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q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif;

woufwmrSwfwrf;ESifh tawG;tac:rsm;

yxrESdyfjcif;trSm

1953 ckESpfwGif uREkfyf\ &wemykH0w¬Kudk ausmif;okH;pmtkyf


tjzpfESifh jyXmef;pOftcgu ausmif;okH; pmtkyf jyXmef;a&; aumfrwD\
rSwfcsufwGif ]] pma&;q&mtaMumif;udk vnf; avhvm&rnf }} [laom
tcsufwck azmfjyyg&Sd\/ &wemykH0w¬K a&;q&m jzpfaom uREkfyf
taMumif;udk ausmif;om;rsm;avhvm&rnfqdkvQif tcsKdUpma&;q&mrsm;uJUodkU
]yDrdk;eif;\ yDrdk;eif;}? ]r[maqG\ r[maqG} tp&Sdonfh udk,fwdkif
a&;om;aom tw¬KyÜwÅd pmtkyfrsKd; a&;xkwfzl;jcif; r&Sdao;onfh
twGufaMumifh ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;ü tcuftcJ BuKH&zG,f&Sdonf[k
oabm&onfESifh uREkfyfonf ]OD;azodef;\ a&TOa'gif;}[laom trnfjzifh
uREkfyf\tw¬KyÜwÅdudk tMurf;zsif;taejzifha&;om; &dkufESdyfcJUbl;ygonf/
xkdtrnfudkrSnfh&mü uREkfyf\ &nf&G,fcsufrSm q&m yDrdk;eif;ESifh r[maqGwkdU
rSnfhxm;Muonfh pmtkyftrnfrsm;ESifh tqifuJGap&ef jzpfygonf/
okdU&mwGif a&TOa'gif;onf OD;azodef;yif jzpfonf[k rodMuoltcsKdU
]a&TOa'gif; }tw¬KyÜwÅdudk OD;azodef;qkdaom vlwa,mufu a&;xkwfjcif;
jzpfonf[k rSwfxifcJUMuavonf/


] OD;azodef;\ a&TOa'gif; } pmtkyfwGif &wemykH0w¬K? oif&onfh
ausmif;ol ausmif;om; rsm;twGuf oufouf&nf&G,fonfhtwdkif; uREkfyf\
rsKd;&dk;ZmwdESifh arG;zGm;onfhckESpfouú&mZftjyif tvkyftudkif trsKd;rsKd;rQ
avmufudkom xnfhoGif;azmfjycJUonf jzpfaomaMumifh uREkfyftaMumif;udk
odvkdolrsm;tzkdU rpkHvif&kH omru ,if;odkUaom tw¬KyÜwÅdrsKd;udk zwf&Ijcif;
tm;jzifh tusKd;aus;Zl; rsm;vSrnfvnf; r[kwfyg/ þtaMumif;udk uREkfyf
em;vnfaomfvnf; uREkfyf\ &nf&G,fcsufrSm ausmif;okH;pmtkyf aumfrwD\
rSwfcsuft&ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;tzkdUvdkvm;csufjynfhpkH&kHuav; twGuf
qdkíxdkrQESifhyif auseyfcJUygonf/

txufygpmtkyf xGufvmNyD;onfhaemuf vlxkarmifESHwkdUu (txl;


ojzifh rtrmu) ]]OD;av;odef;tw¬KyÜwÅdudk jynfhjynfhpkHpkH wtkyf a&;xkwf
prf;ygtkH;}} [k wkdufwGef;Mu\/ xkdtcg uREkfyfu rdrd\ tw¬KyÜwÅdudk
a&;om;jcif;[lonfrSm wdkif;jynfwGifwenf;enf;ESifh BuD;us,f NyD; ]vlwvkH;
olwvkH;} jzpfvmMuolrsm;oma&;avh&SdaMumif;? rdrdrSm bm wvkH;rQjzpfrvm
ao;ojzifh rdrdtaMumif;udk tjcm;vlrsm;u a&;xdkufonf xifMuvQif
a&;Muap? rdrdudkf,fwkdifa&;ygu udk,fh[mudk,f txifBuD;ol wa,muf
[lí tjcm;vlrsm; uJU&JUpGyfpGJp&mjzpfvdrhfrnfh taMumif; jyefajym ygonf/
xdktcg rtrmu udk,fhtaMumif;udkudk,f a&;jcif;[lonfrSm ]vlwvkH;
olwvkH;} jzpfvmrSa&;xdkufonf r[kwfaMumif;? tu,fí {&mr vlBuD;
wa,mufjzpfvmapumrlvnf; ]igvdkvl &Sdao;vm;} qkdonfh oabmrsKd;ESifh
[dwfxkwf a&;om;jcif;rsKd;jzpfcJU&if pmzwfoltzkdU tusKd; rsm;oifhoavmuf
rrsm;yJjzpfEdkifaMumif;? BuD;us,fvSaom yk*¾dKvfwOD;yif r[kwfapumrl
pma&;wwfaompma&;q&m wa,mufjzpfyguzwfcsifhpzG,f jzpfEdkifonfhjyif


pmzwfolrsm;tzkdUü oifcef;pm ,lEdkifavmufonfh pmtkyf rsKd;jzpfvmEdkif
aMumif;rsm;ESifh taMumif;jy ajymqdkavonf/

uREkfyfonf rtrm\taMumif;jycsufESifh ywfoufí tcsdefMum&SnfpGm


pOf;pm;cJUygonf/

ol\ taMumif;jycsufrsm;onf cdkifvkHonf[k uREkfyfqkH;jzwfvdkufonfh


tjyif uREkfyfudk,fwdkif xyfrHawGU&Sd &aomtaMumif; rsm;udkvnf; wifjy
vdkygao;onf/ uREkfyfrSm taemufwkdif; 0w¬K rsm;teufrS  (  Classics  ) 

pHerlem wifavmufonf[k ynm&Sdrsm; owfrSwfxm;onfh 0w¬K


tajrmuftjrm;udk zwf&IcJUzl;&mwGif 4if;wkdUudk tb,fhaMumifh xdkuJUodkU
a&G;cs,f owfrSwfMuygoenf;[k uREkfyfpl;prf; &SmazGMunfh ygonf/
uREkfyfawGU&Sd&aom taMumif;w&yfrSm xdkpmtkyfrsm;onf vlUobm0udk
rSefuefpGmESifh opöm&SdpGmay:vGifxif&Sm;ap&ef tjzpftysufrsm;udk pdwful;jzifh
pDpOfzefwD;NyD; ZmwfuGuf Zmwfvrf;jzifh 0w¬Kjzpfatmif a&;om; wifjyjcif;
onftaMumif;BuD; w&yfjzpfonf[k awGU&Sd&ygonf/ uREkfyf\tw¬KyÜwÅdudk
&dk;om;pGmwifjyonfqdkvQif tjzpftysuf tppftrSefudk wifjyjcif;jzpfonfh
twGufaMumifh ( 0w¬Krsm;uJUokdU ) obm0 usrusudk pOf;pm;p&mrvdk?
a&;om;ol udk,fEIdufu &dk;om;zdkU omvdkonf[k pOf;pm;rdygonf/
þwGif t[kwf wu,f &dk;om; Edkifygrnfavm? rdrd\ *kPfoa&udk
xdcdkufrnfpdk;onfESifh wpdwfudk wtdwfvkyfjcif;? trnf;udktjzLvkyfjcif;?
taumif;udkcsJUxGifNyD; tqdk;udk jrKyfxm;jcif;tp&Sdonfh r&dk;om;aom
uavmiform;\ tjyKtrlrsKd;rS a&SmifMuOfEdkif ygrnfavm[k rdrdudk,fudk
ppfaq;Munfh &mwGif uREkfyfonf pmtkyfaumif;wtkyf ay:xGufa&;


twGuf yk*¾dKvftaejzifh rdrdtzdkU txifBuD;cHvdkjcif; wnf;[laom rme 
( Vanity )  udk pGefUvTwf ygawmhrnf[k qkH;jzwfcsufcsvdkufygonf/

vlUobm0udk xif&Sm;atmif wifjyjcif;qdk&mü vlom;tm;vkH;ESifh


oufqdkifaomobm0tjyif yk*¾dKvftoD;oD;ESifh oufqdkifaom obm0 
(  Individual  Nature  )  [lí &Sdygao;onf/ rdrd\ tw¬KyÜwÅdudk
a&;om;azmfjyrnfjzpfaom uREfkyftzdkUrSm vlom;tm;vkH;ESifh oufqdkifaom
obm0ESifh pnf;vGwf 'kH;vGwf} rjzpfapyJ uREkfyfü txl;wvnf woD;
wjcm;wnf&Sdonfh obm0udkvnf; azmfjy&efwm0ef&Sdonfjzpf&m (4if;wm0ef
onf ao;i,fvG,fulaom wm0efwckr[kwfaomfvnf; ) uREkfyf\ r&Suf
raMumuf oabmxm;Edkifjcif;? &dk;om;jcif;? ajzmifhpif;jcif;? opömw&m;udk
jrwfEdk;jcif;rsm;tm;vkH;jzifh tqdkygwm0efudkausyGefatmif xrf;aqmifEdkif
aumif;yg\[k arQmfvifhrdygonf/ uREkfyf\t&nftcsif;ESifh ywfoufírl
(rSefrnf rSm;rnfrajymwwf ) vltoD;oD;\ tZöswÅoEÅmefü uwfuwf
owfowfwnf&Sdwwfonfh tvGefodrfarGUvSaom obm0uav; tcsKdUudk
azmfxkwfwifjywwfonfh yg&rDcHyg&Sdonf[k arQmfvifhygonf/ þonfrSm
uREkfyf\ tm;udk;BuD;wck jzpfygonf/

uREkfyfonf y#doaE¨"mwfcHtm;jzifh vl,kwfrmwa,mufvnf; r[kwf?


olawmfaumif; wa,mufvnf; r[kwf? tv,ftvwf twef;tpm;
wa,mufjzpfonf[k ,kHMunfay&m ywf0ef;usiftajctae\ jyKjyifrI
twGufaMumifh aumif;aomtcsif;t&mrsm;ESifh raumif;aomtcsif;t&m
rsm;onf b,fykHb,fenf; 0ifvmMuykH? rdbrsm;xHrS qufcH&ykH? b0
tpOftqufrS ygvmykH&onfh tcsif;t&mrsm;vnf; &SdykH? 4if;wkdUtm;vkH;udk
aygif;pyfNyD;cgrS ,ck vuf&Sd a&TOa'gif;qdkonfh tbdk;BuD; wa,muf


jzpfvm&ykHtaMumif;udk ca&aphwGif;usazmfjyvdkfonfh &nf&G,fcsufvnf;
&Sdygonf/ uREkfyf\woufwmrSwfwrf;udkaphaphpyfpyf zwf&Iolrsm;teuf
vuf&Sd a&TOa'gif;udk odMuoljzpfygu ]]aMomf..Mo.. 'DvlBuD;[m 'gaMumifh
*GpmBuD;jzpfaewmyJudk;}} [lí qkH;jzwfcsuf csMuygvQif vnf; uREkfyftzdkU
epfemonf[kxifvdrfhrnf r[kwfonfhjyif pma&;q&m wa,muftaejzifh
vufpGrf;xufvSNyD;[líyif *kPf,lvdrfhrnfxifygonf/

uREkfyf\rSwfwrf;rSm tjypftemtqmESifh cRwf,Gif;csufrsm;udk 0efcH


azmfjyonfh  (Confessions)  ajzmifhcsufrsm; oufoufvnf;r[kwf?
rdrdukd,fudk txifBuD;apvdkí taumif;awGcsnf;a&G;NyD; csJUxGifwifjy
jcif;rsKd;vnf;r[kwf? uREkfyfwoufwmü pdwfudkxdcdkufjcif;aMumifh trSwfxif
vsuf&Sdonfh tjzpftysuftaMumif;t&mrsm;udk uREkfyfowd&oavmuf
a&;om;azmfjyjcif; jzpfygonf/ uREkfyf\pdwfü xdckdufjcif;[lonf rSm
auseyfaomaMumifh xdcdkufjcif;rsm;vnf;&Sdí rauseyfaomaMumifhxdckdufjcif;
rsm;vnf;&SdMuayonf/ &Hzef&Hcg rdrdudk,fudk aumif;aom tuGufüxm;í
aumif;aom t&nftcsif;uav;rsm;udk azmfjyrdonfhtcg (enf;awmhenf;
ygonf) udk,f&nfaoG;csifwwfonf[k xifrSwfrdMuygu uREkfyf\raumif;
jcif;? nHUzsif;jcif; pdwf"mwfaysmhjcif; taMumif;rsm;udkvnf; ruG,fr0Suf
rzkH;rzdazmfjyjcif;rsm;udkvnf; owdjyKMujcif;tm;jzifh cGifhvTwfEdkifMuvdrhfrnf
[k arQmfvifhygonf/

uREkfyf\ aysmhnHUrIrsm;ESifh cRwf,Gif;csufrsm;rSm rSwfwrf;wavQmufvkH;


wGif tzefwvJvJ awGU&Sd&rnfjzpfaomaMumifh pmzwfoltcsKdUu uREkfyf\
&dk;om;jcif;udk obmuszG,f&m&Sdaomfvnf; &mcdkifEIef;trsm;url ]]vufpowf
awmY 'DvlBuD;[m vla&SmfBuD;wa,mufygwum;}}[k qkH;jzwfMu rnfudkvnf;


uREkfyfpOf;pm;rdygonf/ þwGifuREkfyfonf urÇmausmf tw¬KyÜwÅda&;q&mBud;
abmhpf0Jvf taMumif;udk owd&rdygonf/ abmhpf0Jvfonf urÇmausmf
pma&;q&mBuD;wOD;jzpfaom a'gufwm*Refqif\ tw¬KyÜwÅdudka&;om;cJU&m
ol\tw¬KyÜwÅdpmtkyf(Biography)onf urÇmay: wGif taumif;qkH;aom
tw¬KyÜwÅdpmtkyfjzpf&kHomru 'kwd,vkdufaom tw¬KyÜwÅdpmtkyfonf
abmhpf0Jvf\ pmtkyfaemufrS rdkifaygif;rsm;pGm jywfusef&pfonf[k
pma&;q&mBuD; avmh'frauúmav;u csD;usL;a&;om; zl;avonf/
abmhpf0Jvf\ pmtkyfwGif a'gufwm*RefqifESifhawGUwdkif; tjyeftvSef
pum;Edkifvkí ajymMuonfrsm;wGif a'gufwm*Refqifucsnf; EdkifNyD;
abmhpf0Jvfu jywfjywfowfowf ]acG;us0ufus} &IH;cJU&ykHrsm;udk t&SufriJUyJ
&J&Jwif;wif; uGufuGufuGif;uGif; jynfhjynfhpkHpkHtao;pdwf a&;om;azmfjy
xm;avonf/4if;pmtkyfwGif a'gufwm*Refqif awmfoavmuf abmhpf0Jvf
nHU&ma&mufae\/ a'gufwm*Refqif\awmfjcif;onf abmhpf0Jvf \nHUjcif;
aMumifh (vuG,faeUnwGifjrif&aom aomMumMu,fuJUodkU) tpGrf;ukef
awmufajymifNyD; taumif;qkH; pmtkyfBuD; jzpfvm&avonf/
wurÇmvkH;onf abmhpf0Jvf\ pmtkyfBuD;udk csD;usL;í rqkH;&SdaepOf
abmhpf0Jvf uG,fvGefaomtcgü ol\om;u rnfokdUajymonf xifMu
oenf;/ zcif\ pmtkyfausmfapmrIaMumifh om;jzpfolu *kPf,lonf
xifMuoavm/ olUom;urdrdwwfEdkifcJUvQif zcifa&;cJUonfh tw¬KyÜwÅd
pmtkyfrsm;udk urÇmay:wGif&Sd&SdorQ tm;vkH;0,fNyD; rD;&IdUypfcsifonf[k
ajymzl;onfqkd\/ taMumif;rlum; xkdpmtkyfBuD;wGif olUzcifonf
(pma&;aumif;aomfvnf;) yk*¾dKvftaejzifh vlnHUwa,mufjzpf&aomaMumifh
[kqdkavonf/ uREkfyf\rSwfwrf;rSmvnf; uREkfyf\tquftEG,f
aemifvmaemifom;rsm;u abmhpf0Jvf\ om;enf;wl rD;&IdUypfcsifMuacsrnf


avm[k pOf;pm;rdzl;ygonf/ aemufqkH;ürl rD;&IdUawmhrS &IdUap? vlUobm0udk
&dk;om;pGm wifjyjcif;tm;jzifh pGefUpm;vkdufygOD;rnf[k qkH;jzwfcsuf csvdkuf
ygawmhonf/

uREkfyf\rSwfwrf;rSmtw¬KyÜwÅdoufoufr[kwf? tawG;tac:rsm;vnf;
xnfhoGif;azmfjyyg&Sd\/ uREkfyf\ tawG;tac:rsm;rSmvnf; edAÁmefqdkonfrSm
b,fodkUenf;? r*fpdwÅyÜg'f[lonfrSm b,fvdkrsm;aeavoenf; ponfjzifh
tajcmufwdkuf Avmoufouf a&mf&rf;rSef;qonfh tawG;tac: trsKd;tpm;
r[kwf? udk,fwdkifBuKHawGUonfh tjzpftysuf tcsif;t&mrsm; tay:wGif
tajcwnfum vGwfvyfpGm awG;ac:wifjyxm;jcif;rsKd; jzpfygaom aMumifh
uREkfyf,lqonfhtwkdif; ]wcsufvGwf} vufcHEdkif vufrcHEdkif tyxm;í
[kwfavmufoifh r[kwfavmufoifhudk pOf;pm; qifjcifp&m tcsif;t&m
rsKd;ajrmufjrm;pGm yg&Sdonf[k arQmfvifhygonf/ vGefcJUNyD;aom acwfrsm;url
rd&kd;zvm t,ltqESifh uGJvJGcJUvQif y&dowfodkU wifjy&efyif cJ,Of;cJU
onfjzpf&m? þacwfwGifrlum; udk,fydkifOmPfjzifh EIdif;csdefqkH;jzwf &Jonfh
pmzwfy&dowf wkd;wufrsm;jym;vmonf[k ,kHMunfonfhtavsmuf pGefUpm;
wifjyvdkufaom tawG;tac:rsm;vnf; yg&Sdygonf/

woufwmrSwfwrf;udk a&;om;&mü uREkfyf\ ta&;tBuD;qkH;jzpfaom


&nf&G,fcsufrSm i,f&G,fEke,fpOftcg aysmfaysmfaecsifwwfí ]vlpkH}wa,muf
jzpfcsifonfh ]vla&Smf} wa,mufonfyif tcsdefwefaomtcgü owdw&m;&í
a*gwrAk'¨ a[mjyawmrlcJUonfh usifhpOfrsm;t& rdrd\pdwfudk apmifhMunfhum
xdef;odrf;ay;onfh tavhtusifh(MindCulture)jyKvkyfygu usrf;wwfq&m
rsm; OD;acgif;ukwf Mu&onfh avmukwÅ&ma&;qdkif&m usrf;wapmifwzGJU
jyKpkEdkifcJUjcif;tm;jzifh jrefrmjynfAk'¨bmomavmuü trSwfxif&pfatmif


pGrf;aqmifEdkifayonf wum;[k tm;us&pfapzkdU arQmfvifh,kHMunfcsufyif
jzpfyg ownf;/

a&TOa'gif;

21.10.61


'kwd,ESdyfjcif;trSm

woufwmrSwfwrf; yxrESdyfjcif;udk zwf&IMuaom pmzwfy&dowf


tcsKdUu uREkfyfonf 4if;pmtkyf 4wGJwGif azmfjycJUonf tcsif;t&mrsm;teuf
4if;wdkUoabmrusEdkifonfh tcsuftvufrsm;udk pmjzifh a&;om;ay;ydkU
Muonf/ xdkolwkdUonf tw¬KyÜwÅdqdkygu pmzwfolwkdU twkcdk; enf;,lxdkuf
onfh tjzpftysuf taMumif;t&mrsm;udkom xnfhoGif; azmfjyxdkufonf[k
,lqMu[ef vu©Pm&Sdonf/
woufwmrSwfwrf; pmtkyf 4wGJudk a&;om;azmfjycJU&mü uREkfyf\
&nf&G,fcsufrSm ]a&TOa'gif;}wnf;[laom yk*¾dKvfwpfOD;onf csD;usL;zG,f
aumif;aom vlwa,mufjzpfonf[lí pmzwfolrsm;,lqMu&ef &nf&G,fcsuf
r&Sd/ vlcsD;rGrf;cHvdkí rSwfwrf;udk a&;xkwfjcif;vnf;r[kwf/ ]a&TOa'gif;}onf
rnfodkUaom vlwa,mufjzpfonfudk opöm&SdpGm o&kyfazmfjyjcif;tm;jzifh
[kwfwdkif;rSef&m rdrdtjzpftysufrsm;ESifhwuG rdrdtawG;tac:rsm;udk pmzwf
y&dowfodkUwifjy&ef &nf&G,fcsufrQom&Sdygonf/ tcsKdUae&mrsm;ü uREkfyf
onf &SufzG,f&maumif; aom rdrd\nHUzsif;rIrsm;udkyif pmzwfolwkdUtm;
ruG,fr0Suf? rzkH;rzdyJ &dk;om;pGm wifjycJUygonf/ uJU&JUcsifvQifvnf;
uJU&JUMuap? ajymifavSmifcsifvQifvnf; ajymifavSmifMuap[k oabmxm;um
[kwfrSeforQ twdkif;omwifjycJUygonf/
tcsKdUaom tw¬KyÜwÅdpmtkyfrsm;ü pma&;q&onf aumif;ayhqdkaom
t&nftcsif;rsm;ESifhawmufajymifaom tjyKtrlrsm;udkom azmfjyavh&Sd&m
rdr\
d tjzpftysufudk rdrdudk,fwdkif a&;om;azmfjyonfh woufwm rSwfwrf;
pmtkyfwGif xdkuJUodkUjyKrlygu tw¬KyÜwÅda&;om;enf; tpOftvmudk
em;vnfaomy&dowf\uJU&JUoN*FKd[ftjypfqkdjcif;udk cH&zG,f&m&Sad yvdrfYrnf/

10 
uREkfyfonf vufcH&&Sdxm;onfh txufygjypfwifpm rsKd;udk onf;cH&rnf
jzpfaomfvnf; nHUzsif;rIrsm;udk jrKyfxm;&ef vlcsD;rGrf;p&m toufwm
rsKd;udkomvQif a&;om;azmfjyrdygu yg;&nfeyf&nf&Sdaom y&dowf\
jypfwifuJU&JUjcif;udk aMumufvSygonf/
tw¬KyÜwÅd pmtkyfrsm;teufwGif ausmfapmxif&Sm;qkH;jzpfaom
]abmhpf0Jvf}\ ]a'gufwm*Refqif}pmtkyfwGif pma&;q&m abmhpf0Jvfonf
rdr\
d nHUzsif;aom tcsufrsm;udkazmfjyí a'gufwm*Refqif\ awmufajymif
aom ajymykHqdkykH pum;vkH;rsm;udkum; wavQmufvkH;azmfjycJUonfhtwGuf
pma&;ol abmhpf0JvfrSm vlnHUwa,muf[lí xifrSwfzG,f&mjzpfoGm;\/
odkU&mwGif ol\ tw¬KyÜwÅdpmtkyfrSm urÇmay:wGif a&;cJUMuorQaom
tw¬KyÜwÅdrsm;teuf t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh a&;om;onfh 4if;pmtkyfonf
tjcm;tjcm;aom tw¬KyÜwÅdpmtkyfrsm;xuf tjywftouf omvGef
aumif;rGefygayonf[k urÇmausmf pma&;q&mBuD; rauúmav;u
azmfxkwfcsD;usL;cJUavonf/ uREkfyfrSmvnf; ]nHUvQifnHYyap?pmtkyfaumif;
vQif awmfNyD}[k oabmxm;rdygaMumif;/

a&TOa'gif;
19-6-68

11 
q&mBuD;a&TOa'gif;

woufwmrSwfwrf;ESifh tawG;tac:rsm;

yxrydkif;

uREkfyf\rSwfwrf;

vlwa,mufonf pkHaxmufrif;BuD;xH tvkyfavQmufxm;onfhtcg


rif;BuD;onf xdkvl\ Oy"d&kyfudk oabmusonfESifh 4if;\t&nftcsif;udk
prf;oyfí oifhawmfvQif &mxl;cefUxm;vdkaomtBuHjzpf\/ okdUjzpfí
rif;BuD;onf rdrdodvdkaom yk*¾dKvfwOD;\trnf? ae&yfESifh tvkyftudkifwkdU
udkajymjyNyD;vQif xdkyk*¾dKvftm; rsufpdatmufrS taysmufrcHyJ aeUa&mnyg
t&dyfozG,f wG,fuyfvkdufygvsuf 4if;ajymorQ vkyforQ tvkH;pkHudk
rdrdxHodkU tpD&ifcHpm wifydkU&rnfhtaMumif; ajymjyav\/ tvkyfavQmuf
xm;aomvlonf rif;BuD;odvdkaom yk*¾dKvfESifh rdwfaqGvnf;r[kwf? &efol
vnf;r[kwfav&um; xdkyk*¾dKvfajymorQ vkyforQwkdUudk rdrdjrif&onfh
twdkif;? Mum;&onfhtwdkif; wdusrSefuefpGma&;om; tpD&ifcH&ayvdrfhrnf/
raumif;aom tcsif;t&mrsm;udk zkH;zdjcif;vnf;r&Sd? aumif;aomtcsif;t&m
rsm;udk csHUxGifjcif;vnf;rjyK? csD;ajrSmufjcif;vnf;rjyK? acsmufwGef;jcif;vnf;
r&Sd? rdrd\ tjriftMum;twdkif; &dk;om;pGm tpD&ifcHayvdrfhrnf/
xdkenf;wlpGm uREkfyfrSmvnf; rdrdtaMumif;udk a&;om;&mwGif
txufyg pkHaxmufavmif;uJUodkU oabmxm;í tom;vnf;r,l? &Sufvnf;
r&Suf? [kwfrSeforQudk ]t&if;wdkif;} a&;om;azmfjy&efBuH&G,fyg onf/

12 
pkHaxmufavmif;onf xdkyk*¾dKvf\ pdwftBuHrsm;udk odEdkifcGifh &Sdrnfr[kwf
ay&m?uREkfyfrSmrl rdrdtBuHtpnfESifhpdwful;rsm;udkygod&onfjzpfí pkHaxmuf
\ tpD&ifcHpmxuf jynfhpkHEdkifcGifh &Sdygonf/ rnfolrqdk EIdufEIdufcRwfcRwf
ppfaq;vkdufonfhtcg taumif;csnf;vnf; rjzpfEdkif/ tqdk;csnf;vnf;
rjzpfEkdif/ taumif;ESifhtqdk; (tenf;ESifhtrsm;) a&m>yrf;vsuf &Sdjcif;udkom
awGU&ayvdrfhrnf/ uREkfyfudk,füvnf; þenf;twl taumif;ESifhtqdk;
a&maESmvsuf &Sd&rnfomjzpf&m aumif;aomtcsuftvufrsm;udk azmfjyonfh
tvSnfhwGif ]*kPf,lonf} odkUr[kwf ]<um;0gonf}[lí olwyg;pGyfpGJrnf
udkvnf; raMumuf? raumif;aom tcsuftvufrsm;udk azmfjyonfhtvSnfh
wGif ]w,fa&SmfwJU vlyJ}[lí olwyg; uJU&JUrnfudkvnf; r&Suf? aumif;vQif
aumif;oavmuf? raumif;vQif raumif;oavmuf &dk;om;pGm wifjyvdrhfrnf
jzpfygonf/

þrSwfwrf;udk a&;om;&mü uREkfy\


f &nf&G,fcsufrSm aumif;aom
tcsif;t&mrsm; twGufolwyg;wkdU\ txifBuD;jcif;cHvdkaomaMumifhr[kwf?
raumif;aom tcsif;t&mrsm;udk azmfxkwf0efcHvdkaomaMumifhvnf;r[kwf?
aumif;aomtcsif;t&monf uREkfyftwGif;okdU tb,ftaMumif;aMumifh
a&mufvmonf? raumif;aom tcsif;t&mrsm;onfvnf; uREkfyf\
tZöswÅoEÅmefodkU b,fykHb,fenf; a&mufvmonfqkdjcif;udk (vlUobm0
avhvmjcif;taejzifh) xif&Sm;atmif azmfjyvdkaomaMumifhrQom jzpfygonf/
uREkfyf\ vufawGUt&qdkygrl vlowÅ0gonf b0oHo&m tqufqufrS
ygcJUonfh OmOfuav;rsm;? 0goemtxkHuav;rsm;um;wbuf? ywf0ef;usif
u jyKjyifjcif;cH&csufrsm;um; wbuf a&maESmaygif;pyfvsuf&Sd&m uREkfyf
tzkdU&mü rnfonfum; twdwf\zefwD;csuf jzpfonf? rnfonfum;

13 
ypöKyÜefb0\ jyKjyifrI jzpfonfqkdjcif;udk (OmPfrSDoavmuf) ydkif;jcm;a0zefí
wifjyvdkjcif;jzpfygonf/ vdk&if;tcsKyfü uREkfyftaMumif;udk uREkfyfa&;om;
azmfjyjcif;jzpfapumrl (trsKd;orD;pma&;q&mwOD;u a0zefzl;onfhtwkdif;)
igwnf;[laom pdwfxm;rygyJ tjyifvlwa,muftaejzifh a&;om;zkdUBudK;pm;
rnfjzpfygonf/ uREkfyf\pmüigoabm(yvTm;vdkaomoabm) rnfrQavmuf
uif; ruif;udkrl pmzwfolwkdU qkH;jzwfMu&ef jzpfygonf/
uREkfyf\tjzpftysufrsm;rSm twÅKyÜw¬d &dk;&dk;taejzifh a&;om;azmfjy
rnfqdkygu cyf&Tef;&Tef;a&;wwfol r[kwfcJUvQif (a&;wwfolvnf;
&Sm;onf) ajcmufuyfNiD;aiGUzG,faumif;aom taMumif; t&mrsm;yg&Sdwwf
onfjzpfaomaMumifh tjzpftysufoufoufrQru tawG;tac:rsm;vnf;
oufqkdif&mae&mrsm;wGif xnfhoGif;azmfjy&ygonf/ uREkfyf\tawG;tac:
rsm;rSmvnf; (rSefuefjcif;? rrSefuefjcif;udk tyxm;í) tpOftvm
ynm&Sdrsm;\ t,ltqrsm;ESifh uJGvJGrIrsm; &Sdvdrfhrnfjzpf&m rnfonfu
obm0us rusudk pmzwfolwkdU pOf;pm;p&m &Sdjcif;tm;jzifh pdwf0ifpm;zG,f
jzpfvdrfhrnf[k arQmfvifhygonf/

a&S;OD;pGm rSwfrdaomt&m

tjcm;wae&mü uREkfyfonf vljzpfvmonfrSpí a&S;OD;pGm rSwfrdaom


tcsif;t&mrSm ar;aphuGJí woufywfvkH; xif&Sm;aom trSwftom;wck
jzpf&avmufatmif trm&Gwf xifjcif;taMumif;udk a&;om;cJUbl;&m
xdkUaemufwGif xyfrHí aphaphawG;jyefaomtcgü 4if;xuf tvsifusaom
tjzpftysufwckudk owd&rdygonf/ uREkfyfrSm om;OD;jzpfí 'kwd,
arG;zGm;onfh uREkfyf\ESronf uREkfyfxufokH;ESpfcefUi,f&m taemufwdkif;

14 
jynfrsm;ü 7v? 10vrQom rdcifEdkUudk wkdufauR;Muonfqdk aomfvnf;
uREkfyfrSm ESpfESpfausmfrQ EdkUpdkUcGifh&ygvsufESifhyif rdbrsm;onf uREkfyftm;
]EdkUrsufom;}uav;[kqdkum txl;*&kpdkufí taumif;qkH;qdkaom
pm;p&mrsm;udk auR;arG;Muonf/ (xdkpOfu EdkUAl;wdkufaom tavhtx
&SdMuao;[ef rwlay/) ykpGefwkyfaMumf? 0ufom;uif? MuufaygifaMumf paom
pm;p&mrsm;onf uREkfyftwGufjzpfí rdbrsm;rlum; Muuf&dk;ESifh 0ufqD
0ufacgufavmufom pm;Muonf/ zcif\ESrrsm;? rdcif\nDrrsm;
onfuREkfyfwkdUaetdrfodkU wa,mufwvSnfhvma&mufí uREkfyftm;xdef;&ef
twGuf twlwuG aexdkifMu&m tdrfwGif uREkfyf\ t&D;wa,mufa,muf
jzpfap? ta':wa,mufa,mufjzpfap b,ftcgrQ jywfawmhonfr&Sdacs/
wcgw&H ESpfa,mufjyL; okH;a,mufjyL;yif &SdwwfMu\/ 4if;wkdUonf
uREfkyftm; txufyg pm;p&mtaumif;rsm;udk 0g;ícGHMu&\/ ESruav;arG;
NyD;í uREfkyfokH;ESpfom;t&G,fausmfausmf&SdonfwGif uREkfyfonf pm;p&mrsm;
0g;cGHaomt&D;rsm; ta':rsm;udk oabmrusawmhyJ rdcifcGHU&rnf[k wpmpm
ylqmjcif;udk rSwfrdonf/
uREkfyfBuD;jyif;vmaomtcg waeUoü rdcifu pum;pyfrdonfESifh
]]armifazodef;wkdUrsm; tpm;awmh oGm;rprf;aveJU? 0g;cGHUwJUt&G,fuwnf;u
olUt&D;awG ta':awG cGHUwmudkrBudKufbl; igudkf,fwdkif 0g;cGHU&w,f?
[kwfvJ [kwfrSmaygh? aumif;rav;awGuawmh 0g;NyD; tcsKd&nftcsKdUudk
rsKdcsMurSmudk;? tpm;taomufrsm;awmh i,fuwnf;u 'Davmuf
em;vnfwJU taumifyJ}}[k ajymbl;&Smonf/ uREkfyfonf tcsKd&nf rsKdcsjcif;
twGufaMumifh t&omnHUoGm;jcif;[lí i,fpOfu rodaomfvnf; rdcif
0g;cGHUjcif;ESifh t&D;rsm; 0g;cGHUjcif;wkdU\ jcm;em;jcif;udk i,fi,fuwnf;u
odaMumif; rSwfrdao;onf/ uREfkyfpOf;pm;rdonfum; ]vQm}onf t&mom

15 
odjcif;ESifh pum;ajymjcif;wnf;[laom tvkyfESpfrsKd; vkyfwwf&mwGif
uREkfyf\ ]vQm}um; yxrtvkyfü uRrf;usifvGef;í 'kwd,tvkyfbufü
avQmhae[efwlonf/ tcsKdtcsOf tief tpyftqdrfh tcg;rSpí
aumif;raumif; t&om trsKd;rsKd;wkdUudk uREkfyfonf olwyg;wkdUxuf
tao;pdwfodwwf\/ taemufwdkif;jynfrsm;ü 0dkfift&uf ukrÜPDBuD;rsm;
onf]vQm} tpGrf;xufaom vlrsm;udk t&ufNrD;orm;  (Wine  Taster) 

tjzpfESifh vcaxmifaomif;ay;í iSm;xm;Muonfqdk&m uREkfyf\ ]vQm}


tpGrf;rSm wbufwvrf;wGif tokH;rcsEdkifyJ pum;rajymwwfjcif;omvQif
tzwfwifvsuf&SdaomaMumifh wenf;tm;jzifh ]vljzpf&IH;onf}qkd&rnfavm
rajymwwfay/
ywf0ef;usif\ jyKjyifrIrcH&ao;rD (toufav;ig;ESpft&G,fü)
uREkfyf\ ]yifudk} pdwfaeoabmxm;udk rdbrsm; ajymbl;orQESifh
uREkfyfjyefvnfokH;oyfjcif;jzifh rSwfrdorQrSm uREfkyfonf rdbrsm;udk cspfvnf;
cspfí aMumufvnf;aMumufwwf\/ zcifudkrl tcspfxuf taMumufu ydkí
rdciftm;rlum; tcspfESifhtaMumuf tnDtrQavmuf&Sdvdrhfrnf/ wa,muf
wnf;&Sdao;aom ESruav;udkvnf; tjcm;aom armifESrrsm; cspfMujcif;
xuf ydkí tvGefMuifemonf/ (MuifemykHudk wae&mü azmfjyygOD;rnf/)
tvGef ]aqmh}csifwwfí upm;azmfoli,fcsif;udk tvGefw&m cifrifwwf
onf/ t&G,fESifh rvkdufatmif vnfcsifywfcsifwwfí cspfaomoli,fcsif;
rsm;aemufodkU waumufaumuf vdkufaewwfonf/ xkdpOfu pdwfrwdkwwf
ao;? oabmaumif;onf[k rdcifu ajymbl;onf/ udk,fvkH;udkf,faygufrSm
(rdcifpum;twkdif;) cyfzdkifhzdkifhESifh tdtdpufpuf&Sdonf/ BuD;jyif;vmaom
tcgürl ydefydef&Snf&Snf jzpfvmjcif;udk awGU&í aq;jyif;vdyfudk ckHay:wifNyD;

16 
aq;vdyfonfu vSdrfhvdkufouJUodkU udk,fvkH;avsmhNyD; t&yf&SnfxGufvm&
jcif;ayavm[k pOf;pm;rdonf/

tEdkifusifhcH&jcif;

uREkfyf\ uHqdk;jcif;wckrSm uav;b0rSpí ausmif;xGufonfhwdkif


atmif udk,fhxufBuD;aom oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifhcsnf; aygif;oif;&í
tEdkifusifhjcif; tcH&qkH; wa,mufjzpfonf/ þtjcif;t&monf uREkfyf\
pdwfaeoabmxm;udk woufvkH;twGuf ajymif;vJoGm;ap&onf[k ,lq\/
yxrOD;qkH;uREkfyftm; tEdkifusifhaom tdrfeD;csif; upm;azmfrSm ausmif;raerD
av;ig;ESpfom;t&G,fü jzpf\/ xdkoli,fonf uREkfyfxuf okH;ESpfcefU
toufBuD;í uREkfyfu olUtm; cspfvdkufykHrSm rdbrsm;ESifhcGJí olESifhtwl
tdyfcGifh&vQif tdyfEdkif\/ (þum; uREkfyf\tjypf[k qdk&rnfxifonf/)
eHeufvif;vQif xdkoli,ftdrfodkU ul;oGm;í pm;&kH tdyf&kHrQavmufom tdrfodkU
jyefawmhonf/ waeUywfvkH; olUaemufrS waumufaumuf vdkufaeawmh\/
okdUqdkvQif xkdoli,fuvnf; uREkfyftm; uREfkyfcspfovdk cspfcifwG,fwm
jcif;&Sdygoavm? r[kwfacs/ uREkfyfü pm;p&mwck&SdvQif wa,mufwnf;
rpm;EdkifyJ olUqDodkU ,lajy;íMunfjzLpGm a0pm;Muonf/ tdrfü&Sdao;vQif
vnf; olu ],lacstkH;}[k ckdif;ojzifh ckd;auR;&ao;onf/ olUüpm;p&m
&Sdaomtcgrlum; uREfkyftm; wzJUw&GJUrQray;yJ &,fumarmumESifh
aMumifawmifMunhfí pm;wwfonf/ þrQavmufomqdk ygrlum; uREkfyf\
pdwfü xdcdkufjcif;r&Sdyg/ trSwfvnf;rxm;yg/ uREkfyfpm;p&m &wdkif;
0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om ,lajy;í cJGa0pm;aomufonfom jzpfygonf/ okdU&mwGif
0rf;enf;zG,ftaumif;qkH;aom tjyKtrlrSm xdkoli,fonf uREkfyfESifh &,fum

17 
armum aysmf&TifpGm upm;ae&jcif;xuf uREkfyfidk,dkae onfudkjrif&vQif
omíoabmus[ef&Sd\/ olu jrif;pD;csifonfqdkvQif uREkfyfrSm rEdkifhwEdkif
ESifh ausmydk;&\/ ESpfa,mufpvkH; aysmfMuí w[D;[D;&,f \/
twefMumaomf xdkoli,fonf pdwfazmufjyefvmí ]][JUjrif;-aES;w,fuG?
jrefjrefajy;}}[k qdkum uREkfyf\ ajcovkH;rsm;udk ol\ajcaxmuf
jzifhcwfav&m uREkfyfvnf; ',D;',dkifESifh wwfEdkiforQ jrefjrefajy;&\/
þtxJrSyif olu tm;r&ao;yJ 0g;jcrf;wacsmif;udk qif;,lí
ausmay:odkUjyefwufNyD;vQif uREkfyf\aygifrsm;udk w&GD;&GD; &dkufav&m
uREkfyfrSmajy;,if; [yfxdk;vJí idk&ygawmhonf/ þwGifrS olu tm;&yg;&
[uf[ufyufyuf &,farmavawmhonf/
xdkoli,fonf uREkfyftm; txufygenf;ESifhwuG rsm;pGmaom tjcm;
enf;rsKd;pkHwkdUjzifh tEdkifusifhavh&Sd\/ uREkfyfonf ol\ nOf;yef;
ESdyfpufenf;ESifh wuG rdbrsm;tm; rwdkifwef;yJ Budwfí cHcJU\/ tu,fí
wdkifwef;cJUaom olESifh rupm;&awmhyJ wm;jrpfvdrhfrnf[k uREkfyfodaom
aMumifhjzpf\/ wcgw&H uREkfyf\rdcifu idkoHMum;íac:vdkuf&m olu
]]a[haumif rsuf&nfawG okwfoGm;uG}}[k ajymonfESifh rsuf&nfrsm;udk
vkHcsnfjzifh okwfum rdcifa&SUodkU [efvkyfí 0ifoGm;&avonf/
waeUoü xdkoli,fESifh uREkfyfonfavSum;ay:ü&SdpOfolonf rawmf
wqjzpfav[efESifh uREkfyftm; avSum;ay:rS wGef;csvdkufojzifh ajrBuD;ESifh
OD;acgif; aqmifhrdum tawmfemoGm;\/ ]]a[haumifridkeJUuG}}[k olu
ajymaomfvnf; emusifvSaom a0'emaMumifh wtm;[pfí idkvkdufrd&m
uREkfyf\ rdcifajy;vmí tjzpftysufudk ar;ojzifh ]]avSum;ay:rS
acsmus&ygonf}}[k ajymvkdufonf/ uREkfyf\rdcifrSm zcifESifhrwl/
pdwfwif;ol wa,mufjzpfí uREkfyf\OD;acgif;ü 'Pf&m &Sdr&SdMunhfNyD;aemuf

18 
aoG;xGufoH,dk rawGU&onfESifh ]]udk,fhzmom aqmhvdkU cdkufrdwmrsm;
'gavmufBuD; idk&ovm;}}[kajym\/ þwGif uREkfyftm; tjypfwifaom
t"dyÜm,foufa&mufonfESifh rcHcsifaomaMumifh ]]udk,fhbmomr[kwfbl;
tar&JU? [dkaumifu wGef;cswm}}[k vTwfueJ ajymrdavonf/ xdktcg
rdcifonf a'gowBuD;ESifh [dkaumif\OD;pGef;zkwfudk qGJESDrfum ausmudk
okH;av;csuf xkavonf/ 4if;aemufuREkfyfudkqJGac:í tdrfodkUjyefvmMu
onf/ [dkaumif\rdcifESifh tpfrrsm;rSm ig;pdrf;onfrsm;jzpfí tdrfür&Sdckduf
jzpfav&m aps;rSjyefvmMuaomtcgwGif [dkaumif\wdkifwef;csufaMumifh
tdrfeD;csif; &efjzpfMuavawmh\/ uREkfyf\rdcifrSm eef;wGif;ol jzpfaomfvnf;
a'goBuD;aomtrsKd;jzpfí jzpfrdvQif ravQmhcsifwwfaom 0goemtwdkif;
ig;pdrf;onf om;trdokH;a,muf (rdcifESifh orD;ESpfa,muf) wkdUtm;
csHUvifhvkyfao;&m t&yfujzefajzí NyD;oGm;&onf/ uREkfyftzdkU&müum;
xdkaeUrSpí [dkaumifESifh aygif;oif;cGifh ra&awmhacs/ odkUaomf
rdbrsm;\trdefUudk rawmfvSef0HUíom ae&onf/ uREkfyftm; avSum;ay:rS
wGef;csaomtaumifudk pdwfremyJ ac:csifaomaMumifh pdwfxJü w&G&G
jzpfvsuf &Sdonf/ uREkfyfrSwfrdoavmufrSm uREkfyfonf [dkaumif\
ESdyfpufjcif;udk wESpfcefUavmuf cHcJU&onf/

oDv&Sifausmif;

xdktcsdefrSpí rdbrsm;onf uREkfyftm; [dkaumifESifh raygif;rdap&ef


pmoifausmif;okdUydkUavawmhonf/ ausmif;rSm oDv&SifBuD;wyg;wnfaxmif
xm;onfhpmoifausmif;jzpfav&muREkfyfxuf&SpfESpfcefUBuD;aom (rdcif\nDr)

19 
ta':wa,mufESifhtwl ausmif;wuf uREfkyftm;umuG,fapmifha&Smufay;
avonf/ ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;teufwGif uREfkyfyif ti,fqkH;jzpf
ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;u xdyfxdk;? acgif;ykwf vkyfcsifMuaomfvnf; ta':
ausmif;ol\umuG,frIaMumifhxkdausmif;ütawmfoufomcGifh&cJUonf/okdUESifh
yif uREkfyf\ta': ausmif;rwufaom waeUü ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;onf
uREkfyftm; 0dkifíusDp,fMuonf/ rdbrsm;onf xdkacwfu cspfwwfaom
rdbrsm;\xkH;pHtwdkif; uREkfyftm; uw¬Dyga&TaZmowfonfh (Zmwfrif;om;
rsm;0wfaom) abmif;bDuav;jzifh qifjyifxm;&m ausmif;om;rsm;onf
uREkfyf\ ajymifvufaom uw¬Dygabmif;bDudk rsufrkef;usKd;Muonfh
vu©PmESifh abmif;bDtem;uGyf a&TcsnfrQifrsm;udk qGíEIwfMu\/ tcgwkdif;
rlum; ta':\umuG,frIaMumifh a&TcsnfwrQifwavrQom tEkwfcH&\/
ta':rygaom xdkaeUürl ausmif;om;tm;vkH; 0dkifí Ekwf,lvdkufMuaom
aMumifh tem;owfaom a&TcsnfwrQifrQ rusefawmhyJ uw¬Dygabmif;bDcsnf;
ikH;wdwdESifh tdrfodkUjyefvm&avonf/ rdzrsm;onf tvGefrcHcsií oDv&Sif
BuD;tm; wkdifwef;av&m oDv&SifBuD;onf uREkfyfu vufnId;xkd;jyaom
ausmif;ol ausmif;om; tm;vkH;udk&dkufavawmhonf/ xkdaeUrSí t&dkufcH&
aomausmif;om;rsm;onf uREkfyftm; &efnId;zGHUMuonfhvu©PmESifh
ta':tvpfwGif xdk;MuacgufMuav&m uav;uwnf;u tawmftwefESifh
ridkwwfoljzpí BudwfcHcJU&onf/
[dkaumif\ ESdyfpyfjcif;rS vGwfcUJ&NyDqkdaomfvnf; wa,muf\vufrS
trsm;\vufodkU a&muf&jcif;jzpfí uREkfyfrSm ausmif;om;t&G,f uav;tm;
vkH;udkrkef;csifovdkvdk jzpfvmcJUavNyD/ uav;tcsif;csif; awGU&onfhtcg
vnfyif;udkajy;ízufcsifaom pdwfrsKd;&SdcJU&mrS rouFmaom pdwfrsKd;ESifh
cyfa0;a0;rS vSrf;Munfhaom tjzpfrsKd;odkU ajymif;vJvmcJUavNyD/

20 
uREfkyfonf i,fpOfu tjzpftysufrsm;udk jyefajymif;qifjcifonfhtcg
(azmfjyvwHUaom tjcif;t&mrsm;aMumifh) rdrdukd,fudk ]jzLaumif}ESifh EIdif;
,SOfrdonf/ jzLaumifonf rnfolUtm;rQ &efrljcif;r&Sdaomfvnf;
]tem;ruyfcJUeJU? wG,fvkdufr,f}qkdaom taejzifh udk,fü&Sdaom ql;rsm;udk
axmifxm;wwfonfqdk&m uREfkyfrSmvnf; [dkaumifESifh qufqH&bl;jcif;w
csuf? oDv&Sifausmif;om;rsm;ESifh qufqH&bl;jcif;wcsufaMumifh uREkfyf\
obm0wGif ql;uav;ESpfacsmif; aygufvmcJUavNyD/ þonfrSm yxrqkH;
aomql;ESpfacsmif;jzpfav&m a&SUtzkdUwGifvnf; þrQru cRefxufaom
ql;rsm;jzpfay:vmykHudk tqifhqifhazmfjyygOD;rnf/
av;ig;ESpfom; t&G,füyif uREkfyfonf uav;tcsif;csif;tay:ü
cspfcifpdwf ayghavsmhvmcJUaomfvnf; uREkfyf\rdbrsm;ESifhywfoufírlum;
uREkfyfuvnf; tvGefcspfí 4if;wkdU\ cspfjcif;udkvnf; ,kHrSm;oHo,
r&Sdacs/ uREfkyf\ESruav;tay:ü uREkfyfMuifemjcif;udk txufwGif
t>rufrQ azmfjycJU&m 4if;ESifhywfoufí uREkfyf\pdwfü xdckdufcJUbl;ykHludk
azmfjy&ayOD; rnf/ tcsKdUuav;rsm;onf i,fpOfu tvGefaumif;í
BuD;jyif;vmrS qkd;wwfykH? tcsKdUrSmvnf; i,fpOfu tvGefqdk;wwfMuí
BuD;umrSaumif; wwfykHwkdUudk vlB uD;rsm; ajymavh&SdMu\/ ESruav;rSm
BuD;jyif;vmaomtcg ütvGefaumif;aomfvnf; i,fpOfurl tvGefqkd;vS\/
(uG,fvGef&SmonfrSm ESpfaygif; 30ausmfNyD/) ESruav;onf nwdkif;wGif
apmapmtdyfwwfí oef;acgifausmfaom tcsdefwGif tdyfa&;0onfh
vu©PmESifhwusnfusnfyl qmwwf\/ [dk[mpm;csifonf? onf[m
pm;csifonf ponfjzifh em;ylem; qmvkyfwwfí rdcifu acsmhcsnfwcg
acsmufcsnfwvSnfhjzifh odyf&\/ wcgw&H jrefjreftdyfí wcgw&Hvnf;
wtDtDESifh tMumBuD; idkaewwf\/ wnoü uREkfyfonf

21 
ESruav;idkoHaMumifh Edk;vmí Munfhvkdufaomtcg uav;rSm
tdrfjyifodkUa&mufaeí rdcifESifhzcifwkdUu tdfrftwGif; wHcg;teD;rS &yfum
]]rwdwfbl;vm;? wdwfrSzGifhay;r,f}[kajym&m uav;url ]csrf;vSygNyD?
zGifhay;yg? zGifhay;yg}[k idkvsufomajym\/ tidkrwdwfacs/ &moDum;
aqmif;Owk&moDjzpfí uREfkyfudk,fwdkif apmifNcKHxJü auG;vsuf&Sd
jcif;udkrSwfrd\/ uav;uvnf;idk? rdbrsm;uvnf; wHcg;zGifhray;yJ
]]wdwfav? rwdwfbl;vm;? rcsrf;bl;vm;}[k ar;vsuf&Sd&m uREfkyfrSm
tdrfjyifü ESruav;\ csrf;at;&SmvSrnfh tjzpfudk oem;vSojzifh
apmifNcKHxJü wdwfwqdwf Budwfum rsuf&nfrsm; &TJatmifidkrdonf/ rdbrsm;
tm; awmif;yefay;zkdU rqdkxm;bd uREfkyfEdk;aeonfhtjzpfudkyif rodap0HUay/
þwGif om;orD;rsm;udk tvGefcspfcif wwfonf[k ,lqonfh
(,ckwkdifvnf; ,kHrSm;jcif;r&Sdyg/) trdtzrsm;tm; ESruav;tm; nSOf;qJESdyf
pufMuonf[laom txifuyfa&mufvmojzifh uREfkyfrSm pdwfxJwGif
tvGefraumif;vmyJ wwd,ql;wacsmif;aygufvm&jyefygonf/

,ckrS zGifhajymjcif;

þodkU a&;om;jcif;twGufaMumifh rdbrsm;tay:ü uREkfyfpdwfxm;ykHudk


pmzwfolwdkUtxifvGJrnfpdk;ojzifh &Sif;vif; azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/ uREkfyfonf
txufyg tjzpftysufudk rdcif zcifwkdUtm; vnf;aumif;? uG,fvGefoltm;
vnf;aumif;? ,ck &Sdaeaom nDwa,muftm;vnf;aumif;? tjcm;olwpkH
wa,muftm;vnf;aumif; woufywfvkH; wBudrfwcg wcGef;wyg'rQ
zGifhajymjybl;jcif;r&Sdonfum;rSefygonf/ woufvkH;rajymyJjrKHxm;cJYygvsuf
,ckrS xnfhía&;&jcif;rSm uREkfyf\ pdwfajymif;vJykH tjcif;t&mrsm;udk jynfhpkH

