history of the CBCP. civil disobedience is a moral option. .? First time In the same article.I think we really don‘t have a compelling need to listen to rebuttals. Conflicts (general). The bishops said they had the moral authority to call for such an action if the government promoted an action contrary to the teachings of the Church. The CBCP News posted the remarks of Figura and Quitorio a day after Mr. the CBCP media director. Government. A promising start would be to read ―Length of School Cycle and the ‗Quality‘ of Education‖ written by Felipe & Porio published in the Philippine Education Research Journal (PERJ). Msgr. Fraud in the polls sparked the overthrow of the dictator Ferdinand Marcos in a People Power Revolution. Civil disobedience still a CBCP option Bishops say they have moral authority to call for By Jocelyn Uy. Figura made the statement in an interview with the CBCP News.? said Msgr. Pedro Quitorio. [it] was just the single event that called for civil disobedience. secretary general of the Catholic Bishops? Conference of the Philippines (CBCP). Catholic bishops Sunday said civil disobedience remained ?a moral option? for Catholics if the Aquino administration pushed for the distribution of artificial contraceptives to couples who want to use them. Juanito Figura. Legislation MANILA. ?Since the CBCP was established in 1945 until today. the first and only time the Church had called for civil disobedience was following the snap presidential election in February 1986. His remarks were posted on the CBCP website under the headline: ?Church leaders say ?civil disobedience? a possibility. CBCP officials said they were also open to talks with him.? Quitorio said. one of the moral options. ?The Catholic Church in the Philippines can do that if it decides to do that because for one thing. Philippines?As Church and State moved to avert a collision. the official news service of the Church hierarchy.

? While Catholic lay groups were poised to stage protests in the coming weeks against the Aquino administration. ?Bishops have moral reason? Figura explained that civil allegiance ?is the respect given by the people to the state and the laws of the state and according to Church principles. to fight for African-American civil rights. Gandhi. ?When a law or state policy or state program is not in consonance with what the faith teaches so from that perspective. including boycotts of buses. the bishops would have a moral reason to do that. if the local church in the Philippines or the hierarchy in the Philippines decide to call for disobedience because of this possibility of enacting the controversial reproductive health bill and the distribution of artificial contraceptives. boycotts.? . The family planning row erupted after Mr. Mahatma Gandhi and his followers defied the British Salt Acts. In 1986. Aquino?s mother. Bishop Nereo Odchimar. herself led a civil disobedience protest and boycott of crony-owned companies in a campaign to topple the Marcos dictatorship.? On Friday. A Palace official later said that contraceptives were already being made available to the poor in local health centers and that the government had also allotted to it a portion of the proposed 2011 budget. Mr. or sit-ins. persons. said the Church wanted to address reproductive health issues ?in the spirit of dialogue and not of confrontation. we should do that. Luther King History has shown many examples of civil disobedience. strikes. the CBCP president. Catholics are not bound by conscience to obey that.Civil disobedience is a nonviolent form of protest in which people deliberately violate a law. which forced Indians to buy salt from the British. Aquino said during a recent visit to the United States that he might extend assistance to couples who preferred to use artificial contraceptives to limit the number of their children. It can be carried out in many ways. such as nonpayment of taxes. if a law or a state policy is against Christian teachings. Church officials say contraception is a type of abortion. Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks launched civil disobedience. which the Church says is a grave crime and is banned by the Constitution. citing this as the foundation of civil disobedience. Quitorio said the bishops as a body ?have not called for any mass actions so far.? he added. Christians. In 1955. In 1930.? ?But according to the same Church principles. the late President Cory Aquino.

