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# CHAPTER 3 FORCES AND PRESSURE 3.

1 Understanding pressure % ) A student is able to: ( ……… / 8 x 100 % = ……………

Define pressure and state that P = A Describe applications of pressure Solve problems involving pressure

F

1. What is meant by pressure?

....................................................................................................................................... . 2. Choose ( √ ) the examples that apply the concept of pressure? ( ( ( 3. ) Toothpaste ) Larger and wider seat belt ) Ship ( ( ( ) Nail ) Knife ) Aerofoil

A girl is going to take a walk on a soggy field. There are two types of shoes as in diagram 3. Which type of shoes should she wear? ....................................................................................................................................... .

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4. Diagram shows a cuboid of 2 kg on a table. Calculate the pressure exerted on the table by the cuboid. Tick (√) the correct answer.

0.1 m 0.4 m Diagram 4

( ( ( (

) 0.8 N m-2 ) 50 N m-2 ) 200 N m-2 ) 500 N m-2

5. Diagram 5 shows different situations of a cuboid of 5 kg on a table. Circle the diagram in which the cuboid exerts the least pressure on the table.

Diagram 5

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...........3................2 Understanding pressure in liquids ) A student is able to: • • relate depth to pressure in a liquid relate density to pressure in a liquid ( ……… / 8 x 100 % = ……………% • • explain pressure in a liquid and state that P = h ρ g describe applications of pressure in liquids............................... What is the relationship between depth of liquid and pressure? .............................. What is the relationship between density of liquid and pressure? ....... Y ) has the highest pressure? 3 ............... 1............................................ 3.. 2...................................... Diagram 3 Diagram 3 shows a container of oil...................... Underline the correct answer Point ( X ..........................................

. State one application of pressure in liquid....................................... 6..............4........... ............. ρ = ......................... Diagram 6 Diagram 6 shows a glass full of alcohol.. The relationship of Pressure in liquid is................. g =....... 5.................................. ρ and g respectively? h =....... 4 ............................. P =hρg What is represented by h........................

However they were in the wrong order. A student wrote several statements to explain the gas pressure. [Write numbers 1.3 Understanding gas pressure and atmospheric pressure ( ……… / 15 x 100 % = ……………% ) A student is able to: • • • explain gas pressure explain atmospheric pressure describe applications of atmospheric pressure 1. Rearrange the statements in sequence to explain the gas pressure. The gas is made up of gas particles. 5 . [ Density of alcohol = 800 kg m-3 ] ( ( ( ( ) 1600 Pa ) 16 000 Pa ) 160 000 Pa ) 1 600 000 Pa 3.What is the pressure at P? Tick (√) the correct answer. 3 or 4 in the sequence column] Sequence Statements Collisions of gas particles in the container occur very frequently. 2. The collisions of gas particles on the wall of container give rise to gas pressure The gas particles move randomly with high speed.

What will happen to the mercury column Y if X is connected to a high pressure of gas tank? …………………………………………………………………………………………………. Underline the correct answer. 4. Diagram 3 Diagram 3 shows a manometer.. 6 .2. Diagram 2 Diagram 2 shows a manometer connected to a gas tank.[ Atmospheric pressure = 76 cm Hg] 3. Determine the gas pressure shown.

The Fortin barometer Y measured the atmospheric pressure at higher altitude. tick (√) i. The Fortin barometer X measured the atmospheric pressure at lower altitude. Based on the statement. thinner ). List two applications of atmospheric pressure. 8. The Fortin barometer X measured the atmospheric pressure at higher altitude. lower ) atmospheric pressure than the sea-side because the air at the mountain terrain is ( thicker . a correct inference ii. Which of the following statements correctly explain the difference of atmospheric pressure in the terms of altitude? Tick (√) at the correct statements. The Fortin barometer Y measured the atmospheric pressure at lower altitude. a correct hypothesis i ( ( ii. at 5.(a) The ( weight . mass ) of air on the earth’s surface caused the atmospheric pressure. (b) A mountain terrain has a ( higher . 7 . It is found that a Fortin barometer reads 74 cm Hg at a highland whereas the reading is 76 cm Hg at the sea side. Fortin barometer X reads 74 cm whereas Fortin barometer Y reads 76 cmHg. ( ( ) The atmospheric pressure is influenced by the altitude ) The atmospheric pressure is influenced by the type of barometer ) The higher the altitude from sea level the lower the atmospheric pressure ) The lower the altitude from sea level the lower the atmospheric pressure 6.