22 
atmifazmfjyrnf[k azmfxkwfaMunmxm;cJUonfhtwkdif; vlUobm0udkwifjy
vkdaomaMumifh jzpfygonf/ 1930 jynfhESpf yJcl;NrdKUivsifBuD;wGif uREkfyfwkdU\
tdrfom;tm;vkH;onf (rdcifvnf;ygonf) tdrfay:rS qif;ajy;Muí vrf;r
BuD;ay: av;bufaxmufolaxmuf ?0rf;vsm;arSmufolarSmuf &SdaeMu pOf
uREkfyfonf vIdif;rsm;ozG,f tvdyfvdyfxvsuf&Sdaom ajrBuD;udkjrif&í
tm;ri,fpbl; i,frdonf/ tm;i,fjcif;um; tcdkiftrmqkH; [lí pdwfcs
,kHMunfx;onfh [myx0DajrBuD;udk,füuþuJUodkU vIyfcgaevsifigonf
tb,frSm aep&m&sdawmhtHUenf;[laom pdfwful;0ifvmjcif;amumifh jzpf\/
xkdnOfhuvnf; uREkfyfESifh ESruav;wkdUtm; cspfcifrIESifh ywfoufí
vkH;0'Gd[ oHo,r&SdcJUbl;ojzifh tvkH;pkH ,kHMunftm;udk;aom rdbESpfyg;wkdU
udk,fwdkifu ESruav;tm; (uREkfyf\txift&) &ufpufpGmjyKrljcif;udk
rsufpdESifh udk,fwkdifjrif&aomtcg &ifxJüqdkUí cdkudk;&mrJU jzpfoGm;cJU&
ygonf/ uREkfyfajym&Jygonf/ rdbESpfyg;tay:ü uREkfyfpdwfemjcif;vnf;
r[kwf? pdwfqkd; jcif;vnf;r[kwf? pdwfxJü tBuD;tus,ftHUtm;oifhí
]b,fhES,fygvdrfh? b,fvkdygvdrfh} tp&Sdojzifh txyfxyfar;um
pdwftm;i,frdjcif;rQom jzpfygonf/ þtwGufaMumifh uREkfyf\
obm0üql;wacsmif;xyfí aygufvmjcif;um; trSefjzpfygonf/

pdwfwkdpjyKjcif;

aemufwaeUeHeuf uREkfyftdyf&mrS xaomtcg EGm;EdkUonf ykPÖm;r


a&mufaeavNyD/ rMumao;rDu uREkfyftenf;i,f rusef;rrmjzpfonfESifh
OD;av;wa,mufu MuufjzLuav;waumif ]crJ}ay;xm;&m uREkfyfonf
MuufjzLuav;udk tvGefcspfí wayGUayGUwydkufydkufESifh upm;avh&Sd\/

23 
rusef;rrmNyD;cgpjzpfí rdbrsm;onf uREkfyftm; aeUwdkif; EGm;EdkUt0ufom
aomufapav&m ykPÖm;rxHrS eHeufwdkif; EGm;EdkU,l&efrSm uREkfyf\wm0efjzpf
\/ uREkfyfonf ykPÖm;rudkjrifí EGm;EdkUxnfh&ef ZvkH,lNyD;vQif ykPÖm;ra&SUücs
xm;í rsufESmopfpOf ykPÖm;ronf EGm;EdkUudk csifhxnfhNyD;aemuf xGufoGm;
\/ uREkfyfonf rsufESmopfNyD;aemuf EGm;EdkUZvkH&Sd&modkUavQmufvm&m
MuufjzLuav;onf ZvkHxJrSEGm;EdkUudk EIwfoD;jzifhESpfum aomufaeonfudk
awGU&\/ þwGifuREkfyfonf Muufuav;udkzrf;í ajrBuD;ay:okdU
aygufvkduf &mraoaomfvnf; qefUiifqefUiifESifh twefMumcH&&Smonf/
rdbrsm;onf uREkfyf\&ufpufaomtjyKtrludk jrifMuí tHUtm;oifhum
wa,mufrsufESm udk wa,mufMunfhaeMu\/ vludkaomfvnf;aumif;?
wd&pämefudkaomf vnf;aumif; &uf&ufpufpuf jyKvkyfjcif;rSm þtBudrfonf
yxrtBudrf jzpfonf[k rdcifuajymí ]]Muufuav;aomufvdkU
b,favmufukefoGm; rSmvJ om;&,f}}[k qdk\/ uREkfyfjyKvkdufjcif;rSm
rdcifxifonfhtwdkif; EGm;EdkU udk ESajrmaomaMumifhayavm? ,refnOfhu
ESruav;\ jzpftifudk jrif& ojzifh pdwfwkdvsuf&SdaomaMumifhayavm/
odkUwnf;r[kwf xdktaMumif;ESpf &yfaygif;pyfjcif;aMumifhayavm rajymEdkif
atmif&Sdygonf/

rJtdk;wef;&yfuGuf

uREkfyfwkdUonf xdktcsdefü rEÅav;NrdKU oif;csKdif;awmf wHwm;ajrmuf


buf a&Twacsmif;eHab;&Sd rJtkd;wef;&yfuGufü aexdkifvsuf&Sd&m
zcif\tvkyfrSm ydef;wef; zdeyfaxmifq&mjzpfí tvkyform;av;ig;a,muf
&Sdavonf/ xdk&yfuGufom;rsm;rlum; csnfMurf;udk rJe,fqdk;aomtvkyfjzifh

24 
toufarG;Muí 4if;&yfuGufrSmvnf; rJUtdk;wef;[k ac:wGifjcif;jzpfavonf/
a&Twacsmif; urf;yg;wGif tvkyform;toD;oD;onf 0rf;bJOtkd;BuD;ESpfvkH;\
tv,frS xdkifvsuf vufrsm;jzifharTum rJe,fqdk;jcif;tvkyfudk woDwwef;
BuD; vkyfMuonfrSm (uREkfyfwkdU uav;oli,frsm;tzkdU) aysmfp&mBuD;[k
xifcJUrdonf/ (rMumao;rDu 4if;&yfuGufodkU tvGrf;ajy oGm;Munfh&m
a&S;u rJtdk;wef;ESifhrwlawmhyJ rJe,fqkd;aomtvkyfudkvnf; wOD;wa,muf
rQ vkyfudkifonfudk rawGUcJU&ay/)

þ&yfuGufuav;\ xl;jcm;csufwckudk azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/ rEÅav;


NrdKUBuD;ü awm&Gmrsm;rS ajymif;a&TUvmMuonfh tdrfaxmifonfrsm; onf
olU&GmESifh olUtpk OruGJ odkufrysuf aygif;pkaexdkifavh&SdMuav&m
tcsKdUaomt&yfrsm;ESifh ]0if;}rsm;rSm 4if;wkdUaexdkifcJUonfh rlv&Gmtrnfrsm;
jzifhyif rSnfhac:Muavonf/ Oyrm-&GmomrS ajymif;vma&TUvmaom
vlrsm;aMumifh ]&Gmomwef;}[lí vnf;aumif;? acgawm&GmrS ajymif;a&TUvm
Muaom olrsm;aMumifh ]acgawm0if;}[lívnf;aumif; rSnfhac:Muavonf/
rJtdk;wef;&yfuGufrSmrl tvkyftudkifudk tpJGjyKí rSnfhac:Mujcif;
jzpfaomfvnf; 4if;t&yfol t&yfom;rsm;rlum; tm;vkH;vkdyif rkH&Gme,f
urf;jzL&GmrSjzpfMu avonf/ uREkfyfwkdUrSmrl zcif\ESrwa,mufu
4if;t&yfom;ESifh tdrfaxmif usonfESifh tdrf&m0,fNyD; "m;wef;rS
ajymif;a&TUvmMujcif;jzpfavonf/ þ&yfuGufol &yfuGufom;rsm;\
xl;jcm;csufwckrSm rEÅav;NrdKUBuD;wGif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm aexdkifcJUMuNyD;
jzpfaomfvnf; 0wfykHpm;ykH? ajymykHqdkykH? aeykH xdkifykH tvkH;pkHrSm
rEÅav;NrdKUolNrdKUom;ESifh vkH;0rwl? rwlwjcm; &Sdaejcif;yif jzpfonf/
waeUoü uREkfyfonf uREkfyfwkdU\aetdrfESifh ESpftdrfjcm;&Sdaom

25 
]t&D;}\aetdrfodkU oGm;vnfí jyefvmaomtcg rdcifu ]]ighom;bmrsm;
auR;vkdufovJ[JU}}[k ar;&m? uREkfyfu ]]bdk;bdk;bwfowf[if; pm;cJU&
w,ftar}}[k jyefajymojzifh rdcifrSm [uf[ufyufyuf&,farmavonf/
(4if;t&yfü trJ0rf;wGif;o;udk ]]bkd;odk;bwfowf}}[k ac:onf/) þwGif
rdcifuzciftm; ]]'Dt&yfrSm MumMumaevdkU rjzpfygbl; udk&if? uav;awG
urf;jzLpum; ajymukefMuawmhrSmyJ}}[k ajymavonf/

atmufjynfqif;Mujcif;

waeUoü uREkfyf\zcifonf yJcl;NrdKUe,f wm0blwm usKdufy'dkif&Gm&Sd


ol\baxG;wa,mufxHrS pmwapmif&&Sd\/ (4if;baxG;rSm rdcif\Zmwdjzpf
onfha&Tbdke,f refusnf;wkH&GmrS ajymif;a&TUoGm;oljzpf\/ refusnf;wkH&GmrSm
vnf; vuf0JokE´&aMumifh þacwfwGif vlodrsm;aom &Gmuav;jzpfonf/)
4if;pmü atmufjynfatmuf&GmwGif a&Txnf vuf0wfvufpm;rsm; a&mif;cs
aumif;vSaomaMumifh tjrwftpGef; &EdkifaMumif;? rdrduyif ulnDí
a&mif;csay;rnfhtaMumif; yg&Sdavonf/ xdktcsdefüydef;wef; zdeyftvkyfrSm
cyfyg;yg;&Sdaom &moDjzpfav&m rdbrsm;onf &SdpkrJUpkuav;rsm;udk xkcGJí
a&Txnfvuf0wfvufpm;rsm; 0,f,lum om;trd om;tz av;a,muf
atmufjynfodkUqif;oGm;Mu\/usKdufy'dkif&GmokdU a&mufMuaomtcg aygifwGif
]uRJtom;rmem} aygufí rxEdkifyJ&Sd&m 4if;\baxG;u vuf0wfvufpm;
rsm;udk a&mif;csay;&efwm0ef,lrnfqdkí tyfvdkuf&\/ ]uRJtom;rmem}
qkdonfrSm tvGefqkd;í aowwfonf[k ajymMu\/ baxG;\ om;ESpf
a,mufwkdUonf uREkfyfwkdUarmifESrudk tvGef ]usDpm;}oefMuí ESruav;
tm;wa,mufu ypfay;vdkuf? wa,mufuzrf;vdkuf jyKvkyfMu&mwGif

26 
rdcifrSm tonf;zdkvSonfESifh uefUuGufaomfvnf; olwkdUnDtpfudkESpfa,muf
u ]]udpör&Sdygbl; trBuD;&,f? roum ao&kHayghAsm}}[k ajymMuavonf/
uREkfyftm;vnf; xkdenf;wljyKMuao;&m uREkfyfu vufudkudkufvdkufojzifh
]]acG;uav;ygvm;[}}[k qkdum em;o,fudktykwfcH&ao;onf/ þtawm
wGif;zcifrSmvnf; aornf&Sifrnfrodaom tajctaeü &Sdae&m uREkfyfrSm
rdcif\'ku©rsm;udkjrif&í uREkfyf\obm0wGif ql;wacsmif;aygufvmcJU
jyefavNyD/ rdcifrSm uREkfyfodorQ woufvkH;wGif b,ftcgrS avQmhbl;onf
r&Sd? þwBudrfürl tcsKdUrdef;rrsm;uJUodkUrsuf&nfusjcif;r&Sdaomfvnf; rsufESm
wck vkH; wrsKd;jzpfí BudwfcH&&Smonf/
uREkfyfwkdUü a&mif;cs&ef ygvmaoma&Txnfrsm;rSm a&mufuwnf;u
baxG;(uREkfyf\bkd;av;) vuf0,fodkU tyfvkdufav&m bdk;av;onfol\vl
rsm;udk [dk&Gm onf&Gmrsm;okdU vSnfhvnfa&mif;csap\/ waeUoü ypönf;rsm;
ESifhvTwfvdkufaom bkd;av;\a,mufzwa,mufonf vufarmif;wGif"m;
ESifhxkd;aom'Pf&mESifh jyefvmí ypönf;tm;vkH;udk vk,ljcif;cH&aMumif;
ajymavonf/ rdbrsm;rSm&SdpkrJUpkuav;udk tm;vkH;xkcJGí &if;ESD;vmcJUjcif;jzpf
aomaMumifh zcifrSm temaysmufcgeD;wGifrS pdwfxdcdkufí tzsm;BuD; zsm;vm
&&Smjyefonf/ rdcifrlum; pdwfwif;oljzpfí orD;uav;udk ajrSmufupm;pOf
uavmufrQ rsufESmysufonf[k uREkfyfrxifay/ (ypönf;rsm; vk,ljcif;cH&
onfqdkjcif;rSm vnfq,fjcif;rQom jzpfonf[k aemufydkif;wGif Mum;od&\/
rdcif zcifrsm;rSm tvGef ]&dk;}olrsm;jzpf 4if;wkdU\ woufwmwGif
okH;Budrfwkdifwdkif eifhvSatmif vlvdrfcH&jcif;udk uREkfyfrSwfrdonf/) ypönf;rsm;
ajymifonfhaemuf bkd;av;vifr,m;onf uREkfyfwkdUom;tz av;a,muf
tm; auR;xm;&jcif;twGuf 0efav;aomaMumifhayavm? udk,fhwludk
udk,fvdrf&jcif;twGuf rsufESmylaomaMumifhayavm rqkdEdkif/ uREkfyfwkdUtay:

27 
wGif rsufESmxm;wrsKd;jyifvmjcif;udk uREkfyfyifod\/ rdbrsm;rSmrlum;
qdkzG,f&mr&Sdacs/ rEÅav;odkUjyef&eftwGuf p&dwftenf;i,f&Sdaomfvnf;
zcif\ rusef;rmjcif;twGufaMumifh tcufBuD;BuKHaeMu&onf/
þtawmtwGif;ü bkd;av;\om;ESpfa,mufu uREkfyfwkdUarmifESrtm;
usD;pm;vkdufMuonfrsm;rSm ,cifuxufyif rdcifu "m;ESifhckwfrnf BuHpnf
rdaMumif;ESifh aemifwGif uREkfyftm;ajymjybl;onf/ aemufqkH;ü rdcifzcifwdkU
pDpOfMuonfrSm temaumif;pGmrusufrcsif; zcifae&pfíuREkfyfwkdUom;trd
okH;a,muf rEÅa v;odkU jyefESifhMu&efjzpfavonf/ cGJcgeD;ü rdcifonf þvlpk
vufrSvGwfayNyD[k atmufarhaomaMumifhayavmrqdkEdkif? rsufESmnId;i,f
jcif;r&SdvSaomfvnf; zcifrlum;idk&Smavonf/ usKdufy'dkif&GmrS wm0blwm&kH
odkU om;trdokH;a,muf vSnf;ESifh xGufvmMu&mwGif (rnfolrQ vdkufírydkU
Mu? zcifvnf; rydkUEdkif&Smacs) vrf;c&D; vSnf;ay:ürl rdcifonf
rsuf&nfwcg ESpfcg0dkif;vmjcif;udk uREkfyfjrif&onf/ okdUaomf okwfodrf;
avmufatmifum; r[kwf? jyefí&Iyf,lvkduf[efwlonf/ uREkfyfonf
rdcif\pdwfudkod[efESifh rjrifcsifjyKí rdcif\&ifcGifxufü ayGUxm;onfh
ESruav;udk uREkfyf\&ifcGif ay:odkU a&GU,lvkdufonf/ rdcifonf uREkfyf\
tjyKtrludk oabmusonfESifh woufvkH;ajymí rqkH;atmif&Sdav&m
uREkfyfvnf; tm;&MunfEl;vSonf/

jyefvmMujcif;

wm0blwm&kHokdUa&mufMuí vufrSwf0,f&mwGif rdcifonf vlBuD;


twGuf vufrSwfwapmifom0,fí uREkfyftwGuf uav;vufrSwf r0,f
awmhacs/ tvmc&D;ü uREkfyftwGuf 0,fygvsuf tjyefc&D;ü r0,fjcif; rSm

28 
ydkufqHenf;yg;aomaMumifh[k uREkfyfod&\/ okdU&mwGif blwm&kHrS rD;&xm;
tvkyform;wa,mufESifh em;vnfrI,lxm;onf[k aemifwGif rdcifu
ajymíod&\/ rD;&xm;qdkufcgeD;wGif blwm&kH0ü apmifhvsuf&Sdaom vufrSwf
ppfESifhvJGap&ef rdcifonf uREkfyftm; rD;&xm;tvkyform;\
vufodkUtyfvdkuf\/þtpDtpOftaMumif;udk bmrQ em;rvnfaomuREkfyfrSm
xdkvlESifh twlvdkufoGm;í blwm&kH\tjyifodkU a&mufcJUNyD;aomfvnf;
w&yfwaus; wGif vlpdrf;wa,mufESifh Mum&SnfpGmae&jcif;udk&GHUonfESifh
tjyifodkUa&mufNyD; umrS rdcif&Sd&modkU jyefvm\/ rdcifurl uREkfyf\
OD;acgif;udk acgufíjyefoGm; ckdif;ojzifh xGufvmjyef\/ aemufwBudrf
jyefoGm;&m cyfemem acgufívTwf vdkufjyef\/ wwd,tBudrfürlum; rdcif
emBuD;pGm acgufvTwfvkdufav&m uREkfyfrSm OD;acgif;udkyGwfowf&if;
udk,fhrdcifxHodkU udk,foGm;rdjcif;twGuf tacgufcH&onfrSm em;rvnfEdkif
atmif jzpfí ]b,fhES,f[mygvdrfh? b,fvkdygvdrfh} ponfjzifh tBuD;tus,f
pdwf&Ijcif;aMumifh uREkfyf\obm0ü ql;wacsmif;aygufvmcJUjyefavNyD/
þtaMumif;udk BuD;jyif;vmaomtcgü rdciftm; uREkfyfuajymjy&mwGif
rdcifrSm rsuf&nfrsm; 0dkif;vmonfhtxJrS &,farmvsuf ]]ighom;ES,f
rSwfrdvdkufwmygvm;uG,f? tarvJpdwf&IyfvGef; vdkUa[h}}[kajymojzifh
uREkfyfuvnf; ]]uRefawmfutarhudkpdwfremygbl;? avmuBuD;[mw,fNyD;
*Gusyguvm;vdkU pdwf&IyfrdwmygyJtar&JU}}[k ajym&bl;avonf/

29 
zcifa&mufvmjcif;

rEÅav;odkU uREkfyfwkdU om;trdokH;a,mufjyefa&mufí (rdcif\pum;


t&) wvwdwd jynfhaomaeUü zcifjyefa&mufvmojzifh tvGef0rf;omMu
av&m? 0rf;tomqkH; vlrSm zcifjzpfí 0rf;omrItenf;qkH;rSm uREkfyfyifjzpf
avonf/ zcif\0rf;omjcif;udk em;vnfEdkifMurnf jzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyf\
0rf;omrIenf;yg;ykHudk &Sif;jyzdkU vkdayvdrfhrnf/
tcsKdUaom rdcifrsm;onf pD;yGm;a&;tajctaet& usqif;aom
tcgrsm;wGif om;orD;rsm;tay:MuifemrI avsmhyg;ouJUodkU aigufvm;?
irf;vm;? &dkufvm;? ESufvm; jyKwwfMuav&m zcifjyefra&mufrD uREkfyfwkdU
om;trdokH;a,mufonf tnHHUqHk;aom [if;rsm;udkom pm;Mu&aomfvnf;
rdcifonf uREkfyfwkdUarmifESrtay:üa&S;uxuf ydkíMuifemonf/ rkefUyJom;
a&pmponfrsm;udkvnf;awmif;wdkif; 0,fauR;onf/ xdkUxuf ta&;BuD;onf
rSmum; uREkfyftm;vnf; ([dkaumifESifh aygif;jcif;rSwyg;) vGwfvyfjcif;
ay;xm;í t&yfxJwGif vnfcsifwkdif;vnfywfcGifh&onf/ oDv&Sifausmif;
rSvnf; EkwfvdkufNyDjzpfí uREkfyfrSwfrdorQ uav;b0wGif taysmfqkH;aom
uvm tpdwftydkif;wckjzpfavonf/ zcifjyefa&mufvm aom tcgürlum;
txufyg tcGifhta&;rsm; qkH;&IH;&acsawmhrnf[k uREkfyfodaomaMumifh
uRwfuRwfvGwfvGwf 0rf;omjcif;r&SdaMumif;udk uREkfyfrSwfrdonf/

30 
tvkyf&kHa&GUjcif;

rsm;rMumrDzcifonf tvkyform;rsm;udkjyefpkí ydef;wef;zdeyftvkyfudk


jyefaumuf\/ odkU&mwGif rJtdk;wef;t&yfrSm aps;csKdjzifh tawmfvSrf;í
tjcm;aomzdeyfaxmifq&mrsm;vnf; þt&yfxJwGif wOD;rQr&Sdav&um;
aps;csKdxJü zdeyfqdkifxGufaom qdkif&Sifrsm;onf þt&yfodkU rvmvdkMuyJ
jzpfaeMuojzifh ta&mif;yg;vS\/ okdUjzpfí zcifonf aps;csKdtaemufbufü
&Sdaom yJykyfwef;&yfuGufwGif tdrfcef;uav;iSm;í tvkyform;rsm;ESifh
tvkyf&kHuav;zGifhav\/ tdrfcef;uav;rSm cyfusOf;usOf;jzpfí rJtdk;wef;ae
tdrfü tdyf&pm;&NyD; yJykyfwef;tdrfcef;rSm tvkyf&kHtwGuf oufoufjzpfav
onf/ zcifESifhtvkyform;rsm;onf xrif;udkeHeufapmapm pm;oGm;Muí
ae0ifvkeD;umrS rJtdk;wef;aetdrfodkU jyefvmMu\/ tvkyform; okH;av;
a,mufwkdUrSm rJtdk;wef;&yfuGufwGif aeMuolrsm;jzpfavonf/

vlausmif;odkUa&mufjcif;

waeUoü rdcifESifhtwl eef;wGif;oljzpfcJUbl;í tvGefcifrifcJUMuonf


qkdaom rdef;rBuD;wa,mufonf (touf 30 cefUrQom &Sdao;ojzifh
,cktjriftm;jzifh rdef;rwa,muf[k ac:&rnfjzpfaomfvnf; xdkpOfu
tjriftm;jzifh ]rdef;rBuD;}[k a&;vkduf&onf/ xdkrdef;ronf uREkfyf\rsufpdü
waeUwjcm;BuD;íBuD;í oGm;ykHudkvnf; azmfjyygrnf/) uREkfyfwkdUaetdrfodkU
tvnftywf vmav&m ausmif;olt&G,frdef;uav;wa,mufvnf; ygvm
avonf/ rdcifwkdUpum;ajymvsuf&SdMupOf uREkfyfESifhrdef;uav;onf

31 
upm;azmfjzpfvmMuí tawmfcifrifvsuf &SdMuavNyD/ rdef;uav;rSm
uREkfyfxuf okH;ESpfavmufBuD;vdrfhrnfxifonf/ {nfhonfrdef;rBuD;onf
rdcifESifh pum;ajym&mrSm uREkfy\
f taMumif;udkar;onfwGif rdcifu i,fvGef;
aomaMumifh oDv&Sifausmif;ü tprf;xm;NyD;rS Ekwfxm;&aMumif;ajym\/
(rdef;rBuD;rSm tysKd;BuD;jzpfí ausmif;axmifpm;onf[kod&onf/) xdktcg
rdef;rBuD;u ol\ausmif;rSmtdrfawmf&mbk&m; ta&SUbufü&SdaMumif;? uREkfyf
tm;olUausmif;üxm;vQif zcifESifhtwl vdkufvmínaewGifvnf; zcifESifh
twljyefEdkifaomaMumifh tvGeftqifajyaMumif; ajym\/ (yJykyfwef;ESifhol\
pmoifausmif;rSm wjyausmfausmfrQoma0;onf/) xdkUaemufrdcifu i,fvGef;
vQifausmif;om;BuD;awGu ESdyfpufwwfaMumif;ajym&m q&mrBuD;u
]]pdwfomcsyg cifav;&,f? uRefrudk,fwdkif apmifhNyD;Munfhay;yghr,f? rylygeJU
b,folrS rESdyfpufygbl;}}[kajymNyD;vQif uREkfyftm; olUteD;odkU ac:,lum
ausmoyf&ifoyfjzifh csKdompGmacsmharmh,if; pum;ajymav\/ uREkfyfonf
q&mr\ MuifemykH&aomtjyKtrludk oabmusonfwaMumif;? ¤if;ESifhtwl
ygvmaom rdef;uav;tm;vnf; csufcsif;yifcifrifvsuf&Sdonfu waMumif;
aMumifh rdcifuar;aomtcg ]]ausmif;aeygr,f}}[k tajzay;vdkufav\/

ESpfoufvSaomypönf;

¤if;aeUnae zcifjyefvmí rdcifuajymjyaomtcg ynmudktvGefvdk


vm;aom uREkfyf\zcifrSm0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omjzpfí uREkfyftzdkUt0wftpm;opf
rsm; csKyfMuNyD;vQif oyf&yfatmifjyifqifí ausmif;okdUtyfMuavonf/ rJtdk;
wef;ESifh tdrfawmf&mbk&m;rSm ig;ESpfom;ausmfausmfrQom&Sdao;aom uREkfyf
tzdkU&mü aeUpOftoGm;tjyef c&D;jzpfaomaMumifh awmfawmanmif;ay &m

32 
tjyefc&D;wGif wcgw&HzcifuwvSnfh? tvkyform;rsm;uwvSnfh yckH;ay:
wGifxrf;wwfMuavonf/ eHeufwGif xrif;apmapmBuD;pm;í zcifwkdU
ESifhtwlvdkuf&ojzifh aeUcif;wGif tvGefqmavmifvSonfjzpf&m? rdbrsm;
onf ,Gef;xnftkyfuav;wGif xrif;[if;rsm;xnfhí qdkif;uav;jzifh qGJ,l
oGm;zdkUpDrHay;Mujcif;aMumifh uREkfyfpdwfxJü 0rf;omvdkufykH? aus;Zl;wif
vdkufykHrsm;udk ,aeUwdkif rSwfrdygao;onf/ xdkacwfü oHqifhrsm;
rokH;Muao;yJ ,Gef;xnftkyfBuD;rsm;jzifh bk&m;oGm; ausmif;wufacgif;&Guf
oGm;Muav&m uREkfyftzdkU tkyfti,ftpm;uav; 0,fay;jcif;twGuf0rf;om
vSí tdyf&mxJrSyif wcgwcgxí Munfhrdygao;onf/ rdbrsm;vnf; uREkfyf
ESpfoufjcif;udkjrifMuí oabmus&Smonf/ (uREkfyftzdkU 0,fay;aom ypönf;
rsm;teuf xdk,Gef;xnftkyfuav;xuf uREkfyftm; aysmfjrL;apaom tjcm;
ypönf;udk rrSwfrdyg/)

yxrü rdcif\rdwfaqGq&mrBuD;onf (vufaxmufq&mruav;


ESpfa,mufvnf; &Sdonf/) rdciftm; uwdxm;cJUonfhtwkdif;yif uREkfyftm;
txl;wvnf*&kpkdufygayonf/ uREkfyf\,Gef;xnftkyfuav;udkzGifhMunfhí
[if;rsm;nHUvQif [if;aumif;uav; wwkH;wav xnfhay;ojzifh
(tpm;aumif; cifrifwwfaom uREkfyftzdkU) 0rf;omvkH;qdkUrwwf aysmfvSí
aus;Zl;vnf;wifrdonf/ tdrfodkUtvnfvmpOfu ygvmaom ausmif;ol
uav;ESifhvnf; jyefqufrdojzifh MunfEl;vSonf/ odkU&mwGifuREkfyfrSm
wausmif;vkH;wGif ti,fqkH;vnf;jzpfí ta0;qkH;aom t&yfrS vm&aom
ausmif;om;uav;vnf;jzpfonf/ &G,fwlwa,muf ESpfa,muf&Sdaomfvnf;
ausmif;ywf0ef;usifü aeMuolrsm;jzpfaomaMumifh aeUcif;acwÅausmif;qif;
csdefwGif olwkdU\tdrfodkUjyefí pm;aomufMu&m uREkfyfwa,mufwnf;om

33 
tkyfuav;zGifhí pm;&ol&SdaomaMumifh wenf;tm;jzifh pdwf0ifpm;zG,faom
ausmif;om;uav;wa,muf[lí oabmxm;avmufMuonf xifygonf/
odkU&mwGif xdkodkUum;r[kwfacs/

¤if;pmoifausmif;Esifhywfoufí uREkfyfrauseyfaom taMumif;t&m


rsm;udk razmfjyrD auseyfaom tcsufrsm;udk azmfjyygOD;rnf/ oDv&Sifausmif;
ü aecJU&pOfu uREkfyftm; [dkaumif\ESdyfpufjcif;rS vGwfap&ef[laom
&nf&G,fcsufjzifh rdbrsm;u tyfxm;jcif;jzpf&m pmoif&ef i,fvGef;onfh
twGufaMumifh ausmif;wGif ]acG;0ifpm;}tjzpfESifh uREkfyf\ta':teD;wGif
xdkifae&jcif;rQom rsm;\/ tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm; pma&;MuaomtcsdefwGif
uREkfyfrSm opfom;wGif tdk;rnf;okwfxm;onfhoifykef;ay:ü uHUulqHjzifh
]0vkH;}rsm; a&;&jcif;udkom rSwfrdonf/ 0vkH;rS wqifhwuf&aomtcg
]ei,f}rsm;a&;&\/ ]ei,f}rsm;a&;aomtcgwGif acgif;BuD;BuD;rjzpfap&[k
oDv&SifBuD;u ajymjcif;udkvnf; uREkfyfrSwfrdonf/ pmtHaomtcg
]]earmAk'¨g}}rS rwufcJU&ao;ay/ (uBuD;) (cauG;) paom tu©&mrsm;udk
roif&ao;rD }}earmAk'¨g}}udk a&S;OD;pGm oifay;jcif;\ &nf&G,fcsufudk uREkfyf
,ckwdkif em;rvnfao;ay/

pdwf0ifpm;aomtcsuf

oDv&Sifausmif;rS vlausmif;odkU a&mufaomtcgürl (uBuD;) (cauG;)


tu©&mrsm;udk oif&í (uBuD;a&;u)odkU a&mufaomtcg uREkfyf\pdwfü
jzpfay:vmaom tjcif;t&mwckudk rSwfrdao;onf/ uREkfyfuJUodkU (uBuD;a&;
u) (cauG;a&c) ponfjzifh ]tH}Mu&aom uav;rsm;u wwef;? rsufESm

34 
csif;qdkiftwef;ü (uBuD;a&uowfuuf) (cauG;a&uowfcuf) ponfjzifh
]tH}Mu&olrsm;&SdMu\/ ausmif;ol ausmif;om;tm;vkH;onf xdkacwfpmoif
ausmif;rsm;\ xkH;pHtwdkif; atmfítHMu&m tcsKdUuvnf; toHukef[pfí
tHMu\/ (þonfrS tusifhygí ouFef;0wfNyD; pmtHaomtcgü ]][meHeH?
[meHeH}}[lí tHMujcif;jzpf[ef&Sdonf/) vlausmif;ü uREkfyfonf q&mrBuD;
xHodkU wkdifawmjcif;\ tusKd;r&Sdjcif;udkodvmonfjzpfí uREkfyftay:ü ]npf}
aomausmif;om;qdkvQif uREkfyfxuf 2 ESpf 3 ESpfavmufom toufBuD;ol
jzpfyguzufwG,fí owfavawmhonf/ npfcsifoluvnf; rsm;í owfykwf
&onfrSm aeUwdkif;vdkyif jzpfaeawmh\/ þwGif q&mrBuD;onf uREkfyftm;
cPcP&efjzpfaom aumifuav;qdkum zdí&dkufawmhonf/ rdcif\
rdwfaqGjzpfí vdr®map&efqkdaom &nf&G,fcsufjzifh olwyg;xuf zdí&dkufjcif;
vnf;jzpfygvdrfhrnf/ odkU&mwGif uREkfyftzdkUrlum; vm;vm;rS rw&m;aom
q&mrBuD;[lí rausrcsrf;jzpfcJU&onf/ þaemufydkif;ü uREkfyfpOf;pm;rdonf
um;q&mrBuD;onf tysKdBuD;jzpfí om;orD;rarG;bl;onfhtwGufaMumifh
uav;oli,frsm;\ jyóemrsm;udk rodom;qdk&Gm;vSonf[k qkH;jzwfcsufcs
rdygawmhonf/

uREkfyf\zcif

uREkfyftaMumif;udka&;vQif uREkfyf\rdbrsm;taMumif;udkvnf;
azmfjyyg rS uREkfyftzdkUrSm &kyfvkH;ay:ayvdrfhrnf/ uREkfyf\zcifrSm
a&Tbdkawmifvuf (jrif;e,f[kac:onf/) refusnf;wkH&Gmom; OD;at&mjzpf\/
zcif\trnfrSm jrefrmjynfwGif tvGef&Sm;í rMumao;rDurS emrnfwlaom
qdkif;bkwfwckudk awGU&bl;onf/ zcifESifhemrnfwlaomaMumifh vludk,fwdkif

35 
udkvnf;awGUjrifvdk apumrl ,aeUwdkifrawGU&bl;ao;ay/ a&Tbkdawmif
vufudk ]jrif;e,f}[k ac:wGifjcif;rSm jrefrmbk&if tqufqufvufxufwGif
jrif;trIxrf; (jrif;wyfppfom;) rsm; xGufaome,fjzpfaomaMumifh jzpf\/
uREkfyfudk,fwkdif (jrif;yJGorm;wa,muf r[kwfaomfvnf;) jrif;0goem
ygoljzpfí jrif;ESifhywf oufaom A[kokwavhvm&mwGif ¤if;e,fom;
rsm;uJUodkU jrif; ]tom;us} pD;enf;taMumif;udk em;vnfol&Sm;yg;
aMumif;awGU&\/ refusnf;wkH&Gmuav;rSm tdrfajcw&mausmf cefUrQom
&Sdaomfvnf; rif;vuf0JoE´&\ Zmwdcsuf a<ua'ojzpfonfhtwGufaMumifh
vlodrsm;aom &Gmuav;jzpf\/ (¤if;e,fwGif 0ufvufblwmteD;rS
refusnf;wkHESifh a&Tbdkajrmufvuf cifOD;blwmteD;rS refusnf;wkH[lí
&GmESpf&Gm&Sday&m uG,fvGefolZmwfrif;om; OD;zdk;pdefBuD;u rif;vuf0JokE´&
arG;zGm;onfh&GmrSm cifOD;teD;rS refusnf;wkH &Gmjzpfonf[k rSm;,Gif;ajymqdk
bl;onfhtwGuf &Sif;vif;azmfjyrnf BuHpnfbl; aomfvnf; ,ckrSyif
tvsOf;oihfí xnfhoGif;a&;om;vdkuf&ygawmhonf/ rif;vuf0JokE´&
arG;zGm;onfh tdrfae&mtrSwftom;rsm;udk q&mBuD; ocifudk,fawmfrIdif;\
wdkufwGef;csuft& aemufaygufpma&;q&m uav;rsm;tm; uREkfyfnGefjy
cJU&bl;ygonf/)

*kPf,lwwfjcif;

uREkfyf\zcifrSm uREkfyfuJUodkU ]vlpkH} wa,mufr[kwf? tvGef]&dk;}onfh


tEG,ftqufjzpfí bkd;pOfabmifqufwdkifatmif aot&ufudk vQmay:wGif
rwifbl;jcif;udk tom;,lí ajymavh&Sdolrsm;jzpfMu\/ zcifrSm aqGBuD;rsKd;
BuD;jzpfí ¤if;e,fw0dkuf&Sd &Gmrsm;wGif ol\aqGrsKd; r&Sdaom&Gm[lír&Sdonfh

36 
jyif aqGrsKd;rsm;rSmvnf; pm;EdkifaomufEdkif tajctae&SdMuolrsm;jzpfí
tcsKdUrSmv,fajr{u<u,f0olrsm; jzpfMuavonf/ uREkfyfBuD;jyif;í &efukef
ol&d,w0dkufwGif t,f'DwmjzpfvmNyD;aemuftcGifh,lí xdke,fodkU tvnf
tywf a&muf&mwGif zcifESifhuREkfyfwdkU vSnf;wpD;jzifh [dk&Gmonf&Gm
vSnfhvnfum ]]ighom; t,f'DwmjzpfvmNyDuG,f}}[k aqGrsKd;rsm;tm;
ajymjy&jcif;? ]]'D[mu ighnDuG,fh? 'D&GmrSmawmh olu ajrydkif&SifoaX;
wa,mufuG,fh}}[lí uREkfyftm; ajymjy&jcif;wdkUaMumifh zcifrSmtarm
om;&Sdawmhonf/ zcifonf rdcifESifhrwl? ol\aqGrsKd;twGuf tawmf*kPf,l
csif&Smonf/

oDaygrif;udkom arQmfMujcif;

zcifonf &Gmausmif;bkef;BuD;\ nDESpf0rf;uJGawmfoljzpfí ([dkacwfu


xkH;pHtwdkif;) udk&iftjzpfESifhav;ig;ajcmufESpfcefU aecJU&m toufjynfhaom
tcgwGif &[ef;cHzdkU bkef;awmfBuD;updwful;xm;\/ awm&Gmü arG;zGm;&ol
jzpfonfhtjyif bkef;BuD;ausmif;wGif ESpfaygif;twefMumaecJU&oluvnf;
jzpfonfESifh tvGefUtvGef ]&dk;}&Smonf/ odkU&mwGif &[ef;cHEdkifonfh
t&G,fodkU a&mufaomtcgü tawmfyg;&nfeyf&nf&dSykH&aom ol\zcifonf
&[ef;cHjcif;udk tm;ray;yJ rEÅav;NrdKUodkUqif;í oDaygbk&if\ vTwf&kH;wGif
pma&;uav;tjzpfESifh trIxrf;&ef rdwfaqGwa,mufxHwGif tyfESHvdkufav
onf/ (xdkacwfürl pma&;wkdif;tm; pma&;BuD;[k rac:Mu? ]pma&;BuD;}qdk
olrSm vTwf&kH;wGif{&mr trIxrf;BuD;wa,mufjzpfí olUtxufwGif
0efaxmuf? xdkUaemuf twGif;0efjzpfvmEdkifolwa,mufjzpfavonf/)
1247ckESpfwGif oDaygbk&if ygawmfrlí zcifrSm t*Fvdyftpdk;&

37 
vufatmufwGif trIxrf;EdkifcGifh&Sdaomfvnf; (trIxrf;olrsm;vnf;
aemufydkif;wGif ppfuJ&mxl;txdwdk;wufMuonf/) zcif\trsKd;rsm;u
oDaygbk&ifjyefvmvdrfhrnf[k ,kHMunfarQmfvifhMuaomaMumifh zciftm;
t*FvdyfvufatmufwGif trIrxrf;zdkU zsufMuonf/ 1250 jynfhESpfwGif
rdcifESifhtaMumif;ygí 1251 ckESpfwGif uREkfyfvlUjynfodkUa&mufvmonf/

q&mawmf\aus;Zl;

uREkfyf\t&yfrSm zcifxuf 2 vufrcefUjrifhí 5ay? 10vufr &Sdaom


aMumifh trsKd;taqGxJwGif t&yftjrifhqkH; wa,muftaejzifh vljzpfvm&
onf/ zcifonf ]vl&dk;vlaumif;BuD;}wa,mufjzpfí a'goenf;onf?
ESdrfhcsonf/ odrfarGUEl;nHUaom pdwfoabm&Sdonf? aMumufwwfonf?
A[kokwvdkvm;onf[k uREkfyfem;vnf\/ rdcif\tazurl ]vlnHU}
wa,muf[k xifaomaMumifh ol\orD;ESifhaumif;aumif;BuD; oabmrwl[k
uREkfyfMum;&bl;\/ odkUaomf &dk;om;ykH&jcif; wckwnf;aMumifh ay;pm;
vdkufjcif;jzpfonfqdk\/ odkUqkdaomfvnf; zcifonf pOf;pm;OmPf
acvSolwa,mufr[kwfay&m awmifolrd&dk;zvm tpOftvmwdkUaMumifh
cyfEkHEkH&SdykH&aomfvnf; rEÅav;NrdKUü yk*K¾d vfxl;wyg;jzpfoaom Nrdwfq&mawmf
bk&m;ESifY awGUqkH&onfwGifrS OmPfyGifhvif;í (olUacwfESihfol) vlwvkH;
olwvkH;jzpfvmcJUavonf/ (pD;yGm;a&;udkrqdkvdk? rd&dk;zvm t,ltqrsm;udk
pGefUy,f0HUonfowÅd&Sdjcif;udkqdkvdkygonf/)

38 
uREkfyf\rdcif

rdcifrSmrl rif;wkef;bk&if\ ]pm;awmfcJ} (xrif;[if;csuf&ol)rS


aygufzGm;cJUoljzpf\/ xdkacwfürl &Sifbk&if\ ]zdeyfudkif}? ]xD;rdk;}?
]uGrf;tpfudkif} paom trIxrf;rsm;yif rsufESmBuD;aom acwfjzpfí
xrif;[if;csuf&aom tvkyfrSm *kPfi,fonf[k r,lqMuay/ uREkfyftbdk;
\ &xl;udktaMumif;jyKí uREkfyf\rdcifrSmvnf; t&G,fa&mufaomtcgwGif
]rif;ESpfyg;}wkdU\ ]pmawmfzwf}jzpfvm&onf/ t&G,fi,fao;aomaMumifh
(18ESpforD;) pmawmfzwfBuD;rsm;jzpfMuonfh ]ocifBuD;}rsm;vufatmufwGif
pmawmfzwfuav;rQom jzpfcJU&ao;aomfvnf; rdcifrSm tvGeftoHaumif;
vSonf/ uREkfyfi,fpOfu ykcufxJü tdyfrnfjyKpOf rdcifu aw;csif;qdkí
ykcufvTJjcif;udk zcif\zdeyftvkyform;rsm;u em;axmifMu&aomaMumifh
uREkfyftdyfrnfhtcsdefudk apmifharQmfaeMuonf[k tvkyform;rsm;ajymMuonf/
rdcifoDqkdwwfjcif;rSm ywfysKd;? ,dk;',m;? oDcsif;BuD; oDcsif;cefUr[kwfyJ
&wk? &uef? ysKdU? tJU? tdkif ponfwkdUomjzpfí cefUnm;vGef;vSaomfvnf;
toHaumif;onfhtwGufaMumifh em;axmifíaumif;jcif;udk uREkfyfvnf;
Mum;&bl;onf/ touf 50 ausmfcefUwdkifatmif toHrysufao;ojzifh
&Hzef&Hcg uREkfyfwkdUom;orD;rsm;\ awmif;yefjcif;aMumifh qdkíjy&Smjcif;
udkvnf; uREkfyfrSwfrdonf/ uREkfyfrSm rdcif\toHudk rrSDaomfvnf;
tcsKdUaom ysKdUBuD; rsm;udk rdcif\oifjyrIaMumifh awmfuausatmif
qkdwwfonfjzpfí 0goemygaom rdwfaqGrsm;tay:ü tom;,lcJU&
bl;ygonf/

39 
a'goBuD;aomtrsKd;

zcif\pdwfEl;nHUodrfarGUoavmuf rdcifrSm pdwfqwfjcif;?


pdwfxufjcif;? pdwfwif;jcif;? r[kwfrcHwwfjcif;? raMumufwwfjcif;paom
tjcif;t&mwkdU&Sd\/ wae&mü rdciftm; ]a'goBuD;aomtrsKd;}[lí
a&;om;bl;&m rdcif\taz (uREkfyf\tbdk;) taMumif;udkowd&í a&;cJUjcif;
jzpf\/ uREkfyfi,fpOfurdcif\armifwa,muf (uREkfyf\OD;av;)tm;
olUxufBuD;aom vlwa,mufu tEdkifusifhum apmfum;vdkuf&mwGif
tbdk;onf tom;rsm; qwfqwfwkefatmif a'goxGufonfESifh xdkoludk
oGm;íowfygawmhrnf[k "m;udkifvsuf xGufoGm;ojzifh aqGrsKd;tm;vkH;u
0dkif;íawmif;yefMuaomfvnf; r&yJ&Sd&mwGif xdkvl\zcifonf tbdk;
taMumif;udkodí om;ESifhtwlajy;vmNyD;vQif tbdk;tm;0efcsawmif;yef
Muavonf/ okdUESifhvnf; tbdk;urausEdkifao;onfESifh apmfum;oludk,f
wkdif ESpfcsuf? okH;csufrQ ]taxmif;cHNyD;onfhaemufrS auseyfavawmhonf/
þae&mü xdkom;tzajy;vmjcif;rSm tbdfk;\a'goudkaMumufíom r[kwf?
]pm;awmfcJ} wa,muf[laom &mxl;udkvnf; &GHUMuykH&onf[k uREkfyf
xifrd\/ jrefrmbk&ifrsm;\ rif;rIxrf;rsm;tm; t*FvdyfvufxufuREkfyf
i,fpOfutxd av;pm;rI&SdMujcif;udkvnf; uREkfyfrSwfrdonf/

tbdk;\Mo0g'

uREkfyf\tbdk;rSm uREkfyf 10 ESpfom;cefUt&G,fwGif uG,fvGefav&m


tbkd;\ pum;wcGef;onf uREkfyf\em;xJpGJxifvsuf&SdcJUí uREkfyftzdkU&mü
0goemwckuJUodkUjzpfvm&ykHudk azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/ waeUoü tbdfk;onf

40 
uREkfyf\zcifr&SdckdufwGif olUom;rsm; taMumif;udk rdciftm; ajymjyvsuf
&SdpOf ]]a,musmf;qdkwmrsKd;[m rdef;rr[kwfbl;orD;&JU? ]pkH}ap&r,f? ighom;
rsm;qdkvQif ]pkH}rS iguBudKufw,f? ighorD;&JU a,musmf;u pdwfaumif;
ESvkH;aumif;awmh &Sd&Smyg&JU? EdkUayr,fh rpkHbl;uG,fh}}[kajymbl;avonf/
uREfkyf BuD;jyif;vmaom tcsdefü tcGifhBuKHwdkif; tbdk;\pum;onf
pdwfxJwGifay:vmonfcsif;jzpfí olwyg;tm; xdyg;epfematmif usL;ausmf
apmfum;aom tjyKtrlrsKd; r[kwforQ umvywfvkH; tbkd;\ Mo0g'twkdif;
vdkufemjcif;aMumifh uREkfyfudk,fwdkif ]vlpkH}wa,mufjzpf vmcJU&onf/
þtwGufaMumifh txdkuftavsmufemrnfysufapjcif;udk 0efcH&rnfjzpf
aomfvnf; uREkfyf\pdwfü w&HwqpfrQ aemifw&bl;onf r&Sdjcif;udkvnf;
ajym&Jygonf/

b0wmudkajymif;vJapaom tcsuf

rdcifzcifwkdUonf aps;csKdtaemufbuf a&Twmacsmif; ajrmif;aygifteD;


&Sd &dkifwef;t&yfü tdrfuav;wvkH; 0,f,l&&SdaomtcgwGif rJtdk;wef;&Sd
aetdrfudka&mif;csí yJykyfwef;ytdrfcef;udkvnf; pGefUvTwfNyD;vQif ajymif;a&GU
aexdkifMuav\/ ¤if;&yfuGufü aexdkifaeMupOf uREkfy\
f toufwmudk
jyKjyifajymif;vGJapcJUonfh tjcif;t&mwckjzpfay:cJU\/ ¤if;&yfuGufteD;&Sd
]av;q,fawmfrif;}ac:jrefrmrif;vufxufu t&m&SdBuD;wa,muf&Sd&m?
¤if;tbdk;BuD;onf uREkfyfwkdUaetdrfokdU nwdkif;vmíw&m;a[majymavh&S\
d /
xdkyk*¾dKvfBuD; a[majymonfhw&m;rSm Ak'¨bmom rd&dk;zvm a[majymMuonfh
w&m;rsKd;r[kwfyJ ]r*foHzdkvfoH} rsKd;yg&Sdav&m (xdkpOfurl tvGefqef;onf[k
,lqMuonf/) rdbrsm;onf ]em;yg;aom} yk*¾dKvfrsKd;jzpfí rnfonfh

41 
q&mawmf\ Mo0g'jzpfygoenf;[k pkHprf;ar;jref;Mu&m 'u©dP0efwdkuf&Sd
Nrdwfq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;\ Mo0g'jzpfaMumif;od&SdMu&\/ ¤if;q&mawmf
bk&m;BuD;\ ausmif;wGif ausmif;om;rsm;tm; oif&dk;oifpOf enf;jzifh
r[kwfyJ bmoma&;qkdif&m pmayrsm;udkvnf; wenf;wzkHoifjy onf/
*Pef;ocsmFponfrsm; oifjyonfh vufaxmufq&mrsm;vnf;&Sdí
tpdk;&pmppfvnf;cHonf[kMum;od&onfwGif uREkfyftm; vlausmif;rS Ekwfí
'u©dP0efwdkuf bkef;BuD;ausmif;okdU ajymif;a&TUtyfESHav\/ tu,fí
uREkfyfonf ¤if;ausmif;odkU ra&mufcJUvQif BuD;jyif;aomtcgwGif zdeyfaxmif
q&mwa,mufa,mufaomfvnf;aumif;? aps;csKdxJü qdkifxdkifía&mif;aom
zdeyfonfwa,mufa,mufaomfvn;faumif; jzpfvmzdkUom &Sdayonf/

bkef;BuD;ausmif;om;

'u©dP0efwkduf Nrdwfq&mawmf\ ausmif;odkUtyfESHaomtcg uREkfyfrSm


ckESpfESpfom; t&G,f&Sdí vlausmif;rS oifykef;BuD;ukefNyD; r*Fvokwf? twGif;
atmifjcif;? tjyifatmifjcif;paom oif&dk;pmrsm; ukefcJUNyD;avNyD/
¤if;bkef;BuD;ausmif;wGif q&mawmfonf tjcm;aom bkef;BuD;ausmif;rSmuJU
odkUoif&dk;oifpOf pmrsm;udkroifyJ q&mawmfudk,fwdkif a&;pD&ifaom
pmrsm;udk oiftHMu&\/ uREkfyfrSm rSwfOmPftawmfaumif;í q&mawmfu
ydkUcsaom pmrsm;udk tjcm;ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;xuf &vG,fonfjzpfaom
aMumifh q&mawmfu avSmfwdkif;ajy;onfh }avSajy;uav;} [ktrnfrSnfhum
csD;usL;jcif;cH&onfESifhtwl tjcm;ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;\ remvdkjcif;vnf;
cH&avonf/ þausmif;wGifvnf; uREkfyfonfyif ti,fqkH;jzpfí tjcm;
ausmif;om;rsm;rSm tenf;qkH; q,fESpfom;t&G,f &SdaeMuavNyD/

42 
q&mawmfonf <uoGm;&mt&yfwkdif;odkU uREkfyftm; ac:oGm;í y&dowfa&SU
wGif ¤if;oifMum;xm;onfh bmoma&;pmayrsm;udk tar;tajzoabmjzifh
uREkfyftm;ar;&m uREkfyfuoGufvufpGm ajzEkdifonfhtwGufaMumifh tcsKdUaom
vlBuD;rdef;rBuD;rsm;u ]om;uav; awmfcsifonf} ]wluav;jzpfapcsifonf}
ponfjzifh awmifhw ajymqdkMujcif;rsm;udk uREkfyfMum;&\/ y&dwfowfa&SUü
q&mawmfESifhuREkfyftar;tajzvkyfjcif;udk Mum;emMu&aom t&yfol
t&yfom;rsm;onf ¤if;wdkU\ om;rsm;udk q&mawmf\ ausmif;odkUrxm;csif
olr&Sdoavmufjzpf\/ þenf;tm;jzifh q&mawmf\ausmif;rSm ausmif;om;
rsm;pnfum;rsm;jym;onfxuf rsm;jym;vmcJU&m uREkfyfonfyif ]w,fMuuf}
uav;jzpfaecJUavNyD/ pifppfrSm tar;tajzrsm;onf uREkfyf\ OmPfpGrf;jzifh
ajzqdk&jcif;r[kwfyJ ]usufpm}rQomjzpfaomfvnf; rMum;bl;aom
rdbrsm;tzdkUrl wtHUwMojzpfMu&avonf/

oifMum;ykHerlem

tar;tajzudk Oyrm wckjyygOD;rnf/


]]vl b,fhES,fa&;ovJ}}
]]va&;ESpfacsmif;iif vl}}
]]b,folUudk vlac:ovJ}}
]]&kyfemrfESpfyg;udk vlac:ygonf}}
]]&kyfb,favmuf&SdovJ}}
]]&kyf tX0DoH (28) &Sdygonf}}
]]bmudk ]emrf}ac:ovJ}}
]]pdwf? apwodufudk emrfac:ygonf}}