He said the second was in the post-war Congress when Congress proposed to have Jose Rizal?s novels Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo a required reading in school. He said this would be the third time that Church and State had squared off on a major issue?the first was during the Commonwealth era when then President Manuel L. Too soon Sen. The Church and President Aquino are already fighting over it when we don?t even know the final form of the bill being pushed. Arroyo said the Church could lose a lot of ground among its followers.Odchimar. Aquino was ?a possibility.? Arroyo said. Valte said the Palace recognized there were issues it would confront that would either be supported or opposed by people. He is for responsible parenthood. a hearing has yet to be held and they are already against it. ?The opposition against the RH is too premature. ?The government will do the right thing for the benefit of the majority. who had said that excommunication of Mr. ?We are not advocating one (family planning) method over the other. Aniceto said Cory Aquino listened to the Church during her presidency.? Valte made the statement when asked about Pampanga Archbishop Paciano Aniceto?s call for Mr.? said deputy presidential spokesperson Abigail Valte. ?So it?s not right to say that the position of the President is prolife or antilife or whatever. Aquino to emulate the example of his late mother. Joker Arroyo said it was not only too soon for the Church to oppose the moves in Congress to adopt an RH measure but that taking a hardline stance could ?boomerang? on its leaders.? later said the Church was not contemplating that action. ?We will support all family planning methods that couples will choose after getting information about them. especially if it would lose on the reproductive health bill issue after fighting it tooth and nail.? she said. but wants the latter to submit their counterproposal. It?s not even on first base. ?We favor no method? Malacañang on Sunday tried to dismiss perceptions that it favored artificial contraceptives as the sole family planning method. . Quezon thumbed down a proposal to make religious instruction compulsory.? Valte added. A House lawmaker pushing for bills on reproductive health is open to a dialogue with Church officials.

one of the daughters of former King of Thebes. Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi was a figure known worldwide for advocating non-violent civil disobedience. or of an occupying international power.[1][2] defined as being nonviolent resistance. known as ahimsa or satyagraha) it could be said that it is compassion in the form of respectful disagreement. in which Antigone. It has been used in many nonviolent resistance movements in India (Gandhi's campaigns for independence from the British Empire). we will explain it to them. She . Civil disobedience is the active. One of its earliest massive implementations was brought about by Egyptians against the British occupation in the 1919 Revolution. the current King of Thebes. Cabacungan Jr. It is one form of civil resistance. TJ Burgonio and Inquirer Research For other uses. in the Singing Revolution to bring independence to the Baltic countries from the Soviet Union. see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). recently with the 2003 Rose Revolution in Georgia and the 2004 Orange Revolution[6] in Ukraine. though not always. in the American Civil Rights Movement..? Iloilo Rep. in Czechoslovakia's Velvet Revolution and in East Germany to oust their communist governments. Oedipus. ?If they have questions about certain aspects of the bill. and commands of a government. demands. One of the oldest depictions of civil disobedience is in Sophocles' play Antigone.?Let them make a counterproposal to the bill so that there will be an end to the debate. Janette Garin said by phone. Civil disobedience is commonly. defies Creon. who is trying to stop her from giving her brother Polynices a proper burial. In one view (in India. professed refusal to obey certain laws.[4][5] in South Africa in the fight against apartheid.[3] Civil disobedience is one of the many ways people have rebelled against what they deem to be unfair laws. among other various movements worldwide.? With reports from Gil C.

even when such support is required by law." . It is perhaps the first modern[vague] statement of the principle of nonviolent protest. I must get off him first. or to march to Mexico. it is known that Gandhi would often quote Shelley's Masque of Anarchy to vast audiences during the campaign for a free India. I have heard some of my townsmen say. poet Percy Shelley wrote the political poem The Mask of Anarchy later that year. that I do not pursue them sitting upon another man's shoulders. In the essay.[8] A version was taken up by the author Henry David Thoreau in his essay Civil Disobedience. — see if I would go'. "If I devote myself to other pursuits and contemplations. at least.[9] In particular. furnished a substitute. has had a wide influence on many later practitioners of civil disobedience. but she is afraid of how her conscience will smite her if she does not do this. 'I should like to have them order me out to help put down an insurrection of the slaves. at least. directly by their allegiance. and so indirectly. I must first a stirring speech in which she tells him that she must obey her conscience rather than human law. that begins with the images of what he thought to be the unjust forms of authority of his time—and then imagines the stirrings of a new form of social action.[7] Following the Peterloo massacre of 1819. and later by Gandhi in his doctrine of Satyagraha. and yet these very men have each. See what gross inconsistency is tolerated.[8][10] Thoreau's 1848 essay Civil Disobedience. He writes. originally titled "Resistance to Civil Government". that he may pursue his contemplations too. by their money. She is not at all afraid of the death he threatens her with (and eventually carries out).[8] Gandhi's Satyagraha was partially influenced and inspired by Shelley's nonviolence in protest and political action. The driving idea behind the essay is that citizens are morally responsible for their support of aggressors. Thoreau explained his reasons for having refused to pay taxes as an act of protest against slavery and against the Mexican-American War.