.......... Instruction : Answer all questions in this section..................................... 8 ............. ............ 2........ ……………….....4 Appling Pascal’s Principle % ) A student is able to: • • • • state Pascal’s principle.................................. ii.................... Diagram 3 shows a application of Pascal’s Principle........... 3.................................................. Some examples of the application of the Pascal’s Principle are ……………………. Pascal’s Principle states that …………………………………………….... Solve problems involving Pascal’s principle............i ........…………..................... ............... …………………………………………………………………………………………... ... 3.................. ………………………........................................... 1.................. Explain hydraulic system ( ……… / 10 x 100 % = …………… Describe applications of Pascal’s principle............

The diagram 4 show one application where pressure is transmitted equally through an oil. F2. The principle that explains the situation below is ……………………………………… Diagram 5 6. 9 . Diagram 4 5.. Diagram 5 shows toothpaste being squeezed out from the tube. Diagram 6 shows a :………………………………. Name of the system : ………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………… 4.. A1 and A2.Diagram 3 State the relationship between F1.

Diagram 7 shows a simple hydraulic system. Give one reason for your answer ………………………………………………………………………………………… 10 .Diagram 6 7. A1 and A2 are cross section area of the piston. What is the minimum force F1 which can lift a load of 100 kg ? ………………………………………………………………………………………… (b). Diagram 7 (a). A1 = 5 cm2 and A2 = 10 cm2. What will happen to the hydraulic jack if the force F1 is less than the value found in 7(a)? ………………………………………………………………………………………… (c).

…………………………………………………………………………………….5 Applying Archimedes’ Principle ( ……… / 3 0 x 100 % = ……………% ) A student is able to: • • • • • Explain buoyant force Relate buoyant force to the weight of the liquid displaced State Archimedes’ principle...................... .. Describe applications of Archimedes principle Solve problems involving Archimedes principle Instruction : Answer all question in this section. 3.. The examples of application of Archimedes' Principle are: 11 ... ....... 1... …………………………………………………………………………………………...3... Buoyant force is the ……... Archimedes' Principle states that ……………………………………………………………. 2..

Diagram 5 (a) Compare the readings of the spring balance in Diagram 5A and Diagram 5B. ………………..………………………….. . ……………………………… 12 . ……………. What is the relationship between the buoyant force and the weight of water displaced ? …………………………………………………… …………………………… 5.. …………. 4. Diagram 5 shows a spring balance supporting a metal block K in three situations. ………………………….. ………………………...………………. ………………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Name three forces that act on K when it is partially or totally immersed in water.

(c) State and explain the relationship between the forces in (b). (i).. Explain how a submarine on the surface submerges.………………………………………………………. 6. 7.. a) The submarine has a ____________. What will happen to the spring balance in diagram 5C if the water is replaced with salt solution? …………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Give one reason for your answer. although the boat carries the same load. A fisherman finds that his boat is at different levels in the sea and in the river. Diagram A and B below illustrate the situations of the boat in the sea and in the river. b) Water is _________ in the ballast tank. ………………………. A submarine can sail on the sea surface and under the sea. Diagram 7 13 . …. ………………………………………………………………………………………… (e). d) The submarine sinks into the water when its ___________ is more than the ____________ of the water and its weight is equal/more than the _______. ………………………………………………………………………………………… (d) Name the principle involved in question (c).

Diagram 8 Explain how you would design a hydrometer that can determine a wide range of densities of liquid. f) More water will be ___________ when the density is lower. a) The boat b) Sea water is c) The _________ more in the river than in the sea. the calibration of the hydrometer. the volume of water displaced and the density of the water. d) The boat floats because it is being balanced up by the _____________. deduce a relevant physics concept. The boat _________ more when the density is lower. ___________ _________ of the boat and its load is the same when it is in the sea and in the river. The depth to which the test tube sinks depends on its surrounding liquid. Relating the mass of the boat with its load. Emphasized the following aspects: the stability of the hydrometer. 8. 14 . using the idea of the working principle of hydrometer in diagram 8A and diagram 8B. than river water. the ability to measure a wide range of densities of liquids. the sensitivity of the hydrometer.Compare the levels of the boats in diagram 7 and the volumes of water displaced by the boat. Draw a diagram that shows the design of your hydrometer and in your explanation. e) The upthrust is equal to the weight of _________________. Diagram A and B illustrate the working principle of a hydrometer.

