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Agricultural benefits - After a volcanoic eruption the burning lava can turn into the some of the richest

soil in the world. Some early civilizations grew their food (farmed) in the rich volcanic soil. Energy source benefits - Geothermal energy is a useful way to make electricity. With a ready supply of water and and a steadt source of heat, steam Governments all over the world must prepare to give adequate warning of potential disaster and be ready to organize speedy evacuation if need be. This means that resources such as television, radio, and a sufficient road network be available. For many places around the world, however, this is not the case. This can be especially true of many communities living close to volcanoes. Many poor countries do not have the resources to notify and evacuate people. Densely populated areas have to deal with being able to efficiently move large numbers of people as quickly as possible. Since different types of volcanoes can produce different forms of disaster damage, it is important that governments and community planners be knowledgeable about the type of volcano each area must deal with. Each community then should plan ahead as much as possible in order to be ready for a possible eruption. It is important that all residents of these areas take the time to find out about their community's disaster preparation plans. In the United States, county and/or state governments all have civil defense agencies which help coordinate disaster plans. Each community must know the potential eruption risk of the volcano in their area. Just because a volcano has not erupted for hundreds of years does not mean that the volcano is no longer dangerous. Numerous volcanoes along the Cascade Mountains in the Pacific Northwest have the potential to erupt explosively. One of these volcanoes did just that in 1980, with the destructive eruption of Mt. St. Helens. Worried city planners in the densely populated area of Seattle, Washington are currently involved in serious preparations for the potential eruption of Mt. Rainier, which last erupted in 1882. Miles upon miles of homes have been built in the path of projected pyroclastic flows.

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It is known that Hawaii's currently active volcano of Kilauea does have a history of explosive events. last active some 4. The people of Hawaii have benefited from the extensive knowledge that has been learned and have used this to develop their community disaster plans. Helens eruption. may yet give one final blow before completely dying. will erupt again. The Hawaii Volcano Observatory and Hawaii Volcano National Park's Jaggar Museum sit right on the potential explosion area. However. Mauna Kea. Etna have met with some success in building lava barriers to protect towns but such efforts have not yet been found possible for the communities of Hawaii. scientists from all over the world have come to Hawaii to study its volcanoes. which allows time for people to safely evacuate. The work done in Hawaii made it possible to give a better warning for the 1980 Mt. Hualalai Volcano last erupted in 1800 and is still considered potentially active. Haleakala. last erupted in 1790 and is now entering a period of possible eruption. which last erupted in 1984 and threatened the city of Hilo. being well-informed means being well-prepared. Planners living in the shadows of Italy's Mt. The people of Hawaii can rely on their civil defense agencies and the state's emergency broadcast system to keep them Remember. It is expected that the currently inactive volcano of Maunea Loa. Fortunately. many homes and historic landmarks have been lost to these unstoppable fiery flows. It seems to erupt once every 300 years. New instruments for measuring a wider variety of eruption indicators have been developed and are in place. The day will come when it will happen again. 2 .For the most part. the people of Hawaii have to deal with volcanic eruptions that produce slow-moving lava. St. on the island of Maui.000 years ago.

The volcanic origins of the islands provide scenic vistas and warm beaches and picnic grounds. It is home to observatories of many nations. If measured from the sea floor Mauna Kea is the tallest mountain in the world at 32. We can also make industrial products like road-making materials. and copper) deep down under a extinct volcano. Astronomy .During some winter days. Here is a Quicktime VR of one our favorite spots outside of Waikiki and Diamond Head. standing 13. silver. and other raw chemical or industrial materials. Recreational benefits .Volcanoes have sometimes very rich amounts of minerals (such as gold. a person can ski on the slopes of Mauna Kea in the morning (next to the observatories) and surf at the beach in the afternoon. They produce fertile soil.Volcanoes also can bring in tourism. cleaning products.On the island of Hawaii there is a mountain named Mauna Kea (White Mountain). Volcanoes are beneficial to humans living on or near them. high. These words. water reservoirs.Industrial resource benefits . probably reflect the concerns of many people living near active volcanoes. There are many businesses involved in promoting Hawaii Volcano National Park. There are many water sports and wonderous hiking trails. Mauna Kea's dry atmosphere is good for infrared study.000 ft. and provide valuable minerals. The mountain is far away from any crowded city areas so there are no city lights and no pollution in the air for an even better study of the skies. Economic benefits .796 ft. suggested in a song by Jimmy Buffet in his 1979 Volcano album. geothermal 3 . and it's height ensures clear cloud free nights. above sea level.