.3 Choice of plea 4 Legal implications of civil disobedience 5 Bibliography 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External links [edit] Usage of the term Henry David Thoreau's classic essay Civil Disobedience inspired Martin Luther King and many other activists.1 Violent vs.1 Choice of specific act o 3. by the time Thoreau's lectures were first published under the title "Civil Disobedience. solitary 3 Techniques o 3.2 Cooperation with authorities o 3. nonviolent o 2. Thoreau's 1849 essay "Resistance to Civil Government" was eventually renamed "Essay on Civil Disobedience. the term began to appear in numerous sermons and lectures relating to slavery and the war in Mexico." After his landmark lectures were published in 1866." in 1866.[11][12][13][14] Thus.2 Revolutionary vs. four years after his death. the term had achieved fairly widespread usage.3 Collective vs. nonrevolutionary o 2.Contents [hide]         1 Usage of the term 2 Theories o 2.

campaign hecklers. campus militants. never retaliate."[15] LeGrande writes that "the formulation if a single all-encompassing definition of the term is extremely difficult. so that they will do so in a manner that quietly or limply resists without threatening the authorities.. I began to use his phrase to explain our struggle to the English readers. as distinguished from a constitutional impasse in which two public agencies. In reviewing the voluminous literature on the subject. Others also expect to be attacked or even beaten by the authorities. they were to express no anger. anti-war demonstrators.." ” [edit] Theories In seeking an active form of civil disobedience. one may choose to deliberately break certain laws. Indeed. and protect officials from insults and assaults even at the risk of the resister's own life. refrain from swearing and insults (which are contrary to ahimsa). Civil disobedience is usually defined as pertaining to a citizen's relation to the state and its laws. especially two equally sovereign branches of government. Mahatma Gandhi outlined several rules for civil resisters (or satyagrahi) in the time when he was leading India in the struggle for Independence from the British Empire. conflict. nonviolent civil disobedience. refrain from saluting the Union flag. For instance. become utterly debased. When I saw the title of Thoreau's great essay.It has been argued that the term "civil disobedience" has always suffered from ambiguity and in modern times. for Vice President Agnew it has become a code-word describing the activities of muggers. submit to the opponent's orders and assaults. Marshall Cohen notes. 1935. draft evaders. For instance. the student of civil disobedience rapidly finds himself surrounded by a maze of semantical problems and grammatical niceties. arsonists. Protesters often undergo training in advance on how to react to arrest or to attack.Rao. submit to arrest by the authorities. he often finds that specific terminology has no more (or no less) meaning than the individual orator intends it to have.[16] In a letter to P. juvenile delinquents and political assassins. though sometimes violence has been known to occur. But I found that even "Civil Disobedience" failed to convey the full meaning of the struggle. such as by forming a peaceful blockade or occupying a facility illegally. I therefore adopted the phrase "Civil Resistance." He encourages a distinction between lawful protest demonstration. surrender personal property when confiscated by the authorities but refuse to surrender property held in trust. dated September 10.K. The resistance to authority in South Africa was well advanced before I got the essay . Like Alice in Wonderland. "It has been used to describe everything from bringing a test-case in the federal courts to taking aim at a federal official. if not impossible. and violent civil disobedience. Protesters practice this non-violent form of civil disorder with the expectation that they will be arrested. it would not be civil . if the head of government of a country were to refuse to enforce a decision of that country's highest court. Gandhi disputes that his idea of civil disobedience was derived from the writings of Thoreau:[17] “ The statement that I had derived my idea of Civil Disobedience from the writings of Thoreau is wrong.