43 
]]apwoduf b,favmuf&SdovJ}}
]]apwoduf 'Gdynmo (52) &Sdygonf}}
]]pdwf wck,kwf 90? tus,f 121yg; &Sdygonf}}
]]pdwf b,favmuf&SdovJ}}
]]b,fpdwf b,fpdwfrsm;wkef;}}
]]avmbrlpdwf 8ck? a'gorl pdwf2ck? arm[rlpdwf 2ck
aygif;tukodkfvf12ck}} ponfjzifh 89 rsKd;aom pdwfwkdUudk a&wGuf&Gwfqdkjy&
avonf/ þonfrSm ]usufpm}yifjzpfaomfvnf; 7 ESpfom;t&G,f
oli,fuav;wa,mufu y&dowfxJü oGufoGufvufvuf &Gwfqdkjyjcif;
udkjrifMuMum;Mu&aom t&yfolt&yfom;rsm;u ]]'Doli,fuav;
oN*ØwwfaeNyD}}[k uREkfyftm; csD;rGrf;umayGUMu? zufMu? rkefUa<u;Mu
avonf/

taumif;ESifhtqdk;wGJjcif;

þonfum; uREkfyftzdkU [efusvSyg\/ odkU&mwGif taumif;ESifhtqdk;


'GefwJGí jzpfwwfaomZmwm&Sifjzpfonf[k eu©wfq&mBuD;wa,mufu
(aemufydkif;wGif) a[mbl;onfhtwkdif; q&mawmf\ ]vufoyfarG;} wynfh
uav;wa,muf jzpf&jcif;twGufaMumifh raumif;aom tjcif;t&mrsm;
wGJvsufvdkufygvmawmhonf/ þausmif;odkU uREkfyfra&mufrDtcsdefu
pmawmfaom ausmif;om;uav;wa,mufonf uREkfyfuJUodkUyif
q&mawmfaemufodkUwaumufaumufvkduf&bl;\/
uREkfyfa&mufvmaomtcgürl uREkfyfu olUxufokH;ESpfi,fí olUuJUokdUyif
q&mawmf\ tar;rsm;udkajzwwfonfjzpf aomaMumifh q&mawmfonf

44 
omí ]yGJusjcif;}udk vkdvm;onfESifh olUtpm; uREkfyftm;ac:avawmhonf/
þodkUaom tjcif;t&mudk ¤if;ausmif;om;onf rvdkvm;Edkifonfh
vu©PmESifh uREkfyftay:wGif taumufOmPfBuH[efwlayonf/

tEdkifusifhcHcJU&ykH

txufwGifazmfjycJUbl;onfhtwdkif; uREkfyfrSm (xdkacwfu ausmif;om;


oli,fwkdU\ upm;enf;jzpfonf) ]ayoD;ypfjcif;ü} vufajzmifhjcif;twGuf
aMumifhtrsm;tm;jzifh Edkifwwfoljzpfonf/ ydkufqHwjym;vQif ayoD; (a*:vD)
10vkH;&í upm;Mu&mwGif waeUwGif ydkufqH2jym;? 3jym; ponfjzifh
aeUwdkfif;vdkyif Edkifavh&S\
d / uREkfyftm; rdbrsm;u waeUvQif rkefUzdk;ydkufqH 2
jym;ay;avh&Sd&m ayoD;ypfjcif;rS Edkif&jcif;aMumifh wyJ? ig;jym; okH;ae&\/
ayoD;ypfMu&mwGifvnf; cyfBuD;BuD; ausmif;om;0dkif;ESifh uav;0dkif;[lí
ESpf0dkif;&Sd&m uav;0dkif;wGifrl txufygausmif;om;wa,mufrSwyg;
uREkfyfonf vuftajzmifhqkH;jzpf\/ xdkausmif;om;onf uREkfyftm; olESifh
ESpfa,mufwnf;upm;&efaoG;aqmifav&m uREkfyfrSmvnf; vltuav;
wa,muf r[kwfaomaMumifh jiif;y,fcJU\/ okdU&mwGif xdkoli,fonf
uREkfyfxuftoufokH;ESpfcefU BuD;onfjzpfí uREkfyftm; acsmhcsnfwcg?
jrLcsnfwvSnfh? acsmufcsnfwrsKd;jzifh? aeU&SdorQ uyfíEl;ESyfav&um;
uREkfyfrSm olESifhupm;&ef oabmwlrdavawmhonf/ wcgw&H olu
npfonfESifh uREkfyfu rcHyJ owfykwfMu&mwGif 7 ESpfom;ESifh 10 ESpfom;
jzpfaomaMumifh uREkfyfyifemí &IH;&avonf/ þuJUodkU jzpf&zefrsm;vwf
aomf uREkfyfrSm olESifhrupm;yJvnf;rae&? upm;wdkif;vnf; &IH;&onfom

45 
jzpfaomaMumifh uREkfyf&cJUaom rkefUzdk;ydkufqHESpfjym;rSm wjym;zdk;rQ
rkefUrpm;&yJ olUvufxJodkU a&mufoGm;ygavawmhonf/
odkUqdkvQif vGwfajrmuf&ef enf;vrf;r&Sdoavm? q&mawmftm;
tb,fhaMumifh ravQmufxm;oenf;[k ar;&ef&Sd\/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;om;
[lonfrSm bkef;BuD;tm; b,frQavmuf aMumuf&onfudk bkef;BuD;ausmif;
om;rsm;om odMuayvdrfhrnf/ uREkfyfonf q&mawmf\ vufoyfarG;wynfh
uav;wa,mufyifjzpfaomfvnf; avQmufxm;wdkufawmjcif; rjyK0HUacs/
wcgu onf;rcHEdkifvSojzifh q&mawmftm; avQmufxm;wdkifwef;&mwGif
q&mawmfonf xdkoli,ftm;&dkufzl;\/ odkU&mwGif xdkoli,fonf þtwGuf
aMumifhuREkfyftay:ü wkd;íqkd;vmavm&m q&mawmftm; avQmufxm;&ef
yifr0HUyJ&Sdawmhonf/ tb,fhaMumifh þokdUjzpf&oenf;[k ar;ygrl
bkkef;BuD;ausmif;om; wa,muftaejzifh q&mawmftm; em;yl&rnfudk
aMumufonfhtwGuf[k ajzqdk&ayrnf/

ausmif;vufa0SUyGJrsm;

xkdausmif;om;onf uREkfyftay:ü qdk;onfxuf qdk;vmao;\/


olESifhay;oD;ypfMuojzifh uREkfyf\rkefUzdk;ydkufqHESpfjym;ukefí ausmif;wufcsdef
ra&mufao;onfhtcgolu ayoD;rsm;xkwfacs;NyD; qufvufupm;zdkU
rsufESmcsKdaoG;av&m uREkfyfrSm olUudk&GHUonfESifh rjiif;0HUyJ qufvufí
upm;&\/ ydkufqHwjym;zdk;ta<u;wifoGm;aomtcg eufjzefwGif t&if;
wjym;? twdk;wjym;[kqdkum uREkfyfxHrS ydkufqHESpfjym;awmif;\/ ray;[k
jiif;vQif vkí,l\/ ]]bkef;BuD;udkavQmufvQif rif;aoayawmh}}[k uREkfyftm;

46 
Ncdrf;ajcmufao;\/ uREkfyfrSm ¤if;t&G,fwGif rdcif\owÅdrsKd;r&Sd/ zcif\
aysmhnHUaompdwfrsKd;&Sd[efwlonf/ odkUESifhyif &G,fwlcsif;jzpfygu
&IH;onfjzpfap? Edkifonfjzpfap tavQmhray;yJ wG,fowfcJUbl;onfh
tBudrfaygif;vnf; rsm;cJUvSygNyD/ xdkacwfrSm þacwfESifh rwlatmif
ausmif;om;csif; owfykwfxkd;BudwfMujcif;rSm aeUwdkif;udpöjzpfonf/
q&mawmftm; ravQmufpwrf;qdkí oabmwlowfykwfMuaom vufa0SUyJG
uav;rsm;rSm waeUvQif wyJGESpfyJG&SdNrJjzpf\/ xdkacwfü EdkifiHausmf
vufa0SUorm;BuD;rsm;jzpfMuonfh rdk;BudK;? ay:odkif;? usm;ysH? usm;euf
ponfwkdUuvnf; tdrfawmf&mbk&m;ajrmufbuf&Sd ]bk&m;ikwfwdk}teD;wGif
&kHoGif;vsuf&Sd&m ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;onf ausmif;om;uav;ESifh
ausmif;om;vwfrsm;udkajrSmufay;í ]rif;urkd;BudK;uG? rif;u ay:odkif;uG?
rif;u aygifjzLibuG? rif;u tkwfESJzkwf zkd;wkwfuG} ponfjzifh
emrnfBuD;rsm;rSnfhNyD;vQif &G,fwlcsif;wJGay;um xkd;owfap\/
owfykwfMupOftwGif; ¤if;wkdUu vufa0SUqdkif;toGm;rsKd;udk yg;pyfjzifh
wD;ay;Mu&m uav;rsm;vnf; rdkufpdwf0ifí oJoJrJrJ xdk;owfMuavawmh
onf/ þodkUjzifh uREkfyfuJUokdUaom ausmif;om;i,fuav;rsm;rSm
EIwfcrf;pkwfjywfjcif;? ezl;a&mifjcif;? rsufuGif;ndKjcif; ponfh 'Pf&m'Pf
csufrsm;Esifh tdrfodkUjyefMuonfu rsm;avonf/ þenf;tm;jzifh uREkfyfwkdU
ausmif;om;i,fuav;rsm;rSm ]wdkufMuuf}uav;ozG,f ]cGyf}zdkU OD;rav;yJ
jzpfukefMuavNyD/

trsKd;rsKd;nSOf;qJykH

47 
uREkfyfonf owfykwfjcif;tvkyfü ]&G,fwlvQif vlra&G;} qdkaom
tjzpfodkUa&mufcJUaomfvnf; uREkfyf\uHqdk;jcif;wckrSm uREkfyfxufBuD;aom
txufyg ausmif;om;u (uREkfyftm; remvdkonfhvu©PmESifh) uyfí
nOf;qJrIcH&jcif;yifjzpf\/ uREkfyfonf ol\ta<u;udk aeUwdkif; t&if;
wjym;? twkd;wjym; qyf&í rkefUzkd;&aom ydkufqHESpfjym;teufrS wjym;zdk;rQ
rkefU0,frpm;&yJ tiwfae&onfhtxJ uyif ol\ta<u;rsm;onf aeUwdkif;
wufvsufom&Sd\/
ydkufqHESpfjym;cefU a<u;wifrdonfqdkvQifyif ay;qyfí ajyonfr&Sd
awmhyJ wrl;? wrwf? ig;rl; ponfjzifh wufíwufíom oGm;awmh\/
tcsKdUaom ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;onf uREkfyfudkoem;Muí uREkfyfbufrS
ckcHumuG,fajymay;Mu&m xdkw&uftwGufom uREkfyftzdkU oufom&m&í
rkefUuav;ESpfjym;zdk; 0,fpm;&\/ crsmrsm;uvnf; aeUwdkif;apmifhí
ajymay;EdkifMuonf r[kwfaomaMumifh aemufaeUrsm;wGif uREkfyfrSm
rkefUiwfNrJwdkif; iwf&jyef\/ aemufqkH;wGif uREkfyf\jzpftifonf q&mawmf
\em;okdUaygufa&mufí uREkfyf\zcifudkrSm,lNyD;vQif xkdausmif;om;\
ta<u; rsm;udkay;qyfap&m wBudrfvQif ig;rl;? ajcmufrl;? okH;rwf ponfjzifh
ay;qyf&\/ a<u;qyfNyD;cgp &ufrsm;wGifuREkfyftvGefaysmfrdjcif;udk rSwfrd
ao;onf/ odkU&mwGifMum&SnfpGm r[kwfacs/ xkdausmif;om;onf uREkfyftm;
trsKd;rsKd;aomenf;jzifh acsmharmhESL;ESyfNcdrf;ajcmufav&m &ufowÅwywf
twGif;wGif b,fvkdub,fvkdjzpfonf rrSwfrd? ol\ta<u;ESpfjym;rQ wif
oGm;avNyD/ okdUqdkvQif aeUpOfESpfjym;ay;qyfonfhtxJrS wrwf? ig;rl;jzpf
oGm;atmif ol\twkd;EIef;jzifh zvS,fvkdufjyefavawmhonf/ xdktcgwGif
owif;aygufMum;jyefí zcifu a<u;qyf&jyefav&m xdkodkUaom
tBudrfrsKd;rSm av;ig;Budrfxufenf;rnfrxifay/ yxrü zcifonf uREkfyf\

48 
i,fvGef;aomtjzpfaMumifh MunfjzLpGmay;qyf&Smaomfvnf; aemuftBudrf
rsm;ürl uREkfyftm; &dkufESufavawmhonf/ zcif\&dkufESufjcif; rsm;onf
roufomvSjcif;udkvnf; uREkfyfrSwfrdonf/

]cspfwD;}jzpfbl;avoavm

uREkfyfrSm wausmif;vkH;wGif pmtawmfqkH;aom ausmif;om;uav;


wa,mufjzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyfuJUokdU pdwfqif;&Jaom ausmif;om;onf
þausmif;wGifvnf;aumif;? tjcm;ausmif;rsm;wGifvnf;aumif; wa,mufrQ
&Sdvdrfhrnfrxifay/ ausmif;üvnf;aumif;? tdrfüvnf;aumif; pdwfcsvufcs
at;at;aq;aq; ae&onf[lí wem&DrQ r&SdcJUacs/ ausmif;ü&SdpOf a<u;&Sif
ausmif;om;\rsufESmudkMunfhae&\/ olpdwfrxifvQif ¤if;aeUtzdkU
ydkufqHESpfjym; ay;qyfNyD;onfhtxJrSyif a<u;a[mif;awmif;NyD; uREkfyf\
pmtkyfuav; rsm;udk qJGívkwwf\/ þtjzpfudk q&mawmfodrnfh
ta&;twGufvnf; uREfkyfyifylyef&\/ tdrfü&SdpOfwGifvnf; a<u;wifjcif;
taMumif;udk rdbrsm;\ em;okdUaygufMum;rnfudkvnf; uREkfyfyif ylyef&
onf/ uREkfyfuJUokdU pdwfyl&aomausmif;om;onf ]þausmif; xdkausmif;wGif
omru þacwf a&S;acwfrsm;wGifvnf; &Sdygavrnfavm}[k atmufarhrd
onf/ 1956ckESpf wGif zqyvtpdk;&u uREkfyftm; axmifodkUydkU&kHru
axmifxJü ]wdkufydwf} cH&onfhtcg ]ighrSm vufiif;tjypfr&Sdaomfvnf;
i,fpOfu pmuav;arG;cJUbl;onfhtjypfaMumifh jzpfwef&monf}[k pOf;pm;rd
bl;&m xdkausmif;om;taMumif;udk ,ckowd&aomtcgü ]igonfb0ü
cspfwD;jzpfcJU bl;avoavm}[k awG;awmrdygawmhonf/ xdkausmif;om;onf
þpma&; aomtcsdefwGif touf&Sifvsufyif&Sdao;í ¤if;tm; wcgw&H

49 
awGUjrif& aomtcgrsm;wGif tmCmwxm;jcif; r&Sdaomfvnf; ]ig\obm0
wGif ql;BuD;wacsmif;aygufvmatmif zefwD;olum; olyifjzpfonf}[k
owdr&yJ aeEdkifatmif &Sdygawmhonf/

Nrdwfq&mawmf

Nrdwfq&mawmf\ausmif;rSm 'u©dP0efwdkufwGif omru rEÅav;NrdKU


ay:&Sd bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm; teufwGif ausmif;om;tpnfum;qkH; aom
ausmif;jzpfí ausmif;om;rdbrsm;onfvnf; rEÅav;om;rsm;tm;
a&wGufjcif;tvkdUiSm wa,mufpD 1?2?3 ponfjzifh &Gwfqdkap&m aemufqkH;
ausmif;om;u 64[k qdkvkdufjcif;udk uREkfyfrSwfrdygao;onf/ rSwfrdykHrSm
xdkausmif;om;onf a&mifxkH;uav;ESifh a&SUokdUudkif;um olUtvSnhfa&muf
atmif apmifhMunfhae&mrS olUtxufu vlu63[k qdkvdkfufonfESifh
wNydKifeuf olu ]]ajcmuf? ajcmuf? ajcmufq,hfav;}}[k qdkvdkuf&m
wausmif;vkH;0dkif;í&,fvkdufMu\/ uREkfyfvnf; tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh
twl &,fvdkufrdonf/ xdkoli,frSm ]pum;xpf}olwa,mufjzpfav&m
uREkfyfrSmvnf; xdkaeUrSpí pum;xpfvmawmhonf[k rSwfrdonf/ tjcm;
ausmif;om;rsm;tm; ]rul;}yJ uREkfyfwa,mufwnf;udkom ul;&jcif;rSm um;
([kwfr[kwftyxm;í) uREkfy\
f xifjrifcsufudk oufqkdif&mae&mwGif
azmfjyygrnf/

50 
xl;jcm;aomq&mawmf

Nrdwfausmif;(]bdwfausmif;}ac:Muonf/)\ pnfum;jcif;taMumif;&if;
rSm q&mawmfOd;eE´onf Nrdwfe,fom;jzpfí t*FvdyfvufatmufodkU
tvsifqkH;usa&mufcJUonfhe,f jzpfonfhtavsmufrEÅav;NrdKUwGif acwftrSD
qkH;aom &[ef;wyg;jzpf\/ acwfrSDykHum; bkef;BuD;ausmif;om;wkdif; onf
&[ef;jyKMurnfr[kwfyJ vlUtjzpfESifh 0rf;pm&SmrSD;Mu&rnfjzpfaom aMumifh
tenf;qkH; twGuftcsuf (*Pef;ocsmF)wwfMurS jzpfrnfqkdum
]]abma'ykwÅ}}rQavmufESifh rNyD;apyJ vufaxmufq&mrsm;xm;um
avmuDynm oifjyap\/ tpdk;&uvnf; acwfrSDaom bkef;awmfBuD;[k
em;vnfum vufaxmufq&mrsm;twGuf vcay;\/ 'kwd,taMumif;
w&yfrSmvnf; Nrdwfq&mawmfonf xGwfacgifq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;\
ausmif;wGif oDwif;okH;cJUpOfu owdyXmefenf;twkdif; tm;xkwfcJUí
(t&d,mjzpfonf[k rdbrsm;vnf; ,kHMunfonf/ uREkfyfvnf; þaemufydkif;
wGif,kHMunfonf/) r*fw&m; zdkvfw&m;[lonfrSm &apaumif;aomacwf
&Sdao;onf[k a[majym&kHru tm;xkwfvdkolrsm;tm;vnf; enf;vrf;nTefjy
awmfrlonf/ xdkacwfwGif (v,fwDq&mawmfvnf; rausmfMum;ao;ojzifh)
edAÁmefr*fzdkvf[lonfrSm &Edkifaomacwfr&SdawmhNyD[k jrefrmjynf &[ef;
avmu wckvkH;u ,lqvsuf&Sd&m ]vl}qdkonfrSmum; &[ef;rsm;NyD; vQif
NyD;Mu&aomacwfjzpf\/ þwGif 'u©dP0efwkduf&Sd *dkPf;csKyfq&mawmf
rsm;onf*Pef;ocsmFoifay;íausmif;om;pnfum;jcif;udkvnf; Munfhvdk[ef
rwl? r*fzdkvfudk &paumif;ao;onfh qdkjcif;twGufvnf; ]em;uavm}
[efwl&avum; Nrdwfq&mawmfudk ]MuOf}Muav\/

51 
]pmjzL} oif&awmhrnf

bkef;BuD;ausmif;ü uREkfyftouf udk;ESpfom;t&G,fwdkif


a&mufvwfaomf armfvNrdKifNrdKU aumhu&dwf&GmrS bJGUawmf OD;wdavmuac:
&[ef;wyg;onf rEÅav;NrdKUodkU <ua&mufvm&m t*Fvdyfpmwwfjzpfí
ausmif;om;rsm;tm; t*Fvdyfpmoifay;vdkonfqkdaomaMumifh Nrdwfq&mawmf
\ ausmif;ESifhtHusjzpfaeawmhonf/ tjcm;aom bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;rSm
*Pef;ocsmFudkrQ oifay;zkdUoabmrwlyJ&Sd&m t*Fvdyfpm (pmjzL) rlum;
vufcHzdkU a0;ao;\/ þwGif OD;wdavmurSm Nrdwfq&mawmf\
ausmif;wGifoDwif;okH;í pkaqmif;NyD; &&Sdxm;aom ausmif;om;okH;av;q,f
wkdUtm; t*Fvdyfpmoifjyay;av&m uREkfyfrSmvnf; wa,muf tygt0if
jzpf\/ vuf&Sdausmif;om;aygif; 60ausmfteuf ]pmjzL} oifawmhrnf
qkdojzifh tcsKdUvnf; EkwfxGufí tcsKdUvnf; wkd;vmav&m EkwfxGufoGm;
onfh ausmif;om;rsm;teuf uREkfyf\ ]cspfwD;}vnf; ygoGm;NyD jzpfaom
aMumifh uREkfyftzdkUrSm 0efxkyfBuD;wck uscJUayNyD/

aps;csKdawmf yxrrD;

xdktcsdefwGif uREkfyf\rdbrsm;onf bkef;BuD;ausmif;ESifh ]wjy}cefU


avmufom a0;aom&dkifwef;t&yfrS 17]jy}a0;onfh &efESifwHcg;udk
ajymif;a&TUMujyefavNyD/ xdkt&yfodkU rajymif;a&TUrD &dkifwef;&yfü aepOfu
uREkfyftwGuf rSwfavmufom;avmuf oifcef;pmBuD;wck &apaom
tjzpftysufwckudkazmfjyvdk\/ wnoü aps;csKdawmfBuD;udk yxrtBudrf

52 
rD;avmifav&m uREkfyfwkdU aetdrfESifhaps;csKdawmfBuD;rSm a&Twacsmif;rQom
jcm;onfjzpfí uREkfyf\woufwmwGif rD;tBuD;tus,favmifjcif;udk
yxrtBudrf ]*&if;pwif;}rS Munfh&jcif;jzpfonf/ wnOfhywfvkH;
avmifjcif;udk wnOfhywfvkH;vdkyif w&yfvkH; xkdifMunfhMu\/ a&pufrsm;
[kwÅdywÅdr&Sdao;onfh acwfjzpfí wydkif;wprQ Nidrf;owfxm;onfh ae&m
rsm;wGif wcPwmrQomNidrf;í watmifhrQMumvQif wzefxí awmufavmif
jyefavonf/ ypönf;rsKd;pkHavmifjcif;jzpfí anSmfeHUtrsKd;pkHeH Mu&onfhjyif
aygufuJGoH trsKd;rsKd;vnf;Mum;Mu&\/ rD;awmufrsm;onf wae&mü
wcgw&H Nidrf;awmhrnfuJUodkUjzpfNyD;rS qD?a&eHqDpaom avmifpmrsm;odkU
ul;puf&mwGif rdk;xdk;onfh rD;awmufBuD;rsm; [kef;ueJxí
awmufvmjyef\/ odkUjzpf&mwGif idkufrsOf;pjyKvmaom rD;Munfhy&dowf
BuD;rSm rsufvkH;rsm;NyJí vmMujyefonf/

aiG&Tifaom&ufydkif;

rD;avmifNyD;onfhaemuf &ufowÅywf ausmfausmfrQtwGif;ü


rD;avmifuGif;BuD;onf uREkfyfwkdUausmif;om;t&G,f oli,frsm; tzdkU&mü
tifydkUvdkifpifXmeBuD;wck jzpfaeawmh\/ 1950jynfhESpfavmufqDu
&efukefodkU uREkfyfqif;oGm;&mwGif aeUcsif;ncsif; oaX;jzpfoGm;onfh
]bdfkifukefonf}rsm;taMumif;udk pD;yGm;a&;orm; tcsif;csif; ajymMujcif;rsm;
Mum;&onfhtcg uREkfyfrSmi,fpOfuaps;csKdawmf rD;avmifuGif;BuD;udk bGm;ueJ
owd&rdonf/ eHeufvif;onfESifhwNydKifeuf ykyk&G&G[lorQ onfrD;avmif
uGif;BuD;okdU avQmufvmMuí oHaumufwacsmif;pDESifh þ[mudkvSef
[dk[mudkzGifhponfjzifh tESHUtjym; xdk;qGarGaESmuf &SmazGMuav&m

53 
ae0ifonfh tqkH;ü wusyf ESpfusyf ig;usyfwefrsm;udk vlwdkif;vdk&í 50dwef
100dwef wdkifatmif &Muolrsm;vnf; &SdMuavonf/ tcsKdUrSm
a&TqdkifaiGqdkifwef;rS a&TcJaiGcJrsm;udkyif &&SdMuonfqdk\/ jymykHxJrSm
&Smí&Muaom ypönf;rsm;udk apmifhí0,f,lMuonfh vmbfjrifolrsm;vnf;
&efukefMuufwef;yrm ay:vmMuonf/ uREkfyfonfvnf; rdbrsm; rodapyJ
ausmif;tm;vyfcsdefwGif tjcm;ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;ESifhtwl vkdufí jymykHudk
arTjcif;jzifhwaeUvQif okH;yJav;yJrQ &&Sdav&m rkefUzdk;ESpfjym;om&aom
oli,fwa,muf tzdkUü vmbfoyfyum&TifvSí vGefpGmauseyfcJUav\/

]aps;orm;} jzpfvmMujcif;

uREkfyftxl;ojzifh wifjyvdkaom tjcif;t&mrSm ydkufqH&Tifbl;jcif;


aMumifh uREkfyfysufpD;vm&ykHyifjzpfavonf/ aps;csKdawmfBuD; jymykHjzpfpOfu
okH;yJ wrwfokH;Edkifaom ausmif;om;rsm;onf jymykHay:wGif qdkifwef;rsm;
jzpfvmaomtcgü ydkufqH0ifayguf r&SdMuawmhojzifh BuHrdBuH&m BuH&awmh
onf/ (xdkacwfurl acgufqJGwvkH;wyJ? rkefUwDESpfjym;? zmvl'g cGufuav;
wyJ? cGufBuD;wrl;? pD;u&ufwjym; av;vdyf? ]zifqDpGyf}okH;vdyf&aom
acwfjzpfaomaMumifh okH;yJwrwfqdkvQif oaX;om;rsKd;ozG,f okH;EdkifMu
onf/ uREkfyfwkdUausmif;ü oaX;OD;bZH\ om;wa,muf&Sd&m olyif
rkefUzkd;ajcmufjym;om&onf/) ausmif;om;rsm;onf aps;csKdjymykH (pm;usuf)
uG,faysmufí wJwef;qdkifrsm; ay:aygufvm&mwGif (vdkufpifydwfvdkufaom
ukefonfBuD;rsm;uJUodkU) pD;yGm;a&; tusyftwnf;awG awGUBuKH&av\/
þwGif tcsKdUausmif;om;rsm;onf aps;qdkifrsm;rS tvpfEIdkufaom pepfudk
wDxGifMu\/ txl;ojzifh ukefpkHa&mif;aom usLvD,mqdkifrsm;rSm

54 
¤if;wkdUusufpm;&maom Xmejzpf\/ ausmif;om;cyfBuD;BuD; av;ig;a,muf
wkdUonf ausmif;tm;csdefwGif aps;csKdodkUoGm;í jyefvmaomtcgü a*:vDrsm;?
riftkd;rsm;? vufudkifyk0grsm;? cJwHrsm; tp&Sdonfh ypönf;uav;rsm; toD;oD;
ygvmMu&m wa,mufvQif ig;rl;wef? ajcmufrl;wef ponfjzifh &cJUMu\/
¤if;wkdU\ ]yG}jcif;udkjrifMu&í aps;csKdoGm;aom ausmif;om;ta& twGuf
yGm;rsm;vm&m aemufqkH;wGif ydkufqH&Tifaom oaX;om;ESifh vufzGmaom
rdbwdkU\om; tenf;i,frSwyg; aps;orm;jzpfukefMuavawmh onf/

twkjriftwwfoif

waeUoü uREkfyfonfvnf; ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;\ ydkufqH&Tifjcif;udk


oGm;&nfusvsuf&SdpOf uREkfyfudkcifrifaom ausmif;om;BuD;wa,mufu
]]a[haumif azodef;? igeJUvdkufcJUygvm;uG? bmrSrcufbl;? igvkyfovdkom
Munfhvkyf}}[kqdkum vpfykHvpfenf;udk oGefoifav&m uREkfyfvnf;vkdufyg
oGm;av\/ uREkfyfwkdUtzJGUrSm okH;av;a,muf&Sdí uREkfyfonfolwkdU\vpfykH
vpfenf;udk vufawGUoifcef;pm,l&kHom,lcJUNyD; yxrwacgufjyefvmcJU\/
'kwd,wacgufürl uREkfyf\tzGJUom;rsm;u ypönf;rsm; 0,fcsifjyKí
aps;qpfvsuf&SdMupOf uREkfyfonf zvfa*:vD'dk;BuD;wvkH;udk EIduf,lí
cg;ydkufxJodkU xnfhvdkuf\/ EIduf,laomtcgwGif vufwkefaomfvnf;
cg;ydkufxJodkU xnfhNyD;onfhwdkifatmif qdkif&Sifu rjrifaomaMumifh
]w,f[kwfwJUtvkyfygwum;} [kESpfodrfhrd\/ xdkcPü tjcm;qdkifrS
usLvD,mukvm;wa,mufajy;vmí uREkfyf\cg;ydkufudk EIdufprf;onfwGif
zvfa*:vDBuD;udk awGUoGm;\/ þwGifqdkif&Sifqif;vmí uREkfyf\eo,fudk
wcsufESpfcsufykwfNyD; *gwfwJodkUydkU&efqJGac:av&m uREkfyf\tzGJUom;rsm;

55 
0dkif;vmMuí ]]a[h bmvJuG ukvm;? uav;udkrif;bmvkyfwmvJ? rifh
wqdkifxJ zvfa*:vD a&mif;ovm;? [dkbufwef;qdkifu ol0,fcJUwm?
igwkdUodw,f? ay;a*:vD}}[kqdkum uvm;vufxJrS a*:vDudkvk,ufí
qJqJqdkqkdESifhxGufvmcJUMuav\/ ¤if;zvfa*:vDudk uREkfyf&aomfvnf;
xifoavmuf rvG,fulvS[k qkH;jzwfum xdkvlpkESifhvnf; rvdkuf0HU?
olwyg;\ypönf;udkvnf; rEIduf0HUawmhyJ oifcef;pm&cJUygonf/ waeUoü
uREkfyfonfvnf; ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;\ ydkufqH&Tifjcif;udk oGm;&nfus
vsuf&SdpOf uREkfyfudkcifrifaom ausmif;om;BuD;wa,mufu ]]a[haumif
azodef;? igeJUvdkufcJUygvm;uG? bmrSrcufbl;? igvkyfovdkom
Munfhvkyf}}[kqdkum vpfykHvpfenf;udk oGefoifav&m uREkfyfvnf;vkdufyg
oGm;av\/ uREkfyfwkdUtzJGUrSm okH;av;a,muf&Sdí uREkfyfonfolwkdU\vpfykH
vpfenf;udk vufawGUoifcef;pm,l&kHom,lcJUNyD; yxrwacgufjyefvmcJU\/
'kwd,wacgufürl uREkfyf\tzGJUom;rsm;u ypönf;rsm; 0,fcsifjyKí
aps;qpfvsuf&SdMupOf uREkfyfonf zvfa*:vD'dk;BuD;wvkH;udk EIduf,lí
cg;ydkufxJodkU xnfhvdkuf\/ EIduf,laomtcgwGif vufwkefaomfvnf;
cg;ydkufxJodkU xnfhNyD;onfhwdkifatmif qdkif&Sifu rjrifaomaMumifh
]w,f[kwfwJUtvkyfygwum;} [kESpfodrfhrd\/ xdkcPü tjcm;qdkifrS
usLvD,mukvm;wa,mufajy;vmí uREkfyf\cg;ydkufudk EIdufprf;onf
xdktacgufwGif atmifjrifygu b,frQavmufMumatmif EIdufaeOD;rnf
rqdkEDkifay/

56 
Mum;&cJaomt*FvdyfpmoH

Nrdwfq&mawmf\ ausmif;ü OD;wdavmua&mufvmí t*Fvdyfpmoifp


jyKonfwGif rdbrsm;onfausmif;eD;aom &dkifwef;&yfrS &ifESifwHcg;odkU
a&TUajymif;Mu&jyef\/ &efESifwHcg;ESifh 'u©dP0efwdkufrSm 17 ]jy}a0;aomf
vnf; rdbrsm;onf Nrdwfq&mawmfudk MunfndKonfuwaMumif;?
uREkfyftm;vnf; t*FvdyfpmoifapvdkonfwaMumif;aMumifh t&yfa&TUaomf
vnf; ausmif;ra&TUyJ þa0;vSaomc&d;udkaeUwdkif; toGm;tjyefvrf;avQmuf
ap\/ &efESifwHcg;&yfuGufrSm rdcif\aqGrsKd;rsm;aexdkifMuaom&yfuGufjzpf
av&m (uREkfyf\tbdk;vnf;&Sdao;onf/) uREkfyfonf oli,fwef;
]y&dkifrm}zwf pmtkyfwGif pD-at-uufwf  (Cat)  tm&f-at-wD &ufwf  (Rat) 
tufpf-at-wD qufwf  (Sat)  ponfjzifhzwfjyaomtcg tbkd;ESifhwuG
rdcif\ aqGrsKd;rsm;onf 0dkif;tkHem;axmifMu,if; ]vQmvdyfoH}ygíyDoonf?
em;axmifíaumif;onf ponfrsm;jzihf csD;rGrf;MuaomaMumifh uREkfyf&if
aumhí*kPf,lrdjcif;udkrSwfrdygao;onf/ xdkpOfu t*Fvdyfpm[lonfrSm
t&yfol t&yfom;rsm;tzdkU Mum;&cJvS aomaMumifh tdfrfeD;em;csif;rsm;yif
vmíem;axmifMuonf/ uREkfyf\tbdk;url tjcm;aoma&S;vlBuD;rsm; uJUodkU
]pmjzL}[lí r&Iwfcsonfhjyif ]]ighajr;wa,muf ]vlpkH}uav; jzpfawmhr,f}}
[k 0rf;omtm;& ajym&Smao;\/ uREkfyfuvnf; aemufydkif;wGif twdk;ESifh
]pkH}íjyvdkufjcif;udk tbdk;wa,mufjrifroGm;&&Sm[k ,ckowd&rdao;onf/

57 
tm*kHaqmifaomacwf

aetdfrfrSmausmif;okdUoGm;aomtcg uREkfyfonf pdefyDwmausmif;teD;rS


jzwfoGm;&í tvGefw&mt*Fvdyfpum;ajymonfh pdwfyDwmausmif;olrsm;
ajymoHudk Mum;&onfwGif tvGefajymcsifí igvnf;waeUawmh ajymvdkuf&
OD;rnf[k tm;cJxm;\/ xdkpOfu uREkfyfrSm EIwfvQmoGufvufaom
oli,fwa,mufjzpfí pum;tenf;i,fxpfaomfvnf; &GHU&Sufjcif;r&SdyJ
pdefyDwmausmif;rS todausmif;om;uav;wa,mufESifh ¤if;wkdUausmif;teD;
qkHrdMuonfwGif uREkfyfu wwd,wef;zwfpm  (Royal  Teader)  xJrSvnf;
aumif;? eJUpfzD;vf'f  (Nesfield)  \o'´gpmtkyfxJrSvnf;aumif; &Gwfqdkjy
vdkuf&m ¤if;ausmif;om;rSm tawmfrsufvkH;jyL;íoGm;\/ (uREkfyfwdkU\q&m
OD;wdavmuonf zwfpmtkyfudkvnf;aumif;? o'´gpmtkyfudkvnf;aumif;?
yxrwef;rS wwd,wef;wdkifatmif tm*kHaqmifap&m uREkfyftxufwef;
rsm;odkUa&mufaomtcg t*Fvdyfpmü yxr&í BuD;jyif;vmaomtcgüvnf;
t*Fvdyfpm a&;wwfonf[k emrnf&jcif;rSm i,fpOfu tm*kHaqmifcJU&jcif;
onftaMumif;w&yfjzpfacsoavm[k pOf;pm;rdonf/)

tenf;enf;aqmhjcif;

þtcsdefwGif uREkfyfütusifhqkd;uav;rsm; 0ifvmcJUonf/ rdcif\


armifBuD;rS arG;onfhom;BuD; (uREkfyf\tpfudk) armifyktm; t*Fvdyfpm
wwfapvdkí uREkfyfwkdU\ Nrdwfausmif;okdUtyfESHav&m yxrü uREkfyftzdkU
oGm;azmfjyefazmf &onfqdkum tvGefae&mus\/ ESpfa,mufom; twloGm;
twljyefMu&mwGif uREkfyfwkdUonf a&Twacsmif; ajrmif;aygifwavQmufwGif

58 
a*:vDwvkH;pDESifh axGcif;vsufavQmufvmMu\/ axGcif;jcif;[lonfrSm
wa,muf\a*:vDudk wa,mufu xddrSefatmif wvSnfhpDypf,if;
vrf;avQmufvmMujcif;jzpfonf/ þenf;rSm upm;,if; vrf;avQmufvm
Mujcif;jzpfaomaMumifh ajcanmif;rSef;rod[k qdkEdkifaomfvnf; wnfhwnfh
ajzmifhajzmifh vrf;avQmufjcif;r[kwfyJ auGUauGUaumufaumufESifh a*:vDudk
aumuf,l&jcif;? rSef;csdef&jcif;? wvSnfhpD ypf&jcif;wkdUaMumifh tvGeftcsdef
ukefvSojzifh nae4em&DwGif ausmif;rSvTwfvkdufaomfvnf; ae0ifpkyfpkyf
uef;rS tdrfodkUa&mufvmMuonf/ wcgw&HwGifvnf; axGcif;&jcif;udk
NiD;aiGUvmMuonfESifh wenf;wzkH ajymif;í aqmhMuao;\/

wrsKd;wzkHaqmhjcif;

a&Twacsmif;ajrmif;abmifwavQmuf&Sd a&pyfwGif uecdkyifrsm;?


qifESmarmif;yifrsm;? ukvm;rsufpdyifrsm; aygufa&mufvsuf&Sd&m
¤if;tyifrsm;\xdyfzsm;ü teDa&mif? t0ga&mif? tndKa&mif&Sdaom
ykpOf;aumifrsm; em;vsuf&Sd\/ uREkfyfwdkU nDtpfudkESpfa,mufonf
jrif;NrD;wyifpD&Smí wbuftzsm;udk0g;jcrf;wck\ xdyfücsnfum tjcm;buf
tzsm;wGif ESrf;aphyrmP&Sdonfh ysm;za,mif;vkH;uav;udk uyfxm;\/
xdkUaemuf uREkfyfwkdUonf þenf;jyifqifxm;aom ]jrm;wH} wckpDudkifvsuf
tyifuav;rsm;xdyfwGif em;vsuf&Sdaom ykpOf;aumif uav;rsm;\a&SUwGif
za,mif;vkH;uav;udk (¤if;wdkU\tpm) ydk;aumifuav; xifrSwfonfESifh
0DueJjrnfum xysHvmNyD;vQif za,mif;vkH;uav;udk vIyfí
vIyfízrf;vdkuf\/ ¤if;\oGm;rsm;onf za,mif;vkH;wGif pl;0ifí jyefEkwf&ef
rjzpfEdkifyJ&Sd&um; uREkfyfwdkUonf ykpOf;aumifudktvG,fwulzrf;,lEdkifonf/

59 
(Oa&mywkdufom;rsm; ig;rQm;jcif;tkvyfjzifh tysif;ajzMuonf[k uREkfyfzwf&
aomtcg igwkdUykpOf;zrf;jcif;rQavmuf aysmfygavp}[k atmufarhrdonf/
olkwdkUonf a&atmufü&Sdaom ig;aumifudkrjrif&yJ ig;pmjzifh jrLMu&jcif;jzpf
&m uREkfyfwkdUum; ykpOf;aumifudktxift&Sm;jrifEdkif\/ tcsKdUykpOf;onf
&kwfw&ufudkufzrf;jcif;rjyKao;yJ ol\OD;acgif;wGifwnf&Sdaom rsufvkH;rsm;
udk ]uv,fuv,f} vkyfum rouFmaom trlt&mjzifh plprf;qifjcifaeonf
wGif jrif;NrD;zsm;ü&Sdaom za,mif;vkH;uav;udk ydk;aumifESifhwlatmif
vkyfay;&onfrsm;rSm pdwf0ifpm;zG,f aumif;vSonf/ wcgw&HwGif
ykpOf;aumifonf za,mif;vkH;uav;udk udkufzrf;awmhrnfvkyfNyD;rS
&pfywfysHoef;um Munfhí ]eifwdUkavmufrsm; yg;vdkU[,f}[k qdkonfh
oabmESifh 0DueJjrnfum ysHajy;oGm;avawmh\/) uREkfyfwkdUonf rdxm;aom
ykpOf;rsm;udk bmrQ rvkyfwwf/ tuFsDtdwfaxmifxJwGif vufudkify0gjzifh
zdxm;í tdrfteD;odkUa&mufaomtcgrS vTwfypfcJUMuavonf/

a&Twacsmif;\jzm;a,mif;rI

uREkfyfwkdUnDtpfudkESpfa,mufonf &efESifwHcg;rS ausmif;odkUxGufvm


Mu&mwGif a&S;OD;pGm a&Twacsmif;udkjzwfausmfonfh tajrmufwef;wHwm;odkU
a&mufMu\/ xdkae&mrSpí 'u©dP0efwkdufbufodkU csKd;0if&onfh
qdkif;wef;wHwm;odkU ra&mufrD a&qdyfaygif; w'gZifcefUrQ&Sd&m
0dZ ,rif;om;\ aemufygwynfhrsm;tm; bDvl;rrsm;u tm&kHtrsKd;rsKd;wkdUjzifh
jzm;a,mif;aoG;aqmifavawmhonf/ xdkacwfua&Twacsmif;rSm ,ckuJUodkU
a&qkd;ajrmif;r[kwf? rwÅ&mtxufrS pD;qif;vmcJUí? vGefawmif;? 0g;&if;
wkwf? awmifNyKH;? o&uef? uefydkif paom&Gmrsm;udkjzwfausmfNyD;vQif tdk;zdkudk

60 
ausmfí rEÅav;NrdKUxJodkU0ifvmonfh a&&Sifacsmif;jzpfaomaMumifh
tawmfMunfvifí woGifoGifpD;qif;vsuf&Sd\/ a&udkjrif&vQif (aoawmhrS
aoa&m) ajy;qif;í ckefayguf,uful;csifwwfaom ausmif;om;t&G,f
uREkfyfwdkUnDtpfudkESpfa,mufrSm a&qdyfwdkif;ü tjcm;oli,fuav;rsm;
aysmf&TifpGm a&csKd;Mujcif;udk jrif&jcif;? wbGrf;bGrf; ul;,ufMuaoma&oH ESifh
jrL;wl;atmf[pfMuaom oli,foHrsm;udk Mum;&jcif;? arSmfyif uav;rsm;
arsmvuf&Sdaom a&rS&eHUwrsKd;udk &I&Iduf&jcif;? a&\at;jraomtawGUudk
pdwful;jzifhvGrf;&jcif;wnf;[laom tm&kHtrsKd;rsKd;wkdU\ aoG;aqmifrIaMumifh
a&qdyfwckESpfckwGif BudwfícHEdkifMuaomfvnf; wwd,? pwkw¦
ponfha&qdyfrsm;odkU a&muf&mwGifrlum; wa,muf\ rsufESmudkwa,muf
MunfhaeMuavNyD/ þtawmtwGif; twlwuG a&csKd;aeusjzpfonfh
vluav;rsm;u ]]a[haumifawG vmMuvuGm? tapmBuD;&Sdygao;w,f}}[k
[pfac:vkdufMuaomtcgwGifrlum; uREkfyfwkdUESpfa,mufonf pmtkyfuav;
rsm;udkypfcs? t0wfudkcRwfíykHNyD;vQif a&xJodkU 'dkifAifxdk;qif; vkdufMu
avawmhonf/

pdwfaA'g\vufoHvdk

uREkfyfwkdUrlvBuH&G,fcsufrSm cPwjzKwfa&csKd;NyD;aemuf ausmif;csdefrSD


atmif wufMu&efjzpf\/ wcgw&Hvnf; ausmif;wufrSDí wcgw&Hvnf;
ausmif;wufaemufusojzifh t&dkufcHMu&\/ xdkUaemufwGifrl taysmfMuL;í
ausmif;csdefvGefoGma;omtcgrsm;wGif t&dkufcH&rnfudk aMumufonfESifh
ausmif;rwufyJ ausmif;ajy;zdkUoabmwl qkH;jzwfvkdufMuav\/ wcgw&H
wGifvnf; tdrfüvkyf&efay;vkdufonfhtvkyf  (Home Work)  udkrvkyfcJUrdMuo

61 
jzifh t&dkufcH&rnf[k odonfESifha&qdyfrSwrifrwufyJ ausmif;ajy;
vkdufMu\/ aemufwaeUwGif aeraumif;aomaMumifh[k vdrfíajymjcif;
tm;jzifh t&dkufvGwfatmif BudK;pm;Mu\/ odkU&mwGif uREkfyf\ ynma&;
twGuf rnfonfhrdbESifhrQrwlatmif *&kpdkufwwfaom uREkfyf\ zcifonf
ausmif;odkU&Hzef&Hcg0ifvmí ,refaeUu uREkfyfwdkUausmif;rwuf jcif;ESifh
qkH;pnf;onfhtcg uREkfyfwkdU\ tvdfrfay:í ]ESpfxyfuGrf;}t&dkufcHMu &\/
q&mawmfonfausmif;ajy;aom ausmif;om;tm; Murf;jyifay:wGif
tvsm;arSmufapí ajcvufrsm;udkausmif;om;av;a,mufwkdUu wbufpD
udkifxm;pOfBudrfvkH;jzifh 10wdwd&dkufavh&Sd\/ uREkfyfwkdUt&dkufcH&jcif;udk
zcifjrif&aomfvnf; rauseyfao;ojzifh tdrfodkUa&mufaomtcgü xyfí&dkuf
ao;\/ zcif\vufrSmtoufBuD;NyD;jzpfaom q&mawmf\vufxufjyif;
aomaMumifh ESpfqokH;q ydkíem\/ wcgu uREkfyftm; zcif&dkufí
armifyktm; olUtaz(rdcif\armif) u&dkufav&m orD;a,mufz
ESpfa,mufonfudk,fhom;udkudk,f&dkufMu&mwGif wa,mufESifhwa,muf
olUxufigematmif vufpGrf;jyMuonfhvu©PmESifh zcifu uREkfyf\vuf
armif;udk aq;jyif;vdyfrD;ESifhxdk;qJwGif OD;BuD;u armifyk\i,fxdyfudk
ydef;wef;zdeyfjzifhckwfvkdufonfESifh aoG;rsm;jzmqif;í vmawmhonf/
armifykrSmvnf; uREkfyf\ar;aphtrm&GwfuJUodkU xdyfwnfhwnfhwGif
okH;vufrcefU&Sdaomtrm&GwfBuD;wck ao&mygoGm;&Smonf/ uREkfyf\
zcifrSm tjcm;aomzcifrsm;xuf t&dkufoefonfrSefaomfvnf; ynmvdkvm;
jcif;ESifh uREkfyf\rkdufrJjcif;udk uREkfyfem;vnfonfjzpfaomaMumifh txufyg
&dkufjcif; rsKd;twGufpdwfxJü rnfodkUrQr&SdcJUyg/ okdU&mwGif uREkfyf\pdwfxJü
xdcdkufap aom &dkfufjcif;rsm;vnf;&Sdí oufqdkif&mae&mwGifrS azmfjyygrnf/

62 
zcifESifh ]eifvm;igvm;}

uREkfyftm; t*Fvdyfpmoifjyofh OD;wdavmurSmvnf; uREkfyf\zcifESifh


]eifvm;igvm;}qkd&avmufatmif t&dkufoefvSaom q&mwyg;jzpf\/
&Hzef&Hcg ausmif;ajy;wwfonfhtxJrSyif twef;xJü ausmif;om;q,f
a,muf&Sdonfhteuf 'kwd,aomfvnf;aumif;? wwd,aomfvnf;aumif;?
vkdufEdkifcJUoljzpf\/ usuf&efay;vdkufaom pmudkaeUwkdif;ppfí wvkH;r&vQif
BudrfvkH;jzifhwcsuf&dkufavh&Sd&m uREkfyfyif waeUvQif tenf;qkH; okH;av;csuf
t&dkufvGwfaom ausmif;om;[líum; wa,mufrQr&SdcJUacs/ aeUpOfwwf
aom pmudkomru pma[mif;rsm;udkvnf; &ufowÅywfwBudrf (tzdwf
aeUwdkif;) jyefvnfppfaq;avh&Sd&m xdkaeUtwGufrSmrlum; Budrf2vkH;
3vkH;jzef;jzef;uJG&onfcsnf;jzpfavonf/ odkUESifhvnf; uREkfyfwkdUausmif;om;
rsm;onf OD;yOöif;taMumif;udk wcGef;rQraumif;ajymjcif; rMum;&? q&mu
wynfhtm; &dkufjcif;onf xkH;pHjzpfonf[k vufcHMuí q&mtay:wGif
cspfaMumuf&dkaopdwf &SdMuonfcsnf;BuKHcJU&avonf/ wcgu OD;yOöif;
rusef;rrm&Sd&mwGif (pmoifrI&yfem;cGifh&&Sdí ausmif;om;rsm;xkH;pHtwkdif;
0rf;omMuonfhtxJrSyif) OD;yOöif;\usef;rma&;twGuf rdbozG,f
pdk;&drfylyefMujcif;udkvnf; BuKH&bl;onf/
uREkfyf\tpfudk w0rf;uJGarmifykESifhuREkfyfrSm ]ausmif;ajy;a&m*g}
pJGuyfvsuf&SdMuí rnfrQyif&dkufESufqkH;raomfvnf; &ufaygif; ESpfq,f
okH;q,f rQavmufom ausmif;rSefrSefwufMuí waeUwGifa&qdyf rsm;\
jzm;a,mif;rIaMumifh ausmif;ajy;NrJwdkif; ajy;Mujyefav\/ uREkfyfwdkU
vkyfMuykHum; aysmfp&mBuD;awmh r[kwfvSyg/ ausmif;rwuf&vQif
NyD;a&mqkdaom ]ysif;pdwf}rsKd;0ifvmjcif;omjzpfwef&monf/ a&qdyfü

63 
a&csKd;írGef;wnfh tcsdefcefUwdkif a&mufa omtcg tvGefa&0ojzifh
EIwfcrf;rsm;jymí ckdufcdkufwkefcsrf;at;vm&mwGif uREkfyfwkdUonf ukef;ay:odkU
wufí yufvufvSefum aevSef;Mu\/ &ifbwfylaomtcg
0rf;vsm;arSmufí ausmudkaeylvSef;Mu\/ þodkUjzifhwudk,fvkH;
&Sef;&Sef;awmuf ylavmifvmonfhtcg a&xJodkUckefqif;Mujyefavonf/
waeUywfvkH; xdkuJUodkUylcsnfat;csnfcHcJUjcif;twGufaMumifh tusifh&NyD;
uREkfyfBuD;jyif;vmaomtcgwGif tat;rdjcif; enf;yg;avoavm[k
xifrdonf/ okdU&mwGif ,cktbkd;BuD;jzpfvmaomtcgrl olwyg;enf;wl
tat;rdwwfvmaomaMumifh ¤if;txifudk jyifqifvdkuf&jyefonf/
qmavmifaomtcgrsm;wGif a&Twacsmif; ajrmif;aygifü tcsKdUtyfrsm;&SdNcH
rsm;xJrS rmvumoD;? oajyoD;paom opfoD;rsm;udk cl;pm;Muí vQmESifh
EIwfcrf;rsm;jymvsuf&SdMu&m tdrfjyefcgeD;wGifrS ovJESifhyGwfwkdufum
a&aq;cJUMuavonf/

ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;

rdbrsm;onf uREkfyfwkdU\ ausmif;ajy;a&m*gudk tjrpfjywfatmif


rukoEdkifyJ&Sd&mwGif ESpfa,mufwGJvsuf &SdaomaMumifhom ausmif;ajy;Mu
onf[k,lqí uREkfyf\OD;BuD;onf armifykudkausmif;Ekwfvdkufav\/
xifvnf; xifp&may/ uREkfyfrSmwa,mufwnf; ausmif;wuf&onfrSpí
ausmif;wufjyefonf/ tdrfokdUvnf; (axGrcif;&aomaMumifh) apmapm
jyefa&mufonf/ wcgw&Hjrif;&xm;tqifoifhaomtcgrsm;wGif aemufNrD;
ckdpD; cJUojzifh omíapmapmyifa&mufao;\/

64 
odkU&mwGif rdbrsm;onf uREkfyfwa,mufwnf; c&D;a0;BuD; oGm;&jcif;
twGuf oem;MuonfESifh pdwful;wrsKd;&Mujyef\/ bkef;BuD;ausmif;ü
udk&ifvlxGuf ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;av;ig;a,muf&Sd&m uREkfyftm;vnf;
ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;tjzpfESifh tprf;xm;Mu\/ uREkfyfuvnf;ajcanmif;
oufomonfuwaMumif;? tdrfrSmxuf ausmif;wGif uav;bm0
ajy;vTm;upm;zdkU tcsdefvnf;&? tcGifhvnf;omonfwaMumif;aMumifh
oabmwlvdkuf\/ (uREkfyf\zcifrSm uREfkyftm;ynmvnf;wwfí
tvGefvnf; ]vdrfrm}apcsifaomaMumifh tdrfwGif t&yfxJu oli,frsm;
ESifhupm;cGifhrjyKyJ&NyD;aompmrsm;udk &Gwfaeap\/ Buufaumif; BudK;ESifhruGm
ap&}[laom pum;rSmzcif\aqmifyk'fjzpfí uREkfyftay:wGif 4if;twdkif;
usifhokH;&\/ upm;jcif;onf bmrQtusKd;r&Sd? pmtHjcif;omvQif
ynmwwfaponf[k cPcPajymavh&Sd\/) okdUjzpfí uREkfyfonf/
ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;aezdkUpDrHaomtcg 0rf;omrdav\/

ausmif;[if;av;

aeUausmif;om;rsm;teufüyif ti,fqkH;jzpfaom uREkfyfrSm udk&if


vlxGuf ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;rsm;txJwGifrl tjywftowf ti,fqkH;jzpf
vm&jyefavNyD/ eHeufü bkef;awmfBuD;ESifh OD;yOöif;rsm;? xkdUaemuf udk&ifrsm;
bkOf;ay;NyD;onfh xrif;[if;rsm;udk uREkfyfwkdU ausmif;om;rsm;pm; Mu&mwGif
0ufom;? Muufom;paom [if;aumif;uav; wcGufwavygao;\/
xrif;yJGü xdkifMuonfESifh wNydKifeuf ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;onf
tvGefrsufpd&Sifí vufoGufolrsm; jzpfonfhtavsmuf[if;aumif;rsm;udk
yef;uefyg arSmufoGefí ,lvkdufMu&mwGif uREkfyftzdkUrSm iHjym&nfazsmf?

