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Basic Power Flow Activity Applications System Model Setup

PSS®E 32.0.5 Program Application Guide: Volume I

6.4.3 Shunt Devices
6.4.3.1 Manually Controlled Shunt Devices
Manually controlled shunt-connected static capacitors and reactors should be entered as busconnected constant admittance by assigning nonzero values to the GSHUNT and BSHUNT entries for the buses at which they are connected. The values of GSHUNT and BSHUNT must be set equal to the MW or Mvar that will be supplied or consumed at rated voltage, that is, to base MVA times per-unit admittance. For example, an 80-Mvar static capacitor would be specified by entering BSHUNT = +80.0 on a bus data record. A 150-Mvar shunt reactor would be specified by entering BSHUNT = –150.0 on a bus data record. Care is needed in distinguishing between shunt devices, particularly reactors, which may be connected adjacent to a bus, but on the line side of the circuit breakers rather than on the bus side. It is best to exclude line-connected reactors from the bus constant admittance load and to specify them via transmission line data as described in Section 6.4.4. It is preferable to reserve the bus-connected shunt device data entries, GSHUNT and BSHUNT, for representation of substation devices, and not to use them to specify constant admittance load. Constant admittance load should be handled as a component of the reference load at the bus, as covered in Sections 6.4.2 and 7.2.

6.4.3.2 Automatically Switched Shunt Devices
In addition to the manually controlled shunt devices, an automatically switched shunt voltage control subsystem may be assigned at any bus. Its general arrangement is shown in Figure 6-1. The subsystem may consist of up to eight blocks of reactive equipment, with each block divided into as many as nine steps. While automatically switched shunt subsystems may be set up at any bus, they are recognized as being in service only at Type 1 buses and fixed generator output Type 2 buses; that is, switched shunts are assumed fixed at a value of BINIT at voltage-controlling Type 2 and 3 buses.

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Siemens Energy, Inc., Power Technologies International

0 to lock all switches in present position.02 VSWHI 1. Inc.01 VSWLO 0 SWREM 0.0 ’ ’ 1 N1 -20 1 -20 B2 3 N3 10 B3 3 N4 5 B4 2 N5 5 B5 RMPCT RMIDNT B1 N2 Figure 6-1.5 Program Application Guide: Volume I Basic Power Flow Activity Applications System Model Setup To Other Buses To Other Buses 791 CB1 GSHUNT BSHUNT Load Block 1 20 Mvar Block 2 20 Mvar CBB2 Step 1 Step 2 S21 Block 3 3 x10 Mvar • Block 4 3 x 5 Mvar Block 5 2 x 5 Mvar CBB5 Step 3 Step 1 Step 2 S51 • • • CBB1 S11 CBB3 Step 3 Step 1 Step 2 CBB4 S31 • S32 S33 S41 • S42 S43 • S52 791 I 1 MODSW 1. 2 to adjust reactive power continuously within full range covered by switched units. if present.. Reactor blocks. controlling reactive power output of the plant at bus SWREM. BINIT 100. Siemens Energy. follow the reactor blocks in the order in which they are to be switched on. but reactors and capacitors may not be included in the same block.PSS®E 32. Power Technologies International 6-5 . The subsystem is specified by: I MODSW Bus number. 3 for automatic switching. must all be specified in the first block or blocks in the order in which they are to be switched on. 1 for automatic switching (discrete). if present. Switched Shunt Reactors and Capacitors for Reactive Supply to Control Bus Voltage A switched shunt subsystem may include both reactors and capacitors.0. capacitor blocks.