The same principle. at least must be publicly announced in order to constitute civil disobedience. therefore. "Policy-based" civil disobedience occurs when a person breaks the law in order to change a policy (s)he believes is dangerously wrong. then one cannot justify a civil disobedients' use of force and violence and refusal to submit to arrest. and private universities can be justified if it reflects "a larger challenge to the legal system that permits those decisions to be taken". applies to breaches of law in protest against international organizations and foreign governments. and if one cannot justify civil rebellion. she argues." but holds that they do not have to be nonviolent.[20] It is usually recognized that lawbreaking. intimidatory. we might ask why disobedience should take the form of public civil disobedience rather than simply covert lawbreaking. if it is not done publicly. find that assisting in fabricating evidence or committing perjury is more effective than open disobedience.[18] Ronald Dworkin held that there are three types of civil disobedience:    "Integrity-based" civil disobedience occurs when a citizen disobeys a law he feels is immoral. banks. Civil disobedients' refraining from violence is also said to help preserve society's tolerance of civil disobedience. he might. coercive disobedience is . Brownlee argues that disobedience in opposition to the decisions of nongovernmental agencies such as trade unions. while both civil disobedience and civil rebellion are justified by appeal to constitutional defects. Christian Bay's encyclopedia article states that civil disobedience requires "carefully chosen and legitimate means.[19] Some theories of civil disobedience hold that civil disobedience is only justified against governmental entities.[24] It has been argued that. where Shiphrah and Puah refused a direct order of Pharaoh but misrepresented how they did it. for instance."[23] By this definition. This assumes that common morality does not have a prohibition on deceit in such situations. "Think of the dilemma faced by German citizens when Hitler's secret police demanded to know if they were hiding a Jew in their house. as when blacks illegally protested during the Civil Rights Movement.[22] The Fully Informed Jury Association's publication "A Primer for Prospective Jurors" notes. the defects justifying rebellion must be much more serious than those justifying disobedience. nonviolent There has been some debate as to whether civil disobedience need be non-violent. (Exodus 1: 15-19) [edit] Violent vs.disobedience. rebellion is much more destructive. "Justice-based" civil disobedience occurs when a citizen disobeys laws in order to lay claim to some right denied to him. Black's Law Dictionary includes nonviolence in its definition of civil disobedience.[21] But Stephen Eilmann argues that if it is necessary to disobey rules that conflict with morality. If a lawyer wishes to help a client overcome legal obstacles to securing his natural rights.[25] But McCloskey argues that "if violent. as in the case of northerners disobeying the fugitive slave laws by refusing to turn over escaped slaves to authorities. civil disobedience could be traced back to the Book of Exodus. since the head of government would be acting in his capacity as public official rather than private citizen.