65 
csOfaygif[if;? pm;awmfyJrsm;udk rQpfavmufomusefavwmhonf/
[if;aumif;uav; wwkH;jzpfap ygrSpm;wwfaom uREkfyfrSm xrif;udk
tEdkifEdkifrsKdcs&\/ aemufweyfwGif ]olwkdUvdk vufoGufrSjzpfrnf}[k
oabmydkufum OD;atmifEIdufzdkU BudK;pm;yg\/ odkU&mwGif ausmif;om;BuD;
rsm;onf uREkfyf\vufxJrS vk,lMuonfcsnf; BuKH&\/ okdUjzpfí uREkfyfrSm
tvSLtwef;ESifh qGrfauR;&SdygrS [if;aumif;uav;rsm; pm;&awmh\/
npmtwGufrl eHeufpmrSusefaom csOfaygif;[if;? refusnf;&Guf[if;?
ig;ydcsuf? [if;csKd[if;? rQpf[if; (tvSLtwef;&SdvQifvnf;) 0ufom;[if;?
ig;aMumfponfh [if;aygif;pkHudka&mítdk;BuD;wvkH;wGif ]ausmif;[if;av;}
usKdípm;Mu\/ npmtzdkUwGif [if;aumif;rygaom aeUyifjzpfapumrl
ausmif;om;BuD;rsm; vkpm;onfh [if;aumif;udk rjrif&aomaMumifh
tvGefqmwwfaomt&G,fvnf;jzpfí NrdefvS\/ ]ausmif;[if;av;rSm}
teHUwrsKd;&í BuD;jyif;vmaomtcgwGif wcgw&HawmifhwrdonfESifh
[if;rsm;udk wrifwuma&maESmNyD; usKdípm;bl;ygao;onf/ okdU&mwGif
usKdaeus ]ausmif;tdk;} r[kwfaomaMumifh [if;aumif;zwfawG xnfhojzifh
t&om &Sdaomfvnf;ausmif;[if;av;eHUudk rrSDatmif &Sdawmhonf/

jyefajy;cJUjcif;

uREkfyfonf ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;tjzpfwGif tpm;taomuf


qif;&Jaomfvnf; vGwfvyfpGmupm;cGifh&jcif;aMumifh pdwfnpfavmufatmif
r&SdvSay/ zcifu upm;cGifhvkH;0ray;jcif;twGufaMumifh uREkfyfrSm
upm;jcif;udk txl;ckHrifaom oli,fwa,muf jzpfvmonfxif\/
ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm;b0ü npmpm;NyD;í xifovkdae&jcif;twGuf

66 
tvGefaysmfaomfvnf; nOfhtcsdefrsm;ürl ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;\
usD;pm;jcif;aMumifh pdwfnpf&\/ rdbrsm;ESifh cGJcGmí rtdyfcJU&bl;onfh
uREkfyfrSmcGJumpüvGwfvyfjcif;aMumifh aysmfrdaomfvnf; &ufowÅywf
Mum&Sdaomtcg rdcifudk vGrf;q Gwfaompdwfjzpfvmí nOfhtcsdefrsm;wGifrl
nId;i,fpjyKvmavNyD/ þtxJwGif ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;u teif;cdkif;jcif;?
aygifudkvufoD;ESifh jznf;nSif;pGmxkckdif;jcif;? rD;cGufrIwfaomtcgü
OD;pGef;zkwfudk qGJoluqJG? ausmudkqdwfoluqdwf? cg;udk]uvdxkd;}oluxkd;
ponfjzifh usDp,fMuavawmh\/ nwdkif;vdkyif xdkuJUodkUtenf;ESifhtrsm;
usDpm;Mu&mrS wnürl oef;acgifausmfonfhwdkifatmif uvdMuav&um;
eufjzefnae ausmif;qif;csdefwGif uREkfyfonf tdrfawmf&mbk&m;xJokdU
0ifcsifjyKí 17 jya0;aomc&D;udk w[kefwnf;ajy;um armBuD;yef;BuD;ESifh
tdrfodkUa&mufvmjcif;udk rSwfrdygao;onf/ rdbrsm;tm; tjzpftysufudk
ajymjy&mwGif uREkfyftm; ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm; rxm;awmhyJ aeUausmif;om;
tjzifhESifhausmif;wufapygawmhonf/ (4if;tjzpftysufaMumifhayavm rod?
uREkfyfBuD;jyif;vmaomtcg uav;oli,frsm;udk idkatmif usDpm;csifwwf
olrsm;tm; &efolozG,f tjrifuyfvSygonf/)

aemufNrD;ckdpD;jcif;

armifykudk ausmif;Ekwfvdkufí uREkfyfwa,mufwnf; ausmif;wuf&


onfwGif ausmif;ajy;a&m*grS oufom&m&í ausmif;rSefrSef wufvsuf&Sd
aomfvnf; vu©PmrSm tjrpfjywfao;jcif;r[kwf? ]ikwf}aejcif;rQomjzpfí
ausmif;om;BuD;jzpfvmaomtcsdefwGif wcsDwcsDay: vmwwfao;\/
rnfodkUyifjzpfap bkef;BuD;ausmif;ü aepOftwGif;rl ausmif;ajy;onf

67 
r&Sdawmhyg/ okdUyifjzpfvifhupm; wa,mufwnf; ausmif;oGm;&jcif;rSm
ysif;vnf;ysif;? ajcaxmufvnf; anmif;onfESifh jrif;&xm;aemufNrD;
cdkzdkUtusifhvkyfawmhonf/ jrif;&xm;rsm;onf a&Twacsmif;aygif (ajrvrf;)rS
rarmif;yJ ausmufvrf;wGifom armif;MuaomaMumifh ausmif;rStjyefwGif
aps;csKdudkjzwfí 84 vrf;wavQmuf ajrmufodkUavQmufvm,if; aemufodkU
cPcP vSnfhMunfh& \/ jrif;&xm;wpif; armif;vmaomtcg
ausmufvrf;eab;&Sd ajrvrf;ay:wGif avQmufcJU&mrS ausmufvrf;bufodkU
rodrom csOf;uyfvkduf&\/ xifxif&Sm;&Sm; ruyf0HUay/ þokdUjyK&jcif;rSm
jrif;&xm; ukvm;tay:&Sd [efvkyf&jcif;jzpf\/ jrif;&xm;ukvm;rsm;onf
aemufNrD;cdkpD; aomoli,frsm;udk MumyGwfESifhvSrf;í&dkufwwfay&m uREkfyfu
ol\jrif;&xm;udk aemufNrD;cdkrnfh BuH&G,fcsuf vkH;0r&Sdav[efjzifh
tjcm;bufodkU rsufESmvSnfhum vrf;avQmufvm&\/ jrif;&xm;onf
uREkfyfudkrSDvmí ausmfwuf&mwGif tcsKdUukvm;onf vrf;eab;rSavQmuf
aomaumifuav;rsm;udk rsufapmif;xkd;um tuJcwfwwfaMumif;
uREkfyfodaomaMumifh olUjrif;&xm;udk*&krpdkufav[efjzifh rsufESmvTJum
vrf;avQmufvm&jcif;jzpf\/ ausmfwufoGm;onfhtcgwGifvnf;&kwfw&uf
ajy;írvdkufao;yJ ukvm;uvSnfhMunfhrMunfhudk apmifhMunfh&ao;\/
awmfawmfuav;a0;í pdwfcs&aomtcgrSom ajy;vkdufNyD; aemufNrD;
cdk&avonf/ ckd;aMumifckd;0SufjyKaom tvkyfrsKd;rSmvG,fulvSonf r[kwfacs/

&efyJGrdoGm;jcif;

jrif;&xm;aemufckHay:wGif 0rf;vsm;arSmufumaexm;wus ckdpD;vmpOf


wcgw&Hjrif;&xm;onf &kwfw&uf &yfvkdufonfjzpfap? rvdkaom

68 
vrf;bufodkU auGUcsKd;vdkufonfjzpfap &kwfw&ufavQmqif;&jyef\/
auGUoGm;aom tcgüukvm;onf aemufodkU vSnfhMunfhckdufESifhBuKHí
uREkfyfudkjrifojzifhMumyGwfudkjyoGm;&m uREkfyfuvnf; vufoD;uav;udk
jyvdkufao;onf/ wcgw&HwGifrl 0rf;vsm;arSmufum ckdpD;pOfvrf;ab;rS
vlaemufuav;wa,mufu ]]a[; *gvd0gvm;}}[k ac:um&xm;aemufNrD;
odkUvufnId;nTefjyojzifh ysm,D;ysm,m avQmqif;vkduf&\/ aemufuscJUvQif
&TDueJjrnfívmaom MumyGwfonf ausmay:odkUvnf;aumif;? OD;acgif;ay:
odkUvnf;aumif; trSwfwHqdyf&dkufESdyfvkdufojzifh t&Id;rsm;xifaecJUavNyD/
þuJUodkUcH&aomtcgrsm;wGif a'goxGufvmojzifh uREkfyfonf [pfatmf
ajymaom aumifuav;udk vSrf;Munhfvdkufí &G,fwlcsif; jzpfaeygu
wcsDwyJGowfykwfcJU&ao;onf/ waeUwü þenf;jzifh aumifuav;ESifh
owfykwfaepOf rdcifESifhzcifwdkUaps;csKdrS zdeyfvkyf&eftwGuf ouúvyfxnfESifh
tjcm;ypönf;rsm;0,fí jrif;&xm;jzifh jyefvmMuonfESifh uREkfyfwkdUudk
jrifoGm;\/ zcifonf jrif;&xm;ay:rSqif;vmí aumifuav;
wa,mufESifhowfykwf&rnfavmqdkum tdrfa&mufrS &dkufOD;rnfl[kBuKH;0g;
ao;&m rdcifu]]udk&ifhrvJ bmrar;? nmrar;eJU &dkufcsifwmcsnfyJudk;}}[k
ajymojzifh zcifu ]]&efjzpfwmudk;As}}[k jyefajymonfwGif rdcifu
]]jzpfoifhvJjzpf&rSmaygh udk&if}}[k cyfwif;wif; jyefajymonfESifh uREkfyft&dkuf
vGwfoGm;&bl;avonf/

EIwfwdkufcsufay;jcif;

uREkfyfonf zcif\obm0udk rdcifobm0uJUokdU rBudKufEdkifaomf


vnf; zcif\ynmvkdvm;aom 0goemtaMumif;udk csD;usL;azmfjy&

69 
ayOD;rnf/ uREkfyf okH;ESpfausmfav;ESpfom;&Sdí pum;ajymwwfp
jyKonfqdkvQifyif zcifonf zdeyfvkyfzdkU u&d,mrsm;0,f&efoGm;wdkif;
uREkfyftm; yckH;ay:wGifxrf;vsuf vu©Pma&;okH;yg;? £wdydaom b*0g?
a[wkypöa,mpaom pmrsm;udk EIwfwkdufcsay;ojzifh uREkfyf&Gwfqdk
wwfaeavNyD/ uBuD; cauG;rQ roif&ao;rD txufygpmrsm;udk ryDuvm
yDuvmjzifh vlB uD;rsm;a&SUü &Gwfqdkckdif;jyjcif;tm;jzifh tom;,lwwf&Smonf/
uREkfyftm; vlxl;uav;[lítjcm;olrsm;u csD;rGrf;Muaomtcg zcifrSm
tvGef*kPf,laomfvnf; uREkfyfrlum; 0rf;omjcif;r&Sd? tjcm;uav;rsm;uJU
odkU rupm;&jcif;twGufom 0rf;enf;rdonf/ BuD;jyif;aomtcgü
pOf;pm;rdonfum;arsmufyJGjyaomtcgüwGif y&dowfu Mobmvufckyf
wD;jcif;twGuf 0rf;omjcif;r&Sdaom arsmufuav;ESifh wlavawmhonf[lí
jzpfonf/

ynmtm;ay;ykH

bkef;BuD;ausmif;wGif t*Fvdyfpm oifcgpü ausmif;om;okH;av;q,f


cefU wNydKifeufwnf; oifMu&m okH;vcefUMumaomtcgwGif tawmfqkH;aom
ausmif;om;10a,mufudk a&G;í xdyfwef;wwef;zGJUvkdufonfwGif uREkfyfonf
'kwd,vdkuf\/ yxr&aom ausmif;om;onf uREkfyfxuftoufokH;ESpfBuD;
í uREkfyfatmufwGifvnf; uREkfyfxuftoufav;ig;ESpfBuD;olrsm;yif &SdMu
onf/ xdktcsdefrSpí uREkfyfwkdUxdyfwef;ausmif;om; q,fa,muftm; okH;v
wBudrf pmar;yJGjyKvkyfav&m uREkfyf\zcifonf xdyfqkH;rSatmifaom
ausmif;om;okH;a,muftwGuf qktjzpfESifhcsD;jrSifh&ef Avmpmtkyfrsm;?
cJwHrsm;? riftdk;rsm;? csKdcsOfrsm; 0,fvmcJUNyD;vQif OD;yOöif;xHwGif

70 
tyfESHxm;\/ yxratmifjrifoltwGufaps;csKdxJrS azmifwdefwacsmif;
0,fcJUjcif;udk uREkfyfrSwfrd\/ uREkfyfonf azmifwdefvdkcsifvSí
ylqmaomfvnf;0,fray;yJ ]azmifwdefvkdcsifvQif yxr&atmifrif;BudK;pm;}[k
zcifu jyefajymavonf/
uREkfyfum; yxrr&? 'kwd,ESifh wwd,rQom vdkufcJUEdkifaomaMumifh
zcif\azmifwdefqkudk uREkfyfr&? b,fawmhrSvnf; 0,fray;acs/
uREkfyf\rdbrsm;rSm xdkpOfu pD;yGm;a&; acsmifvnfvSonf r[kwfonfhtxJrS
ausmif;om;rsm;tm; okH;av;ig;usyfwefrQpDjzifh pm;ar;yGJvkyfwdkif;qkay;jcif;
wnf;[laom csD;jrifhrIonf a&S;cwfrS þacwfwdkifatmif rnfonfh
ausmif;om;rsm;\rdbrsm;rS jyKvkyfonf[krBuKH bl;ay&um; arG;ozcif\
ynma&;ajrSmufpm;tm;ay;jcif;wnf;[laom 0goemESifhapwemudk vIdufvSJ
pGm MunfndKrdygonf/ zcifonf uREkfyftay:ü tkyfcsKyfykH wif;usyf
vGef;onf[k rauseyfjcif;tBudrfBudrf jzpfcJU&bl;aomfvnf; þtcsuf
wpfckudk ESvkH;oGif;jcif;tm;jzifh ajzazsmufcJU&ygonf/

xdyfxkd;íwuf&aompepf

bkef;awmfBuD;ausmif;ü OD;wdavmu\ pmoifykH xl;qef;aom


tcsufwckudk azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/ aeUpOfwufay;aom pmrsm;udk wvkH;r&vQif
wcsuf&dkufaMumif; azmfjycJUbl;&m? okH;wef;odkU uREkfyfwdkUa&mufMuaomtcg
OD;yOöif;onf ausmif;om;rsm;tm; udk,fwdkif&dkuf&í vufanmif;aomaMumifh
ayavm? okdUwnf;r[kwf BudrfvkH;zdk; rwwfEdkifaomaMumifhayavm rqdkEdkif?
qkH;rykH wenf;wDxGifvdkuf\/ uREkfyfwdkU ausmif;om;q,fa,mufonf
pDwef;vsuf &yfaeMupOf xdyfqkH;ausmif;om;tm;pmwvkH;ar;vkduf\/

71 
xdkolu ajzEdkifvQif 'kwd,vltm; tjcm;pmwvkH;ar;\/ ,if;okdUwa,mufpD
ar;oGm;&m rajzEdkifol &Sdonfhtcg aemufvltm;ar;í xdkoluajzEdkifvQif
rajzEdkifaomvl\xdyfudkwcsufxkd;NyD; ol\ae&modkUwuf&\/ rajzEdkifí
atmufodkU a&TUay;&aomvlrSm þrQESifh rNyD;ao;yJaemufwvkH;ar;jyef&m
rajzEdkifjyefu ajzEdkifaom atmufvl\ xdyfxkd;jcif;cH&NyD; wae&m
qif;&jyef\/ pmwvkH;rSrusufcJU&ol jzpfygrl wa,mufNyD;wa,muf
wwef;vkH;\xdyfxkd;cH,if; atmufqkH;okdUa&mufoGm;avawmh\/ wcgw&H
wGif cufaompmwvkH;udk xdfyfqkH;vltm;ar;í rajzwwfojzifh 'kwd,vl
tm;ar;&m xkdoluvnf;rajzwwfvQif ]aemufwa,muf? aemufwa,muf}
qdkum wwef;vkH;qkH;atmifar;oGm;\/ wcgw&HwGif atmufqkH;vlokdU
a&mufumrS ajzEdkifjcif;vnf;&Sdav&m xkdolonfwwef;vkH; udk ]xdyfxkd;}NyD;
txufqkH;okdU wufoGm;&av\/ wcgw&Hürl wwef;vkH;\ xdyfxkd;cH&NyD;
atmufqkH;odkU qif;oGm;&aomvlonf wwef;vkH;udk ]xdyfxkd;}NyD; txuf
qkH;odkU jyefa&mufoGm;jcif;rsm;vnf;&Sdavonf/ yxrü ausmif;om;rsm;onf
pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;aom pepfwck[lí awmfawmf oabmusMuonf/
aemufydkif;ürl tjypftemtqmrsm; awGUvmMu\/

wenf;awmhaumif;onf

ausmif;om;rsm;onf ueOD;ü cyfrSefrSef ]xdk;}Muaomfvnf; aeU&uf


&SnfMumaomtcgwGif ighudkememxkd;onf? olUudknSmonf ponfrsm;jzifh
trSwfxm;um &efNidK;zGJUvmMu\/ rdrdtm; ememBuD;xkd;aomvludk
tcGifh&aomtcgwGif ememBuD;jyefxkd;í rdrdtm;nSmaomvludk nSmíxkd;\/

72 
OD;yOöif;onf ememxkd;jcif;udk cGifhvTwfaomfvnf; nSmxkd;aomvludkac:í
]]'Dvdkxkd;&w,fuG}}[kqdkum xkdol\OD;acgif;udk ememBuD;xkd;jyavonf/
þwGif uREkfyfwdkUrSm rnfolUtm;rqdk ememxkd;vQifomxkd;onf? ]nSm}onf[l
íum; rvkyf0HUMuawmhay/ xdkUjyif uREkfyfwdkUtwef;xJü toufvnf;BuD;í
00wkwfwkwfESifh Avaumif;aom ausmif;om;BuD;wa,muf&Sd&m xdkolu
xkd;&aomtvSnfhwGif cyfrSefrSefxkd;aomfvnf; av;vHvSaom ol\vufoD;
BuD;aMumifh uREkfyfuJUodkUaom aumifuav;rSmykí ykí0ifoGm;av\/
uREkfyfwkdUteufwGif touftBuD;qkH;jzpfí ydefydef&Snf&Snf ausmif;om;BuD;
wa,mufvnf;&Sdao;\/ xdkolrSm 18 ESpfom;t&G,fwGif t&yf 5ay
10vufrcefU &SdaeavNyD/ uREkfyfonf xdkvlBuD;tm; xdk;&ef&Sdaomtcg
ol\OD;acgif;udkol\OD;acgif;udk rSDatmif rvSrf;Edkifojzifh ckefíxdk;&m
tm;vkH;u &,fMu\/ wcgurl vltrsm;&,fMurnfpdk;onfh vu©PmESifh
ol\OD;acgif;udkikHUay;&m þonfrSmvnf; oufom&mr&yJ &,fNrJwdkif;
&,fMuavonf/ (ppftwGif;ü ouFef;0wfaeonfh xdkvlBuD;tm;
bkef;BuD;ausmif;wausmif;ü awGUqkHrdMu&mwGif þtaMumif;udk oluyif
ajymí &,fMu&ao;onf/) xdkvlBuD;onf uREkfyfawGUbl;orQaom
vlrsm;teufwGif oabmtaumif;qkH; wa,mufjzpf\/ xkdtcsdefürl
uREkfyfxuf t&yfwvufrcefUavmufomjrifhawmh\/ (,ckrlum; ysHvGef
awmfrl &SmavNyD/) uREkfyfrSm twef;xJwGif tawmfqkH;xJujzpfygvsuf
(eHygwfcsdwfxJwGifygonf/) waeUvQiftenf;qkH; av;ig;csuf
txkd;cH&ojzifh vl0BuD;\ vufoD;csufrdaomaeUrsm;wGif OD;acgif;usdef;ao;
&m nHUzsif;í q,fhav;ig;csuf txkd;cH&olrsm;tzdkUrSm b,fvdkae&SmMurnf
rajymwwfay/ uREkfyfwdkUonfwaeUvkH; twef;txufESifh atmufqif;csnf
wufcsnf&SdaeMuav&m aemufqkH;tcsdefwGif rdrdwkdU\ae&mtpDtpOfudk

73 
rSwfom;xm;í aemufwaeUwGif 4if;tpDtpOftwdkif; &yfMu&av\/
,ckjyefíMunfhaomf rnfonfhausmif;wGifrS rBuKHcJUbl;onfhpepf jzpfaomf
vnf; ausmif;om;rsm; pmusufapzdkUwkdufwGef;a&;wGif tvGeft&m a&muf
aom pepfwckjzpfonf[k qkH;jzwfcsuf cscsif\/ okdU&mwGif þpepftwkdif;
vdkufemusifhokH;MuzkdU tBuHay;wkdufwGef;jcif;um; r[kwfay/

Ak'¨bmom(bD?wD?tif)ausmif;jzpfvmykH

xdyfqkH;jzpfaom uREkfyfwkdUausmif;om;q,fa,mufonf av;wef;odkU


a&mufMuaomtcg uREkfyfwdkUatmufwGifvnf; yxrwef;rS wwd,wef;
txd wwef;vQif ausmif;om;q,fhav;ig;a,mufpD&SdMuojzifh ausmif;om;
pkpkaygif; 60 cefU&SdaeavNyD/ xdktcsdefwGif ynmtkyf( 0efaxmufrif;
[kac:Muonf/) OD;ausmf&efESifh qufrdí tpdk;& pmppfcHausmif; jzpfatmif
pHrHMu\/ t&m&SdwpfOD;jzpfaom OD;ausmf&ef\ 0g,rpdkufxkwfrI aMumifh
tvGwfynmoifbkef;BuD;ausmif;tjzpfrS tpdk;&pmppfcHAk'¨bmom ausmif;BuD;
jzpfvm&onf rSefaomfvnf; rlvblw tppftrSefrSmNrdwfq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;
OD;eE´ESifh OD;yOöif;OD;wdavmuwkdU\ vkHUvya,m*wkdUaMumifh jzpfayonf/
bD?wD?tifac: Ak'¨bmomausmif;BuD; us,fvmaomtcsdefwGif &[ef;awmf
ESpfyg;wkdU\ bJGUawmfrsm;wdrfjrKyf OD;ausmf&ef\trnfomvQif wnfaxmifol
tjzpfESifh xif&Sm;ausmfMum;vsuf&Sd cJUjcif;twGufaMumifh Nrdwfq&mawmf
bk&m;tzdkU&mü rnfokdUrQr&Sdaomfvnf; OD;wdavmu udk,fawmfurl auseyf
onfhvu©Pmr&SdyJ uavmiform; wa,mufjzpfvm aom uREkfyftm;
þtaMumif;udkazmfxkwfa&;om;&efwkduf wGef;bl;\/ uREkfyfuvnf; a&;yg
rnf[k uwday;cJUbl;\/ okdU&mwGif tcgtcGifhroifh onfhtwGufaMumifh

74 
ra&;jzpfyJ&SdcJU&m ESpfyg;vkH; ysHvGefawmfrlNyD jzpfaom ,cktcsdefrSyif
þtaMumif;udka&;&ygawmhrnf/ Nrdwfq&mawmf bk&m;BuD; twGufum;
udpör&Sd? OD;wdavmu udk,fawmftwGufrl ruG,fvGefrDa&;jyjcif;tm;jzifh
aus;Zl;rqyfEdkifjcif;twGuf vGrf;qGwf0rf;enf; rdygonf/

vlwdkif;atmifapaomenf;

1900 jynfhESpfwGif qdkif;wef;&yfü wdkufwvkH;iSm;í 'u©dP0efwdkuf


Nrdwfausmif;rS ausmif;om;aygif; 90?100rQ ajymif;a&TUNyD;vQif Ak'¨omoem
Ek*¾(bD?wD?tif) tpdk;&pmppfcH t*Fvdyfjrefrm ESpfbmomoif ausmif;BuD;
trnfESifh pwifzGifhvSpfcJUavonf/ xdyfqkH;jzpfaom uREkfyfwdkUausmif;om;
q,fa,muftm; t*Fvdyfpm píoifaomtcsdefrSonf 4if;ESpf 'DZifbmv
wGif uREkfyfwkdUtm; av;wef;pmar;yJGodkUoGif;í tpdk;&pmppfcHapaom
tcsdefwdkifatmif wESpfESifhokH;vrQomtcsdefMum\/ okdUESifhyif uREkfyfwdkU
ausmif;om;q,fa,mufvkH;onf av;wef;pmar;yJG atmifjrifMu&avum;
rEÅav;wNrdKUvkH; [dk;av;wausmf jzpfí ausmif;om;ta&twGufrSmvnf;
ausmif;rqHUatmif wkd;wufrsm;jym; vmav\/ þrQaom tcsdeftydkif;tjcm;
twGif;üq,fa,mufvkH;atmifjrif Mujcif;rSm ausmif;om;rsm;tm; pmrusuf
yJaeírjzpfatmif usyfwnf;pGm oifjyaom OD;yOöif; OD;wdavmu\
aus;Zl;yifjzpfonf[k rSwfcsufay;vkduf& ayonf/

75 
q&mESifhwynfhoabmxm;

þae&mwGif OD;yOöif;OD;wdavmutaMumif; qufvufí azmfjy


yg&apOD;/ OD;wdavmuonf uREkfyfwdkUig;wef;odkUwufaomESpfü &[ef;b0
udk aysmfydkuf[efr&SdyJ vlxGufí tdrfaxmifusoGm;avNyD OD;wdavmutm;
uREkfyfwkdUausmif;om;rsm;u rnfrQavmuf cspfaMumuf&dkao&SdMuykHudk BuD;jyif;
vmaomtcgwGif tcsif;csif;ajymí &,frdMuao;onf/ &,frdMujcif;rSm
uREkfyfwdkU BuD;jyif;vmMuí touf30ausmf 40t&G,fwGif om;r,m;
tvkyftudkifESifh jzpfaeMuaomfvnf; wcgw&Hvl0wfvJNyD;jzpfonfh
OD;wdavmuESifh rawmfwq qkHrdMu&müq&mwpfcGef;? t&Sifbk&m;wcGef;?
cifAsm; uRefawmfwcGef;ESifh ua,mifacsmufcsm;jzpfum aMumuf'l;wkefvsuf
pum;rajymwwfatmif jzpfM u&aomaMumifhjzpfavonf/ uREkfyfudk,fawGU
tjzpftysufwckudk azmfjy&aomf 1919 ckESpfwGif uREkfyfonf ol&d,wdkufü
r*¾Zif;t,f'DwmtjzpfESifh vkyfudkifvsuf&SdpOf OD;wdavmu (vltrnf
OD;xGef;0if;)onf wkdufay:okdUwufvmí uREkfyfESifhuyfvsuf&Sdaom
pm;yJGwGifxkdifaom t,f'Dwmwa,mufESifhpum;ajymonfudk uREkfyfjrifyg
vsuf EIwfquf&rnfudkaMumufonfESifh rjrifcsifjyKí ikHUaevdkuf\/
aemufwacgufjyefaomtcgürl &dkif;&musawmhrnf[k atmufarhí
xdkif&mrSxNyD; EIwfqufonfwGifrS OD;yOöif; (q&m)u 0rf;omtm;&ESifh
zufvSJwuif;jyKayonf/
]]ig waeUu wacgufvmao;w,fuG,fh? rif; r&Sdbl;vm;}}
]]wifyg? wynfhawmf- uRefawmf tvkyf&IyfaevdkU armfhrMunfh
vkdufrdvdkUyg q&m}}[k jyefajym&onf/

76 
q&monf vlyg;wa,mufjzpfí uREkfyftaMumif;udk &dyfrdojzifh NyKH;pdpd
Munfhjcif;udkvnf; uREkfyfem;vnfonf/ q&monf wynfhwa,muf
t,f'Dwmjzpfjcif;twGuf *kPf,l&Smonfh vu©PmESifh 0rf;omtm;&
ajymoGm;&Sm\/ þtaMumif;udk ausmif;om;a[mif;rsm;awGUwdkif; uREkfyfu
ajymjy&m olwkdUuvnf; þenf;ESifhjzpfbl;aMumif; jyefajymMu\/ uREkfyfwkdU
u q&mqdkonfrSm &dkufydkifonf[lívnf;aumif;? OD;yOöif;jzpfaomaMumifh
omí&dkufydkifonf[lívnf;aumif; em;vnfMuí (&dkufvGef;onf[k
xifMuapumrl) q&mOD;xGef;0if;tay:ü qefUusifaom pdwfrsKd;
r&SdMujcif;pdk;pOf;rQ rSefaomfvnf; i,fpOfu aMumufcJU&jcif; twGufaMumifh
taMumufrajyEdkifonfESifh rsufESmcsif;rqdkif vdkMujcif; yifjzpfygonf/
þacwf q&mwynfhrsm;url &,fcsifaumif; &,fcsifMuay vdrfhrnf/

usDpm;vGefjcif;

ausmif;om;csif;u ESdyfpufbl;jcif;rsm;udk pmjzifha&;í rSwfom;xm;


avoavm[k ajymcsifonf/ ajymMuap? qkdif;wef;ausmif;okdU ajymif;cgpwGif
uREkfyfcH&onfh tjzpftysufwckudk azmfjyvdkao;\/ zcifonf zdeyfaxmif
q&mjzpfonfhtavsmuf uREkfyftwGuf ydef;wef; zdeyfuav;rsm; qef;qef;
jym;jym;vSvSyyjzpfatmif py,f&S,f csKyfvkyfay;avh&S\
d / ausmif;om;wdkif;
onf uREkfyf\ zdeyfuav;udk ikHUMunhfMu\/ Munhfvnf;Munfhoifh\/
waeUoü OD;wdavmuonf aysmfbG,fNrdKUodkU tvnf<uoGm;í jyefvnf
<ua&mufvm&mwGif q&mrsm;a&m? ausmif;om;rsm;yg wausmif;vkH; BudKqdk
MuzkdU pDpOfxm;\/ xdkaeUwGif ausmif;om;wdkif; 0wfaumif;pm;vSESifh
vmMuí blwm&kHodkU pDwef;um vrf;avQmufMu &rnfjzpf\/ qdkif;wef;

77 
ausmif;rSm ESpfxyfwdkufjzpfí atmufxyfwGif zdeyfpD;&aomfvnf; tay:xyf
wGif zdeyfcRwfMu&\/ uREkfyfrSm tay:xyfodkU udpöwckESifh wufoGm;í
avSum;wGif zdeyfqef;uav;udk cRwfxm;cJU&m jyefqif;vmaomtcgü
rawGU&awmhacs/ zdeyfuav;rSm rnfol\ zdeyfESifhrQrwlaomaMumifh
rSm;Edkifp&mr&Sd? wrifwumaemufajymifí 0Sufxm;onfjzpfap ckd;xm;onf
jzpfap jzpf&ayrnf/ zdeyfaysmufaom udpörQavmufESifh q&mrsm;tm; wdkif&ef
xkH;pHr&SdaomaMumifh udk,fhzmom &Sm&\/ rawGUacs/

'ku©a0'em

pmydkU&xm;onf rEÅav;blwm&kHokdU aeUv,fwem&DwGif qdkufrnf


jzpfí ausmif;om;rsm;onf 12 em&DwdwdwGif qdkif;wef;ausmif;rS pDwef;um
xGufMu&efjzpf\/ &moDrSm waygif;vjzpfíjcpfjcpfpvefatmif yljyif;vsuf
&SdavNyD/ uREkfyfüzddeyfaysmufjcif;udk q&mrsm;tm; rajym0HUonfESifh
tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh twlpDwef;í vdkuf&\/ ylvSonfhajrBuD;rSm
',ftkd;uif;uJUokdU&Sdojzifh ajcaxmufwbufcswdkif; uysmu,m jyefajrSmuf
um aemufajcwbuftm; tvSnfay;&jcif;aMumifhckefqGckefqGjzpf ae\/
okdU&mwGif uREkfyfrSm OD;yOöif;\ &dkufESufjcif;ESifh zcif\&dkufESufjcif;
tMum;wGifvljzpfvm&jcif;aomaMumifh 'ku©a0'emcHpm;&jcif;ü tavhtusifh

&Sdonfjzpfí olwyg;wdkUxuf (vlBuD;vli,fra&G cHEdkif&nf&Sdoljzpf\/


ajcz0g;rsm; ylvSjcif;aMumifh ckefcsifovdkvdk? aygufcsifovdkvkd?
ajy;csifovkdvdkjzpfcJU&aomfvnf; tHBudwfí cHcJUEdkifygonf/ okdU&mwGif
rD;&xm;oHvrf;udk jzwfa usmf aqmufvkyfxm;onfhwHwm;ukef;BuD;ay:odkU
a&mufMuaomtcgürlum; ajrBuD;udk eif;vmcJU&mrS opfom;ysOfjym;udk

78 
eif;vdkuf&jcif;aMumifh ESpfqrQylavmifjcif;udk cHpm;&ojzifh av;ig;vSrf;
oGm;rd&mwGif rcHr&yfEdkifawmhyJ ]awmufavQmufajy;oGm;awmh rnf}BuHrd\/
okdUqdkvQif q&m\&dkufESufjcif;cH&rnf[k odaomaMumifh rajy;0HUyJ
tHBudwfcH,if; ]tvdkav; tr,fav;}[k nnf;csifvm\/ okdU&mwGif
ausmif;om;rsm;&,fMurnfudk &SufonfESifh nnf;nLrnfhtoHudk rsKdcsvkduf&m
rsuf&nfrsm; ,dkusvmawmhonf/ þwGif uREkfyfonf ]ausmif;om;wa,muf
a,muf\ npfywfjcif;aMumifh igcH&avjcif;} [katmufarhum ]ql;wacsmif;}
aygufvm&jyefygawmhonf/ xdknaewGif tdrfodkU jyefa&mufaomtcg
ae&mwdkif;&dkufcsifwwfaom zcifrodapyJ rdciftm;ajymjyí rdcif\
tumtuG,faMumifh uREkfyftzdkUoufom&m&avawmhonf/ zcif\obm0
rSm rdrdu tjrwfwEdk; txl;wvnf csKyfvkyfay;xm;onfh zdeyfopfudk
vkHNcKHatmif rxdef;odrf;Edkif&oavm[laom tjrifrsKd;om&Sdwwfí tawmf
aMumufzdkUaumif;avonf/

rnfol\tjypfay;enf;

uREkfyftay:üzcifu cspfcifykH? *&kpdkufykHwkdUrSm rsm;vGef;tm;BuD;onf


[k awmifhwrdaomtcgrsm;vnf; &Sd\/ OD;wdavmu jyefa&mufvmonfh
aemuf waygif;vjynfhausmf 5 &ufaeUwGifa&Tpm&Hbk&m;yJGokdU <u&efpDpOf&m
OD;yOöif;u uREkfyftm; ]]4if;\wlESpfa,mufESifhtwl vkdufcsifvdkufEdkifonf}}
[ktrdefU&Sdí uREkfyfvnf; ra&mufbl;onfh a&Tpm&HyJGokdU vkdufcsifvSonfESifh
0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omvufcHav\/ tdrfokdUa&mufí rdbrsm;tm; ajymjyaom
tcg rdcifucGifhjyKaomfvnf; zcifurltaMumuftuefuefU uGufav\/
okdUuefUuGuf&mwGif rnfonfhtaMumif;rS rjyEdkifyJ oludk,fwdkifrygaom

79 
vrf;c&D;wGif uREkfyfwa,mufwnf; ygonf/ OD;yOöif;udk vkdufydkUonfh
yGJuawmfwtdrfvkH;vnf;ygMuonf/ þtxJrSyif uREkfyf\ vkHNcKHa&;twGuf
pdwfrcsaomaMumifh bk&m;yJGodkU rxnfhvkdufEdkifqdkjcif;rSm (OD;yOöif;udk,fEIduf
uyif) vGefvGef;onf[k ,lqaeavNyD/ okdUaomf OD;yOöif;onf
zciftm;rnfokdUrQrajym ]]rifhzmomMunhfvkyfav}}[k uREkfyftm; vTJxm;\/
uREkfyfum; 11 ESpfom;t&G,f&SdavNyD/ a&Tpm&Hbk&m;yJG\ aysmfp&maumif;jcif;
taMumif;udk Mum;&bl;aom uREkfyfrSmvnf; rvkduf&vQif ao&ravmuf
jzpfaeavNyD/ uREkfyfvnf; xdkt&G,fodkU wkdifatmif zcifpum;udk
rjrifuG,f&mü azmufzsufcJUrdbl;aomf vnf; wdkuf&dkufqefUusifbuf
jyKbl;jcif;um; r&Sdao;ay/ þtBudrfwGifrl um;zcif\ wm;jrpfjcif;onf
w&m;enf;vnf;rus[k ,lqonfESifh tdrfrS ajymifajymifxGufoGm;í
bk&m;yGJokdU vdkufoGm;av\/ (trSefudkajym&vQif uREkfyfrSmbk&m;yJG
wavQmufvkH;wGif zcif\rMunf&TifaomrsufESmudkom jrifvsuf&Sdaom
aMumifh arQmfvifhoavmuf raysmfcJU&ay/)
tdrfodkUjyefa&mufaomtcsdefü zcifonf uREfkfyftay:wGif a&S;uuJUodkU
r[kwfyJ ]cyfwef;wef;} vkyfaeav&m uREkfyfuvnf; rdrdrSefonf[kxifum
cyfwef;wef;yif wkHUjyefrdonf/ þtjzpftysufrSmrnfol\ tjypfjzpfonf[k
uREkfyfrqkH;jzwfvkdaomfvnf; xdktcsdefrSpíuREkfyfwkdUom;tzESpfa,mufrSm
MuifemrIavsmhyg;vmjcif;um; trSefjzpfonf/ zcifu [efvkyfí wif;rmjcif;
jzpfcsifjzpfrnf/ uREkfyfurlusyfwnf;vGef;aom zcifwa,muf[k
wu,fjrifvmí ol\cspfvGef;jcif;twGuf 0rf;romEdkifatmifjzpf
rdawmhonf/ tb,faMumifhqdkaomf om;orD;wdkUrnfonf rdbtay:ü
tvkH;pkHauseyfí rdrdwdkU\aetdrfü aysmfydkufoifhonfjzpf&m uREkfyfrSm
xdkuJUodkUrjzpf&yJ pnf;vkH;aompdwfrsKd; avsmhyg;oGm;ayaomaMumifhwnf;/

80 
þodkUa&;jcif; tm;jzifh zciftm; tjypfwifvkdjcif;r[kwf/ uREkfyf\
uHraumif;jcif;[líom qdkvdkygonf/

,luvpf vlrjzpf

1901 ckESpfwGif uREkfyfwkdUtwef;om; 10 a,mufonf 5


wef;okdUwufMu&\/ OD;wdavmuonf ausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;ESifhywfoufí
rauseyfonfh vu©PmESifh uREkfyfwkdUtm; udk,fwdkifroifjyawmhyJ
twef;jyq&mrsm; iSm;&rf;oifjyap&m q&maygif;av;ig;a,muf vJvS,f
onfhtxJwGif q&mjzpfwef;atmifolwa,mufrQ ryg&SdyJ 7 wef; atmifcgp
vlrsm;? pma&;jyKwfrsm;? tvkyfvufrJU Akdvfujym;wa,muf ponfjzifh
ESpfvwBudrfcefU tajymif;tvJ jzpfae\/ twef;om;rsm;onf
t*FvdyfbmomwGif awmfMuaomfvnf; topfpufpuf bmom&yf
wckjzpfaom ]*JMoarBwD}ü tcuftcJawGUMu\/ xdkpOfurl ],luvpf}
[kac:Muí tvGefcufonfhtaejzifh ],luvpfvlrjzpf}[k ausmif;om;rsm;
ajymMu\/ þtawmtwGif; ausmif;uvnf; qdkif;wef;&yfrS rvGefaq;&dk;
0if;okdU a&TUajymif;&jyefav&mq&mrsm;u ],luvpf}udkvli,frsm;
oabmaygufatmif roifjywwfonfh twGufaMumifh pmar;yJGwGif
ausmif;om;BuD; av;a,mufrQom atmifjrifí (uREkfyftygt0if)
ausmif;om;uav;ajcmufa,muf us&IH;Muavonf/ þwGif tus&IH;
rsm;vGef;onfqdkum uREkfyfrSwyg; us&IH;aom ausmif;om;rsm;onf
tjcm;ausmif;rsm;odkU ajymif;a&TUoGm;Muav\/ uREkfyf\rdbrsm;url
q&mawmfbk&m;BuD; wnfaxmifcJUaom Ak'¨bmomausmif;[lí opöm&Sdonfh
vu©PmESifh uREkfyftm;ajymif;a&TUjcif;rjyKay/

81 
uREkfyf\ewfrif;BuD;

uREkfyfwdkUausmif;rSm xdyfqkH;wef;jzpfaom 5wef;orm;rsm;


atmifMuaomtcgwGif 6wef;zGifhEdkifaom tajctaer&SdonfESifh pdefyDwm?
atbDtrfpaom c&pf,efomoemjyK ausmif;BuD;rsm;okdU ajymif;a&TUí
qufvuf oifMum;Mu\/ atmifjrifaom ausmif;om;rsm;ESifhtwl ratmif
jrifaom ausmif;om;rsm;onfvnf; txufygtaMumif;aMumifh ajymif;a&TU
oGm;Muojzifh twef;wlausmif;om;a[mif;qdkí uREkfyfwa,muf wnf;
usef&pfavawmhonf/ tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;ajymif;a&TU jcif;xuf uREkfyftm;
tumtuG,fay;cJUonfh ausmif;om;BuD;wa,muf ajymif;a&TUoGm;jcif;
aMumifh uREkfyf\pdwfüxdcdkufykHudk azmfjyvdkygao;onf/ ol\trnfrSm
]xGef;vS}[kac:í (uREkfyf\rdbrsm;rSwyg;) uREkfyftay:ü wu,farwÅm
u&kPmxm;onfh yxrOD;qkH;aom ausmif;om;wa,mufjzpf\/ xdkolonf
bkef;BuD;ausmif;ü ausmif;om;uav;rsm;tm; vufa0SUwdkufay; onfh
ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;teufwGifwa,muftygt0ifjzpfíuREkfyfESifh ]owfbuf}
a&G;ay;aomtcgrsm;ü uREkfyftay:nSmwmrI&Sdjcif;udk uREkfyf&dyfrdcJU onf/
tjcm;ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;u uREkfyfxuftenf;i,fBuD;aom ausmif;om; ESifh
]buf}ay;rnfjyKaom udkxGef;vSu ]rvkyfygeJUuG? 'Duav;u tdrfta0;
BuD;vm&&Smwm}[k ajymí nDwlrS uREkfyfESifhwGJay;\/ ]cspfwD;}u uREkfyftm;
]ypönf;0g;&rf;zrf;}aomtcgrsm;wGifvnf; udkxGef;vSuyif u,fq,fcJUojzifh
uREkfyfrkefUpm;&\/ udkxGef;vSonf uREkfyfxuf ig;ESpfcefUBuD;í ol\nDyif
uREfkyfxuf ESpfESpfcefUBuD;ao;&m nDt&if;u uREkfyftm;tEdkifusifhrnf

82 
jyKjcif;udkyif olodygu uREkfyfbufrS vdkuf\/ olwkdUnDtpfudkonf
tcsif;csif; pum;rajym/ udkxGef;vSonf uREkfyfwa,mufwnf;udkom
ta&mw0if&Sdí olUnDxufyif uREkfyfudk cspfonf[kyif xifrd\/
[kwfr[kwfum; rajymwwf/ uREkfyfurl 4if;txifaMumifh udkxGef;vStm;
wkd;ícspfrd&m? udkxGef;vSuvnf; þtwGufaMumifh wdk;íMuifemykH&onf/
þokdUjzifh uREkfyfwdkUESpfa,mufrSm wESpfxufwESpfcifrifvmMuí &G,fwl
r[kwfaomfvnf; wyl;wGJwGJ &SdMuav\/

tawmfqkH;vlwa,muf

csm;vfpf'pfuif; a';Apfaumhyg;zD;vf(David  Copperfield)  0w¦KBuD;udk


zwfbl;olrsm;onf pwD;,m;zdkUof  (Steerfoth)  udkrrSwfrdyJ aeEdkifMurnf
r[kwfay/ uREkfyfonf 4if;0w¦Kudkzwfvkduf&onfESifh wNydKifeuf udkxGef;vS
udkcsufcsif;owd&\/udkxGef;vSonf tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;xuf udk,fum,
tm;jzifhom OD;acgif;wvkH; jrifhonfr[kwf/ rSwfOmPfaumif;jcif;? pOf;pm;
wwfjcif;? yg;eyfjcif;? vla&vnfjcif;paom t&nftcsif;rsm;ESifh
ywfoufívnf; tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;xuf OD;acgif;wvkH;jrifhonf[k
uREkfyfqdkcsif\/ 0w¦KxJrS pwD;,m;zkdUofrSm vlysKdayguft&G,fwGif qkH;&IH;
&ouJUokdU udkxGef;vSrSmvnf; 4if;touft&G,füyif toufqkH;&IH;&jcif;
vnf; wlMu\/ vdifudpöESifhywfoufí toufqkH;&IH;Mu&jcif;vnf;wl\/
okdU&mwGif pwD;,m;zkdUof\ qkH;&IH;&jcif;rSmnpfywfrIruif;yJ&Sd&m? udkxGef;vS
\ qkH;&IH;&jcif;rlum; npfypfrIrygyJ aq;aumif;0g;aumif; ray:ayguf
ao;onfh acwfaMumifhjzpf\/ udkxGef;vSonf 5wef;atmifNyD;uwnf;u
uREkfyfESifhuGJuGmoGm;í wausmif;pDwwef;pDjzpfoGm;Muav&m? twef;wdkif;

83 
wGif q&mwdkif;\ csD;rGrf;jcif;cH&í 4if;aoqkH;aomtcgü twef;q&mu
tvGefESajrmzdkUaumif;aom ausmif;om;wa,mufjzpfí olUuJUodkUrjzpfMu
ap&ef uREkfyfwkdUtm; owday;jcif;udkvnf; uREkfyfrSwfrdonf/ (aoqkH;aom
tcgwGif udkxGef;vSrSm 9wef;okdUa&mufí uREkfyfrSmvnf; 8wef;okdUa&muf
avNyD/) uREkfyfonf woufwmwGif ]vlawmfrsm;udk owdxm;í
apmifhMunfhwwfoljzpf&m? uREkfyfawGUbl;onfh ]vlawmf}ESpfa,mufteufwGif
udkxGef;vSvnf; wa,mufjzpfayonf/ þvltouf&SnfcJUvQif {uEÅ
BuD;yGm;&rnf[k uREkfyfajym&Jonf/ ausmif;ü twlaeMupOf (uREkfyftm;
tumtuG,fay;aom aus;Zl;aMumifh ayavmrod) uREkfyfonf udkxGef;vS\
opöm&SdaomacG;uav;  (Faithful  Dog)  uJUodkUvnf;aumif;?
a&mfbifqifu&l;qdk;\wynfh z&dkufa';uJUokdUvnf; aumif; olUaemufrS
waumufaumuf vkdufumol\trIBuD;i,fwkdUudk aqmif&Gufay;&jcif;
twGuf MunfEl;rd\/ 5 wef;pmar;yJGü olatmifí uREkfyfusojzifh
cGJcgeD;wGif udkxGef;vSonf uREkfyftm;ausmif;aemufaz;odkUac: í uREkfyf\
yckH;udkzufnSpf,if; rsuf&nfrsm; 0dkif;vm&m? uREkfyfuvnf; &IdufBuD;wiif
idk,dkrdavonf/ (uREkfyfwdkU jrefrmvlrsKd;onf rdwfaqGoli,fcsif; ESifh
aqGrsKd;rdbponfrsm;tay:ü cifrifjcif;udk azmfxkwfjyojcif; enf;vSaom
vlrsKd;jzpf&m? uREkfyftzdkU&mwGifvnf; rsuf&nfusonftxd azmfxkwfjyo
rdjcif;rSm woufvkH;wGif xdktBudrfyxrqkH;tBudrfjzpfygonf/)

ausmif;ajymif;a&TU&jcif;

5wef;ü 'kwd,ESpfaeí twef;om;opfrsm; txJwGifAkdvfpJG&aomf


vnf; 0rf;omvSonfr&Sd? udkxGef;vStrSL;&Sdonfh vla[mif;rsm;udkom

84 
wvGrf;wnf;vGrf;vsuf&Sdygawmhonf/ OD;yOöif;OD;wdavmurSmvnf; vlxGuf
oGm;NyD;jzpfí t&dkufcH&zdkU r&SdonfhtxJrSmyif tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh
twlwuG t&dkufcH&bl;jcif;rsm;udk owd&í vGrf;ovdkvdkjzpfrdygao;onf/
þESpfürl wuúodkvf0ifpmar;yJG  (Entrance)  ESifh puúif'&D q&mjzpfwef;
atmifonfh q&maumif;wa,muf a&mufvmonfESifhcufvSonf xifcJU
aom ],luvpf}udk uREkfyfoabmaygufatmif oifjyEdkifay&m? ,cifESpf
uwnf;u þq&mrsKd;ESifhawGU&vQif tvG,fwulyif atmifjrifEdkif
vdrfhrnf[kxifrdonf/ 1902ESpfwGif uREkfyf5 wef;atmifaomtcg
Ak'¨bmomausmif;rSm 6 wef;ausmif;zGifhEdkifaom tajctaer&Sdao;onfESifh
uREkfyfrSm at? bD? trf ausmif; (tar&duefausmif;)odkU ajymif;a&TUí
ausmif;a0;aom 'ku©rSvGwfajrmufNyD;ygNyD/

ausmif;BuD;\t&Sdef

vGefcJUaom 2 ESpfcefUrSpí ausmif;om;wdkU BuKH&wwfaom 'ku©rsm;rS


vGwfajrmufovdkjzpfcJUaomfvnf; uREkfyftzdkUü 6wef;ausmif;om;b0
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85 
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86 
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tar&duefausmif;okdU ydkUaomtcgü uREkfyf\tm;udk;BuD;wckrSm


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87 
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q&mBuD; u rkwfqdwfarG;BuD; wzGm;zGm;ESifh pifjrifhay:üxdkifvsuf&Sd pOf 300
cefUrQaom ausmif;om;rsm;onf ESpfa,mufwJGxdkif&aom ckHrsm;ay:wGif
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vnf;aumif;? þrQavmuf ajrmufjrm;pGmaom ausmif;om;rsm;udk
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ausmif;om;rsm;onf ESpfa,mufvQif wtkyfuspDudkifxm;Muonfh
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ausmif;tkyfBuD;u pwifoDqdkvkdufonfESifhwNydKifeuf ausmif;om;rsm;a&m
ausmif;q&mrsm;yg wnDwnmwnf; oDqdkMuavukef\/

MunfEl;zG,faomtoH

c&pf,ef"r®oDcsif;oHudk rMum;&bl;onfh uREkfyfrSm tawmfcefUnm;í


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tcgwGif wrsKd;pDcefUygayonf[k atmufarhrd\/ Ak'¨\tjzpfawmf?