This is to make calibration for liquid of low density. e) __________ the hydrometer in a paraffin oil / alcohol. ( ……/ 30 x 100 % = ……………% ) Learning Outcomes A student is able to: • • • • State Bernoulli’s principle Explain that resultant force exists due to a difference in fluid pressure Describe applications of Bernoulli’s principle Solve problems involving Bernoulli’s principle Instruction : Answer all questions in this section... to have a bigger interval of the scale. d) Use a suitable big bulb and a ________ stem. Bernoulli's Principle states that …………………………………………………………………………………………. 15 . to ensure the hydrometer is upright.iii………………………. Learning Objective 3. This is the calibration for liquid of high density. 1.……... So that the hydrometer does not sink fully in low density liquid. The scale and the level of liquid at the stem will show the density of paraffin oil / alcohol.a) Draw a correct design of the hydrometer. c) Use a _________ stem.. The examples of application of the Bernoulli's Principle are: i ……………………….. 2. ….6 Understanding Bernoulli’s principle. Make the scale at the stem using the upper and the lower level of density. f) __________ the hydrometer into a carbon tetrachloride solution.ii ….…………………. b) Put ___________ balls in the glass bulb..

.iv………………………………………. In box X. (c) Explain how F is produced. i….…………………………………………………………………………………… (b) F is a force that causes the paper to change its position..v……………………………………………. on Diagram B. Diagram below shows a piece of paper hanging from a retort stand.…………………………………………………………………………………… ii…. how does the position of paper change when the air flows faster ?. 16 . Diagram 3 (a) Compare the position of the paper in Diagram 3A and Diagram 3B.…………………………………………………………………………………… (d) (i) Compared to the position of the paper in Diagram B. When air flows from the nozzle of an air pump. 3. indicate and label the direction of F that acts on the paper. the paper changes its position as shown in Diagram B. ….

……….…………………………………………………………………………………… 4.……………….……………………………………………………………………… (ii). 17 . Diagram B shows the situation of canopy before the lorry moves and when the lorry moves at high speed.……………………………………………………………………………… (e) Name the principle that causes the observation in Diagram B. Give a reason for your answer in (d)(i). Diagram A below shows the situation of a sheet of paper before and when air is blown. ….

………………………………………………………………………………………… ii………………………………………………………………………………………… (ii) Compare the air pressure above and below the paper when air is blown. i. ……………………………………………………………………………………… (iii) Relate the speed of the air to the pressure of the air. ………………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Name the principle involved in question (a)(iii). ……………………………………………………………………………………… 5. 18 .Diagram 4 (a) Based on Diagram 4A and Diagram 4B : (i) State two similarities for the situations in Diagram 4A and Diagram 4B. Diagram 5 shows an instrument used to measure the speed of air.

Diagram 6 shows a cross-section of a wing of a moving aero plane. ………………………………………………………………………………… 6.Diagram 5 In Diagram 5A shown the level of coloured water in the U-tube is the same before air flows. ………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Mark the water level in the U-tube in Diagram B when air flows. The wing of the aeroplane experiences a lift force. (a) Compare the speeds of air at P and at Q after air flows at diagram B. Diagram 6 19 .

(a) Name the shape of the cross-section in Diagram 6. i……………………………………………………………………………………… ii……………………………………………………………………………………… iii……………………………………………………………………………………… 7. forces and the properties of materials. Diagram 7 You are required to give some suggestions to design a aero plane which can travel faster and more stable. …. Using the knowledge on motion. explain the suggestion based on the following aspects: 20 .…………………………………………………………………………………… (b) Explain why the lift force acts on the wing of the aeroplane. Diagram 7 shows a model of an aeroplane..

To reduce the weight and easy to fly. b) _____________ shape. To increase the uplift (force). d) The wings are positioned higher up on the body so that the aeroplane is _________________ .- the surface of the plane the shape of the plane material used for the plane position of the wing the size of the wing a) __________. To reduce air friction between air plane and air. 21 . To reduce air friction also. e) ___________.. c) ________________ material.