This is a form of jail solidarity. Civil disobedients have chosen a variety of different illegal acts. such as that committed by Thoreau. more justified than less effective. some activists who commit civil disobedience as a group collectively refuse to sign bail until certain demands are met. at the time of his arrest. undertaken in the name of civil disobedience. even if they were widely . weeks and months after it happened. or the release of all the activists."[26] [edit] Revolutionary vs. Thoreau. The tax collector who arrested him rose to higher political office. other things being equal. In modern times. "There is a whole class of acts.[31] [edit] Techniques Main article: Examples of civil disobedience [edit] Choice of specific act Tree sitting can be an environmentalist act of civil disobedience. such as favorable bail conditions. or as part of an effort to render certain laws ineffective.more effective.[28] Thoreau also wrote of civil disobedience accomplishing "peaceable revolution. solitary The earliest recorded incidents of collective civil disobedience took place during the Roman Empire. and his arrest was not covered in any newspapers in the days.[30] There have also been many instances of solitary civil disobedience. but these sometimes go unnoticed. nonrevolutionary Non-revolutionary civil disobedience is a simple disobedience of laws on the grounds that they are judged "wrong" by an individual conscience.[27] Gandhi's acts have been described as revolutionary civil disobedience. and Thoreau's essay was not published until after the end of the Mexican War. or to exert pressure to get one's political wishes on some other issue."[29] [edit] Collective vs. Unarmed Jews gathered in the streets to prevent the installation of pagan images in the Temple in Jerusalem. which. Bedau writes. was not yet a well-known author. to cause their repeal.[18] It has been claimed that the Hungarians under Ferenc Deák directed revolutionary civil disobedience against the Austrian government. nonviolent disobedience. Revolutionary civil disobedience is more of an active attempt to overthrow a government. it is.

nevertheless they may find it necessary to employ limited coercion in order to get their issue onto the table. such as illegal boycotts. 600-year-old California Redwood tree for 738 days. but they often generate significant media attention. and virtual sabotage. Virtual actions rarely succeed in completely shutting down their targets. make it more difficult for a system to function."[20] The Plowshares organization temporarily closed GCSB Waihopai by padlocking the gates and using sickles to deflate one of the large domes covering two satellite dishes.[28] Some civil disobedients. "Wise up or die. would in themselves constitute hardly more than a nuisance (e. An example would be WBAI's broadcasting the track "Filthy Words" from a George Carlin comedy album.[S]uch acts are often just a harassment and. Laws against public nudity. Pacifica Foundation. draft dodging. such as the proprietors of illegal medical cannabis dispensaries and Voice in the Wilderness. New Hampshire city councilors stating.. and sit-ins. a 180-foot (55 m)-tall. Electronic civil disobedience can include web site defacements. they might be considered coercive. which eventually led to the 1978 Supreme Court case of FCC v.practiced. redirects. for instance. distributed denial-of-service attacks. directly achieve a desired social goal (such as the provision of medication to the sick) while openly breaking the law. In this way. denial-of-service attacks. have been protested by going naked in public. For example.[33] Some forms of civil disobedience. somewhat inane. Threatening government officials is another classic way of expressing defiance toward the government and unwillingness to stand for its policies."[32] More generally. and laws against cannabis consumption have been protested by openly possessing it and using it at cannabis rallies. refusals to pay taxes. civil disobedience can consist simply of engaging in the forbidden speech. Julia Butterfly Hill lived in Luna. that the very harmlessness of such entirely symbolic illegal protests toward public policy goals may serve a propaganda purpose. illegal web site parodies..g. which brought medicine to Iraq without the permission of the U. protesters of particular victimless crimes often see fit to openly commit that crime. It is distinct from other kinds of hacktivism in that the perpetrator openly reveals his identity. though.. virtual sit-ins. successfully preventing it from being cut down." Bedau also notes. trespassing at a nuclear-missile installation). In cases where the criminalized behavior is pure speech. Brownlee notes that "although civil disobedients are constrained in their use of coercion by their conscientious aim to engage in moral dialogue.[34] . Government. information theft. Joseph Haas was arrested for allegedly sending an email to the Lebanon.S. at least to the bystander..[T]he remoteness of the connection between the disobedient act and the objectionable law lays such acts open to the charge of ineffectiveness and absurdity.