88 
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rsm;tzdkUrSm c&pf,ef"r®oDcsif;udk Mum;&jcif;wckwnf;ESifh yifpdwfMunfEl;í
4if;bmomudkt[kwfB uD;xifum ul;ajymif;,kHMunfoGm;&Sm jcif;onf tHUMo
xdkufonfr[kwf[k uREkfyfpOf;pm;rdygonf/ "r®oDcsif; qdkNyD;Muonfhaemuf
qkawmif;jcif;ESifh ausmif;udpöt00wkdUudk ausmif;tkyfBuD;u ajymjyjcif;
ponfjzifh aqmif&GufNyD;MuaomtcgrS ausmif;q&mrsm;ESifh ausmif;om;
rsm;onf cef;rBuD;rS qif;vmMuí twef;toD;oD;odkU 0ifMu&avonf/

£ajE´aumif;vSaom q&mEdkif

6 wef;oifjyaomtcef;rSm wausmif;vkH;wGif tus,fqkH;jzpfí


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twlwGJvsuf ESpfa,mufxdkif&aompma&;ckHwckHü xdkifrdonfESifh wNydKifeuf
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tvGef£ajE´BuD;aom q&mwa,mufjzpfí uREkfyfjrif&onfhav;ig;v
twGif;wGif wBudrfwcgrQNyKH;jcif;&,fjcif;&dSonfudk rawGU&bl;acs/

89 
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rsm;wGif ausmif;jyifokdUxGufí c&D;oGm;olrsm;\ y0gudkcRwf,laom
ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;yif &Sdonf[kajymMu\/ q&mEdkifrSm 6wef;jy
q&momr[kwf ausmif;tdyfausmif;pm; ]abmf'g}rsm;udktkyfcsKyf&aom
q&mvnf;jzpfay&m ausmif;om;qkd;BuD;rsm;onf EIwfcrf;arG; pkwfzGm;ESifh
aigufvm;atmfvm; Ncdrf;ajcmufaom abmf'gq&mrsKd;udkraMumufMu? rsufESm
ydk;oufum £ajE´ESifhvSrf;íMunhfwwfaom q&mEdkifudkom aMumufMuonf
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&Sdaomfvnf; cPcP&dkuf&onfr[kwf/ 4if;tm;tmcHaom ausmif;om;
qdk;BuD;wa,mufudk &dkufzl;jcif;aMumifh emrnfBuD;jcif;jzpf\/ okdU&mwGif
þtaMumif;udk aemufrSod&aom uREkfyftzdkUrSm q&mEdkif0ifvmjcif;udk
jrif&&kHESifh aMumuf'l;wkefrdygawmhonf/

tuJprf;Mujcif;

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rcHcJU&bl;yg/ ausmif;BuD;udk aMumufonfESifh q&mudkyg a&míaMumufjcif;
jzpf[efwlygonf/ tar&duefausmif;okdUa&mufcgptcsdefü uREkfyfonf
twef;xJwGif ti,fqkH;jzpfí (&G,fwlwa,muf ESpfa,muf awmh&Sdygonf/)
]cJrSefbl;aom pmoli,f}qdkouJUodkU uREkfyftm; tEdkifusifh Muvdrfhrnf
txifESifh ukyfukyfuav;aepOf tuJprf;aom ausmif;om; ESpfa,muf
okH;a,mufESifh BuKH&ao;\/ wpfa,mufu uREkfyftm; aumfzD

90 
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udkify0grSm atmufjynfu t&D;wa,mufu ydkUvdkufonfh wxnfwnf;
aomydk;vufudkify0gav;jzpfí tem;uGyfwGif aq;a&mifpkHjzifh ESdyfxm;onfh
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csifygao;\/ uREkfyfrSm ausmif;BuD;ü vlopfuav; wa,mufyDyD
tm;vyfcsdefrsm;wGifopfyif&dyfü jrufcif;ay:wGif wa,mufwnf;
oGm;xdkifavh &Sd&m waeUoü uREkfyfwkdUtwef;om;jzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyfxuf
tenf;qkH; 5ESpfcefUBuD;í vlysKdBuD;zm;zm;jzpfaom abmf'gausmif;om;BuD;
wa,mufonf teD;okdUcsOf;uyfí-
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r[kwfaomfvnf; xdkol\aojcif; owif;uJUokdU uREkfyf\ESvkH;ü xdcdkufrI

91 
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l pum;wcGef;onfvnf; ]ql;}
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ausmif;om;wkdif;udk aMumufNyD;OD;acgif;razmf0HUyJ&SdonfESifh tnw&ausmif;
om;uav;wa,mufjzpfaecJU\/ wcgw&Ht*Fvdyfbmom&yfESifh ywfouf
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Oral  Test  rsm;jzifh ppfaq;&mwGif uREkfyfonftwef;xJrSmuJUokdU
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rnf[k odonfhtwGufaMumifh tjcm;vlrsm; rajzEdkifaom ykpämrsm;udk&J&J0HU0HU
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onf/ xdkESpfwGif t*Fvdyfbmomar;cGef;rsm; cufvSí 6wef;om;
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92 
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ppfaq;avonf/

tajctaewufvmjcif;

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uREkfyfESifhtwltjcm;ausmif;om;okH;a,muftm;vnf; a&G;cs,f&m 4if;wkdU
teufwGif puf&Sifw&m;olBuD;OD;&Dvnf;yg0if\/ (xdkokH;a,mufvkH;rSm 7
wef;ausmif;om;qdkvQif ausmif;wGif tawmfrsufESmyGifhvef;ítxufwef;
ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;\ todtrSwfjyKjcif;cH&avonf/ uREkfyf\
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tar&duefausmif;rS paumvm;&Spf atmifolwa,mufrQ rxGufcJUay/

qE´jyjcif;wrsKd;

ausmif;ü uREkfyf\tajctae wkd;wufvsuf&SdpOf tdrfürlum;


usqif;vsuf&Sd\/ zcifonf ausmif;ütajctae aumif;jcif;udkMum;od&í
uREkfyftm; t0wfaumif; tpm;aumif;rsm;jzifhajrSmufpm;aomfvnf;
]Muufaumif; BudK;ruGm}qdkaom ol\aqmifyk'ft& uREkfyftm;vdrfrmonf

93 
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t&G,ftavsmufpGef(avwHcGef)vTwfjcif;? xkyfqD;jcif;? zefwkdUjcif;? zefckefjcif;
paomupm;enf;rsm;udk upm;csif\/ xkdtcsdefüuREkfyftoufrSm q,fhav;
ig;ESpf &SdNyDjzpf&m xdkacwfu ]pGefvTwfjcif;}tvkyfrSm vlysKdayguf t&G,frS
pítouf 25?30 t&G,fwdkifatmif upm;Muí naewdkif; aumif;uifwGif
a&mifpkHavwHcGefrsm;jzifh &IyfaxG;vsuf&Sd\/ ]pGefwaumif} jywfoGm;onfhtcg
wkwfwdkwkwf&Snf? 0g;vkH;? 0g;jcrf;? ql;cufponfrsm; udkifaqmifvsuf
]pGef}vkdufMuaom uav;oli,fcsif;rsm;uvnf; ajccsif;vdrfvsuf&Sd\/
uRekfyfpGefvTwfvkdufprf;csifonfrSmum; bmESifhrQrwlacs/ ausmif;rStjyef
naecif;wGif tdrfa&SUüxkdifumolwyg; vTwfMuaom pGefrsm;udk armhfíom
Munfhae&\/ upm;cGifhr&acs/ okdU&mwGif uREkfyfü rdcif\cGifhjyKcsuft&
0,fxm;onfh a&mufvkH;? tyfcsnf? avwHcGefwkdUum; tjynfhtpkH&S\
d /
4if;wkdUrSmzcifr&SdckdufwGif upm;&efjzpf\/ wnaeü uREkfyfonf
ausmif;rSjyefvmí zcifr&SdckdufBuKHonfESifh avwHcGef udkxkwfí vTwf&m
avwHcGefonf aumif;uifodkUa&mufí av[kefpD;aejcif; udkMunfEl;pGmESifh
armhfMunfhaepOf aemufrSausmudkAsif;ueJcsvkdufjcif;udkod vkduf\/ uREkfyf
um; zcifjzpfonf[k csufcsif;odonfESifh vefUzsyfjcif;r&Sd? avwHcGefudkom
jyefí&kyfodrf;\/ pdwfxJü ]&dkufprf;ygap}[katmufarUí cyfjznf;jznf;
yif&kyfodrf;ae\/ zcifonfuREkfyf\cHwHwH&Sdaom trlt&mudk &dyfrdí
ememBuD;&dkufav&m uREkfyfrSm tvGefemusifaomfvnf; uwdkufu&dkuf
rodrf;yJ rSefrSefBuD;om odrf;ae\/ þtcsif;t&mudkrdcifjrifí
ajy;vmNyD;vQif zciftm; pum;ajymajymí ac:oGm;avonf/

94 
xGufajy;csifpdwfay:vmjcif;

aemufokH;av;&ufwGif uREkfyfausmif;rSjyefvmaomtcg zcif&Sdae


ojzifh pmtkyfrsm;udkcsí xkH;pHtwkdif;aumif;uifodkU armfhMunfhae\/ rMumrD
zcifvnf; t0wfrsm;vJí xGufoGm;ojzifhuREkfyfvnf; a&mufvkH;ESifh
avwHcGefudk (0Sufxm;aom ae&mrS) xkwfvm\/ avwHcGefudkuav;
wa,mufu ]xkd;}ay;ojzifh cg;udkaumhum ]wkyf}vsuf&SdpOf zcifjyefvmí
&dkufjyef\/ olUyg;pyfuvnf; ]eifhavmufrsm; yg;vkdU[,f? igwrif
jyefMunfhwm? eifupm;r,fqkdwm igodw,f}}[kajym\/
þwGif uREkfyf\pdwfxJü b,fuJUodkUjzpfoGm;onfrod? a&mufvkH;a&m?
avwHcGefyg aygufcJGypfvdkufNyD; xdkaeUrSpí avwHcGefrvTwfawmhacs/
okdUaomf taumif;r[kwf? zciftay:wGif tvGefU tvGefrauseyfaompdwf
jzpfay:vmonf/ awmfvSefcsifaompdwfrsKd;um; r[kwf? xGufajy;csifaom
pdwfjzpfvmcJUonf/ uREkfyf\rdcifonf zcif\apwem vGefuJjcif;udk
em;vnfí uREkfyftm; &Hzef&Hcgupm;cGifhay;zdkUajym&m wcgw&HwGif rdciftm;
rjiif;vdkonfESifh cGifhjyKjcif;rsm;&Sdyg\/ okdU&mwGif trsm;tm;jzifhrlum;
NidrfNidrf xdkifaeNyD; pmtHjcif;onf vlwdkif;tzdkU (uav;oli,frsm;rusef)
taumif;qkH;jzpfonf[k wxpfcs rSwf,lxm;avonf/

upm;rkef;aomzcif

uREkfyfwkdUaexdkifvsuf&Sdaom *kHwef;&yfaq;&dk;0if;xJwGif uREkfyfESifh


&G,fwlcsif;jzpfonfh a,musfm;uav;rsm;ESifh rdef;uav;rsm; ig;a,muf
ajcmufa,muf&Sd&m rdef;uav;ESpfa,muf okH;a,mufwkdUrSm zcifu

95 
(avmuDrIa&;&mESifhywfoufí) q&mwqluJUodkU tav;jyKaom
yk*K¾d vfBuD;wOD;\ orD;rsm;jzpfMu\/ vomaomnOfhrsm;wGif uREkfyfwkdU
a,musfm;uav;? rdef;uav;rsm;onf (q,fhokH;av;ESpft&G,frsm;jzpfMuí)
xkyfqD;wrf;? zefwdkUwrf;? zefckefwrf;ponfh xkdacwfu upm;Muaom
enf;rsm;twdkif;upm;Mu\/ tvGefvnf; aysmfMu\/ uREkfyfonf ausmif;pm
rsm;udk usufNyD;aomtcg4if;wkdUESifhtwl upm;csifvS\/ okdU&mwGif zcif\
upm;rkef;aom 0goemaMumifh &Hzef&HcgrQom upm;cGifh&\/ xdkuJUodkU
tcGifh&jcif;onfyifvQif rdcif\tultnDaMumifhjzpf\/ wcgw&HwGif
upm;cGifhjyKxm;ojzifh upm;aecdkuftwGif;rSmyif {nfhonfwa,mufa,muf
a&mufvmí (Nrdwfq&mawmfoifMum;xm;cJUonfh) ]vlb,fhES,fa&;yghr,f}?
]bmudkvlac:ovJ} tp&Sdaom ar;cGef;rsm;jzifh tar;tjzjyKvkyf&ef uREkfyftm;
ac:,lavh&Sdavonf/ zcifonf uREkfyfynmwwfjcif;udk vkdvm;&kHomru
ao;yJ wwfjcif;udkvnf; vlodatmifjycsifwwfonfh 0goem&Sdol
jzpfavonf/ ]vlb,fhES,fa&;yghr,f} tp&Sdaomtar;tajzrsm; rSm
i,f&G,fpOfu ]yJGus}cJUbl;aomfvnf; 7 wef; ausmif;om;wa,mufjzpf í
14-5ESpft&G,f&Sdaeaom uRekfyftzdkU&mü &Sufwwfwwf&Sdrdygawmhonf/
xdktxJwGif ]{nfhonfaMumifhayavm}[laomawG;awmrI 0ifvmwwfao;
onfjzpfí uREkfyftzdkU&mü vGefpGmyifrausreyfjzpfcJU&onf/ a,musfm;
uav; wa,mufjzpfonfh uREkfyftzdkUü þrQavmuf uwfuwfowfowf
usyfusyf wnf;wnf;qkH;ryJUjyifay;onfqkdygvQif uREkfyfxufokH;ESpfrQ
i,fonfh ESrwa,muftwGufrlum; ajymzG,f&m r&Sdawmhacs/ olUxufBuD;
onfh rdef;uav;rsm; aysmfaysmfBuD; upm;aeMujcif;udk udk,fhtdrfay:rS
jrif&jcif;? Mum;&jcif;rSwyg; a&maESmupm;cGifh&onfh tBudrfaygif;
tvGefenf;vS\/ tdrfüzcifr&SdyJ &yfa0;okdUoGm;aeonfh tcgrsKd;rSwyg;

96 
ESruav;rSm upm;cGifhr&SdaomaMumifh rdef;uav;b0wGif 10 BudrfrQyif
upm;bl;&Smygav\avm[k uRekfyfwGufcsufoem;rdygonf/

yJGMunfhjcif;aMumifh i&JBuD;owJU

yJGvrf;obifESifhywfoufívnf; uREkfyfausmif;b0wGif wBudrfwcg


MunfjzLpGm Munfh&bl;onf[k rrSwfrdoavmuf&Sday&m ESruav;rlum;
wBudrfrQyif rMunfh&Sm&bl;aMumif; uREkfyfaumif;aumif;od\/ zcifudk,f
uvnf; 4if;\orD;onf wBudrfwcgrQ yGJvrf;obifrsm;odkU oGm;&bl;
jcif;r&Sdonfudk tom;,lí ajymavh&Sd\/ zcifonf e*dkuwnf;u aw;*Dw
qdktuESifh uAsmrsm;udk &omcHwwfaom ]em;}  (Musical  Ear)  yg&Sdol
r[kwf&onfhtxJwGif þtvkyfrsKd;onftyg,fodkU vm;apwwfonf[k
rd&dk;zvm tpOftvmt& ,lqvmcJUoljzpf\/ rdcifurl eef;wGif;oljzpfí
oDaygbk&if vufxufü nOfhpOfnOfhwdkif; yGJMunfhcJU&bl;onfhjyif
]*Dwem;}rsKd;vnf; &Sdoljzpfí 4if;wkdUESpfOD; nm;cgptcsdefu yJGMunfhoifh
roifhudpötwGuf wusufusufjzpfcJUMuonfqdk \/ okdU&mwGifzcifu
avQmhay;&onfomrsm;cJU\/ aemufydkif;ürl Nrdwfq&mawmf\usifhpOft&
vdkufemusifhBuHMu&mwGif rdcifonf yJGMunfhjcif;aMumifh i&JBuD;onf[k
r,lq aomfvnf; w&m;tvkyfESifh qefUusifbufjzpfonfqkdum
vkH;0]yJG}jzwfvkdufavawmhonf/ uREkfyfwdkU armifESr\ uHqdk;jcif;rSm
xdktcsdefwGifrSvlvm;ajrmuf vmMu&jcif;yifjzpfonf/ uREkfyftzdkUrSm
yJGvrf;obifrsm;udkwBudrfwcgrQ MunfjzLpGmrMunfh&[k txufwGif
a&;om;cJU&m ]MunfjzLpGm} [laom pum;vkH;udk wrifwum okH;EIef;

97 
vkdufjcif;jzpf\/ t"dyÜg,frSm rdbrsm;\ cGifhjyKcsuft& rMunfh&bl;
aomfvnf; wdwfwdwfckd;MunfhaomtBudrfrsm;rl um;tenf;i,f&Sdygonf/

yGJckd;Munfh&jcif;

yJGcdk;MunfhrIESifhywfoufí uREkfyft&dkufcH&ykHudk rSwfrdygao;\/


uRekfyfwkdU\ aetdrfwGif rdbrsm;onf txufxyfütdyfí uREkfyfESifh
armifykrSm atmufxyfwGif tdyfM u\/ (armifykrSm 4if;\rdcifzcifwkdU
uG,fvGefNyDjzpfí uREkfyfwdkUESifh twlae\/) tjcm;tvkyform; ESpfa,muf?
okH;a,mufwkdUvnf; atmufxyfwGiftdyfMu\/ wnOFhoü uREkfyfwdkUaetdrf
ESifh ESpfjyjcm;aom &yfuGufwGif q&mykESifh udkbausmhwkdU\ &kyfao;yJGcHav&m
uREkfyfwkdUnDtpfudkESifh tvkyform;rsm;onf naeapmif;u wnf;u
xdknwGifyJGMunfhMuzdkU wkdifyifxm;Mu\/ (zcif\0g'rSm udk,fhtdrfü
udk,faeaom tvkyform;rsm;tm; csKyfcs,fjcif;r&Sdaomfvnf; uREkfyfwkdUtdrfü
aeaom tvkyform;rsm;tm;rl olUqE´twkdif;vdkufemapvdk\/ twlae
tvkyform;rsm;onf zcif\oabmudk odM uonfESifh yJGMunfhzdkU
cGifhrawmif;0HUMuacs/) xdknOfhü txufxyfwGif zcifwkdUtdyfMuonfESifh
wNydKifeuf uRekfyfwkdUnDtpfudkESifh tvkyform; okH;a,mufwkdUonf
zdeyfu&d,mrsm;jzpfonfh ckH?om;a&? oJBudK;? z0g;paom ypönf;rsm;udk
tdyf&mrsm;ay:wGif pD;cif;xm;í tay:,Hü apmifNcKHay;NyD;vQif q&myk\
&kyfao;yJGokdUoGm;Muav\/ q&mykESifhudkbausmhwdkUuvnf; em;0ifqdrfh
avmufatmif aumif;Muygayonf/ udkbausmhonf q&mykESifhcGJcGmí
pifNydKif axmifrnfh tBuH&Sdonfudkq&myku &dyfrdí ]]ausmhazvif?
raewrifoGm;? tarvifrsm;&acstkH;awmhr,f}}[laom aw;csif;jzifh rif;om;

98 
udkbausmhtm; ]cJeJU}av&m y&dowfuvnf;vufckywf wajzmif;ajzmif;
jzifhMobmay;Muavonf/ ,if;odkUem;axmif&ojzifh yDwdjzpf
&onfhtxJüyiftdrfudk owd&í &ifxJü aEG;ueJjzpfrdao;&m armifykuvnf;
wkdUtwl jzpf&onf[k ajymbl;onf/ rif;om; rif;orD; ]ESpfyg;oGm;}NyD;í
idkcsif;wyk'favmuf em;axmifNyD;aomtcg 2 em&Dausmf ausmfcefU&SdNyDjzpfí
tdrfodkUjyefNyD; tdyfrnfjyKMu&mwGif tdyf&mae&mrsm;rSm xm;cJUonfhtwdkif;
&Sdaejcif;udk awGU&ípdwfcsvufcs tdyfvkdufMuav\/

tvdrfrdjcif;

]]&TD;? &Trf;? AsKH;? Asif;}}[laom toHrsm;Mum;&jcif;ESifhtwl ajcovkH;? aygif?


ausm ponfwkdUrS pyfzsOf;zsOf;a0'emrsm;cHpm;&í tvl;vl;tvJvJESifh
ysm,D;ysm,m xvdkufMu&mwGif armifykESifhuREkfyftm; ]*syfvSefwkwf}ESifh
&dkufaeaom zcifudkjrifMu&\/ (]*syfvSefwkwf}[lonfrSm pufcsKyfxm;aom
ouúvyfoJBudK;udk twGif;tjyif vSef&eftwGuf jyKvkyfxm;onfh
vufeufud&d,m wckjzpf&m tvsm;wawmifomom&Sdonfh cRefxufaom
0g;jcrf;wckjzpfonf/ 4if;rSm &ifhrmaom 0g;udkacsmarGUatmif"m;jzifh
oyfxm;jcif;jzpf&m rnfrQavmuf&ifhí rnfrQavmufrmaom 0g;jzpfonfudk
armifykESifh uREkfyftodqkH;jzpfonf/ zcifonf BudrfrokH;yJ 4if;wkwfudk
tNrJokH;avh&Sd\/) jzpf[efvu©Pm&SdonfrSm uREkfyfwkdUonf yGJrSjyefvmMu
aomtcg tawmfnOfheufNyDjzpfí tcgwkdif;uJUodkU apmapmrxEdkifMuyJH
tdyfaysmfvsuf&SdMuonfü zcifu &dkufEId;jcif;jzpfonf[k xifaeMu\/
okdU&mwGif xdkokdUum; ruao; nOfhuwnf;u zcifatmufodkUqif;vmí

99 
zkH;xm;aomapmifrsm;udk vSefMunfh&mwGif uREkfyfwdkUudkrawGUyJ zdeyfud&d,m
rsm; pDcif;xm;jcif;udkawGUoGm;cJUavNyD/

awGUu& &dkufcsifwwfonf

uREkfyfwkdUpDrHxm;cJUaom apmifrsm;ESifh tdyf&mrsm;udkzcifawGU&aomtcgu


&,fcsifavoavmrajymwwf? eHeufcif;ü uREkfyfESifh armifykudk &dkufaeaom
tcgürlum; &,fcsifonfh rsufESmxm;rsKd;vkH;0rawGU&yJ tvGefpdwfqdk;[efESifh
&Iwif;um ememBuD;&dkufaejcif;udkom awGU&\/ uREkfyfESifharmifykwkdUrSm
emjcif;ESifh xdwfvefUjcif;wdkU rnfonfhbufu tav;csdefomaeonf[k
rajymEdkifyJ wkwfusaomae&mrsm;okdU vufjzifhyGwf,if; ]w&TD;&TD; w&TJ&TJ}atmf
aeMupOf uREkfyfwdkUESifh yJGtwlwlMunfhaom tvkyform;wa,mufonf
uREkfyfudkcifrifí oem;aomaMumifhayavm? okdUwnf;r[kwf yJGtwlwl
Munfhrdjcif;aMumifh olüvnf; pdwfraumif;jzpf&aomaMumifhayavm?
okdUwnf;r[kwfq&m\ om;wa,muft&dkufcH&onfü zsefajzzdkU wm0ef
&Sdonf [k,lqaomaMumifhayavm rajymwwf/ uREkfyf\a&SUodkU ajy;0ifum
uREkfyftm; tumtuG,fay;vsuf ]]uRefawmfhudk&dkufyg q&mcifAsm;?
uRefawmfhudk&dkufygcifAsm;}}[kqdkum ausmudkukef;í ay;av\/ þwGif
uREkfyf\zcifonf rnfokdUjyKonfxifMuoenf;/ uREkfyfESifh armifykudk
vkH;vkH; vTwfxm;cJUí xdktvkyform;udkcsnf; oJoJrJrJ &dkufavawmhonf/
þwGif rdcifonf ]]udk&ifb,fhES,fvkyfwmwkef; udk&if}}[k owday;umrS
4if;tvkyform;rSm oufom&m &avawmhonf/ odkUESifhvnf; q,fhav;ig;
csufxufrenf; t&dkufcH&NyD;&SmavNyD/ xdktvkyform;twGufaMumifh

100 
uREkfyfwkdUrSm oufom&m&aomfvnf; 4if;tvkyform;tay:ü zcif\jyKrlykH
onf uREkfyf\ESvkH;om;wGiftrSwfB uD;wck xifaecJUavonf/

yxrOD; &nf;pm;pmay;jcif;

uREkfyf 7 wef;ü&SdpOf uREkfyf\ESvkH;om;wGif rysufEdkifaom 'kwd,trSwfwck


jzpf&ykHudkvnf; azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/ 7 wef;pmar;yJG 0ifcgeD; tcsdefwGif
uREkfyfrSm touf 15 ESpft&G,f &SdcJUNyDjzpf&m aemfref ausmif;oluav;
wa,mufESifh pmay;pm,l vkyfcJUrd\/ rdef;uav;rSm uREkfyfESifhxkyfqD;wrf;
upm;bufwa,mufjzpfí ta&mw0if ac:iifqufqHvsuf&SdMu&mwGif
tvkyform;rsm;u uREkfyftm; ajrSmufay;MuonfESifh pmwapmifay;bl;\/
pmxJwGif bmrQa&;xnfhwwfonfr[kwf/ tvkyform;wa,mufu
a&;pyfay;onfh aw;xyfwyk'fudk ul;a&;í ay;vkdufjcif;omjzpf\/
rdef;uav;xHrSvnf; 4if;enf;wl aw;xyfwyk'fudk jyefbl;avonf/
xdktcsdefwGif uREkfyfwkdUt&yfxJü uREkfyfxuftwef;i,faomfvnf;
toufokH;ESpfcefUBuD;aom ausmif;aebufwa,mufESifh uREkfyfrSmrcGJEdkif?
rcGmEdkifatmif cspfcifvsuf&Sd&m wa,muftaMumif;udk wa,muftm;
ajymrdMu\/ þwGifolUüvnf;aemfrefausmif;olwa,mufESifh cspfBudKufae
aMumif; uREkfyfod&\/ uREkfyfem;vnfoavmufrSm olwkdU\cspfjcif;onf
tysKdvlysKdcspfjcif;jzpf[ef&Sdí uREkfyf\tcspfa&;um; aw;xyfwyk'fpD
tjyeftvSef ay;Mubl;jcif;rQom jzpfojzifh pdwfxJüxdcdkufvS
onfhr[kwfvSacs/ (uREkfyfrSm xdktcsdefu ]BuD;aumif0if} onf[kac:Muonfh
t&G,fa&mufaom txdrf;trSwfyif rjyao;aMumif; rSwfrd\/) odkU&mwGif
&nf;pm;udk,fpDESifh vlvm;ajrmufvsuf &SdNyD[la omtxifudk uREkfyfoabm

101 
usvSí 4if;oli,fcsif;ESifh udk,fh]rsm}taMumif; udk,fajym&jcif;udk
Nrdef&SufvSonf/ ol\&nf;pm;ESifh uREkfyf\ rdef;uav;rSm aemfrefausmif;ol
csnf;jzpfMuí uREkfyfwkdUonf twlwuG ausmif;ajy;NyD; ydk;yef;Mu&ef
oabmwlMuav\/

tazmfaumif;vQifygwwfjcif;

,cktcsdefrSjyefí MunfhaomfxdkpOfu pdwfxm;onfvnf;aumif;? tBuH


tpnfonfvnf;aumif;? cspfBudKufygonfqdkaom arwÅmpdwf (vdifpdwf
"mwf) onfvnf;aumif; ,kwÅdywÅdr&Sd/ bmavmufrQvnf; eufeJBuD;us,f
onf r[kwfacs/ okdU&mwGif xdkpOfu uREkkfyf\pdwftxif rSmrl uRekfyf\
ESvkH;om;wGif tcspfa&m*gBuD; pJGuyfaeNyDjzpfaomaMumifh waeUrjrif&vQif
ao&awmhravmuftxifa&mufvsuf&Sd\/ okdUjzpfí uREkfyfwkdUoli,fcsif;
ESpfa,mufonf pmtkyfuav;rsm; udk,fpDESifh tdrfrSxGuf vmMuí
aemfrefausmif;bufqDodkU csKd;um a&TusD;jrifhbk&m;qDodkU okwfMuav\/
uREkfyfrSm ausmif;rajy;yJ twefMum aecJUNyD;onfhaemuf tvG,fwulESifh
ausmif;ajy;rdjcif;rSm tjrpfrjywfcJUonfh ]a&m*ga[mif;} jyefíxjcif;yif
jzpfwef&monf/ uREkfyf\ nHUzsif;csufwckrSmvnf; wu,fcifrifol
wa,mufu raumif;rIudkjzpfap? aumif;rIudkjzpfap uREkfyfwa,mufwnf;
jyKvkyfzdkU wdkufwGef;í r&aomfvnf; wkdufwGef;oluygjyKvkyfrnfqdkvQif
bmrqdkvdkufí vkyfcsifwwf? vkyfrdwwfjcif;yifjzpfavonf/ þrQavmuf
tazmfcifrifwwfolwa,muf tzdkUü wu,fhvl,kwfrmrsm;ESifh cifcifrifrif
jzpfzdkU tcGifhr&cJUjcif;rSm uREkfyf\ uHaumif;jcif;wck[lí qdk&ayrnf/

102 
cspfrScspfygavp

uRekfyfwdkUESpfa,mufonf a&TusD;jrifhbk&m;odkU a&mufMuaomtcg aemfref


ausmif; rwufao;ojzifh ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;onf ausmif;0if;BuD;
twGif; þwpk xkdwpk &SdaeMuav&m a&TusD;jrifhbk&m;ESifh aemfrefausmif;rSm
ausmufvrf;rQom jcm;vsuf&SdonfwGif uREkfyfwkdUESpfa,mufonf bk&m;
tkwfwHwdkif;ay:odkU wufum uREkfyfwkdU\ rdef;uav;rsm; jrifatmif
rsufESmjyvdkufMu\/ rdef;uav;rsm;onf uREkfyfwkdU vmMurnf[lí rodMu
aomaMumifh jrifMuaomtcgü tHUMoMuykH &aomfvnf; 0rf;ajrmuf
0rf;omjzpfMuonfh vu©Pmr&Sdacs/ uREkfyfonf 4if;wdkU\trlt&mudk
rauseyfonfESifh oli,fcsif;tm; ajymaomtcg oli,fcsif;u ]]ighvl&m?
olwkdUrSmvJ ausmif;ol ausmif;om;awG&Sdw,fuG? 0rf;omtm;& rsufESmxm;
rsKd;jyvdkufvdkU &dyfrdoGm;vQif &Sufp&mBuD; jzpfaerSmaygh}}[k ajymjyojzifh
auseyfvkduf&avonf/ ausmif;wufoGm; onfhaemuf uREkfyfwdkUonf
a&TusD;jrifhbk&m;0if;twGif;&SdZ&yfrsm;? wefaqmif; rsm;odkU vSnfhvnfMunfh&I
jcif;? ckHwef;vsm;&SnfBuD;rsm;ay:ü yufvufvSefum pdwful;,Ofjcif;?
wa&;warm tdyfjcif;jzifh tcsdefjzKef;Mu&\/ rGef;wnfhcgeD;wGif aemfref
ausmif;odkU aps;a&mif;&efvmMuaom rkefUonfrsm;xHrS ukvm;yJokyf
wjym;zdk;ESifh b&maMumf wjym;zdk;pD 0,fpm;Mu\/ (uREkfyfrSm 7 wef;odkU
a&mufonftxd rkefUzdk;ESpfjym;om&í 8 wef;a&mufrS wyJ&avonf/)
tm;vyfcsdefay;í ausmif;om;rsm; qif;vmMuaomtcgwGif oli,fcsif;onf
bk&m;wHwdkif;ay:odkUwufí rsufESm jyjyefav&m uREkfyfrlum; &SufonfESifh
wHwdkif;ay:okdUrwufyJ ukyfíaeawmhonf/ þwBudrfausmif;ajy;jcif;ESifh

103 
ywfoufí uREkfyf\pdwfxJütrSwfw& usef&pfcJUaom tjcif;t&m
wckudkaemifwGifrS wifjyygOD;rnf/

refusnf;oD;pm;enf;wrsKd;

12 em&Drxdk;rDu 2jym;zdk;0,fpm;xm;Muonfhb&maMumfESifh ukvm;yJokyfwdkU


rSmokH;em&Dxdk;aomtcgü 0rf;xJwGif nufnufaMuMuonfh vu©PmESifh
qmavmifrGwfodyfvsuf &SdMuavNyD/ ausmif;wufaomaeUrsm;wGifvnf;
þenf;twl 2jym;zdk;rQompm;&ygvsuf þrQavmufrqmvS? xdkaeUürl
tNidrfraeMuyJ [dkavQmufonfavQmuf? [dkckefonfvTm; vkyfMuonfhtwGuf
aMumifh tdrfrSpm;cJUaom xrif;a&m? b&maMumfESifh ukvm;yJokyfwkdUyg
aphaphnufnufaMuukefMuonfESifh ][yfwyfpGJ}qdk&ravmuf raeEdkif
rxdkifEdkif&yfwnf&mr&atmif qmavmifrGwfodyfvsuf&SdMuavNyD/ ydkufqH
vnf;wjym;rS rusefawmhacs/ þwGifuREkfyfwkdUonf refusnf;yif
ay:odkUwufí refusnf;oD; (r'efoD;)rsm;cl;Mu&m cg;ydkufwvkH; pD&cJUí
qif;vmMu\/ wHwdkif;udkrSDvsuf pm;Murnf jyifaomtcg wawmifhrQpD
pm;NyD;onfhaemuf qm;rygojzifh rpm;EdkifyJ jzpfaeMu\/ teD;tyg;ü
tdrfrsm;&Sdaomfvnf; todr[kwfaomaMumifh rawmif;0HUMuacs/ xdktcg
oli,fcsif;u ]]aetkH;uG}}[kqdkum olaomufNyD;íypfxm;aom uGrf;oD;zuf
aq;vdyfESpfwkdESifh refusnf;udkif;tajcmufrsm;udkvdkufí aumufNyD;aemuf
pkykHírD;&IdUav\/ aemufqkH;ü rD;Nidrf;íjymykHuav; usef&pf&mwGif
olonfcg;ydkufxJrS refusnf;oD;rsm;udkxkwfíjymESifh wdkUpm;,if; uREkfyftm;
acgif;ndwfac:avonf/ uREkfyfonf olvkyfovdkvkyfí jrnf;Munfh&m?
qm;ESifhwkdUpm;&jcif;xufyif aumif;ao;í cyfcsKdcsKdt&omwrsKd; 0ifvmonf

104 
[kyif xifrd\/ rnfodkUyifjzpfap? uREkfyfwkdUonf refusnf;oD;wcg;ydkufpDudk
þenf;jzifh cRwfvkdufM uí rGwfodyfjcif; ajyaysmufMuavNyD/

tajcmufwdkufyDwdjzpfykH

ausmif;qif;csdefwkdif a&mufaomtcg uREkfyfwkdU\ rdef;uav;ESpfa,mufonf


ausmif;xJrS twlwGJum xGufvmMuí tdrfbufodkU jyefMupOf aemufodkU
rMumrMum vSnfhMunfhMu\/ odkU&mwGifuREkfyfwkdUurl tjcm;ausmif;ol
ausmif;om;rsm; jrifMurnfpdk;onfESifh cyfvSrf;vSrf;rSyifvdkufvmMuí
ausmif;ESifh tawmfBuD; a0;aomtcgrS csOf;uyfMuavonf/ a&SUavQmufürl
olwkdUrdef;uav;ESpfa,mufuwwGJ? uRekfyfwkdUa,musmf;uav;ESpfa,mufu
wwGJ awmifa&mufajrmufa&muf axG&mav;yg;pum;rsKd;awGudkajym,if;
avQmufvmMuavonf/ þrQavmufqdkvQifbmrsm; rufarmavmufp&m
&Sdygoenf;/ uREkfyf\rdef;uav;u ]]a[harmifazodef; rifhtdrfu odoGm;,if
t&dkufcHae&r,faemf? rif;wkdUtazBuD;u &dkufwwfygbdoeJU}}[laom
pum;wvkH;onfomvQif udk,fa&;udk,fwmyg&Sdav&m? usefaompum;rsm;rSm
awmifpOfa&r& tv[ópum;rsKd;om jzpfavonf/ okdUESifhvnf;uREkfyfrSm
xdkpOfu yDwdtBuD;tus,fjzpfcJU&avonf/ (xdkpOfu yDwdjzpfrdjcif;udk
aumif;aumif;BuD;rSwfrdíom a&;vkduf&onf/) rjzpfpavmuf uav;
twGuf yDwdjzpfcUJ&aomfvnf; cHp&m&Sdaomtcgü epfepfememcHvdkuf& ykHudk
azmfjy&ygOD;rnf/

105 
owif;aygufMum;avNyD

uREkfyftdrfodkU jyefa&mufaomtcg zcifa&m rdcifyg rsufESmxm;wrsKd;


jzpfaeMujcif;udkjrifvkduf&ojzifh &ifxJü 'dwfueJjzpfoGm;\/ igvkyforQawG
udkodoGm;ukefavNyD[k &dyfrdaomfvnf; b,frQavmuf odMuonf?
b,fuJUodkU odxm;Muonf qdkjcif;udkrlum; csufcsif; uREkfyfrod&ao;/
aemifwGifrS od&jcif;jzpfonf/ rdzrsm;odMuykHum; þokdUwnf;/
uREkfyfausmif;onfqdkvQif rMumrwif rdbrsm;odapzdkUzefwD;wwfonfh
xkH;pHtwkdif; zcifonfausmif;odkU 0ifrMunfhonfrSm MumvSNyDjzpfygvsuf
xdkaeUwGifrS (bmowif;Mum;&onfrod) 7wef;ausmif;cef;odkU 0ifMunfh&m?
uREkfyfausmif;ajy;aMumif;od&í tdrfodkUjyefvmNyD;vQif uREkfyftaMumif;udk
pkHprf;av\/ þwGifrdbrsm;Mum;od&onfrSmum; uREkfyfonf aemfrefausmif;
oluav;wa,mufESifh pmay;pm,lvkyfaeaMumif; (pifppfrSmaw;xyf
wyk'fpDomay;Mubl;ygonf/) xdkrdef;uav;onf uREkfyfudk cspfBudKufonf
r[kwf? uRekfyfESifhtwl ausmif;ajy;aomoli,fcsif;ESifh orD;&nf;pm;
jzpfaMumif;? 4if;wkdUESpfa,mufvkH;onf uRefkyfudk tumtuG,f,lNyD;
BudKufaeMuí uREkfyftm;]vSrfh}xm;Mujcif;jzpfaMumif; ponfrsm;jzifh
owif;&&Sdxm;Mu\/ 4if;owif;twkdif; [kwfr[kwfudkrl uREkfyf,aeUwdkif
rajymEdkifyJ &Sdygawmhonf/

106 
t&SufBuD;uJG&jcif;

uREkfyfonf rdbrsm;\rsufESmxm; r[efjcif;udk jrif&í &ifzdkvIdufvsuf


tdrfay:odkUwufNyD;vQif pmtkyfuav;rsm;udk pm;ayJay:okdUypfwifqJwGif
rdcifa&m zcifygvdkufvmMuí uRekfyf\t0wftpm;rsm;udkqJGcRwfMuav\/
uREkfyfuNidrf0yfpGmrcHyJ &kef;uefonfwGif tvkyform; 2a,mu 3a,muf
wkdUudkac:í 4if;wkdUtultnDjzifh uREkfyftuFsDrsm; a&mvkHcsnfrsm;udk yg
wudk,fvkH; wkH;vkH;cRwfMu\/ xdkUaemufuREkfyftm; tdrfay:xyfrS atmufokdU
qGJcsvmMuí tdrfa&SUokdU qGJac:Mu\/ uREkfyfwkdU\tdrfaU&SUü a&wGif;&Sdav&m
wkH;vkH;jzpfaeaom uREkfyftm; a&wGif;wdkifü wkyfcsnfxm;Muav\/
þenf;jzifh em&D0ufcefU (uREkfyf\txifrSm wESpfavmufMuonf/)
wkH;vkH;ypfxm;av&m? t&yfxJrS uav;vlB uD;rsm;onf cyfvSrf;vSrf;rS
Munfhí NyKH;Mu&,fMuavonf/ tvGef&Sufvsuf&Sdaom uREkfyfurl
cyfeD;eD;csOf;uyfí Munfhaomvlrsm;udk qJí vTwfrdygonf/ csnfwkyfxm;
&mrS BudK;ajzNyD; t0wfrsm;0wf&aomtcgwGif qHyifnSyf ukvm;wa,muf
udkac:í uREkfyf\ AkdvfauudkjzwfNyD; acgif;wkH;&dwfapygonf/

EkHjcif;onf vdrfrmjcif;r[kwf

uREkfyfonf uREkfyf\rdkufrJjcif;udk usyfjynfhwif;jynfh0efcHygonf/ okdU&mwGif


uREkfyf\tjypfrSmrdbtm; rav;rpm;jyKjcif;vnf;r[kwf? apmfum;armfum;
ajymrdjcif;vnf;r[kwf? r&dkraojyKjcif;vnf;r[kwf/ &l;rdkufrdjcif;oufouf
rQomjzpfygonf/ þrQavmufaomjypfcsufESifh þrQavmufpdwfudkxdcdkuf

107 
atmif'Pfay;qkH;rjcif;rSmrsm;vGef;onf[k xifygonf/ uREkfyf\rdbrsm;
em;rvnf&SmMuaom tcsufrSmom;orD;udk t&SufcJGaomenf;jzifh qkH;rjcif;
onf aumif;onf? vdrfrmaponf? aemifMuOfonf[kxifrSwf&SmMujcif;yif
jzpfonf/ ]aemiffMuOfonf} qdkjcif;um; [kwfavrnfavmrqdkEdkif? cH&aom
om;orD;\pdwfudk EkH&SmoGm;apjcif;udkrlum; cH&bl;aom uREkfyfodygonf/
vl[lonfrSmolUt&G,fuav;ESifhol olUukd,fudk,fudkav;pm;rI  (self­respect) 
&SdMu&rnf? &Sdatmif BudK;pm;Mu&rnfjzpf&m? rdbrsm;\qkH;rykH rlum;
uREkfyf\pdwfudktnGefUcsKd;vdkufbdouJUodkUjzpfoGm;ygawmhonf/
uREkfyfonft&yfxJüvnf;aumif;? ausmif;üvnf;aumif; (ausmif;okdUvnf;
owif;aygufMum;onf/) uav;vlBuD;rsm;\rsufESmudk &J&JrMunfh0HUatmif
jzpf&ygonf/ (uREkfyfwGif oufom&m&apaom tcsufwckrSm 15ESpfom;
qkdaomfvnf; BuD;xGm;rIaemufusí BuD;aumifr0ifao;jcif;yifjzpfonf/
okdUr[kwfygu 4if;'Pfwacsmif;ay:aygufvm&kHrQru? EkHaompdwf"mwf 
(Inferiority  Complex)  0ifvmjcif;udkvnf;owdjyKrday&m? BuD;jyif;vmaom
tcgwGif taemufwdkif;rS pmaumif;ayaumif;BuD;rsm;udkzwf &Iumqifjcif
okH;oyfcGifh&aomtcgrS tawmftwef avsmhyg;oGm;onf[k xifrdygonf/
em;rvnf&SmMuíapwemaumif;ESifh (vdrfrmatmif) qkH;rMu aom obm0
udk awGU&onfhtcgwkdif; txufygtjzpftysufudkowd&í ]ig\uHraumif;
jcif;aywnf;}[k atmif;arhrdygawmhonf/

&Sufwwfí omqdk;onf

aemfrefausmif;oluav;ESifh ywfoufí rdbrsm;\ xifjrifcsufonf [kwf


r[kwf? rSef rrSef udkvnf;uREkfyfpkHprf;&ef rvdkr&Sdawmh? rdbrsm;u rdrdwkdU

108 
om;udk þrQavmuf tonf;EkHonf[k txifa&mufMujcif;onfyifvQif
udk,fhudk,fudk&SufvSí xkdrdef;uav;udk b,ftcgrS vSrf;rMunfhawmhyg/
wvcefUtwGif;ü uREkfyfonf tdrfeD;csif; t&yfolt&yfom;uav;rsm;ESifh
vnf; rupm;? vlolav;yg;jrifatmifyif rxdkifawmh? ausmif;oGm;
ausmif;jyefrsm;wGif ajrBuD;odkUikHUum rsufESmudkatmufcsufvsuf ajcukef
okwfíoGm;ygonf/ wu,fht&G,f ra&mufao;oljzpfí &SufaMumuf
aompdwfonf Mum&SnfpGmrjzpfyJ wvausmfcefU&Sdaomtcg oufom&m&í
aysmufrwwf&Sdaomfvnf; udk,fhudk,fudk EkHonfxifaom pdwfrlum;
þrQavmuf azsmufzsufzdkU rvG,fulojzifh toufav;ig;q,ft&G,fwdkif
atmif tpGef;xifvsuf&Sdygawmhonf/ xdktcsdefrSpí uREkfyfrSm tenf;i,f
pum;xpfcJU&mrS udkd,fhudk,fudk ydkíowdjyKrdonfhtwGuf  (More 

Selfconscious)  ydkíqdk;vmygonf/

a&S;OD;pGmpum;xpfjcif; ul;pufcJUykH taMumif;udk txufwGif azmfjycJUbl;&m


uREkfyfrSm e*dkuwnf;u tjcm;vlrsm;xuf udk,fhudk,fudk vSnfhMunfhrd
wwfaom tavhtusifh&Sdol jzpfí twlwl&,frdMujcif;jzpfygvsuf uREkfyf
wa,mufwnf;udkom ul;pufcJUjcif; jzpf[efwl\/ udk,fwkH;vkH;
jyvdkuf&onfhaemufürl omíqdk; vmonf[k uREkfyfowdjyKrdygonf/
(þudpörsKd;ü uREkfyftvGef&Sufwwfí a&csKd;cef;xJüyifa&vJydkif;ygrS
a&csKd;wwfoljzpf&m tbkd;BuD;tdkjzpfvmaomtcgrS oufom&m&awmhonf/
xdkUaMumifhvnf; rdbrsm;\'Pfay;jcif;onf uREkfyf\pdwfudkomí xdcdkuf
apcJUonf/

109 
yxrOD; rdwfaqGrsm;

4if;ESpf 7wef;pmar;yJGwGif rEÅav;NrdKU&Sdausmif;wkdif;yif tust&IH; rsm;Mu


aomfvnf; tar&duefausmif;rS paumvm;&Spf0ifzkdU a&G;cs,fxm;onfh
uREkfyfwkdUausmif;om;av;a,mufvkH;yif atmifjrifMuonf/ tcsKdUausmif;rsm;
ürl awmfvSygonfqdkí paumvm;&SpfoGif;zdkU a&G;cs,fxm;onfhausmif;om;
rsm;yif us&IH;Mu\/ xkdpOfu xkH;pHrSm 7wef;ausmif;om;rsm;onf
&dk;&dk;pmar;yGJudk ajzqdkatmifjrifNyD;rS paumvm;&Spfpmar;yGJwGif ajzqdk&í
4if;udk atmifjrifaomtcgwGif 8wef;ESifh 9wef;oif&eftwGuf wv
16usyf&\/ (16usyf[laom aiGrSmvnf; xkdpOfurenf;vS? ykvdyftrIxrf;
wa,muf\vcrSm 11usyf? 10yJrQom jzpfavonf/) uREkfyftzkdU&mürl
paumvm;&Spf pmar;yGJudkratmifjrifaomfvnf; 4if;pmar;yJGudk taMumif;jyKí
tvGefcspfcifMuifemaom twef;wloli,fcsif;okH;a,muf wNydKifwnf;
yxrtBudrf&&Sdjcif;aMumifh xl;jcm;aomESpfjzpfonf[k rSwfwrf;wif&onf/
at?bD?trf ausmif;odkUa&mufuwnf;u uREkfyfrSm cifrifaom oli,fcsif;
[lír&Sd? todrdwfaqGzGJUrnfholvnf;r&Sd twef;xJrSm a&m ausmif;xJüyg
]]waumif<uuf wrsufESm}}qdkovdk ukyfukyfuav; aecJU&onfjzpf&m
paumvm;&Spf pmar;yGJ 0ifcgeD;wGifrS ausmif;om;av;a,mufaygif;
pnf;vkH;rdMuí tvGefw&m cifrif&if;ESD;aom tjzpfodkU a&mufcJU&onf/
rdwfaqGwa,mufrQr&SdcJUbl;ojzifh b,folUtm;rQ rcspfcJU&aom uREkfyfrSm
wNydKifeufwnf; okH;OD;BuD;&aomtcgü aysmfvdkufykHrSm (wcgw&H
olwkdUtaMumif;awGudkpOf;pm;&jcif;aMumifh)tdyfraysmfEdkifatmif &Sdbl;ygonf/

110 
&wemykHqdkufaomESpf

8 wef;odkUwuf&aomESpf(1905ckESpf)onf uREkfyftzkdU&mü ausmif;om;b0


wGif ]]&wemykHqdkuf}}aomESpf[lí qdkoifh\/ tvGefcspfcifaom twef;om;
okH;a,mufwNydKifeufwnf; &&Sdonfhjyif[dlvl onfvlrsm;uvnf; ac:csif
ajymcsif&SdMuonf/ ausmif;okdUa&mufonfrSm 2 ESpfjynfhcJUNyDjzpfírkwfqdwfzGm;
BuD;ESifh ausmif;tkyfBuD;udkvnf; rvefUawmh/ rkd;xkd;onf[k xifcJUrdaom
]wm0g}tcRefBuD;udkvnf; aMumufp&mrxifawmh/ (ausmif;om;wa,mufESifh
wdwfwqdwf wufíyifMunfhNyD;cJUavNyD/) ausmif;om;jriforQonf
uREkfyfudk ]us,f}vdrfhrnf[lívnf; rpdk;&drfawmh/ þausmif;onf
igwkdUausmif; jzpfonf[k ydkifydkifEdkifEdkif oabmxdm;EdkifcJUavNyD/ uREkfyfonf
i,fpOfuwnf;u twdwfudkjyefajymif;owd&í vuf&SdtajctaeESifh
EIdif;,SOfMunfhwwfaom tavh&Sdolwa,mufjzpfav&m 8wef;odkUwuf&NyD;
onfhaemuf 6wef; ausmif;om;uav;tjzpfESifh a&S;OD;pGm ausmif;wuf&aom
eHeufudk owd&rdwkdif; awmifay:rS awmifajcokdU jyefMunfh&onfhES,f
tajctaeuGmjcm;ykHudk NyKH;rdygonf/

Mumavaumif;avjzpfvmjcif;

at?bD?trf ausmif;ü uREkfyfwkdU\ 7wef;q&mESifh 8wef;q&mwdkUrSm


tdrfeD;csif; jzpfMuonfhtavsmuf 8wef;odkU uREkfyfwkdU wufoGm;Muaom
tcg 8wef;q&monf twef;om;opfrsm;teuf rnfolrnf0gwkdU
awmfonfqdkjcif;udk odESifhNyD;avNyD/ xdkpOfu 7wef;q&mESifh 8wef;q&m
wkdUonf t*Fvdyfpmudktxl;tav;ay;Muolrsm;jzpfí uREkfyfwkdU paumvm;

111 
&SpfajzcJUolav;a,mufudk 8wef;q&mu tav;ay;NyD; zdíoifjy av&m
4if;wkdUteufwGif uREkfyfrSm t*FvdyfbmomawmfvsufESifh ausmif;ajy;wwf
aom aumifuav;[k odxm;onfESifh txl;wvnfzdí oifjyayonf/
xkdUaMumifh uREkfyfpmrusufvQifvnf; q&muodí pmusufvQifvnf;
wwef;vkH;odatmif aMumfjimay;ouJUokdU xif&Sm;aponf/ þwGif uREkfyfrSm
pmrBudK;pm;yJaeí rjzpfaom tajcodkU a&mufaeavawmhonf/
uREkfyftzdkU&mü aumif;jcif;w&yfyif/

ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;\ ]vufcsm}

uREkfyfrSm ausmif;oufwwavQmufvkH;wGif (udkxGef;vSwa,mufrSwyg;)


cifrif&if;EDS;olr&SdcJUbl;ojzifh 8wef;odkUa&mufcgrS okH;a,mufyl; wNydKifeuf
&&Sdjcif;twGuf yDwdjzpf&ykHudkrazmfjyyJ raeEdkifatmif &Sdygawmhonf/
uREkfyfwkdU av;a,mufteuf udkazqdkolrSm uREkfyfwkdUxufav;ESpfcefUBuD;í
usefESpfa,mufrSm uREkfyfESifh &G,fwlrsm;jzpfMu\/ pifppftm;jzifh udkazonf
acgifolBuD;jzpfxdkufaomfvnf; okH;a,mufvkH;onf uREkfyftm; tcspfqkH;
jzpfí uREkfyf\tqkH;tjzwfudk em,lMuonf/ uREkfyfum;udkxGef;vSuJUodkU
obm0acgif;aqmifwa,muf  (Born  Leader)  r[kwfygyJvsuf
arwÅmtavsmufwifajrSmufMujcif;jzpf&m uREkfyfurl txdkuftavsmuf
yg;&nfeyf&nf&SdonfESifh udkaz\tvdkudkMunfhí tqkH;tjzwf ay;wwf
avonf/ &G,fwlESpfa,mufteuf wa,mufrSm puf&Sifw&m;olBuD;
OD;&D;jzpfvmí tjcm;wa,mufrSm w&kwfujym;uav; pufacGqdkoljzpf\/
uREkfyfwkdUav;a,mufonf ausmif;rwufrD em&D0ufcefU apmapma&mufí
]tpnf;ta0;}xdkifjcif;? aeUvnftm;vyfcsdef wem&Dteuf em&D0ufcefU

112 
opfyif&dyfatmufwGif twlxdkifMujcif;jzifh rSefrSefBuD; tcsdefjzKef;Mu\/
4if;tpnf;ta0;rsm;üudkazonf &nf;pm;xm;jcif;tvkyfESifh ywfoufí
vufawGUrsm;vSolwa,mufjzpfonfhtavsmuf tNrJwrf; ]vufcsm}ay;avh
&Sd&m wcgw&HwGif tjcm;ausmif;om;uav;rsm;vnf; Mum;emMuí tcsKdU
ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;uvnf; rdrdwdkU\ tawGUtBuKHrsm;udk pGufzuf
ajymjyavh&SdMu\/ vufcsmq&mrsm;teuf udkzkd;0kdufqdkol\ vufcsmwyk'f
udk uREkfyfrSwfrdygao;onf/

vlacsm udkzdk;0dkuf

udkzdk;0dkufum; ausmif;om;b0rSpí uREkfyfawGUbl;orQ jrifbl;orQaom


a,musfm;rsm; (Zmwfrif;om; tygt0if) teufwGif tacsmqkH;? tvSqkH;
vlwa,mufjzpf\/ olESifh,SOfEdkifolrSm emrnfBuD;vSonfh rEÅav;NrdKUom;
]]abmif,maqmif'if armifBuD;}}wa,mufom &Sdonfxif\/ udkarmifBuD;
\acsmjcif;rSm rsufESmxm;csKdjcif;ESifh 0wfykHpm;ykH udk,faeudk,f[ef *dkufqdkuf
aumif;jcif;wkdUu taxmuftuljyKvsuf&Sd&m rsufESmoufoufudk Munfhrnf
qdkygrlum; udkzkd;0dkufudk rSDaoma,musfm;[lí uREkfyfwoufvkH;
rawGU&bl;acs/ tvGefMunfvifí tpOfNyHK;vsuf&Sdaom rsufvkH;rsm;?
xif&Sm;í jywfom;aom rsufckef;? &Snfvsm;í aumhvefvsuf&Sdaom
rsufawmifarG;rsm;? us,fjyefUnDnmaom r[mezl;? ajzmifhpif;aomESmwH?
jzLpifí nDnmaom oGm;rsm;? tpGef;ESpfbufütxufodkU ysHwufonf
xif&aomyg;pyf? cyfoG,foG,f&Sdaom rsufESm\tqkH;ü rcRef;vGef;
rjym;vGef;yJ taeawmf&kH&Sdonfh ar;aphwdkUjzifh wcsufjrifvkduf&vQif
aemufxyfí rMunfhyJ raeEdkifonfh ]tvefUwMum;} acsmvSaom rsufESmrsKd;

113 
&Sdoljzpf\/ txl;ojzifh rSwfrdavmufaom tjcif;t&monfum; ol\
tom;yifjzpf\/ jrefrmvlrsKd;onf tom;jzLESifh tom;0gwkdUteuf
tom;0gudkydkíESpfoufwwfMuonfjzpf&m udkzkd;0dkuf\ tom;0gykHrsKd;rSm
azsmhawmhaom 0gjcif;rsKd;r[kwf? &J&Jwif;wif; xdefxdefvif; vsuf
a&Ta&mif0if;onf[k xif&avmufaom 0gjcif;rsKd;jzpf&onfhtxJwGif
nufanmacsmarGUvdkufyKhuvnf; rnfolESifhrQrwl[k uREkfyfxifrdonf/
]]tuRrf;0if tqifajy}}[laom jrefrmpum;&Sday&m uREkfyfonf udkzdk;0dkufudk
cifrifaomaMumifh ol\&kyftqif;udk txifBuD;jcif;r[kwf? olESifh uREkfyfrSm
wwef;wnf;jzpf&bl;jcif;rwyg; t&G,fcsif;vnf;uGmí ae&yfcsif;vnf;
reD;aomaMumifh ESpfBudrfokH;BudrfrQom ac:bl;ajymbl;ygonf/ þrQavmuf
vSyacsmarmolwa,mufu uREkfyftm; wcgw&H ac:bl;jcif;twGufyif
]vlopfuav; wa,mufjzpfaom uREkfyftzdkUü 0rf;omrdjcif;udk rSwfrdygao;
onf/

rSwfom;avmufaom pkHprf;enf;

bk&m;&Sdckd;ausmif;\ awmifbufü&Sdaom BudKUyifatmufü ]jrmvufcsm}


ay;Muaomausmif;om;BuD;rsm;teufwGif udkzdk;0dkufESifh udkazwkdUonf
tajymifajrmufqkH;aom q&mBuD;rsm;jzpfMuonf[k uREkfyfrSwfrd\/ udkazrSm
txufcsif;wGif;e,f rif;uif;NrdKUom; wa,mufjzpfí aEG&moDausmif;(45)
&ufydwfwkdif; rdrd\XmaeokdU jyef&oljzpfav&m wESpfwacgufjyefwkdif;
&nf;pm;wa,mufxm;EdkifoljzpfonfESifh ol\vufcsmrsm;onf qifajymif;
qifuJGjzpfí pdwf0ifpm;zG,f aumif;vSayonf/ udkzdk;0dkufrlum;
rEÅav;om;jzpfí XmeDjyefumrS wESpfwa,mufr[kwf? &kyfuvnf;

114 
tvGefacsm? tajymuvnf; tvGefaumif;? oyfoyf&yf&yfESifh 0wfaumif;
pm;vS 0wfwwfolvnf; jzpfaomaMumifh (uREkfyf\cefUrSef;ajct&) wv
wa,mufavmuf awGUEdkifoljzpf[efwlayonf/ udkzkd;0dkuf\rSwfom;zG,f
aom ]vufcsm}rsm;teuf txl;ojzifh rSwfom;rdaom vufcsmwckrSm
csufcsif;awGU&aom rdef;uav;wa,mufonf rdrdtay:ü pdwf0ifpm;rI
&Sdr&Sdudk tuJcwfaom enf;taMumif;jzpf\/ (þtaMumif;udkrl uREkfyfrSwf
rdoavmuf ol\pum;twdkif;azmfjyygrnf/) ]]rif;wkdUyJGMunfhw,fqdkygawmh
uGm? udk,fhae&mrSm xdkifvdkufvQif xdkifvdkufcsif; udk,fhywf0ef;usifudk
vSrf;Munfhvdkuf&w,f? b,f]jrm}[m edyfovJqdkwm &SmMunhfvkduf?
awmfawmfuav;MumMumxdkifrdwJUtcgrSm udkf,foabmuswJU]jrm}[m udk,feJU
rsufvkH;csif; qdkifrdrqdkifrdudk tuJcwfEdkifvdrfhr,f? aumif;NyD? cPcP
wa,mufudkwa,muf vSrf;MunfhMuvdkU rsufvkH;csif; wdkufqdkifrdw,f
qdkygawmh? wxpfwufNyD; prf;MunfhvdkuftkH;? prf;ykHuawmh 'DvdkuG? rif;wdkU
xdkifwJUae&meJU ]jrm}xdkifwJUae&meJU wnfhwnfhBuD;jzpfaevdkU wa,mufeJU
wa,mufjrifEdkif&muaeNyD; rif;wdkUu eJeJav; a&TUxdkifvdkuf&r,f? 'DtcgrSm
rsufpdcsif; rwdkifqdkifEkdifyJ eJeJuG,foGm;w,f qdkygawmh? ]jrm}urif;udk
pdwf0ifpm;&dk;rSefvQif oludk,fwdkifu ae&ma&TUNyD; jyifxdkifvdrfhr,f?
'DvdkwcgESpfcgjyifxdkifw,fqdkvQifawmh aocsmaygufyJ? olUaemufuvdkuf?
olUt&yfwkdU aetdrfwkdUpkHprf;NyD; tqufom&Smayawmh? olUudk,fEIdufu
tqufvkyfay;wmrsKd;awmif BuKH&wwfw,f}}[kajymjyav onf/
udkzdk;0dkufrSm ]tvefUwMum;}acsmoljzpfí vlykHxJwGif xif;xif;BuD;
ay:aernfh vlwa,mufjzpfaomaMumifh (tjcm;vlrsm;tzdkU woufwcg
BuKH&rnfjzpfaomfvnf;) olUtzdkUrSm yJGwkdif;]pGH}avmufonf[k xifrdbl;
ygonf/

115 
]abmf'g}tvkyform;rsm;

8wef;ü&SdpOf uREkfyf\ tusifhqkd;rsm; uyfa&mufvmjcif;udk azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/


zcif\tvkyfrSm tawmfwkd;wufvmí zdeyfcsKyf tvkyform;aygif;
av;ig;q,f jzpfvmav&m rsm;aomtm;jzifh udk,fhtdrfrS udk,fcsKyfvkyfNyD;
vmydkUMuaomfvnf; wusdyfcefUwdkUrSmrl uREkfyf\tdrfücsKyfvkyfMuavonf/
4if;wkdUteufwGif ]z0g;xdk;}aom rdef;rtvkyform;rsm;vnf; &SdMuí
4if;wkdUtcsif;csif;cspfBudKufNyD; tdrfaxmifusolwdkUvnf; renf;vSay/
tvkyfvkyf&kHomru csufjyKwfpm;aomufNyD; tdrfütdyfMuaoma,mufsm;
rdef;rrsm;yif av;ig;a,muf &Sdwwfao;\/ vlysKdtvkyform; ESpfa,muf
cefUavmufrSmrl uREkfyfwkdUtdrfüabmf'gaeMuí vc av;usyfrQESifh
xrif;auR;&jcif;udkvnf; rSwfrdygao;onf/ xrif;vc av;usyf[lonfrSm
þacwfwGif vufzuf&nfMurf;zkd;yif r&SdaomaMumifh tHUzG,f&mwckjzpfae
ayvdrfhrnf/ tvkyform;wa,mufvQif 10-12 usyfrQom aeUwGuf
udkufMuí 15 usyf&aomtvkyform;onfvl&nfcRefwa,mufjzpf
vm&aom acwfjzpf\/ rnfodkUyifjzpfap av;usyf[laom xrif;zkd;onf
(uREkfyfwkdUpm;ovdk auR;&jcif;jzpfaomaMumifh) enf;vGef;vSaomfvnf;
4if;wkdU\vkyftm;ay:rS&aom tjrwfaMumifh auR;Edkifjcif;jzpf[efwlayonf/

a&S;acwftvkyform;rsm;\ tusifh

uREkfyfrSmtdfrfwGif tvkyform;rsm;ESifhtwl ]vufyGef;wwD;}ae&oljzpfonfh


tavsmuftvkyform;rsm;\ pdwfaeoabmxm;ESifh tavhtusifhrsm;onf

116 
wjznf;jznf; rodromul;pufvsuf&SdavNyD/ 4if;wkdUonf wa,mufudk
wa,muf ]ESyf}vdkaom pdwfxm;rsKd; tNrJ&SdMuí xlt.aomvlrsm;cHMu&
onfcsnf;jzpf\/ wOD;wa,muf\ 'ku©a&mufjcif;udk jrif&onfhtcg
tm;vkH;u aysmf&TifpGm&,farmwwfMuí xkduJUodkU 'ku©a&mufapjcif;iSm
trsKd;rsKd;aomenf;jzifh usDpm;wwf\/  (Practical  Joke)  Oyrm wa,muf\
ae&müjzpfap? rSDaomwdkifüjzpfap wG,ftyfjrSKyfxm;jcif;? aomufaom
vufzuf&nfMurf;ü i&kwfoD;rkefUcwfxm;jcif;? vufoGufaom tvkyform;
wa,muf\ vufeufud&d,mrsm;udk (tvkyfzifhaES;apjcif;iSm) 0Sufxm;jcif;
rSpíenf;trsKd;rsKd;wnfxGifum&,f&atmifzefwD;wwfMuavonf/
tvkyform;tcsif;csif;omr[kwf? tdrfa&SUrS vrf;avQmufoGm;aom
c&D;onfrsm;tm;yif ]ESyf}wwfMuao;\/ rl;aph? okdUr[kwf rwfaphwaphudk
tdrfa&SUwGif ajrBuD;xJürayghwayghjrKyfxm;í tvG,fwulaumuf,l&ef
rjzpfEdkifapjcif;iSm atmufüwdkifikwfwl;NyD; aumfESifhuyfxm;\/ vrf;oGm;
wa,mufonf tdrfa&SUrS avQmufoGm;pOf rl;aphudkjrifí ukef;aumufvkdufrd
ojzifh&kwfw&ufcGmr&yJ&SdonfwGifrS 0g;ueJ0dkif;í &,fvkdufMuaomtcg
&Sufudk;&Sufuef;ESifh xGufoGm;&Smjcif;rsKd;vnf; jrif&bl;onf/ þxuf
qkd;aom enf;rsKd;vnf;&Sdao;\/ eHeufapmapmBuD; tcsdefwGif yckH;xrf;
orm;rsm;onf [if;oD;[if;&Gufrsm;udk awmif;ESpfbufü tjynfh tvQHxnfh
um ]u,fu,fu,fu,f}ESifh 'a&marsmyg;xrf;ydk;oGm;avh vm&Sd\/
]yckH;xrf;}wkdUrnfonfrSm zdeyfpD;&dk;xkH;pHr&SdyJ ajcaxmuftwkdif; tajy;tvTm;
oGm;&pNrJyifjzpfav&m? tvkyform;wa,mufonf tdrfa&SUvrf;ay:wGif
wvufrcefU&Sdaom ikwfwdkuav;wacsmif; &dkufxm;\/ tcsKdUvnf;jrifí
a&SmifuGif;oGm;Muaomf vnf; tcsKdUrSm oGm;aeusvrf;jzpfí trSwfrJUyif
pdwfcsvufcsoGm;Mu\/wa,mufaomtxrf;orm;onf (aqmif;&moDwGif)

117 
rkefvmO? rkefvmxkyf paom [if;&Guf[if;oD;rsm;udk awmif;ESpfbufwGif
tjynfhtarmufxnfhvsuf tajy;tvTm;xrf;vm&m &dkufxm;aom wkdifikwf
udk ajcrESifhwdkufrdí ',drf;',dkifjzpfoGm;onfwGif zdeyftvkyform; rsm;
onf OD;acgif;udkikHUum Budwfí&,fM uavonf/ xdkvlonftxrf;udkcsí
tvGefrauseyfaom rsufESifhtdrfbufodkU vSrf;Munfh,if; uGJoGm;aom
ajcrudk ESdyfES,fay;&Smavonf/

npfpdwful;pufjcif;

þpmudka&;om;aom ,cktcsdefüyif uREkfyfonf xdkvl\rsufESmudk


jrifvsuf&Sdí &ifxkremjzpfrdygonf/ okdU&mwGif xdkpOfurl rnfodkU&Sdrnfxif
Muoenf;/ tjcm;tvkyform;rsm;enf;wl Budwfí&,frdygonf/ tb,f
aMumifhenf;[lrl uREkfyfonf tvkyform;rsm;ESifh a&maxG; ,Sufwif
ae&onfwGif 4if;wkdU\pdwf"mwfrsm; ul;pufvsuf&SdygaomaMumifhwnf;/
þodkUjzpf&jcif;rSm &kwfw&ufcsufcsif;r[kwf? wjznf;jznf; wpwp
ajymif;vJjcif;jzpfí olwyg; 'ku©a&mufjcif;ü t&omcHwwfvmjcif;jzpfav
onf/ ]twkjrif twwfoif} [laom pum;onf tvGefrSef\/ okdU&mwGif
þtaMumif;ESifhywfoufí wifjy&ef wcsufusefao;\/ uREkfyfwkdU\
aetdrfodkU ]obm0acgif;aqmif} pdwf"mwfrsKd;&Sdaom tvkyform;wa,muf
a&mufvm&m xkdolonf wvcefUtwGif;üyif tdrf&Sdtvkyform;rsm;\
acgif;aqmifBuD;jzpfvm\/ aumif;aombufüjzpfap? qdk;aombufüjzpfap
xdkolvkyforQvkdufí vkyfMu\/ xkdolOykofapmifhvQif tm;vkH;Oykofapmifhcsif
aompdwfjzpfay:vmMuí xkdolxef;&nfaomufvQifvnf; tenf;qkH;
wykvif;pD aomufMuavawmh\/ uREkfyf\zcifonf xdkolUtaMumif;udk

118 
&dyfrdvmaomtcsdefrSpí 4if;tm; acsmhíaygif;&\/ uREkfyfrlum; tvkyform;
acgif;aqmifwa,mufESifh cifrif&jcif;udkyif t[kwfBuD;xifum jzpfoifhonf
xuf ydkí&if;ESD;rdonfwGif xkdol\]npf}pdwfrsm;onf uREkfyfodkU tawmfBuD;
ul;pufvmcJUavonf/ ]ikwf&dkuf}jcif;paom txufyg,kwfrmrI rsm;rSm
xkdol\wDxGifrIrsm;jzpf\/ uREkfyf\ tZöswÅoEÅmefü ,ckwdkif udef;atmif;
csif udef;atmif;vsuf&SdOD;rnfh ]npf}pdwfuav;rsm;onf xdkolcsxm;cJUonfh
rsKd;aphjzpf&rnf[k qdkcsifonf/ ]udef;atmif;csif udef;atmif;vsuf
&SdOD;rnf}[lí {uefr[kwfonfh taeuefoabmrsKd; a&;om;jcif;rSm vlvm;
ajrmufvmaomtcgwGif uREkfyfonf taemufwdkif;rS urÇmausmf
0w¦KpmtkyfBuD; tajrmuftjrm;udk zwf&I&onfwGifrS udk,fhudk,fudk jyKjyifwef
oavmuf jyKjyifxm;onf[k ,lqaomaMumifhjzpfygonf/

avmif;upm;enf;trsKd;rsKd;

tvkyform;acgif;aqmifxHrS uREkfyfodkUul;pufvmonfh tusifhqdk;wckrSm


avmif;upm;jcif;yifjzpf\/ ]]olwyg;udk tqdk;rcsygESifh? vlwGifygvkdU EGm;udk
usm;udkufonfr[kwfavm}}[k qdkMuvQifvnf; ]]olUudktqdk;csjcif; r[kwf
&yg? ul;pufjcif;udkom wifjyjcif;jzpfygonf}}[k ajzqdk&ygrnf/ Oyrm
rD;aoG;udkudkifrdí vufrnf;cJUvQif rD;aoG;\tjypfr[kwf? udkifrdol\tjypf
omjzpfonf[k em;vnfygonf/ odkU&mwGif i,f&G,fEke,faomtcsdefü
]rD;aoG;}ESifh a&maxG;,Sufwif xm;cH&jcif;rSm uREkfyf\uHraumif;jcif;jzpf
onf[k qdkvdkjcif;jzpfygonf/ paeESifh we*FaEGaeUrsm;wGif uREkfyfonf
tvkyform;rsm;\ tvkyfcGifü waeUvkH; tcsdefjzKef;wwf\/
(tjcm;enf;vrf;vnf;r&Sdacs/) olwkdU\ajymenf;? qdkenf;? vSdrfhenf;?

119 
ESyfenf;? tcsif;csif; ]udkufenf;}rsm;onf uREkfyftzdkU em;&nf0vsuf&Sdí
ausmif;wGif]vlyg;}]vlvnf}uav;wa,mufjzpfvm\/
tcsKdUausmif;om;uav;rsm; r&,fwwfaom ]jyufvkH;}udk uREkfyf&,fwwf
avNyD/ þonfwkdUum; rqdk;vS? þrQru qdk;aom tjcif;t&mrsm;vnf;
&Sdao;\/ zcifonfaeUwdkif; aps;csKdodkUoGm;í a&mif;NyD;aom zdeyfrsm;twGuf
aiGawmif;jcif;? ouúvyfpaom ypönf;rsm; 0,f,ljcif; ponfjzifh
aqmif&Gufavh&Sd&m zcifxGufoGm;onfESifh wNydKifeufreD;ra0;&SdtdrfMum;okdU
wa,mufcsif; xoGm;í ]arsmufyef;vSef}aom upm;enf;jzifh upm;Mu\/
t&IH;tEdkifrSmwyJ ajcmufjym;rQomjzpfaomaMumifh uREkfyfvnf; yg0ifEdkifav
onf/ þokdUjzifh zcifjyefvmvkeD;onfwdkifatmif avmif;upm;Mu\/ xdkrS
wqifhwufvmaomtcg tvkyfcGifESifh reD;ra0;wGifxdkifaeaom
zcifwa,mufvkH;&SdvsufESifhyif tvkyfwbufESifh vQKdU0SufpGm avmif;upm;
enf;udk (acgif;aqmifu)wDxGifjyefavonf/ xdkenf;rSm wa,mufvQif
ydkufqHwjym;pD xnfh0ifNyD;aemuf wa,mufa,mufu ]z0g;}rsm;udk,lí
wck\ausmbufwGif jcpfNyD; arSmufcif;xm;vkduf\/ vlig;a,mufqkdvQif
]z0g;} ig;cktokH;jyKí wckwnf;udkom jcpfrSwf&avonf/ ydkufqHxnfhaom
tvkyform;rsm;onf BudKuf&m]z0g;}wckudk vSef&av&m tjcpfygaom
]z0g;}udk vSefrdonfhvlonf ydkufqHig;jym;udk,l&avonf/ z0g;udkjcpfí
arSmuf&aomvlurl vSefEdkifcGifhr&Sd? tjcm;vlrsm; rvSefyJcsefxm;aom ]z0g;}
onfolUtwGufjzpfí 4if;ütjcpfygcJUvQif ydkufqHig;jym;onf olUypönf;
jzpfoGm;\/ rnfolrqdk z0g;jcpfvkdu jcpfEdkifcGifh&Sdonf/ þenf;um;
zcifaMumifawmif&SdvsufESifh avmif;upm;Edkifaomenf;aywnf;/ waeUvQif
rsm;rsm;BuD;r[kwf? wrl;q,fjym;rQ t&IH;tEdkif &Sdwwfavonf/

120 
avmif;upm;jcif;\qdk;&Gm;ykH

þrS wqifhwufjyefaomf vomaomnOfhrsm;wGif tdrfa&SUü&Sdaom a&wGif;


ay:wGif tyef;ajzoa,mifESifh ]tayguf20}qGJMu\/ uREkfyfvnf;
yg0ifwwfavNyD/ þupm;enf;rSmwrwf okH;rl;xdatmif t&IH;tEdkif&Sdwwf
aom upm;enf;jzpfí uREkfyftzdkU vufudkif&atmif &Sm&onfh tusifhqkd;
wckwwfvm&jyefavNyD/ zcifonf ydkufqHtdwf xnfhxm;aomtusÐudk
ckwifajc&if;wkdifwGif csdwfítdyfavh&Sd&m uREkfyfonfzciftdyfcsdefwGif
wdwfwqdwfxvmí om;a&tdwfxJrS rl;aphrwfaphuav;rsm;teuf (2
usyfzdk;cefU&Sdwwfonf/) rl;aph waphjzpfap? trsm;qkH; rwfaphwaphjzpfap
ckd;,l&onf/ '*Fg;rsm;&Sdaomfvnf; odoGm;rnfpdk;aomaMumifh r,l0HUacs/
okdUESifhyif rSwfOmPfaumif;aomzcifonf tdwfudkzGifhí rl;aphrwfaphrsm;
EIdufaomtcgrsm;wGif awG;awmpOf;pm;aom rsufESmxm;rsKd;jzpfay:vmjcif;
udk awGU&wwfojzifh ]ay:}ukefacsawmhrnfavm[k wxdwfwvefUjzpfcJU
&bl;ygonf/ uREkfyfrSwfrdoavmufrSm rdcifonfnaewdkif; aps;0,foGm;&m
wGifydkufqHig;rl;avmufrQESifh wtdrfom;vkH;ESifh tvkyform;wa,mufESpf
a,muftwGufyg vkHavmufatmif wdkif;xGm0,fjcrf;&jcif;udk BuD;jyif;
vmaomtcgü pOf;pm;rd&mwGif uREkfyfjyKcJUbl;orQaomjypfrIrsm;teuf
zcif\tdwfxJrS rl;aph? okdUr[kwf rwfaph EIduf,lrdjcif;twGuf jzpfwwfonfh
ESvkH;ylyefrI(ukuúKpö)rSm tylavmifqkH; jzpfygawmhonf/ xdktcsdefrSpí
uREkfyfrSm avmif;upm;jcif; tvkyfü txkH0goemygcJUav&m? 4if;udk
taMumif;jyKí rdb\ypönf;udk EIduf,lcsifwwfaom tusifhqdk;wckvnf;
yl;wJGpJGuyfcJUavNyD/ avmif;upm;wwfjcif;\ qkd;&Gm;jcif; w&yfrSm uREkfyf
onftxnft0wf0,f&eftwGufvnf;aumif;? rkefUpm;&ef twGuf

121 
vnf;aumif; rdb\ypönf;udk rEIdufcJUbl;ygyJvsuf avmif;upm;zdkU twGuf
qdkygu (vufudkifr&SdvQif) rEIdufyJ raeEdkifatmif jzpf&jcif;yif jzpfavonf/
avmif;upm;jcif;[lonfrSm pJGrdvQif rvkyfyJraeEdkifatmif &Sdwwfí
tvGefaMumufzdkUaumif;aom tusifhqdk;wckjzpf\/ avmif;upm;jcif;onf
Edkifcsifaom ]avmb}t&if;cHonf rSefaomfvnf; ]pJG}vmaomtcgürl Edkifjcif;
&IH;jcif;udk tyxm;í upm;ae&rS touf&Sif&avmuf oabmxm;onfh
tajctaersKd;okdU a&muf&jcif;udkvnf; udk,fwdkifBuKH&bl;ygonf/ þtwGuf
aMumifh axmifwef;usavmufonfh tjzpfrsKd;odkU a&mufcJU&bl;jcif;udkvnf;
oufqdkif&mae&mü azmfjyygOD;rnf/

yxrtBudrfcspfBudKufrdjcif;

8 wef;ü&SdpOf uREkfyfwkdU\ 0if;xJwGif uav;oli,frsm; vGefqGJwrf;


upm;Mu&\/ xdkESpfürEÅav;NrdKUwGif rdk;acgifvSítcsKdUt&yfrsm;ü naewdkif;
vGefyJGBuD;rsm;usif;yav&m w&kwfwef;vGefyGJrSm tvGefBuD;us,fí
BudwfBudwfwdk;pnfum;vSonf/ uREkfyfwdkU oli,frsm;vnf; tjcm;t&yf
rsm;rS vGefyJGBuD;rsm;udk twk,lí nwdkif; vGefqGJwrf; upm;Mujcif; jzpfay&m
a,musfm;uav; rdef;uav;rsm;omru vlBuD;rsm;vnf; (usm;a&mryg)
yg0ifMu\/ upm;jcif;qdkí bmrQcGifhrjyKcsifaom uREkfyf\zcifyifvQif
w0if;vkH; qlnHvsuf&SdaomaMumifh cGifhjyK&awmhonf/ vGefyGJwcsDqGJNyD;í
&yfem;vsuf&SdpOf rdef;rBuD;wa,muf\ &ifcGifüxdkifvsuf pdwf0ifpm;aom
trlt&mESifh uREkfyftm; pdkufMunfhaeaom rdef;uav;wa,muf
\rsufESmonf uREkfyf\rsufvkH;rsm;ESifh wyfueJqdkifvdkufrd\/ xdktcdkufü
rdef;uav;\rsufESmonf vqef; 12&uf vrif;ESifh yPm&vsuf

122 
&SdaomaMumifh uREkfyftm; oluxif&Sm;pGm jrifaumif;rS jrifrnf/ uREkfyfurl
olUrsufESmudk xif;xif;BuD; jrifae&onf/ (uREkfyfrSmvlacsmuav;wa,muf
r[kwfaomfvnf; ywf0ef;usif &yfuGufrsm;wGif t&G,fESifhrvdkufatmif
twef;tjrifhqkH;aom t*Fvdyfausmif;om;uav;tjzpfESifh w&yfvkH;u
pdwf0ifpm;rI &SdMujcif;udk uREkfyf&dyfrdí *kPfvnf;,lrdonf/) uREkfyfonf
rde;f uav;ESifh rsufvkH;csif; qdkifrdonfESifhwNydKifeufESvkH;om;onf
&ifbwfudk]'def;}ueJ jrnfrwwf wcsufaqmifhvdkufjcif;udk odvdkuf&onf/
,if;okdUjzpf&jcif;rSm xdkrdef;uav; tm; cspfBudKuf&aumif;rSef;
odaomaMumifhr[kwf? uREkfyftay:ü pdwf0ifpm;ykH&onf[k auseyfrI
&Sd&kHrQaMumifhvnf;r[kwf (ygawmhygonf/) vlausmif;üaecJU&pOfu
]uBuD;a&;uowfuuf}[k pmtHoH Mum;cJU&bl;onfh rdef;uav;ESifh
&kyfqif;oP²mefwljcif;udk owd&vdkufrd aomaMumifh jzpfygonf/
tom;nKdjcif;? qH&pfqHawmufxm;jcif;? rsufvkH; tdrfBuD;jcif;rSpí
rsufESmtqifajyykHwdkUrSm wjzwfwnf; qdk&ravmuf wlnDvSay&m yxrü
xdkpOfu rdef;uav;yif jzpfacsoavm[k xifvdkufrd \/ okdU&mwGif
yxrdef;uav;rSm uREkfyfxuf okH;av;ESpfcefUBuD;í þrdef;uav;urlum;
uREkfyfESifh &G,fwljzpfaomaMumifh wa,mufwnf; r[kwfjcif;udk od&yg
avNyD/ rnfodkUyifjzpfap uREkfyf\ESvkH;om;ü rdef;uav;\ ykHoP²mef
&dkufESdyfvdkufNyD;jzpfouJUodkU pGJoGm;cJUNyDjzpf&m xdknOfhtzdkUü vGefqGJzdkU
pdwfr0ifpm;awmhyJ rsufESmcsif;qdkifí MunfhzkdUavmuf om tcGifhtvrf;
&Smvsuf &Sdygawmhonf/ omíxl;qef;onfrSm þrdef;uav;onfvnf;
uefx&dkufwOD;\ orD;jzpfonf[k od&jcif;yif jzpfavonf/ þtaMumif;
udk pOf;pm;rdaom tcgrsm;ü (orD;&nf;pm;yif r[kwfaomfvnf;)

123 
þrdef;uav;um; ig\zl;pm&Sifjzpfí vGJEdkifzdkUr&SdNyD}[k atmufarhcJUrd
ygonf/

woufwmwGif taysmfqkH;aomyJG

8 wef;ausmif;om;tjzpf (1905 ckESpf)onf uREkfyftzdkU&mü ]&wemykHqdkuf


aomESpf}jzpfonf[k txufwGif azmfjycJUay&m 4if;ESpfwGif yxrOD;qkH;
wu,fcspfBudKufolESifh rsufESmcsif;qdkif&onfhMunfEl;p&m tjzpfrsKd; tjyif
tjcm;aom aysmfp&mBuD;wckESifhvnf; BuKHcJUayonf/ 4if;rSmum; a&Tpm&H
bk&m;yJGodkUoGm;&aom tjcif;t&maywnf;/ uREkfyf5wef;ü &SdpOfu
]ro'¨g&nfo'¨g&nf} oGm;cJU&jcif;aMumifh xifoavmufraysmfcJU& ojzifh
t>rufrQavmufom azmfjycJU&m þwacgufürl rdk;rjrif avrjrif
qdk&ravmuf aysmf&TifcJU&onfhtwdkif; a&S;acwf a&Tpm&Hbk&m;yJGESifh þacwf
bk&m;yJGwkdU\ jcm;em;ykHudk rrSDvkdufolrsm; em;vnfpdrhfaomiSm a&;om;
azmfjyvdkuf&ayOD;rnf/

yGJxGufMuNyD

ausmif;ydwf&ufwumwkdUwGif t&SnfqkH;jzpfí (xdkacwfu 45


&ufydwfonf/) ausmif;olausmif;om; taygif;wkdU\ tarQmfvifhqkH;
jzpfonfh aEG&moD ausmif;ydwfvkdufonfwGif uREkfyfonfajcaxmuf
ESifhajrBuD; xd&onfrxifyJ avay:ü 0JysHvm&onfhES,f ausmif;rStdrfodkU
ajcukefokwfumjyefvmcJU\/ ESpfwdkif;vnf; þ&ufwGifaysmfyg\/ þESpfrl

124 
um; txl;wvnf aysmfvSygonf/ taMumif;rlum; þnwGif a&Tpm&H
bk&m;yJGodkU oGm;Murnf[k odxm;&aomaMumifhaywnf;/
tdrfodkU a&mufonfESifhwNydKifeuf bk&m;yJGodkUoGm;&eftwGuf csufjyKwf
aMumfavSmfjcif;? vSnf;rsm;iSm;&rf;jcif;? ypönf;rsm;jyifqifMujcif; ponfwkdUudk
jrif&onfrSm uREkfyftzdkU&mü NidrfNidrfxdkifraeEdkifyJ aqGUaqGUckefrQ aysmfvSyg
awmhonf/ wpfpkHwpfa,mufaomolonf uREkfyftm;ewfjyonfokdU
tvnftywfvdkufrnfavm[k ar;jim;tHU/ uREkfyfu a&Tpm&HujyefrS
vdkufrnf[k ajymvdrfhrnfxifonf/ waygif;vjynfhausmf 5 &uf n9em&D
tcsdefcefU(vxGufcsdef)wGif uREkfyfwkdUtdrfrS vSnf;ESpfpD;ESifh t&yfxJrSvSnf;
av;ig;pD;wkdUonf wtdrfudk wtdrftoHjyKum wNydKifwnf; twlwuG
xGufvmMu\/ uREkfyfrSm&ifxJü jrL;xl;vGef;vSí ratmifhEdkifonfESifh
aw;csif;wyk'f[pfí qdkvdkufrdonf/ uREkfyfwkdUtdrfrSvSnf;ESpfpD;teuf
wpfpD;wGif uREkfyfwkdUtdrfom;rsm;ESifh rdef;rtvkyform;rsm;ygMuí tjcm;wpD;
wGifa,musfm;tvkyform;rsm;ESifh uREkfyfwdkUpD;eif;vdkufygMu&m zcifrlum;
taysmftyg;rBudKufqdkum rvdkufygacs/ rSefaompum;udkqdk& vQif
uREkfyfonfvGwfvGwfuRwfuRwf aysmfcsifaomaMumifh zcifrvdkufygjcif;
twGuf 0rf;omonf/ uREkfyf\zcifrSm t*Fvdyftac:tm;jzifh  Kill­Joy 

aysmfjcif;udk rMunfhEdkifol[kac:&rnfxifonf/

atmifyifv,furf;&dk;wpfavQmuf

uREkfyfwkdU\t&yfrS vSnf;rsm;onf atmifyifv,furf;&dk;odkU


a&mufMuaomtcg vSnf;wef;&SnfBuD;ESifh qkHrdM uí 4if;txJü ae&m,lum
tygt0ifjyKvsuf armif;ESifMuav\/ xdktcsdefürl vrif;onf tawmfjrifh

125 
vmNyDjzpfí vSnf;wef;BuD;\ &Snfvsm;jcif;udk jrifEdkifavNyD/ okdU&mwGifrnfrQ
avmuf&Snfvsm;onfudkrl rjrifEdkifacs/ rEÅav;wNrdKUvkH;rS bk&m;yJGoGm;rsm;
onf þtcsdefwGif þae&mokdU a&mufatmif(vem&D)jzifh vSnf;armif;vm
jcif; jzpfaomaMumifh waygif;qkHrdMu&mwGif ESpfjyokH;jy &Snfvsm;
ygvdrfhrnf/ xdkpOfurl AD&dkvSnf; wpD;wavrSwyg; jrif;&xm;? jrif;vSnf;?
rdkwmum;? a'gufuwf? buf*Dpaom ,mOfrsKd;ryg/ aygif;rdk;ESifh
EGm;vSnf;awGcsnfhjzpfMuí taES;tjrefr&Sd/ wpD;udkwpD;uausmfwufjcif;
vnf;r&Sd/ (vrf;usOf;aomaMumifh ausmfwuf&efvnf;rjzpfEdkif)/ wpD;aemuf
rS wpD;wjznf;jznf;wtdtd Zdrf&Sd&SdESifh armif;ESifMuavonf/ atmifyifv,f
uefrSm uef[lí ac:Muaomfvnf;pifppftm;jzifh ta&SUawmif&dk;rS pD;usvm
aom rdk;a&rsm;udkwm&dk;jzifh qD;umxm;jcif;jzpfaomaMumifh ]wbufqnf}
BuD;rQom jzpfav&m xdkpOfu aEG&moDjzpfí a&r&Sdaomfvnf; ,ckuJUokdU
v,fuGufrsm;r[kwfyJ uefpGef;yiftp&Sdonfh [if;&Gufyifrsm; aygufa&muf
vsuf &Sd\/ bk&m;oGm;rsm;onf olckd; 'jrvnf; raMumuf&? tcsdefvkí
tvkyfvkyfMuaom acwfr[kwfojzifh uwdkufu&dkuf vnf;oabmrxm;yJ
vomomwGif vSnf;oHwtdtdESifh armif;ESifvmMu&m vSnf;rsm;ay:rS
vnf;aumif;? vSnf;rsm;eHab;rS ajcvsif avQmufolrsm;u vnf;aumif;
aw;csif;oH w[dk[dkESifh uefaygif&dk;wckvkH; qlnHvsuf&Sd\/ awmifNyKH;yJG?
&wemh*lyJGponfh ewfyGJrsm;uJUodkU wa,mufESifhwa,muf aemufajymifjcif;
r&SdyJ £ajE´&&ESifh oGm;Mu&m 0goemygaom a,musfm;uav;tzJGU?
rdef;uav;tzJGUrsm;u wcsDwcsDwGif vSnf;ay:rS qif;um uckefoDqdk
MuNyD;aemuf tm;&aomtcgrS vSnf;ay:odkUjyefwufMu av\/ uREkfyfrSm
tvkyform;rsm;xHrS usufrSwfxm;onfh q&myk\ aw;csif;? udkbausmh\
]NrdKifx}? py,foufBuD;\ ywÅjrm;rSef*l (q'´efqifrif;awmvm;)

126 
ponfrsm;udk okH;xyfav;xyfru qdkNyD;ojzifh armcJUavNyD/ (rdcifoifay;
onfh ]ysKdU}]BudK;}ponfwkdUrSm þae&mrsKd;ESifh ravsmfaomaMumifh csefxm;vdkuf
&onf/)

at;at;aq;aq;acwf

&maygif;rsm;pGm yg0ifonfh vSnf;wef;BuD;jzpfí wcgw&HwGif


vSnf;wpD;wavrQ ]0if&dk;}usKd;wwfao;&m xdktcgwGif vSnf;wef;BuD;
wwef;vkH;&yfem;um vSnf;orm;tm;vkH; 0dkif;0ef; ulnDvkyfudkifay;Mu&\/
tcsdeftpdk;&ouJUokdU&Sdaom acwfjzpfí ]rNyD;ao;bl;vm;} ]jrefjrefvkyfMuprf;
yg}]aemufusaevdrfhr,f}ponfjzifY nnf;nLjcif;?a&&Gwfjcif;r&Sd/vSnf; orm;
awG tvkyfvkyfcdkufwGif bk&m;oGm;rsm;onf [dkrSmw0dkif; onfrSmw0dkif;
ponfjzifh pk&kH;um oDqdkuckefaeMu\/ vSnf;orm;rsm;rSm vnf;
]0if&dk;}twGuf opfyifckwfolckwf? jzwfoljzwf? xpfolxpf? ajzmifholajzmifh?
a&Gola&G? ]wa,mufwcsuf ausmif;om;vuf}qdkbdodkU 0dkif;0ef; vkyfudkif
vkdufMu&m bmrQMumao;onfrxif&rD 0if&dk;wacsmif;ckwfNyD; acsmNyD;
oGif;NyD;jzpfí qufvufxGufEdkifMuavNyD/

aysmf&rSauseyfaomvlrsKd;

wHwdkif;&Snf&GmodkU a&mufMuaomtcg umvom;rsm;onf vSnf;rsm;


ay:rS tvQKdvQKdESifhqif;oGm;Muí tkd;uav;rsm;qJGum jyefvmNyD; vSnf;ay:
okdU jyefwufMu\/ þum;tjcm;r[kwf ]yifusa&}ac: xef;&nfcg;
0,fMujcif;jzpf\/ vSnf;wef;BuD;um; r&yf? ol0if igxGufjzifhwa,muf

127 
wvSnfhpD 0,fMujcif;jzpfMu\/ bk&m;yJGodkU oGm;Mujcif;jzpfaomfvnf;
aysmf&GifrIudk vufrvTwfcsif/ tokbcs&müyif pdefyef;olawmf\
'dk;ywf0dkif;uwD;í bkef;awmfBuD;\ acgif;udkajrSmufupm;csifaom
vlrsKd;jzpfaomaMumifh xef;&nfaomufjcif;rQavmuftwGuf tHUMop&m
r[kwfay/ odkU&mwGif þbk&m;yJG\ csD;usK;zG,fwckrSm umvom;rsm;\
vSnf;rsm;ü udk,fh]jrL}tdk;ESifhudk,f armfhMuaomfvnf; awmifNyKH;ponfh
ewfyJGrsKd;rSmuJUokdU rl;oH? ,pfoH? rawmfwa&mf ajymifavSmifoH[lí
wcGef;rQyif rMum;&acs/ uREkfyfwkdU\vSnf;rS tvkyform;rsm;vnf;
bk&m;wumrsm; r[kwfMuojzifh jrLtdk;rsm; 0,faomufMuí uREkfyftm;
vnf;ay;Muao;\/ okdU&mwGif uREkfyfrSm xdkpOfu þ]pmtxd rwuf&
ao;ojzifh jiif;vdkufEdkifygonf/ trSefrSm rdcifwa,mufvkH;ygonfhyJGrsKd;wGif
þrQavmuf ]pmBuD;ayBuD;}wufí oif&efrjzpfEdkifaomaMumifh jzpfygonf/
waMumif;rSmvnf; uREkfyfonfzcifudkaMumufoavmuf rdciftm;&dkaoav;
pm;ygonf/ jcm;em;ykHum; aMumufjcif;[lonfrSm rjrifuG,f&mwGif
vkyfwwfí &dkaoav;pm;jcif;rlum; rsufarSmufrsufuG,fra&G; MoZmanmif;
wwfjcif;yif jzpfavonf/

aMumufaomfvnf; aysmf\

vSnf;wef;BuD;onf t&kPfrwufrD tcsdefwGif a&Tpm&HrkefawmokdU


0ifvmMu&m tcsKdUae&mrS taiGUwacsmif;acsmif;&Sdaom qifacs;ykHBuD;rsm;
awGUolrsm; awGUMu\/ acs;ykHBuD;rsm;rSm qif,Ofrsm;pGefUcJUjcif;r[kwf?
qif&dk;rsm;\ypönf; jzpfonfqkdojzifh vSnf;rsm;ay:ü toufr&I0HUyJ ukyfí
vdkufaom rdef;rrsm;vnf;&SdMu\/ uREkfyfrlum; tqef;topfqdkvQif

128 
Munfhcsifwwfaom0goemESifh pGefUpm;csifwwfaom txkHtavhaMumifh
tjcm;vlrsm; awGUonfqdkaomae&mokdU vSnf;ay:rSqif;í oGm;Munfhrdatmif
MunfhcJUygao;onf/ acs;ykHBuD;udk jrif&aomtcgü raMumufwwf
onfr[kwf? aMumufcJU&yg\/ okdU&mwGif aMumuf&jcif;onfyifvQif t&om
wckjzpfonf[k uREkfyf ,lqygonf/ qif&dkif;ajc&mrsm;um; tESHUtjym;yif
awGUcJUMu&ojzifh þbk&m;yJGokdU vm&jcif;rSm pGefUpm;cef;BuD;wck  (Great 

Adventure)  taejzifh trSwfxifvsuf&Sdygawmhonf/

tvkyfudk,fpDESifh

&Srf;rdzk&m; &SifrGefv\ em;awmif;uscJUonfqdkaom acsmif;udkjzwf


ausmfí pcef;csrnfhae&modkU a&mufMuaomtcg o&ufyifBuD;rsm;onf
t&Gufcsif; xdrwwf qufpyfumaygufa&mufvsuf&Sdí w&yfwnf;rS
twlvmMuaom vSnf;rsm;onf w0dkif;wnf;jzpfatmif eD;uyfpGm
a&G;cs,fMuí zsm? &dkif? oifjzL;rsm;cif;olucif;? uefUvefUumrsm;
umoluum? rD;zdktwGuf usif;wl;oluwl;? zdkuaemuf&Smolu&Sm?
o&ufzl;aumufoluaumuf? a&cyfolucyf? wHjrufvSJoluvSJ?
xif;acGoluacG tvkyfudk,fpDESifhaysmf&GifpGm aqmif&Gufvsuf&SdMu\/
þtxJwGif wnvkH; wa&;rQrSdwfcJU&olr&SdyJ vSnf;ay:üaMumifawmif
vkdufcJU&olcsnf;jzpfaomfvnf; vwfqwfvdkufMuykHrSm ESif;cHxm;onfh
yef;yGifhrsm;ozG,ftzl;tnGefUwvlvlESifh ckefqGckefqGjzpfvsuf &SdMuavonf/
rnfodkUqdkap uREkfyfwa,mufrlum; txl;wvnf&TifjrL;vsuf&Sd\/
taMumif;rlum; zcifrMunfromESifh vdkufcJU&onfh vGefcJUaomav;ESpfu

129 
wacgufESifh nDtpfudkarmifESr rdcifESifhwuG tdrfeD;csif;rsm;yg vm&onfh
þwacguf\jcm;em;ykHudkrMumcP owd&vsuf &SdayaomaMumifhwnf;/
waygif;vjynfhausmf 5 &ufaeUnü xGufí6&ufaeU eHeufa&mufNyD;
ESpfntdyfum vjynfhausmf 8 &ufeHeufwGifrS jyefMu&aom yJGjzpfí
&uftawmf&Snfoavmuf MunfEl;zG,faumif;vSonf/ ESpfpOfvmonfqdk
aom ig;BuD;rsm;udkMunfh&jcif;? jrpfi,fqdyfü a&csKd;&jcif;? (OoQpfoD;rsm;
aygvSonf? wjym;zdk; 8 vkH;&onf/) aps;wef;BuD;wavQmufavQmuf&jcif;?
a&Tpm&HykwD;rsm;0,fí vnfyif;üpGyf&jcif;? xl;qef;aom apwDawmfudk
zll;&jcif;wkdUrSm vltrsm;aysmfwwfM uaom tjcif;t&mrsm; jzpfayonf/
uREkfyftzdkU&müum; a&csKd;NyD;wufvmí o&ufuif;rsm;wzkwfzkwfa<uus
vsuf&Sdonfh o&ufyifBuD;rsm;\ t&dyfatmifü yltdkufpjyKvmonfh
þwaygif;v&moDwGif yufvufvSefum rkefUyJom;a&pmrsm;? 0g;ae&jcif;
onf aysmfp&mtaumif;qkH;[k qkH;jzwfcJUygonf/ tjcm;aom aysmfp&mBuD;
wckrSm o&ufyifBuD;rsm;atmufü eHeufpm npmpm;aomufMu &mwGif
w&yfwnf;twlvmMuaom vSnf;rsm;rS w0dkif;ESifhw0dkif; wzGJUESifhwzGJU
tqef;tjym;[if;cGufaumif;rsm; tay;t,lvkyfMujcif;aMumifh [if;aygif;
q,fhav;ig;cGufpm;&í armarmESifh aysmfaysmfBuD;&Sdaeaom uREkfyftzdkUrSm
woufwGifwqufwnf; tNrdwf&SufqkH;aom xrif;ig;eyf[lí rSwfwrf;wif
&ygonf/
apwDawmf\ xl;jcm;csufrSm tjcm;aom apwDa wmfrsm;uJUodkU ta&SU?
taemuf? awmif? ajrmuf wnf;[laom t&yfav;rsufESmodkU wnfhwnfhwk&l
rsufESmrrlyJ cyf&GJU&GJU cyfapmif;apmif; &Sdaejcif;yifjzpfavonf/ &Srf;rdzk&m;
&SifrGefvtm; bk&ifujynfawmfjyefap&mwGif apwDawmfudk jrwbufjzifh
ywfum opömjyKí vSnfhvkdufjcif;aMumifh apmif;&GJUoGm;onf[k ajymMuav

130 
onf/ uREkfyfrSm cyfi,fi,fuwnf;uyif pdwful;,Oform; wa,mufjzpfí
tu,fwEÅK þtwdkif;jyKvkyfcJUjcif;rSefygvQif &SifrGefvonf apwDawmf\
þwbufwGif þae&mavmufü xdkifjcif; jzpfvdrfhrnf[k a&mf&rf;rSef;qum
tawmfvGrf;cJU&bl;ygonf/

aemufqkH;aysmfenf;wck

vjynfhausmf 8 &ufaeU eHeufapmapmuyif aumfaZm? uefUvefUum?


zsm? &dkif? oifjzL;rsm; &kyfodrf;í tjyefc&D;twGuf jyifqifMuavNyD/
þbk&m;yJGwGif aemufqkH;aom aysmfjcif;taejzifh umvom;rsm;aysmfMuonfh
tjcif;t&mwckudk rSwfrdao;\/ vSnf;rsm;onf em;awmif;usacsmif;udk
jzwfausmfMu&mwGif tjyefc&D;tzdkUü tqif;bufurf;yg;onf cyfajyajy
&Sdaomfvnf; twufbufurf;yg;rSm tawmfrwfapmufaomaMumifh
vSnf;ay:rSvlrsm; tm;vkH;qif;í vSnf;cGufcsnf;wufMu&\/ okdUESifhyif
urf;yg;\ rwfapmufjcif;aMumifh EGm;rsm;onf wudk,fvkH; taMumNydKif;NydKif;
xonfudk jrif&avmufatmif tm;cJí &kef;wufMu&\/ þwGif
twufbufurf;yg;ü umvom;rsm;onf pk&kH;umapmifhaeMuí vSnf;rsm;udk
wpD;NyD;wpD; urf;yg;twufBuD;wGif wGef;wifay;Mu\/ w,fawmfwJU
vlawGygwum;[k rcsD;rGrf;vkdufygESifhOD;? 4if;wkdUonf vSnf;wpD;udk
urf;yg;apmuftwufBuD;twdkif; wGef;wifMuí xdyfodkUa&mufcgeD;wGif
&kwfw&uf vTwfypfvdkufMuav&m EGm;ESpfaumifrSm vG,ful&mrS trSwfrJU
tcufawGU&onfESifh t&Sdefysufum EGm;a&mvSnf;yg vefusoGm;av\/
þtjcif;t&mudkapmifhí MunfhMuaomy&dowfuvnf; &,farmMuav\/