will help determine where a person would need to go to be safe during a volcanic eruption. and scenic beauty. The type of eruptions in Hawai'i are known as hawaiian volcanism and are far less dangerous than the eruptions produced by Mount St. However. they are devastating and may have global consequences. such as at Mount St. 1993). But volcanoes can be very dangerous. 1980. Kilauea Volcano on the big island of Hawai'i. and lava fountains. Lava flows from this type of eruption are extruded from fissures and cover vast areas. such as in Hawai'i. Helens. spatter cones. Eruptions from it normally result in gently flowing lava flows.resources. Helens erupted on May 18. and those that are effusive. The most active volcano in the world. Helens. is generally a nonexplosive volcano (though there have been occasions when it erupted explosively). This perception of a volcanic eruption is a common one and is probably due in part to pictures seen on television or in books of the beautiful lava flows and lava fountains in Hawai'i. Knowledge of these types of hazards. Another type of nonexplosive volcanism is flood basalts. Where can a person go to be safe from an erupting volcano? What types of volcanic hazards might they face? These questions are difficult to answer because there are many types of volcanic eruptions which produce different types of volcanic hazards. It is important to know what type of an eruption a volcano is most likely to produce so that the types of hazards produced by such an eruption can be identified. Types of Volcanic Eruptions When Mount St. Volcanic eruptions can be placed into two general categories: those that are explosive. red hot lava did not spew out of the volcano and pour down its flanks. 4 . These nonexplosive eruptions are the least dangerous type of volcanic eruption since people rarely get killed by them (Francis.

Explosivity is usually the result of gases expanding within a viscous lava. pyroclastic flows. debris avalanches.Many eruptions are explosive in nature. These eruptions are likely when a volcano occurs in a wet area or in the sea. pyroclastic surges. Some eruptions are highly explosive and produce fine volcanic ash that rises many kilometers into the atmosphere in enormous eruption columns. Risk not only includes the potential monetary and human losses. but also includes a population's vulnerability. ash). and lahars. pyroclastic flows.g. 5 . property. Explosive activity also causes widespread ash fall. Another mechanism for explosions at volcanoes occurs when surface water or ground water enters a magma chamber. A volcanic risk is any potential loss or damage as a result of the volcanic hazard that might be incurred by persons. or which negatively impacts the productive capacity/sustainability of a population. etc. landslides. They produce fragmental rocks from erupting lava and surrounding country rock. What is a Volcanic Hazard? A volcanic hazard refers to any potentially dangerous volcanic process (e. lava flows. The definitions of hazard and risk are not well-defined.

Helens and Mount Pinatubo many advances have been made in the study of volcanoes particularily in eruption prediction. but due. 1980). The reason behind this increase is not due to increased volcanism.000 people have lost their lives due to volcanic eruptions (Tilling. Many active volcanoes near populated areas have not been sufficiently studied to assess risk. 1991 and Hall. 1991). 1991). and Tsunamis  Pyroclastic Surge  Pyroclastic Flows  Lahars Hazards Prevention In recent years.  Volcanic Earthquakes  Directed Blast  Tephra  Volcanic Gases  Lava Flows  Debris Avalanches. An average of 845 people died each year between 1900 and 1986 from volcanic hazards. with the eruptions of Mount St.Tilling and Lipman (1993) estimate that 500 million people will be at risk from volcanic hazards by the year 2000. to an increase in the amount of people populating the flanks of active volcanoes and valley areas near those volcanoes (Tilling. Click on the one that you are interested in learning about. The number of deaths for these years is far greater than the number of deaths for previous centuries (Tilling. over 200. every volcano behaves differently and has its own set of hazards. Landslides. instead. That is why it's important for scientists to study and monitor volcanoes. though there may be similarities between volcanoes. In the past 500 years. Types of Volcanic Hazards The following is a list of volcanic hazards. 6 . The problem with volcanoes is that.

These maps indicate the types of hazards that can be expected in a given area the next time a volcano erupts. sediment transport. and gas emissions. ash clouds. A Few Final Remarks. they map past volcanic deposits and use satellites to look at volcanic features. and geoelectrical and thermal changes at a volcano. 7 . They also monitor seismic activity. Monitoring of a volcano over long periods of time will indicate changes in the volcano before it erupts. and water level of streams and lakes near the volcano.. flow rate. This awareness will hopefully prevent loss of life and property when an eruption occurs. This interaction and the developement of an emergency plan with established lines of communication will hopefully save lives and encourage better land use planning. scientists can produce hazard maps. The main reason scientists study and monitor volcanoes is so that those living near active volcanoes can be aware of the hazards produced by volcanoes. They study and monitor volcanic gases and monitor the temperature.When scientists study volcanoes. By studying volcanic deposits. Dating of these volcanic deposits helps determine how often an eruption may occur and the probability of an eruption each year. It is important that scientists communicate with local government officials and the general public about hazards produced by the volcanoes in their area. These changes can help in predicting when an eruption may occur. ground deformation. gravimetric. and geomagnetic..