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Media Monitoring Report Election 2008 By Civic Education Network (www.pakistanpolitics.org) Part-I PAKISTAN TELEVISION (9:00 p.m.

Khabarnama) The Centre bifurcated data for Pakistan Television in to three periods. First fr om December 1- 26, 2007. Second from December 27-31, 2007 and third from January 1-31, 2008. December 1-26, 2007 Political Parties: During December 1-26, 2007 the Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-i-Azam) got 57 minu tes and 58 seconds. The closest second Pakistan Peoples Party-Parliamentarian go t 25 minutes and 52 seconds. In terms of time PML-N remained third with 22 minut es and 37 seconds. The Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam (F) got 13 minutes and 57 seconds, M uttahida Qaumi Movement got 8 minutes and 54 seconds, Pakistan Peoples Party-She rpao 7 minutes and 34 seconds, Jamaa’t-i-Islami 6 minutes and 44 seconds, Awami Na tional Party 2 minutes and 50 seconds, Pakistan Tehrik-i-Insaf 2 minutes and 7se conds. Among political alliances, Muttahida Majlis-i-Amal got 6 minutes and 1 second wh ereas All Parties Democratic Movement (APDM) got 5 minutes and 41 seconds. The President and the Caretakers: During December 1-26, 2007 the President got one hour eighteen minutes and thirt y eight seconds. The share of the caretaker prime minister was 52 minutes and 24 seconds. Among others the governors got 37 minutes and 33 seconds, caretaker ch ief ministers got 45 minutes and 37 seconds. The share of caretaker ministers re mained one hour twenty minutes and forty four seconds. December 27-31, 2007 The day Mohtarma Benazir Bhutto was assassinated the balance dramatically shifte d in the coverage. The PPP got I hour, 28 minutes and 46 seconds coverage, where as the PML-Q got 9 minutes and 37 seconds. The other political parties that figu red in Khabarnama were PML-N 5 minutes and 54 seconds, PPP-Sherpao .45 seconds, JUI-F 24 seconds. However the president and the caretaker prime ministers got 15 minutes and 14 minutes respectively. January 1-31, 2008 Political Parties: During January 1-31, 2008 the Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-i-Azam) got 1 hour, 14 minutes and 36 seconds. The closest second Pakistan Peoples Party-Parliamenta rian got 32 minutes and 23 seconds. In terms of time PML-N remained third with 1 7 minutes and 22 seconds. The Jamiat Ulema-i-Islam (F) got 5 minutes and 47 seco nds, Muttahida Qaumi Movement got 8 minutes and 31 seconds, Pakistan Peoples Par ty-Sherpao 6 minutes and 18 seconds, Awami National Party 2 minutes and 41 secon ds. During January All Parties Democratic Movement (APDM) did not get any coverage o n the PTV.

The President and the Caretakers: During January 1-31, 2008 the President got one hour fifty two minutes and thirt y seconds. The share of the caretaker prime minister was one hour and thirty eig ht minutes and fifty nine seconds. Among others the governors got 53 minutes and 17 seconds, caretaker chief ministers got I hour 20 minutes and 35 seconds. The share of caretaker ministers remained two hour five minutes and thirty five sec onds. Private Television Channels: It was difficult to select the private channels for monitoring because the curbs on cable were there and the country’s popular channel GEO was off-the cable. Ther efore the Centre selected only two channels. GEO is being monitored since Februa ry 1, 2008. The situation at private channels remained better. Aaj TV: (8:55 p.m. bulletin) From January 1-31, 2008 On Aaj TV the Pakistan Peoples’ Party got 1 hour 45 minutes and 23 seconds, the sh are of the Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-I-Azam) was 26 minutes and 57 seconds. The PML-N got 33 minutes and 27 seconds. The MQM got 10 minutes. Awami National Party got 1 minute 37 seconds, Jama’at-i-Islami 9 minutes and 29 seconds, Jamiat U lema-I-Islam (F) 1 minute and 3 seconds, Pakistan Tehrik-i-Insaf one minute. The APDM got 20 minutes and 26 seconds. The share of the President was 35 minutes and 36 seconds, caretaker prime minist er 19 minutes and 1 second. The governors and the caretaker chief ministers got 8 minutes and 32 seconds. The share of caretaker ministers was 31 minutes and 44 seconds. ARY ONE WORLD: (10:00 p.m. bulletin) From January 1-31, 2008 On ARY ONE WORLD the Pakistan Peoples’ Party got one hour twenty three minutes and fifty five seconds, the share of the Pakistan Muslim League (Quaid-I-Azam) was forty five minutes and forty five seconds. The PML-N got 48 minutes and 50 secon ds. The MQM got 33 minutes and 50 seconds. Awami National Party got 1 minute 30 seconds, Jama’at-i-Islami 3 minutes and 5 seconds, Jamiat Ulema-I-Islam (F) 2 minu tes and 48 seconds, PPP-Sherpao 45 seconds, Pakistan Tehrik-i-Insaf 2 minutes an d 20 seconds. The APDM and MMA got 5 minutes and 47 seconds. The share of the President was 48 minutes, caretaker prime minister 20 minutes a nd 20 seconds. The governors and the caretaker chief ministers got 12 minutes. T he share of caretaker ministers was 36 minutes and 55 seconds. This reflects that the private channels privileged the political parties in thei r coverage when the nation was going to Elections. Part-II Paid Party Broadcast: December 11, 2007-February 12, 2008 Total spent PKR 244.75 million, 169 hours 57 minutes, total adverts 17058