131 
þokdUjzifh vSnf;wpD;vQif wacgufrQ 'vdefUacgufauG; jyefusvmNyD;rS
aemufwBudrftwufwGif xdyfodkUa&mufatmif wGef;wifvkdufavonf/
Avaumif;aomEGm;BuD;rsm;vnf; roufomacs/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaom
oefpGrf;vSaom EGm;BuD;rsm;udk urf;yg;xdyfodkU a&mufvkqJqJwGif vTwfay;
vkduf&kHESifh rNyD;yJ vufvTwfcgeD;ü rodromESifh jyefí qGJcsvkdufMu
aomaMumifh jzpfavonf/ tvGeftrif;oefpGef;aom EGm;rsm;ESifh yg;eyfaom
vSnf;orm;rsm;rSwyg; ',D;',dkifESifh aemufjyefvdrfhusMujcif;tm; jzifh
y&dowftm; wBudrfjzpfap azsmfajzoGm;Mu&onfcsnf;jzpfavonf/

yJGoGm;aMumhaMumh yGJjyefarmfharmfh

em;awmif;usacsmif; twufvrf;\ xpfaighrIaMumifh tjyefc&D;wGif


vSnf;rsm;onf tvmc&D;rSmuJUodkU woDwwef;BuD;rarmif;MuawmhyJ
udk,fh&yfuGufESifh udk,fhtkyfpkrQavmufom tazmfvkyfEdkifMuawmh\/ þbk&m;
yJGwGif rdrdudk,fudk taysmfqkH;wa,muftaejzifh oabmxm;rdaom uREkfyfyif
vQif aw;csif; oDqdkcsifpdwf r&SdawmhyJ tvkyform;wa,muf a,muf\
aygifay:wGif OD;acgif;wifí rSdef;csifcJUavNyD/ jzpfvnf; jzpfoifhonf/
tb,fhaMumifhqdkaom uREkfyfrSm okH;nvkH; pkaygif;ygrS 10 em&DrQyif
rtdyfcJUojzifh rsufawmifrsm; pif;aeNyDjzpfaomaMumifhaywnf;/ vdifoabm
ryg&SdyJ vli,fhobm0oufoufjzifh tl&TifjrL;wl;cJU&jcif;rsm;wGif ppfudkif;
awmif&dk;okdU yxrtBudrfa&muf&bl;aom wacgufESifh þwyJGonf
pdwfxJwGif ]pm;NrKHUjyef}í rNyD;qkH;Edkifonfh tjcif;t&mESpfckaywnf;/
ae&Sdeftawmfjyif;vmaomtcg uREkfyfwkdU&yfuGufrS vSnf;av;ig;pD;wdkUonf
t&kPfwufrS xícsufcJUMuonfh xrif;[if;rsm;udk opfyif&dyf

132 
aumif;aumif;wGif &yfem;,if; pm;aomufMuavonf/ a&SUtzdkUwGif
aeuvnf; yljyif;vmojzifh tl&Tifcef;NyD;qkH;í 0rf;AdkufawmifhawmifhESifh
acGMuolwkdUomrsm;awmh\/ tjyefc&D;ü uREkfyftrSwf&aom tjcif;t&m
wckrSm uREkfyfwkdU\vnfyif;ü ]a&Tpm&HykwD;}[kac:onfh xef;&GufykwD;0g
rsm;pGyfvsuf jyefvmMupOf atmifyifv,fuef&dk;&Sd atmifyifv,f&Gmü
usif;yonfh]ay:awmfrl} bk&m;yJGtNyD;ESifh qkHpnf;í 4if;bk&m;yJGjyef
rsm;onfvnf; rEÅav;okdU uREkfyfwkdUESifhtwla&maESmum jyefvmMu\/
4if;yJGjyefrsm;\ vnfyif;wGifvnf; uREkfyfwkdUenf;wl xef;&GufykwD;rsm;
pGyfxm;Muav&m xdkolwkdUonf a&Tpm&Hbk&m;odkU a&mufatmifoGm;&ef
rwwfEdkifojzifh ]aeUcsif;jyef}jzpfEdkifaom þbk&m;yJGokdU vma&mufum
]a&Tpm&Hjyefrsm;}taejzifh rEÅav;NrdKUokdU 0ifMujcif;jzpfonf[k od&avonf/
(uREkfyfwdkU vlrsKd;um; BuHBuHzefzef [efaqmifcsifaom vlrsKd;aywnf;[k
atmufarhcJUrdonf/)

acwfpm;aomaw;wyk'f

8 wef;ü&SdpOf uREkfyftm; txufwef;ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;ESifh ESD;ESD;&if;&if;


jzpfaponfh tjcif;t&mwck ay:aygufcJUjcif;udk rSwfrdygao;\/ xdkacwfu
ausmif;om;rsm;\ xkH;pHwckrSm atmufwef;ausmif;om;rsm;onf txuf
wef;BuD;rsm;rS ausmif;om;rsm;udk MunfndKpGmESifh armfhMunfhMuí
txufwef;ausmif;om;rsm;url atmufwef;ausmif;om;uav;rsm;tm;
]]zkwfavwJUig;yd &Sdonf[krrSwf}}qdkaom pum;uJUokdU vlzwfrxifwwfMu
ay/ waeUoü uREkfyfonf aeUausmif;wufcgeD; 15 rdepfcefU vdkao;aom
tcsdefwGif 8 wef;oifaom ausmif;cef;xJü py,foufBuD;qdkonfh

133 
]ywÅjrm;rSef*l} oDcsif;udk wD;wdk;oDqdkjyovsuf&SdpOf tcef;tjyifbufrS
avQmufoGm;Muonfh udkxGef;vStygt0if 9 wef;ausmif;om;wpk
Mum;onfESifh 0ifvmMuí udkxGef;vSu ]]a[hazodef;? 'DoDcsif;udk rif;tp
tqkH;&ovm;}}[k ar;ojzifh uREkfyfu &aMumif;jyefajym\/ þwGif 9wef;
ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;onf uREkfyftm; ausmoyf&ifoyfvkyfMuí pm&GufESifh
cJwHrsm; xkwfMuav\/

cufcJpGmul;&jcif;

þae&mü 4if;aw;csif;\vlBudKufrsm;ykHESifh cJ,Of;pGm uREkfyf&ykHudk


azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/ rEÅav;NrdKUwGif xdkacwfu &kyfao;rif;om; rif;orD;rsm;
oDqdkonfh aw;csif;rsm;onf tvGefacwfpm;\/ Zmwfrif;om;
OD;zdk;pdefBuD;rSm xdktcsdefwGif ay:aygufNyD;jzpfaomfvnf; þaemuf
(uREkfyftxift&) 2 ESpf avmufMumrS ol\oDcsif;rsm;udk umvom;rsm;
vrf;avQmufqdkaomtjzpf odkUa&mufvmonf/ xdkpOfu txl;emrnfBuD;í
,aeUwdkiftpm;xdk;&ef (okdUr[kwf EIdif;,SOfíajym&ef) ray:aygufao;onfh
&kyfao;rif;orD;ESifh rif;om;rsm;um; q&myk? udkbausmh? py,foufBuD;?
udkpdefcdk? udkzl;ndKwdkU jzpf\/ 4if;wkdU\yg;pyfrS aw;csif;tqef;rsm;onf
umvom;rsm;\ yg;pyfodkU a&mufonfhtcg 4if;wkdUonf bm*sm? Aswfapmif;
paom wl&d,mrsm;ESifh wGJum ntcsdefrsm;wGif vrf;rsm;ay:üavQmufí
oDqdkwwfMuavonf/ tcsKdUaomvrf;rsm;rSm xdkuJUokdUaom wD;0dkif;rsKd;
w0dkif;NyD; w0dkif;avQmuf vmwwfojzifh vrf;eHab;rS tdrfrsm;rSm
þacwfa&'D,dkrsm; ozG,f tqufrjywfvkbeef;em;axmif&avonf/
uREkfyf&xm;aom py,foufBuD; \ ]ywÅjrm;rSef*l}aw;csif;rSm ay:cgp

134 
vnf;jzpfí umvom;rsm;vnf; r&ao;? useatmif oDqdkwwfolvnf;
r&Sdao;yJ tvGefvnf; vlBudKufrsm; onfESifh wefzdk;&SdvSaom
aw;csif;wyk'fjzpfay\/ xdkUaMumifhvnf; udkxGef;vStrSL;&Sdaom ausmif;om;
BuD;rsm;onf uRekfyfxH ylqmjcif; jzpfavonf/

uREkfyfrsufESmyGifhvdkufykH

þaw;csif;udkuREkfyf&ykHum; þokdUwnf;/ &kyfao;rif;om; py,foufBuD;\


rif;orD; udkatmifomü r,m;i,fwa,muf&Sd&m rif;om; rif;orD;wkdU
rnfonfrSm 4if;wkdU\ aw;csif;opfrsm;udk t&yfom;rsm;okdU ay;avhr&Sdaomf
vnf; rif;orD; udkatmifomrlum; r,m;i,f\ ylqmjcif;aMumifh ay;&\/
uREkfyfwkdUtdrfrS tvkyform;acgif;aqmif udkawmufxGef;onf xdkrdef;rESifh
cifrif&if;ESD;rI&Sdí 4if;aw;csif;udk qdkykHqdkenf;ESifhwuG awmif;,lvmcJU&m
uREkfyfrSm 4if;wkdUxHrS &Sdckd;OD;wifoif,l&jcif;jzpfavonf/ okdUjzpf&um;
udkxGef;vSwdkU vlpktay:ü uREkfyfrsufESm yGifhvdkufykHrSm ajymzG,f&mr&Sd?
]]rif;uav;w,fedyfouGm}}[k cPcP ausmoyf&ifoyf csD;usL;Mubl;
avonf/ uREkfyfuvnf; aw;csif;udkcJcJ,Of;,Of; ,lcJU&onfhtjzpfESifh
wuG ajymjyí useatmifqdkjypOf olwkdUvlpkvnf; vdkufí ul;Muavonf/
uREkfyf\aw;csif;rSm cspfcef;BudKufcef;ESifh ywfoufonfh ]opöm}xm;
aw;csif;rsKd;r[kwfyJ tavmif;awmfq'´efqifrif;tm; aomEkw¦dK&frkqdk;u
cJ,Of;pGmoGm;NyD;tpG,fudk jzwf,ljcif; taMumif;jzpfí rsm;pGmaom umvay:
aw;csif;rsm;uJUokdU ruG,faysmufyJ ESpfaygif;twefMum oDqdkvsuf
usef&pfcJU avonf/ uREkfyfrSm þaw;csif;twGufaMumifh txufwef;
ausmif;om;BuD; rsm;ESifh oduRrf;&kHru? cifrifMuifemjcif;udk cH,l&&Sdav&m

135 
þodkUaomtjcif; t&monf uREkfyftzdkUü olaX;om;rsm;ESifh cifrif&jcif;
xufyif 0rf;yef;wom ESifh *kPf,lcJUrdygonf/ aemufrsm;rMumrDyif
udkxGef;vS uG,fvGef&Smonf/

*kPfj'yfBuD;cJUaom 9 wef;

1905ckESpfukefwGif 8 wef;atmifí 1906ckESpfwGif 9 wef;odkUwuf&av&m


þtwef;rSm wuúokdfvf0if  (Entrance)  twef;jzpfí ausmifwGiftjrifh
qkH;jzpf\/ xdkpOfu jrefrmjynfwGif ,leDAmpDwD r&Sdao;ojzifh wuúodkvf0if
pmar;yJGudk umvuwÅm;,leDAmpDwDrS ppfaq;&ay&m þtjcif;t&monfyif
9 wef;ausmif;om;rsm; ajczsm;axmufp&mjzpfcJUavonf/ taMumif;rlum;
9 wef;pmar;yGJrSm tuf(zf)at? bDat pmar;yGJrsm;enf;wl b*Fvm;pmar;yGJ
[kac:aomaMumifhaywnf;/ uREkfyfwdkUausmif;om;rsm;onf jrefrmjynfü
oD;oefU,leDAmpDwD r&Sdjcif;aMumifh *kPfi,fonf[lí em;rvnfMu?
b*Fvm;udk txifBuD;Muwkef;jzpfí b*Fvm;pmar;yGJ0if&jcif;onfyif
*kPfj'yfBuD;wck[lí rSwfxifcJUMuavonf/ ausmif;om;wdkUrnfonf
pmar;yGJatmifí twef;wuf&onfqdkvQif 0rf;omMuNrJ jzpfaomfvnf;
wuúodkvf0ifac: 9 wef;okdU wuf&jcif;uJUokdU 0rf;omjcif;? *kPf,lrdjcif;
um;rBuKHcJU&bl;yg/ uREkfyftzdkUrSmrl aetdrfywf0ef;usift&yfrsm;ü 9
wef;orm;[lí xdkpOfuvnf;r&Sd? ,cifuvnf; r&SdcJUbl;onfh
twGufaMumifh tawmfb0ifjrifhcJUrdyg\/ þtwGufaMumifh uREkfyftay:ü
remvdkolrsm;&SdMuaomfvnf; uREkfyftm; ynm&Sduav;wa,mufozG,f
av;pm;Muonfhtwef;uav;orm;rsm;vnf; ajrmufjrm;pGm&SdMuayonf/
tcsKdUrdbrsm;onf 4if;wkdU\ av;ig;wef;ausmif;om;uav;rsm;udk

136 
uREkfyfESifh twl pmusyfygapqdkum uREkfyfwkdU\aetdrfokdU ydkUxm;jcif;
rsm;&Sd\/ xdkvlwkdU\ pdwfü ]y@dwmeOöao0em}qdkonfh r*Fvmw&m;awmf
twdkif; ynm&Sduav;wOD;xHqnf;uyfygap[laom oabmESifh ydkUMuav
oavm rqdkEdkifay/ uREkfyf\zcifum; tawmf*kPf,lykH&onf/

]&ifbwf}rdwfaqG&jcif;

8 wef;okdUwuf&uwnf;u tvGefcifrifaom oli,fcsif;okH;a,muf&Sdjcif;udk


azmfjycJUNyD;jzpf&m 4if;wkdUteufwGif udkazrSm tdrfcsif;uvnf; eD;onfESifh
txl;ojzifh cifrif&if;ESD;aom rdwfaqGwa,mufjzpfvmí uREkfyf\
woufwmwGif yxrOD;qkH;aom rdwfaqG&if;  (Bosom  Friend)  wa,muf
jzpfacsonf/ þt*Fvdyfpum;vkH;rSm ]&ifbwfrdwfaqG}[k t"dyÜg,f&Sdav&m
tvGefwdusay:vGifaom tokH;tEIH;jzpf\/ taMumif;rlum; &ifbwfxJü
&Sdaom tjcif;t&mtm;vkH;udk (taumif;a&mtqdk;yg) zGifh[wdkifyifí tBuH
OmPfawmif;Edkifaom rdwfaqGrsKd;jzpfaomaMumifhwnf;/ þrdwfaqGrsKd;onf
wa,mufESifhwa,muf [efvkyfjcif;? <um;0gjcif;? *kPfNydKifjcif; r&Sd/
wa,muf'ku©a&mufonfqdkvQif wa,mufu yg;pyfzsm;uav;jzifh
]]0rf;enf;w,fAsm}}[k avmu0wfpum;ajymjcif;r[kwf? pdwfü wu,f
xdcdkufatmif vIdufvIdufvSJvSJ 0rf;enf;í aumif;pm;vQifvnf;
t[kwfwu,f 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om (rk'dwmpdwf)jzpfEdkifonfh rdwfaqGrsKd;udk
qdkvdkayonf/ vlwdkif;vlwdkif;ü xdkokdUaomrdwfaqGrsKd; b,fESpfa,mufpD
&SdMuonfrqdkEdkif? uRekfyftzdkU&müum; (udkaztygt0if)woufomvkH;ü
okH;av;ig;a,mufrQom BuKH&bl;ygonf/ (þokdUaom rdwfaqGrsKd;rSm
b0a&pufvnf;ygOD;rS awGUEdkif[ef wlayonf/)

137 
wefzdk;&SdvSaom Mo0g'

9 wef;okdUwufí aEG&moD ausmif;ydwfrnfhaeUwGif jrefrmpmoifjyonfh


q&ma&TrSefonf uREkfyftzdkU&mü woufywfvkH; tokH;0ifonfh Mo0g'wck
ay;bl;\/ (q&ma&TrSefrSm uREkfyfwdkU\ 8 wef;q&mjzpfcJU&m 9 wef;okdU
uREkfyfwdkUwufMuaomtcg 9wef;jyq&monf ukvm;vlrsKd;q&mwpfa,muf
jzpfí jrefrmpmrwwfonfESifh q&ma&TrSefu uREkfyfwdkUtm; jrefrmpmoif
ay;í ukvm;q&mopfu 8 wef;udkt*Fvdyfbmom oifay;jcif; jzifh
tvJtvS,fvkyfMuonf/) ausmif;ydwfrnfhnaeü q&ma&TrSefonf uREkfyfwdkU
tm; t*Fvdyf0w¦Krsm; zwfjcif;tm;jzifh t*Fvdyfbmomaumif;aumif;
wwfatmif BudK;pm;MuzdkU a[majymNyD;aemuf ausmif;qif;aomtcgwGif
t*Fvdyf0w¦Kpmtkyf iSm;vdkolrsm;tm; ol\tdrfodkU vdkufcJU&ef ac:oGm;av&m
uREkfyfESifh tjcm;ausmif;om; av;ig;a,muf vkdufoGm;Mu\/ usefvlrsm;
um; ,D;wD;,m;wm;vkyfum rvdkufyJ csefae&pfcJUMuavonf/ vkdufoGm;ol
rsm;teufwGif udkaz? armif&DESifh pufacGwdkU yg0ifMuonf/ pifppfrSm
uREkfyfESifh þoli,fcsif;okH;a,mufonf t*FvdyfbmomwGif tm;usrcH
tNydKiftqdkif BudK;pm;Muolrsm; jzpfavonf/ þtaMumif;udk jyefvnf
okH;oyfonfhtcg uREkfyfwdkUav;a,muftm; cifrif&if;ESD;atmif csnfaESmifay;
aom tjcif;t&monfum; t*Fvdyfbmom &yfü pdwf0ifpm;onfh txkHtavh
csif; wlnDrIyifjzpfwef&macsonf/
(jrif;orm;tcsif;csif;? *Dworm;tcsif;csif; &if;ESD;wwfMu
ouJUokdUyif/)

138 
aumif;vdkufonfhpmtkyf

uREkfyf,lcJUrdaompmtkyfrSm csm;vfpf'pfuif; a&;onfhbmebD&wfcs  (Burnaby 


Rudge)  pmtkyfjzpfav&m uREkfyfonf 4if;0w¦Kudk BudK;pm;í zwfygaomf
vnf; t&om cHEdkifavmufatmif jynfhpkHpGm em;rvnfonf waMumif;?
ow¦Ktqifhtwef;uvnf; (uREkfyf\t&G,fESifh rvkdufatmif) jrifhvGef;onf
waMumif;aMumifh 4if;0w¦Kpmtkyfudkcsxm;í udkazxHrS yoDykHjyif0w¦Kudk
iSm;&rf;zwf&Iavonf/ yoDykHjyif0w¦Kaumif;vkdufykHum; ajymrukefEdkifatmif
&Sdygawmh\/ vGefyJGü qkHcJUbl;aomrdef;uav;ESifh orD;&nf; pm;r[kwf
jim;aomfvnf; pdwfxJü cspfBudKufí aeU&SdorQ rsufvkH;csif;qkdif
vsuf&SdMuNyDjzpf&m yoDykHjyifxJüygonfh 0w¦Kaygif;rsm;pGmwkdUrS (Zmwfvdkuf)
rif;orD;rsm;onf xdkrdef;uav;\ &kyfqif;oP²meftwdkif;csnf;jzpfí
rif;om;uav;rSmvnf; uREkfyfudk,fwdkifcsnf;jzpfaeavawmhonf/ vlysKd
ayguf t&G,fvnf;jzpfjyef? pdwfxJü BudKufxm;olvnf;&Sdjyef? pdwful;,Of
wwfaom tavhtxkHuvnf;&Sdjyef? ausmif;ydwfxm;onfh tm;vyfcsdef
vnf;jzpfjyef av&um; uREkfyfrSmpmtkyfudkzwfvdkuf? csxm;NyD; pdwful;vkduf?
wzefaumufzwfvdkuf? ESpfNcdKufaom pmydk'frsm;udkul;,lvkduf ponfjzifh
(tdyfcsdefpm;csdefrSwyg;) tcsdef&SdorQ zwfavawmhonf/ þtwGufaMumifh
tjrwfwckay:xGufonfrSm zcifonf uREkfyftm; tvGefpmBudK;pm;onfqdkí
bm*smwvkH; 0,fay;ayonf/ (zcifonf wD;rIwfoHudk tvGef&GHUrkef;ol
wa,mufjzpf&um; 4if;tjyKtrlrSm uREkfyftm; tpGrf;ukeftvdkvdkuf&Smjcif;
jzpfavonf/)

139 
wefzkd;&Sdaom t*Fvdyfpmacwf

yoDykHjyif0w¦Kudk bmomjyefxm;onfh t*Fvdyfpum; tokH;tEIef;rSm tvGef


aumif;onf[k q&mhq&mrsm;ajymoHMum;bl;ay&m uREkfyfrSm ausmif; 45
&ufydwfonfhtwGif;ü 0w¦KZmwfvrf;\t&omudk cHpm;&kHomru t*Fvdyfpm
a&;ykHa&;enf;udkvnf; usufrSwfxm;onfESifh ausmif;zGifhí pmpDpmukH;wyk'f
a&;om;Mu&onfwGif twef;q&mu uREkfyf\ta&;tom;rSm wjznf;jznf;
r[kwfyJ ckefvTm;íwufoGm;aMumif;  (By  leaps  and  bounds)  csD;usL;ajym
qdkbl;avonf/ [kwfykHvnf;&onf/ pmwESpfoifí wwef;wufaomtcgü
wkd;wufjcif;xuf xdk 45 &uftqkH;ü wkd;wufjcif;onf ydkonf[k
udk,fh[mudk,fvnf; xifrdygonf/ xdkacwfü t*Fvdyfbmom tom;,laom
acwfjzpfí awmfonfqdkvQif wausmif;rS wausmif;okdUvnf;aumif;?
w&kH;rSw&kH;okdUvnf;aumif;? tpdk;&XmewckrS wckodkUvnf;aumif; owif;
ysHUESHUwwfaom acwfjzpfavonf/ uREkfyfonf þtaMumif;udk Mum;bl;
jcif;aMumifh BudK;pm;csifaompdwfjzpfay:jcif;vnf; [kwfEdkifygonf/

toHxGufrSefuefatmifBudK;pm;oifhjcif;

t*Fvdyfbmom&yfESifh ywfoufí uREkfyftzdkU uHaumif;aom tjcif;t&m


wckvnf;azmfjyvdkygonf/ 9wef;q&m ukvm;vlrsKd; rpöwm tif;*vpfpf 
(Mr.Inglis)  qdkolrSm uREkfyfawGUbl;onfh (t*Fvdyfr[kwfaom) vlrsKd;uGJrsm;

140 
teufwGif t*Fvdyfpum;ajym taumif;qkH;xJu wa,mufjzpfonf[k
uREkfyf,lqyg\/ uREkfyfonf emrnfBuD;vSaom OD;aratmif? a'gufwm
barmfpaom jrefrm0wfvkHrsm;udkvnf;aumif;? ukvm;0wfvkHrsm;udk
vnf;aumif; em;axmif&bl;yg\/ xdkvlrsm;onf uREkfyf\q&mESifh wlvQif
omwl&rnf? omonf[k uREkfyfrxifyg/ q&m tif;*vpfpfonf t*FvefokdU
vnf; a&mufbl;í t*Fvdyfpum; toHxGufwGif wdus rSefuefvdkufykHrSm
tcsKdUt*Fvdyfrsm;xufyifomao;onfxif\/ uREkfyfrSmaemufydkif;wGif
t*Fvdyfa&mjrefrmpum;yg ajymcsifaompdwfr&Sdavmufatmif jzpfcJU&aomf
vnf; t*FvdyftoHxGuf rSefuefaprItwGufrl woufvkH; *&kpdkufvmcJUol
jzpf\/ q&mtif;*vpfpf\toHxGuftrSefrsm;onf atmufwef;rsm;rS
uREkfyf\ toHxGuftrSm;rsm;udkjyKjyifajymif;vJap\/ toHrSefxGufzdkUvdkvm;
aom uREkfyfonf atmufwef;rsm;rS oifcJU&onfhtoHxGufESifh q&m
tif;&*vpfpf\ toHxGufwkdU uJGvJGjcif;udk awGU&onfhtcgwdkif; uREkfyfESifh
udkazwdkUonf tdwfaqmiftbd"mwfudk vSefí&SmwwfMuay&m q&m
tif;*vpfpfurSefuefonfcsnf;awGUMu&\/ þrQomruao; BuD;jyif;
vmaomtcgüvnf; vlwwfrsm;ESifh q&m\toHxGuf uGJvGJjcif;udk
awGU&vQifvnf; tbd"mwfudkvSefíMunfhao;&m q&muyif rSefuefjcif;udk
awGU&\/ (þacwfüwuúodkvfausmif;om;rsm;onf t*FvdyftoHxGuf
tvGefcsmonfudk awGU&\/ udk,fhbmompum;r[kwfaomaMumifh toHxGuf
rSm;vQifvnf; rwwfEdkif[k oabmxm;MuaomaMumifhayavm? ausmif;q&m
rsm;udk,fEIdufuvnf; þtwdkif;yif ,lqMuavoavm rajymwwfay/
okdUqdkvQif tvGefrSm;aomt,ltqjzpfonf[k qdkcsifonf/ þudpörsKd;ESifh
ywfoufí t*Fvdyfpum;ykHwckrSm enf;,lxdkuf\/ ]vkyfoifh onfqdkí
vkyfaom tvkyfwckudk (awmftdavsmftdoabmrxm;yJ) aumif;aumif;

141 
jzpfatmifvkyf&rnf}[k qdkavonf/ vlrsKd;uJG\ pmqdkí roifcsifvnf;
aeMuap? oifrdvQifvnf;aumif;aumif;wwfatmif oifxdkufayonf/
vlwdkif;vlwdkif;onf oifwdkif;vnf; tcReftrGef rjzpfEdkifjcif;um;rSefygonf/
okdU&mwGif toHxGufrQavmufudk rSefuefatmif ajymwwfac:wwfzdkUrSm
vlrsKd;\*kPfudkaxmufxm;aomtm;jzifh BudK;pm;xdkuf Muonf/ b,folu
bmajymonfjzpfap? t*Fvdyfpum;onfrajymwwfvQif ryD? ryDovQif
txifao;cH&rnfh bmom&yfwckjzpf&m EdkifiHjcm;om;ESifh tquftoG,f
rsm;vSaom þacwfwGif e,fcsJUcJUbl;onfh 0oDaMumifh vlrsKd;udk tmCmw
xm;NyD; olwkdU\bmompum;udk rxDav;pm;jyKrdygu urÇmhtv,fwGif
rsufESmi,fzG,f&m? txifao;cH&zG,f&m &Sdayonf/ ]jrefrmhtoH}rS
tjcm;wdkif;jynfrsm;rS NrdKUtrnf? vltrnfrsm;udk rSefuefatmif ac:wwfzkdU
rBudK;pm;Mujcif;rSmvnf; tHUMozdkUaumif;\/ &SufzdkUvnf; aumif;\/
oH&kH;awG&Sdaeaom &efukefNrdKUwGif þudpöonfvG,f uloifh\/ oHrSefrxGuf
wwfjcif;ESifhywfoufí jrefrmowif;pmrsm;onf tvm;wlyif csmvSonf/
urÇmhwdkif;jynfBuD;rsm;rS 0efBuD;csKyfrsm;\ trnfrsm;udkyif wa,mufuwrsKd;
a&;csifovkda&;vsuf&SdMuonf/ tjcm;wdkif;jynfrsm;wGif þuJUokdU awmftd
avsmftd aygh&Twf&Twf oabmxm;Muonfrxifay/)

om"uwck

9 wef;q&m rpöwm tif;*vpfpfrSm t*Fvdyfpum; ajymjcif;ü tvGefoGuf


tvGefrSefítvGefawmfykHudk taxmuftxm; wifjyygOD;rnf/ waeUoü
Aef;armfNrdKUrS t*Fvdyfpmwwf jrefrme,fydkif0efaxmufwa,mufonf uREkfyf
wdkUESifhtwl 9wef;ü oifvsuf&Sdaom 4if;\om;xHodkUtvnfvm&m wGif

142 
ausmif;tkyfBuD;udk,fwdkif 0efaxmufBuD;tm; uREkfyfwdkUtwef;okdU vdkufydkU\/
xdktcdkufwGifq&mtif;*vpfpfonf uREkfyfwdkUtwef;om;rsm;tm; ]0gwmvl;
ppfyJGrwkdifrDwn} [laomt*Fvdyf vuFmwyk'fudk oifjyvsuf&Sd&m?
ausmif;tkyfBuD;ESifh 0efaxmufBuD;wdkU 0ifvmMuí ausmif;tkyfBuD;u
q&mtm; ]]oifomoifyg}}[kajymjyNyD; ckHvGwfwckwGif 0ifxdkifMu\/
q&mtif;*vpfpfvnf; qufvufí oifjyav&m vuFmxJrS cufcJaom
pmydk'frsm;udk twef;om;rsm; em;vnfatmif &Sif;vif;ajymjyjcif;tvkyfü
olrwlatmif oGufvufjcif;? jywfom;jcif;? pdwfygvufyg&Sdjcif;? pum;tokH;
tEIef;wdusrSefuefjcif;wnf;[laom t*Fgrsm;aMumifh ausmif;tkyfBuD;ESifh
0efaxmufBuD;wdkUonf wa,mufrsufESmudk wa,mufcPcP vSrf;Munfh
Mujcif;udk uREkfyfwkdUjrif&\/ aemufqkH;ü 0efaxmufBuD;ESifh ausmif;tkyfBuD;
wkdUonf auseyftm;&aom trlt&mESifh xoGm;Muaomtcg q&m
tif;*vpfpfonf pmtkyfudkydwfí wbufodkU vSnfhcdkufwGif uREkfyfwkdU
ausmif;om;tcsif;csif;vnf; þrQavmufaumif;aom oifjyjcif;udk wcgrQ
rBuKHbl;onfESifh pdwfxJrS oabmwl csD;usL;Mu,if; ]a0g}ueJ jrnfaom
toH xGufoGm;rdMuav\/ wu,foifawmh wu,fawmhfonfh
q&mwa,mufaywnf;/

'kwd,om"u

we*FaEG waeUü q&mtif;*vpfpfonf ol\]tcspfawmf} uav;rsm;


jzpfMuonfh armif&DESifh uREkfyftm; apmapmBuD;vrf;avQmuf&ef csdef;qdk
ac:iifoGm;í tdk;zdkbuf&Sd Aspfpuf&kHudkjy\/ oludk,fwdkifu tvGefrnf;ol
wa,mufjzpfaomfvnf; rEÅav;NrdKUay:&Sd rsufESmjzLt&m&SdqdkvQif q&mESifh

143 
rodolr&Sdoavmuf todtuRrf;aygonfhtavsmuf Aspfpuf&kHrefae*smtm;
uREkfyfwkdUESpfa,mufudk puf&kHwckvkH;odkUvkdufjyap\/ NyD;aomtcgtmV*D(pD)
vrf;&Sd AD,mema[mfw,fodkU uREkyfwdkUESpfa,mufudkac:í eHeufpmauR;&m
&kHawmfBuD;rS t&Sef;wdkUtxef;wkdU\ w&kwfacgufqGJrsm;ESifh aps;csKdteD;rS
jrefrmrkefUwDqdkifrsm;ü avmufom pm;cJUbl;onfh uREkfyftzdkUrSm
t*Fvdyfa[mfw,fodkU yxrtBudrfa&mufbl;jcif;jzpfí tcif;tusif;ESifh
pm;aomufzG,f&mrsm;\ om;em;ykHrsm;udk tHUMorqkH;atmif ai;Munfhrdyg
awmhonf/ (trSefrSm AD,mema[mfw,f\ om;em;vSjcif;aMumifh
r[kwfvSyg/ xdkacwfu &kHawmfBuD;rS acgufqGJqdkifrsm;onf þacwf
vQef;pdefa[mfw,fuJUokdU oyfoyf&yf&yfr&SdyJ ayusHaom opfom;pm;yJGwGif
npfywfaom ck&Snfay:ü aqmifhaMumifhxdkifum pm;Mu&aomaMumifhjzpfyg
onf/ 0rf;yJOykHpm;yGJBuD;wGif azG;azG;jzLjzLí yef;yGifhykHrsm;xnfh&ufxm;onfh
pm;yGJcif;t0wfBuD;cif;vsuf yef;pdkufc&m;ESifhwuG qGwfqGwfjzLaom
vufokwfy0grsm;udk yg;vSaom zvfcGufxJüxnfhum jyifqifxm;jcif;rsKd;udk
rnfonfhqdkif rnfonfhtdrfürQ rjrif&bl;ao;yg/ xdkacwfüuREkfyfwkdU\
tdrfüomr[kwf? rdbrsm;xufpD;yGm;a&;tqifhtwef;jrifhaomtdrfrsm;üyif
]vkdufxrif;}udk a<uZvkHjzifh rxnfhyJ qefaq;jcif;awmif; okH;Muwkef;
jzpfygonf/)

yxrqkH;t*FvdyfeHeufpm

a[mfw,fxJokdU uREkfyfwdkU0ifoGm;MuonfESifhwNydKifeuf *g0ef&Snf? tuÐs


vuf&Snfrsm;jzihfoyf&yfpGm 0wfqifxm;onfh Adkvfujym;ruav; okH;a,muf

144 
wkdUonf q&m tif;*vpfpftm; uAsmu,m qD;BudKEIwfqufum
tl,m;zm;,m;pum;ajymMuav&m? uREkfyfrSm tvGeftHUMovsuf &SdonfhtxJrS
yif AsKdif;okH;aumifESifh usD;waumif awGUMuonf[k owd&í NyKH;rdygonf/
Akdvfujym;rav;okH;a,mufrSm þrQavmufjzLvSaomaMumifh r[kwf?
uREkfyfwkdU\q&murnf;vSaomaMumifhjzpfygonf/ q&mtif;*vpfpfum;
uREkfyfjrifbl;onfhvlrsm;teufwGif teufqkH; wa,mufjzpfayonf/
tom;rnf;oavmuf awmufajymifonfh tqif;ta&mif t0wfrsKd;udk
tvJvJ0wfqifwwfoljzpfí rEÅav;NrdKUwGif vlrsKd;uJGrsm;txJü
(tjriftm;jzifh) txif&Sm;qkH;yk*¾dKvfwOD;jzpfacs\/ q&mtif;*vpfpfonf
ujym;rokH;a,mufteufrS tacsmqkH;wa,mufudk a&G;íwGJac:um
pm;yJGcef;okdU0ifMuNyD;vQif xdyfrSxdkifav&m uREkfyfESifh armif&DwdkUvnf;
(a,musfm;okH;a,muf rdef;rokH;a,muf&SdonfESifh wa,mufjcm;pDxdkifMu&
ojzifh) vuf0JESifh vusfmwGif ujym;rwa,mufpD &SdaeMuav\/ armif&DrSm
þudpörsKd;wGif uREkfyfxuf ]t0g;0}ykH&í [efrysufvSaomfvnf; uREkfyfrlum;
zifESifhukvm;xdkif xdonfrxif/ &ifwqwfqwfckefvsuf&Sd\/ xdkUaemuf
eHeufpm pm;pOftwGif;üvnf; aumif;? pm;NyD;aomtcgüvnf;aumif;
uRekfyfwkdU\q&m tif;*vpfpf t*Fvdyfpum;ajymvkdufykHrSm w&TD;&TD; w&Twf
&Twf ESifha&yufr0ifatmif &Sdawmh&m ujym;ruav; okH;a,mufrSmvnf;
w[D;[D; w[m;[m; w0g;0g; waomaom&,farmvsuf&SdMuavawmh\/
q&majymonfhtxJwGif t*Fvdyf ]bef;pum;}rsm; a&mnSyfyg&SdaomaMumifh
uREkfyfwkdUESpfa,mufrSm jynfhpkHatmif em;rvnfMuapumrl udk,f[ef
vuf[efESifhq&m\ rsufESmxm;wkdUaMumifh tawmftwef&dyfrdMuí a&maESm
um &,farmEdkifMu avonf/ q&mtif;*vpfpfonf ausmif;cef;xJwGif
ausmif;tkyfBuD;ESifh 0efaxmufBuD;tm; tpGrf;jybl;ouJUodkU ol\]tcspfawmf}

145 
uav;rsm;jzpf onfharmif&DESifh uREkfyfwkdUtay:wGif tpGrf;jycsifí wrifpDpOf
xm;jcif;jzpfonf [kuRekfyfwkdU&dyfrdMuaomfvnf; uREkfyftzdkU&mwGifrS wouf
wGif t&,f&qkH; aom eHeufpmpm;yJGwcktaejzifh rSwfwrf;wifxm;rdygonf/
t*Fvdyfpum;ajymjcif;tvkyfwGif t[kwfwu,fawmfonfh yk*¾dKvfwOD;ygay/

ausmif;tkyfBuD;\a0zefcsuf

uRekfyf\pum;xpfwwfjcif;udk q&mtif;*vpfpfodaomfvnf;
t*Fvdyfpum; ajymwwfzdkU tpGrf;tp&Sdonf[k ,lqonfh vu©PmESifh
ausmif;uyJG  (Concert)  üvnf;aumif; pum;&nfvkyGJrsm;üvnf;aumif;
q&mtif;*vpfpfonf armif&DESifh uREkfyftm; tNrJwrf; a&G;cs,fxnfhoGif;í
t*FvdyfvdkajymykHqdkenf;rsm; oifjyay;\/ uREkfyfvnf; BudK;pm;ygonf/
]uyJG} rsm;ü armif&DESifh uREkfyfusufíajym&onfh &,f&TifzG,f tjyeftvSef
pum;rsKd;  (Dialogus)  ajym&mwGifa0zefzdkUrvdkojzifh a0zefjcif;rcH&aomfvnf;
waeUoü t*Fvdyfvdk pum;&nfvkyJGwcktqkH;wGif ausmif;tkyfBuD;u
pum;ajymolrsm;taMumif;udk a0zefygonf/ pifppfrSm uREkfyfonf rdrd\
cRwf,Gif;csufudkodí jiif;aomfvnf; q&mtif;*vpfpf\ tm;ay;rIaMumifh
yg0ifjcif;jzpfygonf/
ausmif;tkyfBuD;onf uREkfyf\taMumif;udk a0zef&mü ]]azodef;u
toHxGufawmhaumif;yg&JU? okdUaomfvJ olU vQmu tmacgifrSm wcsuf
wcsufuyfuyfaewwfw,f}}[k ajymavonf/ uREkfyfonf xdkaeUrSpí
pum;&nfvkyGJrsm;wGif tygt0ifrvkyfawmhyJae&m q&mtif;*vpfpfurl
ausmif;tkyfBuD;tay:ü pdwfqdk;ykH&onf/ uREkfyfonf uHraumif;ojzifh
t*FgrpkHyJarG;cJUvQif &SufzG,f&m[k,lqvdrfhrnfr[kwfouJUodkU pum;xpf

146 
jcif;twGuf &Sufp&m[lí r,lqyg/ okdU&mwGif rdrd\cRwf,Gif;
csufudkodvsufESifh ae&mwumwdkif; pum;ajymcsifonf[k txifcH&rnf
udkum; &SufwwfzdkUem;vnfygonf/ BuD;jyif;vmaomtcgü urÇmhNidrf;csrf;
a&;udpörsm;ü q&mBuD;ocifudk,fawmfrIdif;ESifh tjcm;yk*¾dKvfrsm;\ wdkufwGef;rI
aMumifh &Hzef&Hcgy&dowfa&SUwGif pum;ajymrdbl;yg\/ uREkfyf\ tcuftcJ
wckrSmpum;rxpfap&atmif owdxm;í ajymEdkifaomfvnf; xdkuJUokdU
owdxm;ae&jcif;onfyif tvkyfBuD;wckjzpfaeojzifh pum;vkH; ajymif
ajrmufatmifjzpfap? t"dyÜg,f&Sif;vif;atmifjzpfap? yGJusavmuf
atmifjzpfap rajymEdkifyJ&SdonfESifh aemufqkH;wGif wcgwnf;vufajrSmufzdkU
qkH;jzwfvdkufNyD;jzpfygonf/ pum;ajymjcif;tvkyfwGif wpuúefU\tydkif;
*Pef; uav;avmufrQaemufusonfjzpfap? wqdwfrQqdkif;iHUxm;&rnfh
ae&mwGif rqkdif;iHUyJ wGef;í ajymvkdufonfjzpfap yJGusifoifhoavmuf
rusjcif;udk uREkfyfem;vnfí pum;ajymaumif;olwkdif;vnf; em;vnfMu
ygonf/ uREkfyfrwwfEdkifojzifhtxufyg cRwf,Gif;csufrsKd;ESpfckvkH; &Sdonf
jzpfaomaMumifh þtvkyfudk wcgwnf; vufavQmhvdkufygawmhonf/

a0vmrif;om;ESifh yvdyfa&m*g

1906ckESpf ukefcgeD;wGif jrefrmjynfodkU t*FvefjynfrS a0vrif;om; 


Prince of Wales  (yOörajrmuf a*smhbk&ifavmif;) tvnftywfa&muf vmí
rsm;rMumrDtwGif; &efukefNrdKUESifh rEÅav;NrdKUBuD;rsm;wGif yvdyfa&m*g
tBuD;tus,f jzpfavawmhonf/ xdkpOfu aumVm[v pum;wcsKdUudk
uREkfyfrSwfrdao;\/ tcsKdUu rEÅav;NrdKUodkU a0vmrif;om;a&mufvmpOf
tvGefpnfum;onfudkjrifí rif;om;u t&m&Sdrsm;tm; ]]pnfum;vGef;tm;

147 
BuD;w,f}}[k ajymaomaMumifh vlOD;a&aygrsm;jcif;jyóemudk ajz&Sif;&ef
twGuf NAdwdoQtpdk;&u yvdyfa&m*gudk wrifwumzefwD;onf[k
ajymMu&m ,kHMunfol tawmfrsm;onfudkawGU&\/ tcsKdUuvnf;
tpdk;&onf t&yfxJü yvdyfydk;rsm;udk vliSm;ívTwfaMumif;? waeUaomf
yvdyfydk;vTwfaomvludk (ydk;ygaom <uufrsm;ESifhwuG) t&yfom;rsm;u
0dkif;zrf;NyD; &dkufESufar;jref;ppfaq;Mu&mwGif xkdvluaiG&ívkyf&ygonf[k
ajzmifhcsufay;aMumif;? xdktjcif;t&mudk uREkfyf\tpfudk armifyku
udk,fwdkifjrifcJU&onf[k uREkfyftm; ajymjyí uREkfyfyif,kHcJUbl;ygonf/
wNrdKUvkH;rlum; þpum;udk ,kHMunfcJUonfrSm tawmfuav;MumcJUavNyD/
waeUoüuREkfyfwkdU 9wef;wGif c&pf,ef usrf;pmoifjyonfh omoemjyK
q&mrBuD;u ]]yvdyfa&m*gydk;rsm; tpdk;&vTwfonfqdkjcif;udk ,kHMunfMu
oavm}}[k twef;om;rsm;tm;ar;í ,kHolrsm;xMu&ef ajymav&m
twef;om;wa,mufESpfa,mufrSwyg; wwef;vkH; (uREkfyfvnf; tygt0if)
xvkdufMuavonf/ þwGif omoemjyKq&mrBuD;\rsufESm tdkoGm;jcif;udk
uREkfyf,aeUwdkif rsufpdxJwGif jrifa,mifrdygao;onf/ q&mrBuD;u
]]igwdkUausmif;rSm tjrifhqkH;twef;rS ausmif;om;rsm;u 'Dpum;rsKd;,kHMunf
Muw,fqdkwm tm;BuD;0rf;enf;p&myJ}}[kajym&Smavonf/ rMumrwifrSmyif
uREkfyf\oli,fcsif;w&kwfujym;uav; pufacGwkdU om;trdESpfa,muf
]yvdyfxJygoGm;&SmMuonf}[kod&ojzifh uREkfyfrSm rEÅav;wGif rae0HUatmif
xdwfvefUvmonfESifhwdrf;a&SmifxGufajy;zdkU rdbrsm;tm;ylqmavawmYonf/

148 
aMumufrufzG,fa&m*gqdk;

xdktcsdefü rEÅav;NrdKUtajctaerSm aMumufp&mBuD;wckjzpfaeygawmhonf/


xGufajy;wdrf;a&SmifaeMuolawG tawmfrsm;aeojzifh NrdKUrSm ajcmufuyfwdwf
qdwfvsuf&Sd&m vrf;avQmufoGm;onfhtcg vrf;wbufwcsufwGif
okH;tdrfrSmwtdrf? av;tdrfrSmwtdrf ponfjzifhom ae0HUol&Sdawmhonfudk
awGU&\/ aeolr&Sdonfh tdrfvGwfrsm;wGifvnf; tdrfa&SUü jrifavmufaom
ae&mrsm;wGif  P­1  P­2  paompmvkH;rsm;udkaq;eufjzifh xif&Sm;pGm
a&;xm;jcif;udk awGU&\/ t"dyÜg,frSm yvdyfa&m*gjzifhaoolwa,muf?
okdUr[kwf ESpfa,muf? okdUr[kwf okH;a,muf&SdNyD[k qdkvdkjcif;jzpf\/
wtdrfwavrSmrl  P­4  av;a,muftxd trSwftom;rsKd;udkyif
awGU&avonf/ tcsKdUtdrfrsm;a&SUürl jymykHuav;wGif rD;cdk;uav;wvlvlyif
awGU&wwfao;\/ t"dyÜg,frSm 4if;tdrfü em&Dydkif;twGif;uyif
vlwa,mufa,mu yvdyfa&m*gESifhaoqkH;í tdrf&Sdt0wftpm;rsm;udk
rD;ykH&IdUxm;jcif;yif jzpfavonf/ wdwfqdwfvsuf&Sdaom NrdKUBuD;wGif
txufyg tjcif;t&mrsKd;wkdUudk awGUjrif&onfhtcg tb,folonf
rwkefvIyfracsmufcsm;yJ &SdEdkifygrnfenf;/

wdrf;a&SmifcGifh&jcif;

uREkfyfrSm tawmfacsmufcsm;vsuf&SdNyDjzpfí rdbrsm;tm; wdrf;a&SmifMuzdkUylqm


\/ okdU&mwGifzcif\ (avmuDrIa&;&mwGif) q&mwql todtrSwfjyKxm;
onfhyk*¾dKvfBuD;u tpdk;&onf yvdyfa&m*gudk wrifvkyfonfqdkjcif;udk
r,kHMunfonfESifh yvdyfa&m*g\ul;pufwwfjcif;udkyg r,kHMunfyJ olwkdU

149 
vnf;rajy;? zciftm;vnf; ]]tvum;ygAsm}}[kajymum tm;ay;avh
&Sdavonf/ xdkyk*¾dKvfBuD;onf uREkfyf\aMumufwwfjcif;udk odonfESifh
]]azodef;wdkUrsm; aMumufvdkufwm aMumufacs;rsm;ygaeygtkH;r,fuG,fh}}[k
jyuf&,fpum; ajymbl;jcif;udkvnf; uREkfyfrSwfrdao;onf/ aemufqkH;ü
4if;yk*¾KdvfBuD;\tdrfrSyif wa,mufESpfa,mufysufpD;av&m uREkfyftm;vnf;
0ufvufodkU ydkUxm;&efpDpOfMuavawmhonf/ rdbrsm;rlum; tvkyfysufrcH
Edkifojzifh rwdrf;a&SmifMuyJ uREkfyf\ESrwa,mufESifhnDwa,muf (aygif;okH;
a,muf)udkom zcif\a'oodkU ydkUxm;avonf/

awmtvkdufaysmfwwfjcif;

uREkfyfrSm zcif\&GmodkU aumufBuD;wufcsdefrsm;wGif &Hzef&Hcg


a&mufbl;aomf vnf;av;ig;&ufcefUrQom aecJUbl;&m þwacgufMum
&SnfpGm ae&onfwGifrS uREkfyf\aoG;xJü yg&Sd[efwlonfhawmifolobm0rSm
OD;acgif;jyLíjyonfhES,f ay:xGufvmavNyD/ uREkfyfonf awmifolrsm;vkyfMu
onfh (xdktcgüaqmif;&moDjzpfonfhtwdkif;) pyg;odrf;jcif;? pyg;e,fjcif;?
pyg;avSUjcif;? vSnf;armif;jcif;? jrif;pD;jcif; ponfh "avh[lorQwGif tvGef
pdwf0ifpm;í aysmf&TifpGm ulnDaqmif&Gufay; wwfavNyD/ ntcsdef vom
omwGif aumufvIdif;ykHBuD;ay:ü EGm;xD;rsm;a&m EGm;rrsm;yg a&>yrf;yl;wGJ
xm;onf/ BudK;pudk udkifumEGm;rsm;\tv,frS ywfcsmvSnfhvsuf ][dkEGm;
u&dk? 'DEGm; u&dk} ponfrsm;jzifh atmfaigufum pyg;e,f&jcif; tvkyfonf
tvGefaysmfp&maumif;vSí csrf;rSef;rod? at;rSef;rod aumufvIdif;ykH
rnufrcsif; oef;acgifausmfatmif tvkyfvkyfay;avonf/ EGm;vnf; armif;
wwfonf/ jrif;vnf; ususee pD;wwfonf/ ]EGm;ajy; EGm;vkduf} vnf;

150 
armif;wwfonf/ rkd;&moDr[kwf ojzifh xGef,ufjcif;tvkyfudk roif
cJU&aomfvnf; BuD;vmaomtcgü wwfatmifoifcJUao;onf/ uREkfyfonf
awmifolv,form;rsm; vkyfaeustvkyfrsKd;[lorQwGif 0goemygvSí
aysmf&GifpGmaqmif&GufEdkifonf jzpfaomaMumifh ]igonf NrdKUay:ü vljzpf&jcif;
um; rSm;avonf}[k xifrdvmygawmhonf/ uREkfyfonf 4if;a'oü ESpfv
okH;vcefUMumí okH;av;&GmrQ vSnfhvnf aexdkifvsuf&S\
d / zcifonf
wacgufwav tvnfa&mvm&mwGif ]]armifBuD;&JUom;u awmifolbm0
aysmfykH&w,f? tpfudkBuD;&JUom;u EGm;aumif;aumif;armif;wwfaeNyD}}
ponfjzifh aqGrsKd;rsm;u tm;yg;w&ajymMuonfh tazonf oabmus
[efrwlacs/ (EGm;armif;wwfonfqdkjcif;rSm ]EGm;ajy;? EGm;vkduf} armif;wwf
jcif;udkqdkvdkí awmifolwkdif;rwwf? ynm&yfwckjzpfonf/)
zcifurl rdrdudk,fEIdufu tEkyfpkwf*kwfpkwf þtvkyfrsKd;udkrBudKuf
aomaMumfih NrdKUwufNyD; aeEdkifatmif BudK;pm;ygvsuf om;wa,mufu
aus;&Gm"avhjzpfonfh awmifol,mckwftvkyfudk ESpfouf&ygrnfavm[k
rausreyfyifjzpfykH&onf/ uREkfyfvnf; zcif\oabmudk&dyfrdonfESifh
uREkfyf\]ynm}rsm;udkrjy0HUawmhyJ zkH;zdíxm;vkduf&ygawmhonf/ aemufaemif
wGifvnf; zcifonf þtvkyfrsKd;ü uREkfyf0goemygjcif;udk rsufESmom
ray;acs/ rEÅav;NrdKUüyvdyfa&m*gNyD;oGm;í uREkfyfjyef&aomtcg rl;BuD;&GmESifh
refusnf;wkH&GmtMum;ü a&uav; wpyfpyf&Sdaeonfh oJacsmif; uav;
taMumif;udk refusnf;wkH&Gmom; a&S;pmqdkawmfwa,mufu ]&Gmwef;&,f
oG,f? tv,frSm a&,OfESifh tdk jrifolarm}[k pyfqdkxm;cJUonfh xdkoJacsmif;
uav;udk cPcP owd&onfESifh aemufqHwiifiifjzpfrdygao; onf/

151 
pmar;yGJus&IH;jcif;