until he is obliged to consider whether he will treat me. A possible disadvantage of going limp. or as a man. which is held to bind all to obey the laws that a government meeting certain standards of legitimacy has established. after all. don't believe in . for those who wish to communicate with the arresting officer about their ideals. explaining that she will be arrested if she does not leave the street. his neighbor. Other civil disobedients who favor the existence of government still don't believe in the legitimacy of their particular government. some civil disobedients have nonetheless found it hard to resist responding to investigators' questions. However. or don't believe in the legitimacy of a particular law it has enacted. for whom he has respect. "My civil neighbor. and may be harmful. some civil disobedients seek to use the arrest as an opportunity to make an impression on the officers. is the very man I have to deal with--for it is."[29] Some civil disobedients feel it is incumbent upon them to accept punishment because of their belief in the validity of the social contract. How shall he ever know well that he is and does as an officer of the government. Thoreau wrote. that a suspect's talking to criminal investigators can serve no useful purpose.[37] Also. with men and not with parchment that I quarrel--and he has voluntarily chosen to be an agent of the government. and whether or not to talk to police officers. especially when it will hinder the police from effectively responding to a mass protest.[36] and is often believed within the activist community. and see if he can get over this obstruction to his neighborliness without a ruder and more impetuous thought or speech corresponding with his action.[35] Many of the same decisions and principles that apply in other criminal investigations and arrests arise also in civil disobedience cases. sometimes due to a lack of understanding of the legal ramifications. Some disciplines of civil disobedience hold that the protestor must submit to arrest and cooperate with the authorities. It is generally agreed within the legal community. Others advocate falling limp or otherwise resisting arrest. or else suffer the penalties set out in the law. And still other civil disobedients. For example. the suspect may need to decide whether or not to grant a consent search of his property. the tax-gatherer. or as a maniac and disturber of the peace. The demonstrator was peacefully arrested moments later.[edit] Cooperation with authorities A police officer speaks with a demonstrator at a union picket. as a neighbor and well-disposed man. is that it may be difficult to do so while being dragged across the ground. or due to a fear of seeming rude. being anarchists.

I committed the act of which you accuse me.. pleading guilty without any plea agreement in place. During the Vietnam War era." and will usually be interpreted as a plea of not guilty.[38] It has also been argued that either choice is compatible with the spirit of civil disobedience. the Chicago Eight used a political defense. or by evading it. I am guilty as charged.. in fact. to demean the seriousness of the protest. "Guilt implies wrong-doing. I feel I did the right thing by violating this particular law."[42] Sometimes the prosecution proposes a plea bargain to civil disobedients. But that is different than the notion that they must go to jail as part of a rule connected with civil disobedience." but that pleading not guilty sends a message of. I therefore plead not guilty. while others believe that defending oneself in court will increase the possibility of changing the unjust law.the legitimacy of any government. I feel I have done no wrong. ACT-UP's Civil Disobedience Training handbook states that a civil disobedient who pleads guilty is essentially stating. but I am guilty of doing no wrong.[39] One defendant accused of illegally protesting nuclear power. and therefore see no need to accept punishment for a violation of criminal law that does not infringe the rights of others. "they must decide whether their primary goal will be to win an acquittal and avoid imprisonment or a fine. Mohandas Gandhi pleaded guilty and told the court.[43] In some mass arrest situations. as in the case of the Camden 28. while Benjamin Spock used a technical defense. as some believe that it is a civil disobedient's duty to submit to the punishment prescribed by law. when asked to enter his plea."[44] [edit] Legal implications of civil disobedience Barkan writes that if defendants plead not guilty.[45] In countries such as the United States whose laws guarantee the right to a .In particular. To accept jail penitently as an accession to 'the rules' is to switch suddenly to a spirit of subservience. stated. the neo-conservative insistence on a guilty plea should be eliminated. I don't deny it. whether it is done by remaining in jail. as a way of reminding their countrymen of injustice.[41] Paul Flower writes. "I am here to . [edit] Choice of plea An important decision for civil disobedients is whether or not to plead guilty. "There may be many times when protesters choose to go to jail.[41] But some activists have opted to enter a blind plea.[40] this is known as a "creative plea. or to use the proceedings as a forum to inform the jury and the public of the political circumstances surrounding the case and their reasons for breaking the law via civil disobedience. . as a way of continuing their protest. the activists decide to use solidarity tactics to secure the same plea bargain for everyone." A plea of no contest is sometimes regarded as a compromise between the two. ." A technical defense may enhance the chances for acquittal but make for more boring proceedings and reduced press coverage. "Yes. submit cheerfully to the highest penalty that can be inflicted upon me for what in law is a deliberate crime and what appears to me to be the highest duty of a citizen. "I plead for the beauty that surrounds us". There is much debate on this point. I am proud of it. The key point is that the spirit of protest should be maintained all the way. I may have violated some specific laws. in which the defendants were offered an opportunity to plead guilty to one misdemeanor count and receive no jail time.

