You are on page 1of 6

1

DNA & Protein Synthesis
Codon Chart
First Base U UUU phenylalanine UUC phenylalanine UUA leucine UUG leucine CUU leucine CUC leucine CUA leucine CUG leucine AUU isoleucine AUC isoleucine AUA isoleucine AUG(start) methionine GUU valine GUC valine GUA valine GUG valine Second Base C UCU serine UCC serine UCA serine UCG serine CCU proline CCC proline CCA proline CCG proline ACU threonine ACC threonine ACA threonine ACG threonine GCU alanine GCC alanine GCA alanine GCG alanine A UAU tyrosine UAC tyrosine UAA stop UAG stop CAU histidine CAC histidine CAA glutamine CAG glutamine AAU asparagine AAC asparagine AAA lysine AAG lysine GAU aspartate GAC aspartate GAA glutamate GAG glutamate G UGU cysteine UGC cysteine UGA stop UGG tryptophan CGU arginine CGC arginine CGA arginine CGG arginine AGU serine AGC serine AGA arginine AGG arginine GGU glycine GGC glycine GGA glycine GGG glycine Third base U C A G U C A G U C A G U C A G

U

C

A

G

Proteins are essential to cell activity. How are proteins used in cells? Proteins are made of polypeptides. Each gene that makes up chromosomes codes

Once you have made one polypeptide. the TA will assign your group one of the mutations listed below. Protein Synthesis Worksheet NOTE – there are not enough molecular model pieces to physically make the mutations and create new mRNA and amino acid sequences. Your group will model the processes of transcription and translation. make models of each and demonstrate to your TA how to make a polypeptide. Through a series of steps this code is translated and transcribed into a polypeptide. In this activity. Please make sure your molecular model is returned to the original configuration when you are finished. amino acid sequences that makes up a polypeptide (from the chart on the first page). your group will determine the nucleotide sequences for template DNA and mRNA. the sequence of tRNAs.2 for a polypeptide. Use the segment of worksheet below to determine the outcome of the mutation assigned to your group. and mutation descriptions (at the end of the worksheet) to determine the new amino acid sequence and name the type of mutation. Original Transcription and Translation A T G C G A A A G A C G…(more bases) T A C G C T T T C T G C…(more bases) DNA gene strand DNA template strand …(more bases) mRNA Codons Amino Acids of Polypeptide . that is. mRNA code chart. Be prepared to share your findings with your classmates. Use the worksheet. Predict how the amino acid change will or will not affect the function of the protein produced by this gene. protein synthesis.

3 Mutation Activity #1 Inversion of base pair #6 Type of Mutation? _______________________________________ A T G C G T A A G A C G…(more bases) T A C G C A T T C T G C…(more bases) DNA gene strand DNA template strand …(more bases) mRNA Codons Amino Acids of Polypeptide Mutation Activity #2 Inversion base pair #4 Type of Mutation? _________________________________________ A T G G G A A A G A C G…(more bases) T A C C C T T T C T G C…(more bases) DNA gene strand DNA template strand …(more bases) mRNA Codons Amino Acids of Polypeptide .

.4 Mutation Activity #3 Inversion base pair #7 Type of Mutation? __________________________________________ A T G C G A T A G A C G…(more bases) T A C G C T A T C T G C…(more bases) DNA gene strand DNA template strand …(more bases) mRNA Codons Amino Acids of Polypeptide Mutation Activity #4 Deletion of a base pair #3 Type of Mutation? ______________________________________ A T T A C G A A A G A C G…(more bases) G C T T T C T G C.(more bases) mRNA Codons Amino Acids of Polypeptide ..(more bases) DNA gene strand DNA template strand .....

it simply reads the next three nucleotide bases as the next codon. The ribosome continues reading the mRNA three bases at a time – the three base reading frame. This means that TRANSLATION of the mRNA at the ribosome stops at this STOP codon. . Frame shift Mutation: In this example. When the ribosome attempts to translate the part of the mRNA where the nucleotide base is missing.5 Mutation Activity #5 Insertion of three base pairs between BPs #5 and #6 (within a codon) Type of Mutation? _____________________________________ A T G T A C C G G C C C C A A A G A C G) DNA gene strand G G G T T T C T G C DNA template strand mRNA Codons Amino Acids of Polypeptide Silent Mutation: A small change in the DNA nucleotide base sequence produces a change in one codon in the mRNA molecule. The whole gene is transcribed. but because of redundancy in the genetic code. Missense Mutation: A small change in the DNA nucleotide base sequence produces a change in one codon in the mRNA molecule that does code for a different amino acid. Nonsense Mutation: A change in the DNA nucleotide base sequence produces a STOP codon in the mRNA upon transcription. the new codon codes for the same amino acid as the original codon. the “reading” of the molecule starts as usual with the translation of the first three bases as the first codon. the deletion of one nucleotide base pair results in the transcription of an mRNA molecule that is missing one nucleotide base. but the STOP codon is embedded someplace in the mRNA molecule. producing a very different sequence of amino acids during translation. all the codon sequences are shifted by one base. This results in a shift of the reading frame. When this mutant mRNA molecule is translated at a ribosome. Consequently.

and ultimately death. One person may have 10 “repeats” in a specific section of his DNA inherited from his father and 8 repeats inherited from his mother. Insertion or Expanding Mutation: In this type of mutation three or multiples of three nucleotide base pairs are added to the DNA of a gene. like a genetic stutter in the DNA. Often. .of three or multiples of three nucleotide base pairs – see Expanding Mutation. Sometimes repeating segments occur in sections of DNA that are NOT genes that code for proteins. An interesting exception is the deletion .or addition . the mutant protein causes severe degeneration of the nervous system. Another person may have inherited 6 repeats in the same segment of DNA from her father and 14 from her mother. based solely on her DNA.6 Frame shift mutations occur when one or more nucleotide base pairs in the DNA of the gene are lost – or added. producing variations in particular segments of DNA that are used in DNA profiling. These small differences are enough to allow positive identification of a person. When this happens in the coding section of some genes. these insertions are repeating sequences of DNA nucleotides. like the Huntington disease gene.