N8 B8 Remote Type 1 bus to be regulated.Basic Power Flow Activity Applications System Model Setup PSS®E 32. the total inductive or capacitive admittance of the steps that are on is placed in BINIT and is. Mvar (nominal) of each step in Blocks 1 through 8 (negative for inductive). the switches may be frozen there by setting MODSW to 0.. VSWHI. all capacitor steps will be switched off before reactors are switched on and vice versa. again. Mvar (must correspond to a legitimate combination of switch positions). Inc. to hold bus voltage at mid-range between VSWHI and VSWLO. the steps of the lowest numbered block that are not yet on are switched on first. Percent of the total Mvar required to hold the voltage at the bus controlled by bus I that are to be contributed by this switched shunt. Number of steps in Block 1. therefore. and the elements in the block must be either all on. The switching of shunt steps follows these rules: 1. Hence. 2. 3. VSWLO Desired bus voltage range (pu) if MODSW is 1 or 2. but within the overall range limits of the shunt subsystem. The reactor and capacitor elements may not be on at the same time. for switching to occur in another block. and vice versa. controlling reactive power output of the converter at bus SWREM of the specified VSC dc line. The initial switch positions for each power flow solution are determined by the value of BINIT. When MODSW is 4.5 Program Application Guide: Volume I 4 for automatic switching.0. 5 for automatic switching. or all off. Number of steps in Block 8. The switches are set at the start of each solution activity (and in activities READ and Reading Power Flow Data Additions from the Terminal) to produce the net switched shunt admittance most closely approximating the present value of BINIT. This value of BINIT. Desired reactive power range (pu) if MODSW is 3. In this case. 6-6 Siemens Energy. After being set to their initial position.. the steps of the lowest numbered block that are not yet on are switched on first. 4. Initial shunt admittance. In this case. In capacitor blocks. the basis for the initial switch positions in the next solution. In inductor blocks. The switched control of the shunt subsystem can be overridden to give an infinitely variable shunt inductance by setting MODSW to 2. and vice versa. controlling admittance setting of switched shunt at bus SWREM.. the switched shunt steps are turned on and off to hold the bus voltage between VSWHI and VSWLO. Switching occurs within only one block at a time. 4 or 5. the name of the VSC dc line at converter bus SWREM. Power Technologies International . the value of admittance needed to hold voltage at this midpoint is placed in BINIT by the power flow solution activities. if voltage is high. the effective shunt admittance is varied as required. SWREM RMPCT RMIDNT BINIT N1 B1. On reaching a solution. or placed under automatic control by setting MODSW to 1. serves as the basis for setting initial switch positions if MODSW is changed back to 0 or 1. When MODSW is set to 1.

and emergency ratings. transformers. and DRAW are made by comparing per unit current flowing into the branch at a terminal with an implied per-unit current rating. obtained as follows: Irated amps Ibase amps MVArated 3Ebase 3 Ebase MVAsystembase MVArated MVAsystembase 3 × Ebase × Irated Irated per unit = = × = The transformer overload checking activity OLTR assumes that transformer ratings are entered as MVA ratings. OLTR makes its overload checks by comparing transformer MVA flow directly with the MVA rating. series capacitors. Transmission lines.4. Inc. It is also a convenient way to estimate the amount of reactive power injection needed to achieve a given voltage correction at a bus.4. The branch ratings are used by activities RATE. Power Technologies International 6-7 .1 General Branch Model All transmission network branches are modeled in PSS®E by the general equivalent branch shown in Figure 6-2. be set to summer continuous. OLTL.. Siemens Energy.PSS®E 32.0. They may. The parameters of this model are summarized in Table 6-2. A.2 Branch Ratings Up to three ratings may be specified (in MVA) for each transmission branch. OLTL. Irated amps = Rated phase current. Overload checks in activities RATE.4 Transmission Branches 6. and isolated phase branches are modeled by the appropriate specification of zero and nonzero values of the general branch parameters.5 Program Application Guide: Volume I Basic Power Flow Activity Applications System Model Setup Setting MODSW to 2 is useful where there is no prior basis on which to judge an appropriate size of capacitor or inductor step.4. 6. All branch overload checks except that of activity OLTR are made on the assumption that the branch rating was determined from: MVArated = where: Ebase = Base voltage of the bus connected to the terminal branch. All line parameters except angles and ratings are specified per unit. OLTR. winter continuous. for example. and DRAW to locate and report on overloads. bus section (series) reactors. This is facilitated by setting: I = bus number MODSW = 2 BINIT N1 B1 N2 B2 =0 =1 = -9999 =1 = 9999 6.4.4.