conscientious lawbreakers must be punished.[57][58] Brownee argues. any great amount of it would undermine the law by encouraging general disobedience which is neither conscientious nor of social benefit."[20] Leonard Hubert Hoffmann writes. the judge instructed the jury to disregard his competing harms defense. or by fleeing the jurisdiction. or by denying having committed the crime. courts typically refused to excuse the perpetrators of illegal protests from punishment on the basis of their challenging the legality of the Vietnam War. when Carter Wentworth was charged for his role in the Clamshell Alliance's 1977 illegal occupation of the Seabrook Station Nuclear Power Plant. the law usually distinguishes between criminal motive and criminal intent.[50] Likewise. Therefore. then that act did not constitute civil disobedience. court cases such as U. is not civil disobedience. Specifically.jury trial but do not excuse lawbreaking for political purposes."[56] Along with giving the offender his just deserts. itself.[48] Michael Bayles argues that if a person violates a law in order to create a test case as to the constitutionality of a law.[53] However.[49] It has also been argued that breaking the law for self-gratification."[51] During the Vietnam War. many of them have escaped prosecution because "prosecutors have reasoned (correctly) that if they arrest fully informed jury leafleters. the leaflets will have to be given to the leafleter's own jury as evidence. United States. is generally viewed as not being a civil disobedient.[46] Hence the saying that "if there is any possible justification of civil disobedience it must come from outside the legal system. whereas direct civil disobedience involves protesting the existence of a particular law by breaking that law.[52] The necessity defense has sometimes been used as a shadow defense by civil disobedients to deny guilt without denouncing their politically motivated acts. Governments have generally not recognized the legitimacy of civil disobedience or viewed political objectives as an excuse for breaking the law. as in the case of a homosexual or cannabis user who does not direct his act at securing the repeal of amendment of the law.S. and United States v. the object of protest. Dougherty. the courts ruled it was a political question. this has been made more difficult by court decisions such as Sparf v. Schoon have greatly curtailed the availability of the political necessity defense. "Bringing in deterrence at the level of justification detracts from the law‘s engagement in a moral dialogue with the offender as a rational person because it focuses attention on the threat of punishment and not the moral reasons to follow this law. some civil disobedients seek jury nullification. while disobedience may be helpful. v. "In deciding .[54] Likewise. Over the years. the offender's motives or purposes may be admirable and praiseworthy. and he was found guilty. and to present their political beliefs in the courtroom. which held that the judge need not allow defendants to openly seek jury nullification.[55] Fully Informed Jury Association activists have sometimes handed out educational leaflets inside courthouses despite admonitions not to. a protestor who attempts to escape punishment by committing the crime covertly and avoiding attribution. according to FIJA. achieving crime control via incapacitation and deterrence is a major goal of criminal punishment. but his intent may still be criminal. and then wins his case. which held that the judge need not inform jurors of their nullification prerogative."[47] One theory is that. Courts have distinguished between two types of civil disobedience: "Indirect civil disobedience involves violating a law which is not.

and have prior criminal convictions that could result in harsher punishment. sometimes the participants in illegal demonstrations against government policies deemed to harm poverty-stricken minorities are predominantly white and middle class. It is a matter for the state (including the judges) to decide on utilitarian grounds whether to do so or not. As a result.whether or not to impose punishment. the most important consideration would be whether it would do more harm than good."[59] It has been noted that the poor may have more to lose than the middle class from engagement in civil disobedience. This means that the objector has no right not to be punished. The poor often receive government benefits that could be jeopardized by an arrest. .