The Centre monitored paid political broadcasts on major television channels. • The PML-Q emerged as the major advertiser it had 12,278 adverts of total duratio n of 105 hours. Estimated cost of these adverts according to channels tariff car ds becomes PKR 175.84 million. The PML-Q’s adverts appeared on 34 channels includi ng Pakistan Television. • The PML-N had 463 adverts of total duration of 17 hours 49 minutes. Estimated co st of these adverts according to channels tariff cards become PKR 24.26 million. The PML-N adverts appeared on 17 channels including Pakistan Television. • The PPP had 2343 adverts of total duration of 18 hours 33 minutes. Estimated cos t of these adverts according to channels tariff cards become PKR 15.89 million. The PPP adverts appeared on 19 private channels. • The ANP had 4 adverts of total duration of 1minute, 17seconds. Estimated cost of these adverts according to channels tariff cards become PKR 12,501. The ANP adv erts appeared only on one private channel. • The PML-Functional had 665 adverts of total duration of 10 hours, 19minute, and 56 seconds. Estimated cost of these adverts according to channels tariff cards b ecome PKR 1.3 million. • The PML-Mahar Group had 94 adverts of total duration of 35 minute, and 19 second s. Estimated cost of these adverts according to channels tariff cards become PKR .45 million. • During this period Election Commission of Pakistan in co-operation with United N ations Development Program ran voters awareness campaign for 11 hours, 31 minute s and 58 seconds. Its 1071 adverts appeared. Estimated cost of these adverts acc ording to channels tariff cards become PKR 24.24 million. • The MQM did not opt for TV adverts campaign and adopted a novel way to get publi city besides advertising on Local Cable Networks, the City District Government o f Karachi has placed 12 supplements (we monitored only two Karachi based newspap ers) and 23 adverts to highlight the achievements of Haqprast Nazim. Analysis: International IDEA’s media checklist • Does the legal framework for elections ensure that all political parties and can didates are provided access to the media and equitable treatment in media owned or controlled by the state? The Election Commission of Pakistan did not issue any specific Code of Conduct f or Pakistan Television-run on tax payers’ expense. The PTV was clubbed with indepe ndent private channels, whereas the PEMRA has no jurisdiction over the PTV. The PEMRA did not release any report to share its findings with the nation. • Does the legal framework establish a formula for media access and equitable trea tment that is fair, understandable and capable of objective application? Number of Candidates: If the number of candidates fielded by any party could be a formula to determine the quantum of coverage: S. No. Party Punjab 1 PPP 146 2 PML-Q 140 3 PML-N 140 4 MMA (JUI-F) Sindh 61 27 38 36 NWFP 28 21 24 31 Balochistan 14 2 13 2 7 2 28 13 Capital Total 251 203 211 2 110

5 MQM 43 59 12 6 1 121 6 ANP 2 7 25 6 1 41 Source: (Basic information from the Election Commission of Pakistan website tabu lated by the Centre for Civic Education Pakistan) • Does the legal framework provide for free expression during election campaigns?

PEMRA issued numerous directives to private channels. The Public Service Broadca ster, PTV started Election Hour on February 7, 2008 • Does the legal framework provide that no party or candidate shall be discriminat ed against in terms of access to the media or, where paid advertising is permitt ed, in being overcharged for political advertising? Almost all parties had the opportunity to advertise, if they wished so. In print media even an opportunity for negative adverts was also available. However on e lectronic media there were no negative adverts. • Does the legal framework ensure that the ruling party does not get disproportion ately large media coverage in the guise of news editorial coverage? At least on Public Service Broadcast the former ruling party PML-Q got preferent ial treatment. Code of Conduct for Media: No.F.2(19)/2007-Cord.-WHEREAS, under Article 218(3) of the Constitution of the I slamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973 read with Article 5(3) of the Election Commiss ion Order, 2002, as amended, it is the duty of the Election Commission to organi ze and conduct the election and to make such arrangements as are necessary to en sure that the election is conducted honestly, justly, fairly and in accordance w ith law, and that corrupt practices are guarded against; AND WHEREAS, under Article 220 of the Constitution it shall be the duty of all e xecutive authorities in the Federation and in the Provinces to assist the Chief Election Commissioner and the Election Commission in the discharge of his or the ir functions; AND WHEREAS, it is expedient to ensure that the coverage on television relating to election related activities is fair, unbiased and balanced in respect of any particular political party, candidate or a leader to enable the Election Commiss ion to ensure that the election is conducted honestly, justly, fairly and in acc ordance with law and that discrimination against any political party, leader or a candidate is guarded against; AND WHEREAS, Article 6 of the Election Commission Order, 2002 empowers the Elect ion Commission to issue such directions or orders as may be necessary for the pe rformance of its functions and duties, including an order doing complete justice in any matter pending before it and an order for the purpose of securing the at tendance of any person or the discovery or production of any document and that a ny such direction or order shall be enforceable throughout Pakistan and shall be executed as if it had been issued by the High Court; NOW, THEREFORE, in pursuance of the provisions of Article 218(3), Article 220 of the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973 read with Article 5( 3) and Article 6 of the Election Commission Order, 2002, and in exercise of all other powers enabling it in that behalf, the Election Commission of Pakistan is pleased to direct that the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA ) will monitor the operations of all TV Channels including State-owned TV (PTV) and ensure that coverage as to electoral activities of the Political Parties til l Polling Day of the upcoming General Elections is fair, unbiased and balanced. ( Islamabad, the 20th November, 2007)