1907ck ESpfOD;wGif uREkfyfonf rEÅav;okdUjyefa&mufí rwfvtwGif;ü


9wef;pmar;yJG ajzqdk&\/ uREkfyfrSm ]yvdyfajy;}ae&jcif;aMumifhwaMumif;?
twef;pmrsm;xuf 0w¦Krsm;zwfjcif;wGif pdwf0ifpm;cJUaomaMumifhwaMumif;
pmar;yGJwGif us&IH;cJUavonf/ pmar;yGJajzqdkítNyD; wvausmfrQ
tm;vyfaomtcsdefrsm;wGif zcifonf pwD;b&m;om;ukrÜPDrS pma&;BuD; 
Head  Clerk  ESifh tuRrf;w0ifjzpfí uREkfyftm; tulpma&;tjzpf
ESifhvkyfudkif&ef tyfESHxm;onfESifh pwD;tvkyf&kH;odkU rSefrSefwufcJU&\/
pma&;BuD;uvnf; uREkfyftm; t*Fvdyfpm ta&;tom;wGif tpGrf;tp
&Sdonfqdkum pmay;pm,l bufü tvkyfoGif;ay;zdkU BuH&G,fcsuf&S\
d /
tu,fí xdkESpfü pmar;yGJatmif jrifcJUygu uREkfyfrSm pwD;b&m;om;
ukrÜPDwGif pma&;jzpfvmzdkU vrf;rsm;\/ (Mum&Snf vkyfcsifvdrfhrnf
awmhrxifyg/) 9wef;pmar;yJGwGif uREkfyfonf yx0D0ifbmomü
us&IH;onf[kod&\/ trSeftwdkif;ajym&vQif uREkfyftzdkU&mü yx0D0if
bmom&yfuJUodkU ajcmufaoGUNiD;aiGUí pdwf0ifpm;rI enf;yg;aom
bmom&yfonf r&Sdacs/ þjynfrS bm0w¦Kypönf;xGufonf? xkdjynfrS
bmukefxGufonfqdkjcif;rsm;udk rSwfom;&jcif;uJUodkU t"dyÜg,fr&Sdaom
ynm&yfonf avmuür&Sdawmh[k xifcJUrdygonf/ pdwf0ifpm;rI&SdrS
avhvmrSwfpm;csifwwfaom uREkfy\
f 0goemt&qdkvQif aemufwESpfü
atmifcJUjcif;onfyif tHUzG,fwckjzpfawmhonf/

152 
r[mt&SufuJG&ykH

aemufwESpfü atmifcJU&ykHrSm þodkUwnf;/ xdkESpfürl 9 wef;ausmif;


om;rsm;onf yx0D0ifbmom&yfwGif tust&IH;rsm;vSonfqdkum (udkazESifh
tjcm;vlrsm;vnf; yx0D0if bmom&yfüyif us&IH;Muonf/) ausmif;tkyfBuD;
rpöwm x&pfbvD  (Mr.  Tribolet)  udk,fwdkif 9wef;wGif yx0D0ifbmom&yf
udkoifjy\/ (awmfawmfvnf; rSwfrdwwfaom vlBuD;wa,mufygay)
waeUoü twef;xJwGif q&mBuD;onf uREkfyftm; jyifopfjynfajrykHudk
qGJNyD; yg&pfNrdKU? bdk'dkNrdKU? wlvGefNrdKU ponfrsm;ESifh wuG qD;efjrpfudkyg
xnfhay;&ef oifykef;BuD;qDokdU vTwfvkduf\/ þtawmtwGif;ü q&mBuD;
onf tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;tm; yx0D0ifESifhywfoufí þtaMumif;rsm;udk
ar;jref;jcif;? ajymqdkjcif;ponfjzifh ppfaq;vsuf&Sd\/ uREkfyfrlum;
ausmufoifykef;BuD;wGif acR;wvkH;vkH;ESifh&yfum ajrykHqGJzdkU BudK;pm;vsuf&Sd\/
uREkfyfrSm jyifopfjynf\ ykHoP²mefudkvnf;aumif;? qD;effjrpf\ pD;qif;ykH
udkvnf;aumif;? yg&pfpaom NrdKUrsm;\wnf&SdykH taetxm;udkvnf;aumif;
vkH;0yif pdwfxJü azmfír&aomaMumifh acR;usvsuf&Sdjcif;jzpf\/ aemufqkH;ü
]wwfEdkifygbl;}[k atmufarhum jyifopfjynf\ykHoP²mefudk av;axmifh
pyfpyfqJGí jrpfESifhNrdKUrsm;udk xnfhcsif&m xnfhxm;vdkuf\/ q&mBuD;onf
uREkfyftm; ausmcdkif;vsuf&Sd&m ausmif;om; rsm;rlum; uRekfyfbuf
odkUvSnfhum xdkifvsuf&SdMuonfESifh uREkfyf\jyifopfjynfykHudk jrifM u&í
wcpfcpf&,faeMuavNyD/ þwGif q&mBuD;onf uREkfyf\ajrykHudk
vSnfhíMunhfvdkufonfESifhwNydKifeuf wwef;vkH; a0gueJ &,fMuav\/
uRekfyf\ ausmif;oufwavQmufvkH;wGif þtBudrfuJUodkU ]t&l;jzpf}&jcif;udk
rBuKHcJU&bl;acs/ olwyg;tm;om &,fEdkifcJUí udk,fwkdifcH&jcif;rlum;

153 
þwBudrf tqdk;qkH;jzpfygonf/ &SufvkdufykHrSmvnf; ajymzG,f&mr&Sd?
q&mBuD; vSnfhírMunfhrD uREkfyfwudk,f vkH; Murf;jyifxJazmufNyD;
ajrrsKdoGm;vQif aumif;vdrfhrnfxifcJUrd\/ trSefrSm uREkfyfonf ykHwl
a&;qJGjcif;ü tvGefnHUzsif;í okH;wef;ausmif;om;uav; wa,mufavmufrQ
ajrykHudk rqGJwwfcJUyg/

Budrf;armif;jcif;cH&ykH

ausmif;om;rsm;onf q&mBuD;yg &,fvdrfhrnf txifESifh vGwfvyfpGm


&,fvdkufrdMuav&m tvGefpdwfqdk;aom q&mBuD;rsufESmudk jrifvkdufMu&
onfwGifrS ,wdjywf toHwdwfoGm;Muavawmh\/ xdkUaemufq&mBuD;u
uREkfyftm; ]]rif; t*Fvdyfpm b,favmufawmfaeayr,fh yx0D0if
ratmifvQifb,fawmhrS rif;ratmifEdkifbl;? aiGwq,fudk a&xJvTifhypfwmeJU
twlwlyJ}}[k ajym\/ (xdkacwfü b*Fvm;pmar;yGJ0ifaMu;rSm aiGwq,f
jzpfonf/) trsm;tm;jzifh vlawmfuav; vkyfvmcJUaom uREkfyfrSm
tvGef&SufonfESifh rsuf&nfrsm; 0dkif;vsuf&SdavNyD/ þwGifrS q&mBuD;u
]]wckawmh&Sdyg&JU rif;u &mZ0ifawmh enfenf;awmfw,f? yx0D0iftwGuf
trSwfudk &mZ0ifeJU&atmif vkyf,layawmh? 'gyJ&SdwmyJ}}[k ajymav\/
yx0D0ifESifh &mZ0ifrSm xdkacwfwGif wwGJwnf; jyKvkyfxm;aomaMumifh
q&mBuD;ajymonfhtwdkif; &mZ0ifudkom zdíBudK;pm;jcif;tm;jzifh 9
wef;atmifcJU&ygawmhonf/

154 
ynmpkHoifjyaom udkaz

uREkfyfESifh cifrifonf[k azmfjycJUaom ausmif;om;okH;a,mufteuf


armif&Dwa,mufwnf; atmifoGm;í pufacGrSm ao&SmNyDjzpf&m uREkfyfESifh
udkazwdkUom usefavawmhonf/ uREkfyfrSm 5 wef;wGifwBudrf? 9 wef;wGif
wBudrf us&IH;cJUNyD;aomfvnf; twef;xJwGif ti,fqkH;wa,mufjzpfaeao;í
q&mtif;*vpfpfu  (Little  Fellow)  aumifi,fuav; wa,muf[k
ac:onfhtwdkif;vlwdkif;uac:Mu\/ 9 wef;atmifonfhESpfwGifrS NAKef;ueJ
xGm;vmí 5 ayESifh 10 vufr&Sd t&yfjrifholwa,mufjzpfvmcJU&m
twef;xJürl ]tnufqkH;}vluav;wa,muf jzpfcJUojzifh abmvkH;upm;jcif;
tvkyfrsKd;udk ta0;rS armfhMunfh&kHom wwfEdkifcJUygonf/ udkazESifh uREkfyfrSm
]uHwltusKd;ay;}us&IH;cJU&jcif;jzpfí wa,mufESifhwa,muf ydkrdkwG,fwmrI
&SdvmNyD;vQif wa,muf\tdfrfodkU wa,mufvmí twlwuG pmusufMu
avonf/ udkazonf uREkfyfxufvnf;BuD;í tawmf]pkH}aom ausmif;om;
BuD;wa,muf jzpfonfhtavsmuf bm*smqJGjcif; paom *DwtvkyfrsKd;
wGifomru ydk;yef;jcif;qdkif&m ]jrm#Dum}ESifh ywfoufívnf; wwGwfwGwf
oifjyay; avonf/ odkU&mwGif uREkfyfrSm ]q&maumif;wynfh} ryDojcif;udk
a&SUwavQmufwGif awGU&ygvdrfhrnf/

tNydKiftqdkif pma&;jcif;

uREkfyfwkdUoli,fcsif; av;a,mufwGJwGif pufacGuG,fvGefí armif&D


wa,mufwnf; 9wef;atmifNyD; &efukefNrdKU ]bufywpf}aumvdyfodkU
tdkifatoif&ef a&mufoGm;av&m uREkfyfESifharmif&DwdkUonf tawmfrSefrSef

155 
t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh pmay;pm,ljyKvkyfMu\/ xdkacwfu t*Fvdyfvdk 8wef;?
9wef;a&mufí rawmufwacguf a&;wwfonfqdkvQifyif t*Fvdyfvdk
pmay;pm,lvkyfMuaom tavhtx&SdMu\/ jrefrmvdkavhusifhol[lí
wa,mufrQ rawGUcJU&ay/ uREkfyfrSmvnf; t*Fvdyfpmudkom cspfwwfí
t*Fvdyf0w¦Krsm;udkomzwfNyD; t*Fvdyfvdkom( acwftm;avsmfpGm) avhusifh
vmcJUonfhtwdkif; pma&;jcif;tm;jzifh toufarG;&vQif jrefrmpma&;q&m
wa,muf\b0udk tdyfrufrQyif rrufcJUay/ xdktcsdefwGif BuD;yGm;xGef;um;
aeaom jrefrmpma&;q&m[lívnf; rawGU&bl;ao;onfESifh pdwful;rxnfh
cJUrdacs/ rdbrsm;rSm pD;yGm;a&; rcdkifvkHvSaomaMumifh p&dwf tukeftus
rsm;onfh aumvdyfausmif;om;tjzpfudk rarQmrSef;Edkifojzifh t*Fvdyfvdk
pma&;q&mjzpfzdkU BuH&G,fcsuf rxm;0HUyg/ wwfEdkifvQif jzpfvdkjcif; udkom
azmfjyjcif;jzpfygonf/ armif&Donf &efukefNrdKU bufywpfaumvdyf
taMumif;rsm;udk uREkfyfxHokdU pma&;avh&Sd&m uREkfyfuvnf; a&S;a[mif;
aESmif;jzpfrsm;udk a&;ydkUavh&Sd\/ uRekfyfwdkU\pmrsm;rSm t*Fvdyfvdk
a&;Mu&kHomru wwfEdkiforQ taumif;qkH;jzpfatmif tjyeftvSefa&;Mu
jcif;jzpfonfudk uREkfyfa&molyg od&SdMuí 4if;pmrsm;udk odrf;qnf;xm;&ef
ESpfOD;vkH; uwdjyKMubl;avonf/ þodkUjzifh armif&D bDatatmifonfhwdkif
atmif uREkfyfESifhpmay;pm,l vkyfcJU&m uREkfyfuvnf; xdktawmtwGif;ü
t*Fvdyf0w¦Kaumif;BuD; tajrmuftjrm; zwfxm;onfjzpfaomaMumifh
armif&Dudk,fwdkifu azmfxkwfcsD;usL;bl;avonf/ ]]igwkdUbDatatmifw,f
qdkayr,fh rxl;ygbl;uGm? rif;vJ igwdkUvdk a&;Edkif'gygyJ? rifhpmawGudk igu
ausmif;om;awGudk jy&ao;w,f? igwkdUtnmom;awGudk txifrao;atmif
vkdU}}[k armif&Duajymbl;\/ (uRekfyfonf armif&D\pmrsm;udk uwdtwdkif;

156 
odrf;qnf;xm;&m ppftwGif;wGif ajy;&vTm;&rIaMumifh aysmufqkH;ukefcJU
ygavNyD/)

jzLpifaomarwÅm

1905ckESpfü vGefyGJwGif rsufESmcsif;qdkifcJUbl;onfh rdef;uav;onf


1908ckESpfü uREkfyf 9wef;atmifaomtcgwGif ola&m uREkfyfyg tysKdvlysKd
uav;awGjzpfukefMuavNyD/ þokH;ESpfrQaom tcsdefumvtwGif; uREkfyf
onf olUrsufESmudk tenf;qkH; waeUwBudrfjrif&atmif BudK;pm;í rjrif&
vQifausauseyfeyf rtdyfEdkifyJjzpfcJU\/ uREkfyf\arwÅmum;ajymí r,kHEdkif
avmufatmifjzLpifygonf/ uREkfyfrSm udkazESifh udkzkd;0dkufwkdU\ ]vufcsm}rsm;
udk Mum;em&jcif;aMumifha,musfm;ESifhrdef;r cspfBudKufMu&mwGif vdifjyóem
\ &nf&G,f&if;oabmudkem;vnfNyD;jzpfygonf/ odkUESifhvnf; uREkfyfonf
xdkrdef;uav;taMumif;ESifh ywfoufí pdwful;,Ofrdaom tcgrsm;wGif
npfnrf;aom pdwful;rsKd;vkH;0ryg&Sd/ rsufESmcsif;qdkifxdkifNyD; Munfhaecsifaom
qE´rsKd;xufrausmfvGefbl;aMumif; ajym&Jygonf/ cspfBudKufcef;rsm;vSaom
yoDykHjyif 0w¦Krsm;udk zwf&IqJ zwf&Icdkufrsm;üyif 4if;rdef;uav;tm;owd&í
Zmwfvkdufae&müxm;um pdwful;,Ofavh&Sdaomf vnf; &kefU&if;Murf;wrf;
onfh &m*ESifhywfoufaom pdwful;w&HwqpfrQ rjzpfay:bl;jcif;udkvnf;
(,kHcsifrS ,kHMuap) &J&Jyif a&;vkduf&ygonf/ þudpörsKd;ESifh ywfoufí
uREkfyf\ pdwfxm;jzLpifjcif;udk om"uwck wifjy&aomf xdkacwfü
umvom;rsm;onf rnfonfhrdef;uav;um; ]umwpf}aumif;onf?
cg;ao;í&ifcsDNyD; zGrf  (Form)  awmifhwif;onf ponfrsm;jzifh
csD;usL;pum;ajymoH Mum;&onfhtcg uREkfyf\pdwfxJü ]'DvlawG[m

157 
bmawGrsm; &Sm&SmazGazG csD;rGrf;aeMuygvdrfhr,f}[k tHUMordygonf/
(uREkfyfoabmusaom rdef;uav;onf txufyg t*Fg&yfrsm;ESifh jynfhpkHjcif;
udk aemiftcgrS jyefawG;í ay:vmaomfvnf; a&S;OD;pGm BudKufrdpOfurl
þtaMumif;udk vkH;0*&krpdkuf owdr&cJUjcif; rSefygonf/) t&yfxJwGif
*dkufqdkfuftusqkH;? udk,fvkH;udk,fayguf tvSqkH;? Munfhí taumif;qkH;
jzpfonf[k uREkfyf\ rdcifudk,fwdkifu csD;rGrf;jcif;udk uREkfyfMum;7bl;í
0rf;omrdaomfvnf; uREkfyf\pdwful;xJwGif &m*pdwfray:/ þodkUaom
rdef;uav;udk Munfhcsifwdkif;MunfhEdkifrnfh olUcifyGef; jzpfzdkUavmufudkom
arQmfvifhcsuf xm;cJUygonf/

Munfhaumif;vkdufykHu

rMumao;rDu oddef;azjrifha&;onfh ]tar}taMumif;udk zwfMunfh&m


wGif uREkfyfESifhpdwful;csif;wkdfufqdkifykHudk owd&í NyKH;rdygao;onf/
odef;azjrifhrSm olUtaz ajrwdkif;pma&;BuD;\ q&mocifjzpfonfh rsufESmjzL
v,f0efudk txifBuD;cJUbl;onfESifh v,f0ef\ ]acs;}onf b,fvdkrsm;
&Sdacsrnfenf;[k wrifwum Munfhbl;onfqdk\/ uREkfyfrSmvnf; þuJUodkU
wrifwumrMunfhbl;apumrl rdef;uav;\acs;onf tjcm;vlrsm;\
acs;uJUodkU eHaumif;rSeHvdrfhrnf/ olUacs;rlum; b,fenf;ESifhrQ eHvdrfhrnf
r[kwf/ zkówDa'0D\ udk,feHUuJUodkU cyfoif;oif;&Sd&rnf? cHwGif;eHUrSmvnf;
arT;BudKifaevdrfhrnf/ eHeuftdyf&mrSxcgpwGif tjcm;rdef;rrsm;uJUokdU rIefrIef
okefokef r[kwf? rzD;rvdrf;yJESifh MunfMunf&Tif&Tif oyfoyf&yf&yf&Sd&rnf
ponfrsm;jzifh pdwful;rdbl;ygonf/ þrdef;uav;\ ]Munfhaumif;}jcif;um;
vlwdkif;ucsD;rGrf;oHMum;&yg\/ uREkfyftzdkU&mürl olUxufvSaom rdef;rrsm;

158 
udk xdkpOfuvnf;aumif;? xdkUaemufüvnf;aumif; awGU&bl;yg\/ okdU&m
wGif oluJUokdU tqifajyí ]Munfhaumif;}aom rdef;r[líum;wa,mufrQyif
rawGU&bl;yg/ tjcm;aom a,musmf;rsm;vnf; udk,fh&nf;pm;udk þtwdkif;
yifrSwfxifMuavoavm rajymwwfay/

159 
'kwd,ydkif;

azodef;rS armifazodef;odkU

uREkfyf\woufwmwGif u@ig;ckcGJí a&;om;vdk\/ (1)azodef;?


(2)armifazodef;? (3)udkazodef;? (4)OD;azodef;? (5)q&mBuD;[lí
ig;ydkif;cJGjcm; vdk\/ ausmif;om;t&G,f wavQmufvkH;wGif (xdkacwfu xkH;pH
twdkif;) uREkfyftm; ausmif;om;tcsif;csif;u ]azodef;} [lícsnf;ac:Mu\/
rdbq&m orm;ESifh ausmif;om;tcsif;csif; ]armif}wyfíac:ol &Sm;yg;vS
onf/ 9wef;atmifíausmif;rSxGufonfwGif rdbrsm;udk,fwdkifu ]armifaz
odef;} [kjyifqifac:iifjcif;udk uREkfyfrSwfrday&m xdktcsdefrSpí vlwdkif;uyif
]azodef;}rac:awmhyJ armifazodef; jzpfvmavNyD/ xdkUaemuf touf 30
eD;vmí (ol&d,wdkufodkUa&mufí) tcsif;csif;u ]udkazodef;} ac:Muonfh
t&G,fokdU a&mufvm&jyefonf/ 50ausmft&G,frS pírl ]OD;azodef;}jzpfvm í
60 ausmfonfhaemufwGifrlum; ]q&mBuD;}[k ac:a0:ol rsm;vmcJUavNyD/
okdUjzpfí uREkfyf\woufwmrSwfwrf;udk wifjy&mwGif txufygtwdkif;
u@ig;ckcJGí azmfjyrnfjzpfygonf/ þpmt&rSm uREkfyfonf 'kwd,t&G,f
okdU a&mufíazodef;rS armifazodef; jzpfvmcJUygavNyD/

taMumif;BuD;av;&yf

]armifazodef;}jzpfvmaom þu@wGif uRekfyfonf vGefcJUNyD;aom


azodef;b0ESifh ywfoufonfh tawG;tac:rsm; jzpfay:vmjcif;udk wifjy&yg
OD;rnf/ azmfjyvwHUaom tjcif;t&mrsm;rSm pmayusrf;*efrsm;rS awGU&Sdjcif;

160 
vnf;r[kwf? taemufwdkif;ynm&Sdrsm;xHrS vufcH&&Sdjcif;vnf;r[kwf?
uREkfyf\tawGUtBuKHrsm;t& tajccHíjzpfay:vmonfh uREkfyftawG;tac:
oufoufrQom jzpfygaomaMumifh BudKufrSvnf; vufcHEdkifonf/
rBudKufvQif y,fEdkifMuygonf/ uREkfy\
f wifjycsufrSm vlowÅ0gonf
av;ckaom taMumif;wkdUaMumifh vlawmf? vla&Smf? vlaumif;? vlqdk;? vl&Iyf?
vlvnf? vl&dk;? vlrdkuf ponfjzifh trsKd;rsKd;jzpfvmMuonf[k qdkvdkygonf/
xdkav;ckwdkUum; (1) rdcifxHrS&aomt&nftcsif;rsm;? (2) zcifxHrSqufcH
&&Sdonfh aumif;qdk;t&nftcsif;rsm;? (3) owÅ0gudk,fEIdufub0tpOf
tquf vdkufygvmonfh 0goemaumif;qdk;rsm;? (4) ywf0ef;usif\jyKjyifrI
aMumifh jzpf&onfh aumif;qdk; tcsuftvufrsm;[lí&dS&m tqdkygav;ck\
a&maESmaygif;pyfrIonf ]azodef;}wnf;[laom t&G,f (ausmif;xGufcsdef
txd) vluav;wa,muf jzpfvm&onf[kqdkvdk\/ þtaMumif;w&m;
av;ckwdkUonf ]azodef;}wnf;[laom t&G,ftwGif;ü uREkfyf\a&G;cs,frIryg/
a&G;cs,fcGifhaumif;pGmr&&SdyJ twdwfuHu ypfcsvdkuf onfhtwdkif;
jzpfvm&awmhonf[k qdkvdkygonf/ odkU&mwGif þtaMumif;udk
a&SUtzdkUwGifrS qufvuf&Sif;jyrnfjzpfí þae&mü þrQESifhom jzwfxm;&yg
OD;rnf/

zcifxHrS&aomtarG

(1)zcifxHrS qufcH&&Sdonf[k uREkfyf,lqonfh aumif;qdk;tjcif;t&m


rSm (u)aMumufwwfjcif;? (c)ESajrmwwfjcif;? (*)&dk;jcif;  (Simpleness) 

wdkUjzpf\/ (u)aMumufwwfjcif;rSm zcifxHrS qufcH& &Sdonf qdkaomfvnf;


uREkfyfonf rdrd\ aMumufwwfjcif;twGuf auseyfrI r&Sd? zcifurl

161 
]aMumufwwf0efuif;}qdkaom pum;twdkif; auseyfpGm vufcH\/ okdUjzpfí
uREkfyftzdkUrSm 0rf;xJüaMumufwwfaomfvnf; xdktjcif;t&mudk rBudKuf
aomaMumifh BudK;pm;NyD;&J&\/ Oyrm wapäaMumufaomf vnf;ajcmufwwf
onfqdkaom ae&modkU pGefUpm;NyD;oGm;\/ aoewfrudkif wwfyJrkqdk;rsm;ESifh
awmvdkufvnf\/ þonfwkdUrSm pGefUpm;cef;0w¦Krsm; zwfjcif;?
a&;jcif;wkdUaMumifh jzpfay:vmonfhpdwf"mwfjzpfayonf/ (c)ESajrmwwfjcif;
wckrSm Mumavqdk;avjzpfvmonfudk awGU&\/ bdk;BuD;tdk jzpfvmaom
þtcsdefwGif pD;yGm;pkzdkU r[kwfaomfvnf; tdkcgrS vufrUJjzpfNyD;
qif;&JrnfudkaMumufonfESifh i,fpOfuxuf vufwGefUvsuf&Sd\/ (*)&dk;jcif;
[lonfrSm ]&dk;om;jcif;}ESifh wjcm;pDjzpf\/ zciftzdkUrSm &dk;jcif;a&m
&dk;om;jcif;yg&Sdaomfvnf; uREkfyfrlum; &dk;jcif;udkomqufcHí &dk;om;jcif;
rlum; tvkyform;rsm;ESifh zufvSJwuif;aecJU&jcif;aMumifh zcif\tqifh
twef;udk rrSDawmhyg/ okdU&mwGif olvdk igvdk vlwa,mufavmufawmh
&dk;om;ygao; onf/ þonfrSmvnf; tvkyform;rsm;xHrS ul;pufvm
jcif;rsm;udk 0w¦Kaumif;rsm;jzifh wkdufzsufEdkifaomaMumifhjzpfygonf/
zcifuJUokdU]&dk;jcif;} rSmvnf; uREkfyf\tvkyfoabmjzifh wdkufzsufcJUygNyD/
pma&;q&m? owif;pmq&mwa,muf taejzifh ]vl&dk;}vkyfaeírjzpf?
]&dk;om;jcif;}um; jzpfEdkifygonf/ em;vnfM uapvdkonfrSm ]&dk;om;jcif;}onf
csD;rGrf;xdkufo avmuf ]&dk;jcif;}onf EkH&m t&ma&mufawmhonf/

rdcifxHrS &aomtarG

(2) rdcifxHrS qufcH&&SdcJUonfh qdk;aumif; tarGrsm;rSmum;


(u)pdfwfqufí jzpfrdvQifZGwfrSdwfvkyfcsifwwfjcif;? (c)rme&Sdí pdwfBuD;0if

162 
wwfjcif;? (*)r[kwfrcHcsifwwfjcif;wdkU jzpfavonf/ ]azodef;}t&G,fwGif
4if;tcsif;t&mrsm;onf uREkfyfü tjynfht0&Sdí BuD;jyif;vmaomtcgürl?
aemufxyfawGU&onfh tjzpftysufwdkUaMumifh twdk;tavsmh&Sdvmygonf/
(C)a'goESifhywfoufírlavQmhvQif aumif;onf[k em;vnfvmojzifh
(wu,favQmhjcif; ravQmhjcif;udk tyxm;í) BudK;pm;yg\/ (i)rmeESifh
ywfoufírl rBudK;pm;rdonfhtwGufaMumifh wkd;íyif wufvmonf xifyg
\/ (p)r[kwfrcHcsifwwfjcif;rlum; aemufydkif;wGif tusKd;&Sdr&SdcsifhcsdefzdkU
owdxm;&ef BudK;pm;&aumif;rSef; odvmygonf/ þtjcif;t&monf
aumif;onf[lí vnf;aumif;? raumif;[lívnf;aumif; wxpfcs
qkH;jzwfoifhaom t&mwck r[kwf[lí ,lqvmygonf/ odkU&mwGif
uREkfyf\ pdwfxJü&Sdaom oabmxm;udk zGifha&;&rnf qdkygrlum; uREkfyfonf
(udk,fwdkif rwwfEdkifawmhrS&Sdap) r[kwfrcHcsifwwfjcif; wnf;[laom
pdwfxm;rsKd;&Sdolwa,muftm; vIdufvIdufvSJvSJ MunfndKwwfonfh oabm
xm;&Sdygonf/

oHo&mtpOfu ygvmjcif;

(3) uREkfyfü b0tpOftqufrS vdkufygvmonf[k ,lqonfh 0goem


aumif;qdk;rsm;rSm (u)tazmfaumif;vQif bmrqdkjyKcsifwwfonfh rBuHU
cdkifaompdwf"mwf (txl;ojzifh raumif;aombufü omí ]tnSmvG,f}
wwfonf/) (c)bmrqdkodcsifí pl;prf;csifwwfaom pdwfrsKd;? (*)tqef;
topfqdkvQif (tusKd;&Sdr&Sdtyxm;í) jrnf;prf;csifwwfaom0goem?
(C)olwyg;\xifjrifcsufudk*&krpdkuf? rdrd\,kHMunfcsuftwdkif; usifhBuHcsif
wwfjcif;wdkU jzpfavonf/ (u)rBuHUcdkifaompdwf[lonfrSm raumif;jcif;

163 
oufouf[lí qdk&ayrnf/ þpdwfonf uREkfyf\avmuBuD; yGm;a&;udk
trsm;qkH;zsufqD;\/ BuD;jyif;vmaomtcgü jyKjyifzdkU BudK;pm;aomf vnf;
atmifjrifrIenf;vSonf/ (c)bmrqdkodcsifí pl;prf;csifwwfaom
pdwfrsKd;onf qdk;onf[k rqdkoifh? aumif;usKd;yif ay;wwfyg\/ (*)tqef;
topf jrnf;prf;csifwwfaom 0goemaMumifh taumif;a&mtqdk;ygBuKHcJU&
bl;yg\/ (C)udk,fh,kHMunfcsuftwdkfif; usifhBuHwwfjcif;rSm tcsKdUu
]acgif;rmonf}[kqdkMurnfjzpfaomfvnf; udk,fh[mudk,fawmh auseyfvsuf
&Sdygonf/ udk,fh,kHMunfcsuftwdkif; usifhBuHrdjcif;aMumifh 'ku©awGU&onfjzpf
ap? vluJU&JUcH&onfjzpfap cH&e toifh&Sdygonf/ ,aeUwdkifvnf;
aemifwr&yg/

ywf0ef;usif\jyKjyifrIESpfrsKd;

(4) ywf0ef;usif\ jyKjyifrIqdkonfudkrl ESpfydkif;cJGí azmfjyvdk\/


(u)rdrdu a&G;cs,fcGifhr&SdyJtaMumif;tm;avsmfpGm cH&jcif;? (c)rdrdudk,füu
BudKufESpfoufí vufcHjcif;[lí ydkif;jcm;vdk\/ (u)rdrdu a&G;cs,fcGifhr&SdyJ
taMumif;tm;avsmfpGmcH&jcif;[lonfrSm rdbrsm;\ qkH;ryJUjyifrIESifh
xdef;odrf; tkyfcsKyfrIwdkUtjyif i,f&G,fpOfu tawGUtBuKHrsm;vnf; yg0if\/
uREkfyf\ obm0ü wacsmif;NyD; wacsmif; aygufa&mufvmcJUonfh
]ql;}rsm;rSm uREkfyfu jyKjyifEdkifjcif;r&Sd? ]ta&rxl}onfh i,f&G,fEke,faom
t&G,fwGif rnfolrqdk xdkuJUodkU awGUBuKHcHpm;&ygu uREkfyfuJUodkUyif jzpfvm
zkdU rsm;ayvdrfhrnf/ oli,fbm0 upm;jrL;wl;jcif;onf tvsif;tusKd;r&Sd
[laomzcif\ qkH;renf;onfvnf; uREkfyfbmrQrwwfEdkifyJ cH&í uREkfyftm;
]pdwfcsOf}aygufap\/ tvkyform;rsm;\ npfcsif? ESyfcsif? avmif;upm;csif

164 
aom tavhtusifhrsm; ul;pufjcif;onfvnf; uREkfyfbmrQrwwfEdkifyJ
cHvdkuf&jcif;jzpf\/ rnfonfholi,frqdk uREkfyfuJU odkU tvkyform;rsm;ESifh
vufyGef;wwD; ae&onfqdkvQif uREkfyfuJUokdUyif jzpfvmzdkU rsm;ayvdrfhrnf/
okdUjzpfí ]azodef;t&G,f} wavQmufvkH;wGif uREkfyfonf ywf0ef;usif\
jyKjyifrIudk bmrQrwwfEdkifyJ cHcJU&jcif;jzpfonf[k qdkvdkyg\/ yrmqdkaomf
jrpfaMumif;wGifa&;pD;tvdkufarsmyg&onfh azmifESifhwlygonf/

awmfvSefEdkifavmufonfhywf0ef;usif

(c) ausmif;xGufí armifazodef;t&G,fodkU a&mufvmaomtcgrl


jrpfaMumif;wGifa&pD;tvdkuf arsmyg&apumrlvnf; azmifESifhrwlyJ avSmfwuf
yJUwuftjynfhtpkHygonfhavSESifh wlygawmhonf/ xdkt&G,fürl tvkyform;
rsm; tv,fü ypfcscH&jcif;rsKd; r[kwfyJ taygif;toif;udk rdrd\oabm
twdkif; a&G;cs,fEdkifcGifh&SdcJUavNyD/ azodef;t&G,fü jyKcJUbl;onfh trSm;rsm;
twGuf rdrdudk,fudk tjypfrqdkcsifaomfvnf; armifazodef;t&G,frS pí
woufomvkH;\ trSm;rsm;twGufrl wm0ef,lzdkU 0efav;vdrfhrnf r[kwfyg/
xdktcsdefrSpí trSm;r&Sdawmh? vlvdrfrmwa,mufjzpfvmawmhonf [kajymqdk
vdkonf rxifMuygavESifh/ BuD;us,faom trSm;BuD;rsm;vnf; rSm;cJUyg
onf/ ydkif;jcm;í azmfjyajymqdkvdkonf rxifMuygavESifh/ BuD;us,faom
trSm;BuD;rsm;vnf; rSm;cJUygonf/ ydkif;jcm;íazmfjy&jcif;rSm rdrdtwGuf
toa&qnfvdkjcif;r[kwf? vl\obm0udk uREkfyfem;vnfovdk &Sif;vif;
atmifwifjyvdkaomaMumifhrQomjzpfyg\/ okdU&mwGifi,fpOfu aygufcJUonfh
ql;rsm; twGufrlum; uREkfyfbmrQrwwfEkdif/ ]]rsufESmcsKduav; ESifh
EIwfvQmcsKdí oabmaumif;vSygonf}}qkdaom vlwa,mufjzpfzdkUrlum;

165 
rnfonfhenf;ESifhrQ uREkfyfrwwfEdkifawmhNyD/ (jzLaumifonf ,kefuav;
jzpfrvmEkdifouJUodkUyif/) odkU&mwGif pmtkyfaumif;rsm; zwf&jcif; aMumifh
aemufydkif;ü topfxyfrH&&Sdonfh vlUobm0 oabmw&m;rsm;udkrl
oufqdkif&m tydkif;wGifrS azmfjyygOD;rnf/

acwfynmwwf&Sm;aomacwf

1908ckESpfwGif 9 wef;atmifjrifcJUavNyD/ þacwfwuúodkvf0ifpmar;


yGJatmifjrifolrsm;ESifh xdkacwfu atmifjrifolrsm;rSm ]rsufESmyGifh}&mü
rEIdif;,SOfEdkifatmif uGmjcm;\/ xdkacwfurl b*Fvm;pmar;yJGac: 9
wef;atmifol tvGef&Sm;ao;\/ tar&duefausmif;rSESpfpOf 9 wef;orm;
av;ig;&Spfa,mufrQ ajzqdkMu&m wESpfrS wa,mufwavrQom atmifaom
ESpfaygif; woDwwef;BuD;&SdcJUbl;\/ uREkfyfwdkUESpfurl 11a,mufoGif;í
2a,mufwnf;usNyD; 9a,mufatmifaomESpfjzpfí ausmif;tkyfBuD;
vufyef;aygufcwfcsifrwwfjzpfonf[k Mum;vkduf&\/ txufjrefrmjynf
rSm xdkpOfut*Fvdyfpmwwf tvGef&Sm;ao;í av;ig;wef;rQESifh rD;&xm;&kHydkif?
oabFmpma&;? NrdKUtkyfpma&;? ukrÜPDpma&;? ajrwdkif;pma&;ponfjzifh
jzpfEdkifMuay&m ta&;ydkif&kH;rsm;üyif 7wef;atmifaom pma&;BuD;rsm;
rif;rlEdkifaomacwfjzpfavonf/ a&S;OD;pGm aiGpm&if;rif;BuD;jzpfí xdkaemufü
&efukefaumfydka&;&Sif; rif;BuD;jzpfvmonfh OD;qufrSm yxrOD;pGm bDat
atmifaom txufjrefrmjynfom;qdkíNAdwdoQ tpdk;&\ txl;csD;ajrSmuf
jcif;cH&\/ jrefrmvlrsKd;teufrS yxrOD;pGm &mZ0wf0efBuD;  (D.S.P.) 

cefUxm;jcif;cH&onfh OD;xGef;rif;rSmvnf; txufjrefrmjynfom;rsm; teufrS


yxrOD;pGm 9wef;atmifoljzpfí 9wef;atmifvufrSwfudk bk&ifcH

166 
udk,fwdkifu tcrf;tem;ESifh tyfESif;onf[k Mum;&bl;avonf/ (þacwf
9wef;orm;rsm;um; vljzpfaemufusonf[k atmufarh&SmMurnfxifonf/)

rD;yGifhatmifvnfjcif;

uRekfyf 9wef;atmifaomtcsdefü rdbrsm;onf zdeyfaxmifq&mtvkyf


udk pGefUvTwfí rEÅav;rS 0ufvufodkUajymif;a&TUNyD;vQif ]csdwfukefwkdufukef}
yGJpm;tvkyfudk vkkyfudkifvsuf &SdMuavNyD/ rdbrsm;onf uREkfyftm; &efukef
aumvdyfausmif;okdUydkU&ef pdwful;&Sdbl;aomfvnf; pD;yGm;a&;tajctae
raumif;ojzifh rwwfEdkifyJ&SdcJU\/ odkUjzpfíuREkfyfonf ausmif;xGufaom
tcsdefrSmyif tpDtpOfr&SdyJ 0ufvufodkUrvdkufrlí rEÅav;NrdKUwGif zcif\
nD0rf;uJGwa,muf\tdrfü wnf;cdkum Ak'¨bmom ausmif;wGifausmif;q&m
uav;0ifívkyf\/ vcokH;q,frQ&aomfvnf; tawmfuav; okH;avmuf
aomacwfjzpfí BudKufovdk vnfEdkifywfEdkif\/ rdbrsm;uvnf;
pmar;yJGatmifaomaMumifh bdkifpu,f topfwpD;0,fay;cJU&m uREkfyfrSm
zcif\usyfwnf;aom xdef;odrf;jcif;rS vGwfajrmufonfwaMumif;?
waeUvQif rkefUbdk; 6 jym;rQ&mom &cJU&mrS waeUvQif wpfusyf okH;Edkifojzifh
azmazmoDoD jzpfvmonfwaMumif;? bdfkifpu,ftopfwpD; &onf
waMumif;aMumifh (xdkacwfwGif rEÅav;NrdKUü vlwdkif; bdkifpu,f
pD;Edkifonfr[kwf? þacwf *spfum;pD;Edkifjcif;xuf rsufESm&Sdonf/ uREkfyfwdkU
t&yfxJwGif &kH;pma&;oli,fcsif;wa,mufrSwyg; uREkfyfwa,mufwnf;om
bkdifpu,f&Sdonf/) vnfvkdufywfvkdufonfrSm rD;yGifhaeawmh\/
ausmif;wufcsdefESifh pm;csdeftdyfcsdefwkdUrSwyg; tvif;a&mif&SdorQ vnfawmh

167 
\/ rEÅav;NrdKUonf wjyywfvnf twGif;ü av;pdwf0if;rsm; &SdMuonf
csnf;jzpf&m rEÅav;üarG;NyD; tdkíao&olyifjzpfapumrl tqdkyg
av;pdwf0if;wdkif;odkU wNrdKUvkH;aphpkHatmif a&mufbl;olí wa,mufrQyif
&Sdvdrfhrnfrxifay/ uREkfyfrlum; bdkifpu,fopf&NyD;uwnf;u av;pdwf0if;
rsm;udk uGufpdyf&dkufNyD; trSwftom;ESifhwrifwum vSnfhvnfcJUbl;
onfjzpfí uREkfyfuJUodkU 0if;wkdif;ESHUpyfatmifa&mufcJUbl;ol &Sdvdrfhrnf
rxifay/

yJGMunhfESpf

ausmif;xGufNyD;í ausmif;q&mvkyfaomtcsdefwGif uREkfyfü rdwfaqG


opfrsm; wkd;yGm;vsuf&SdavNyD/ ausmif;om;b0ürl ausmif;om;tcsif;csif;rQ
omtaygif;toif;jyKvkyfcJUav&m ausmif;xGufNyD;onfhaemuf udkazrSm
vnf; ol\XmeD (rif;uif;)okdU jyefoGm;NyDjzpfíaps;csKdxJrS aps;onf
umvom; rsm;? þausmif;xdkausmif;rsm;rS ausmif;om;BuD;rsm;?
pma&;pmcsDuav;rsm;? ydkufqH&Sdaom rdbrsm;\om;awavuav;rsm;
ponfwkdUESifh tuRrf;w0ifjzpfcJU&avNyD/ þvlpkteufwGif uRekfyfuJUodkU
9wef;atmifol wa,mufrQ r&Sd? t*Fvdyfpmyif oifbl;Muol
enf;yg;vSaomaMumifh xdkolwkdUonf uREkfyftm; ]vlawmf}uav; wa,muf
taeESifh vufcHMuí 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;omrdwfzGJUMu\/ ]jrm}jyóemrsKd;rSwyg;
t&yf&yfA[kokwESifh qdkif&mwGif uREkfyf\pum;udkem,lMu\/ MunfhvdkufMu
onfhZmwfyJG? &kyfao;yJG? tNidrfh? &kHyJGqdkonfrsm;rSmvnf;wnrQ
rvkyfoavmufjzpf\/ woufvkH; pdwfcsufvufcs rMunfhcJU&orQ ,ckrS
twdk;ESifhcsí Munhf&\/ zdk;pdefBuD;? pdefuwkH;? atmifAvwnf;[laom

168 
ZmwfyJGrsm;? pdefa'G; pdefaX; wnf;[laom rdef;rZmwfrif;om;rsm;? q&myk?
udkbausmh? py,fouf? udkpdefcdk? udkzl;ndK? udkzkef;rdk;wnf;[laom
&kyfao;rsm;? pdefokH;BuD;? 'kwd,pdefokH? bdvyfjyefpdefwif? tvkHpdefwif?
pdefqif? tkef;pdef? jruav;? jraoG;? a&ausmfpdefyk? qDaMumf
{pdefwnf;[laom tNidrfhrsm;? cspfzG,f? cspfp&m?a&T'*Fg;? wufwdk;paom
tNidrfhvlysufrsm;udk ]a&vJESifh Munfhav awmhonf/ qlylrnfh vlvnf;r&Sd?
tcsdefuvnf;tm;vyf? ydkufqHraygapumrl okH;avmufpGJavmufvnf;&Sd?
vluvnf;usef;rm? t&G,fuvnf; EkysKdav&um; uREkfyfrSm
ausmif;rSxGufaomESpfonf uREkfyf\ woufwmwGif ]yJGMunfhESpf}[lí
ac:xdkfufayonf/

0w¦Kajymorm;b0

umvom;oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifh rawGU&aomtcsdefrsm;ESifh yGJrMunfhaom


nrsm;wGif uREkfyfonf yoDykHjyif0w¦K? tqifhtwef;rS wufvmcJUí
xdkacwfu tvGefemrnfBuD;vSonfh NAdwdoQeef;wGif; t&IyfawmfykHBuD; 
(Mysteries  of  the  Court  of  London)  0w¦KBuD;udkvnf;aumif;
vef'efNrdKUt&IyfawmfykHBuD;  (Mysteries  of  London)  0w¦KBuD;udkvnf; aumif;
nOfheufvSatmif zwf&I\/ vdifudpöESifh ywfoufí yoDykHjyif0w¦K rsm;onf
pdwf0ifpm;zG,f aumif;aomfvnf; uav;oli,ftqifhtwef;rQ om&Sdí
t&IyfawmfykH0w¦KBuD;rsm;um; umvom;t&G,fBudKuf jzpfonfESifh rtdyfyJ
zwf&rnfqdkygu zwfEdkifaom 0w¦KBuD;rsm;jzpf\/ tysKdvlysKd t&G,frsm;
tzdkU&mwGif &nf;pm;xm;csifpdwfjzpfay:vmatmif a&;om;onfh 0w¦KrsKd;udk
azmfjyygqdkvQif þ0w¦KBuD; ESpftkyfudk a&G;cs,f&ayvdrfhrnf/ þ0w¦KBuD;rsm;

169 
zwfbl;oltcsif;csif; pum;ajymMu&rnfqdkvQif rtdyfwrf; ajymEdkif\/ ajym
vnf;ajymcJUbl;\/ waeUoü uRekfyfonftwef;wl rdef;uav;wa,mufESifh
ppfudkif;awmif&dk;wGif qkHrdMuí þ0w¦KBuD;rsm;udk ESpfa,mufvkH; zwfbl;Mu
onfESifh xdkifíajymvdkufMu&m eHeufqGrf;csufol rsm;xMuaomtcgwGifrS
vluJU&JUrnfpdk;onfESifh tdyf&modkU0ifMu&onf/ rdef;uav;üvnf;aumif;?
uREkfyfüvnf;aumif; cspfBudKufol &SdESifhNyD;jzpfíom awmfawmhonf/
odkUr[kwfygvQif pdwfazmufjyefaumif;azmufjyefM uvdrfhrnf xif\/ tjcm;
vlysKduav;rsm;um; rajymwwf? uREkfyftzdkUrSmrl xdktcsdefü tvGefopöm&Sdí
]zGJESifhqefuJG}[laom pum;ykHtwdkif; oabmxm;rdygawmh onf/ wcgw&H
yJGr&Sdaomnrsm;wGif uREkfyfESifh umvom;wpkwdkUonf vomomü ckwifBuD;
ay:wGif yufvufvSefvsuf uREkfyfutxufyg t&IyfawmfykH0w¦KBuD;rsm;udk
ajymjyavh&Sd&m? twJGaygif; wq,fausmfpD&Sdaom 0w¦Krsm;jzpfygvsuf
tptqkH; jyefajymEdkifí okH;av;nrQ qufvuf ajym&avonf/ þonfrSm
umvom;rsm;tv,fwGif rsufESmyGifhvef;ap onfjzpfí uREkfyfuvnf;
armyef;onf[k ratmufarhcJUacs/

ydk;yef;olrsm;vSaom rdef;uav;

yJGvrf;obifrsm;odkUuREkfyfESifYoGm;twlvmtwljzpfí uREkfyfajymonfh
0w¦Krsm;udk em;axmif&ojzifh uREkfyftm; cifrifav;pm;Muonfh umvom;
oli,fcsif; &Spfa,mufcefU&Sdonfh txJwGif uREkfyfoabmusvsuf&Sdaom
rdef;uav;tm; ydk;yef;ol ESpfa,muf okH;a,muf&Sdyg\/ uREkfyf\aetdrfrSm
xdkrdef;uav;\tdrfESifh teD;uyfqkH; (okH;tdrfavmufomjcm;onf/) jzpfav&
um; 4if;wkdUonf uREkfyfwdkUaetdrfü pcef;csum rdef;uav;tm;ydk;yef;Mu\/

170 
4if;wdkUonfwa,mufpDaygufvmí nOfhtcsdefrsm;wGif rdef;uav;\
tdrfaemufab;ü &pfywfum acsmif;ajrmif;Mu\/ uREkfyfrSmudk,fhpdwfxJü
oabmusjcif;rQomjzpfí rdef;uav;\oabmxm;udk twdtus od&jcif;
r[kwfyJ ]xifajc}rQom &Sdojzifh orD;&nf;pm; r[kwfao;aomaMumifh
uREkfyf\cspfBudKufjcif;udk olwkdUtm;rajym/ olwkdUuvnf; &dyfrd[efr&Sdojzifh
uREkfyftdrfrS ydk;yef;Mujcif; jzpfavonf/ wcgw&HwGif ydk;yef;Muolrsm;u
uREkfyf\9wef;*kPfudk txifBuD;MuonfESifh ]]cifAsm;u tdrfeD;csif;jzpfNyD;
NidrfvSyguvm;As? cifAsm;ydk;vQifawmhajymomajymygAsm? usKyfwdkUaemufqkwf
ay;yghr,f? cifAsm;eJUawmh rNydKif0HUygbl;}}qdkum wD;acgufpkHprf;Mu\/
okdU&mwGif uREkfyfonf 4if;wkdUyef;yef;jcif;rsm;udk rMunfhvdkaomfvnf;
udk,fh&nf;pm;[lí rajymEdkifojzifh bmrQrajymyJ NyKH;íom aevkduf&onf/
trSefudka&;&vQif uREkfyfonfvGefyGJnrSpí xdktcsdefwkdUwdkifatmif pdwfxJu
BudKufaecJUonfrSm (udk,fhbufu aocsmaomfvnf; olUbufuxifajcrQ
omjzpfonf/) ESpfESpfausmf okH;ESpfcefU&SdcJUNyDjzpfaomfvnf; tdrfeD;csif;
yqpf0dkif;ü ESpfBudrfrQ rsufESmcsif;qdkif ]yqpfypf}cJUbl;jcif;rSwyg; ac:bl;jcif;
r&Sd? ta0;rS vSrf;Munfh&kHrQESifh auseyfcJU&ygonf/ uREkfyftaMumif;udk
oli,fcsif; umvom;rsm;tm; todray;aomfvnf; 4if;wkdU\ydk;yef;rI
tajctaeudk uREfkfyfu apmifhMunfhí rnfolrQ ae&mrusao;jcif;udk
od&ojzifh auseyfvsuf &Sdygonf/

olwyg;xufyif xl;avoavm

Ak'¨bmomausmif;ü ausmif;q&mvkyfvsuf&SdpOf uREkfyfonf


oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifhtwl yJGMunfh&kHomru awmifNyKH;yJG? &wemh*lyJGrsm;odkU

171 
oGm;cJU&m xdkrdef;uav;vnf; 4if;\tdrfom;rsm;ESifh oGm;Muojzifh
tvGeftljrL;cJUbl;yg\/ a&Tpm&H bk&m;yJGü aysmf&jcif;rSm ydk;yef;rI ryg&Sdaom
aMumifh (EIdif;,SOfjcif;tm;jzifh) ajcmufuyfuyf&Sdonf[k qdk&rnfjzpf&m
txufygyJGrlum; tvGefpdkajyvSí &ifwzdkzdkjzpfcJU&ygawmhonf/ &ifzdk&jcif;
rSm um; þyJGwGif tenf;qkH;av;ig;BudrfrQ rdef;uav;ESifh rsufESmcsif;qdkif&
acsawmhrnf[k arQmfvifhcsuf&Sdí owd&wdkif; &ifxJü zdkueJ vIdufueJ
jzpf&ygawmhonf/ rsufESmcsif;qdkifcGifh &awmhrnf[k pOf;pm;vdkufrd&kHESifh &ifzdk
vIduf&jcif;rSm tjcm;vlrsm; BuKHbl;Muavoavm rajymwwf/ uREkfyftzdkUrl
csJUxGifjcif;r[kwf wu,fyifjzpfygonf/ þonfaMumifhvnf; ig\arwÅm
onftvGef eufeJBuD;us,fí vGJEdkifrnf r[kwfawmh[k ,kHMunfrdygonf/
þ,kHMunfcsufrSmvnf; ]uBuD;a&;uowfuwf}[k pmtHaom rdef;uav;ESifh
awGUbl;jcif;onf taxmuftyHU jyKvsuf&Sdygonf/ tcspfonf tawmf
qef;Mu,fayonfwum;/

yxrtBudrf rl;,pfjcif;

uREkfyfonf xdktcsdefokdUwkdifatmif aot&ufudk jrnf;bl;onf


r&Sdao;/ wBudrfu oli,fcsif;rsm;\ wkdufwGef;rIaMumifh bD,mudk wikHrQ
jrnf;Munfh&m cg;vGef;aomaMumifh axG;ypfvdkufbl;\/ þawmifNyKH;yJGü
rlum; oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifh twl avSjzifhoGm;Mu&mwGif tjcm;vlrsm; aysmfMu
onfudk jrif&í olwkdU\aysmfenf;udk prf;vdkonfwaMumif;? uREkfyfudk,fü
uvnf; tvGeftljrL;vsuf&Sdí bmrqdkvkyfrnfqdkaom pdwfrsKd;jzpfaeonf
waMumif;aMumifh avSay:wGif wBudrfjyif ESpfBudrfrwdkufwGef;&yJ 0DpuDESifh
qdk'gwcGufudk olwkdUESifhtwl aomufvkduf\/ 0DpuD? b&ef'Dpaom

172 
EdkifiHjcm;t&ufrsm;rSm xdkacwfü rnfrQavmuf aps;csKdygoenf;[lrl
vlwa,muf aiGwq,fqD pkí oGm;Muonfh uREkfyfwkdUtzGJUonf vSnf;c?
avSc? tdyfcESifh xrif;av;eyf twGuf csufjyKp&dwfrsm;yg
z,fxm;NyD;onfhaemuf xif;&l;aowÅmESifh wvkH;tjynfh t&uftrsKd;rsKd;
0,fcJUEdkifMuavonf/ uREkfyfonf yxrtBudrf aomufjcif;jzpfaomfvnf;
tnHUrcHcsifwwfaom 0goemaMumifh olwkdUaomufoavmuf vdkufíaomuf
rd&m aysmf&zdkUa0;pGawmifNyKH;yJGokdU b,fykHb,fenf; a&mufvmonfudkyif
rrSwfrdEdkifay/ aemufwaeUeHeufü wnf;cdkaomtdfrfwGif tdyf&mrSEdk;vmí
0wfxm;onfhvkHcsnfudkMunhfvkduf&m uREkfyf\vkHcsnfr[kwfaMumif;od&í
oli,fcsif;rsm;tm; ar;Munfh\/ od&ykHrSmum; uREkfyfonfavqdyfrS
wnf;cdktdrfodkUvrf;ravQmufEdkifojzifh wGJac:Mu&aMumif;? vrf;wGif vli,f
wa,mufu ol\ausmif;aebuf oli,fcsif;jzpfygonfqdkum uREkfyfudk
wnf;tdrfokdUa&mufatmif wGJydkUaMumif;? a&mufaomtcg uREkfyf\vkHcsnf
twGuf pdk;&drf&onfqdkum ol\vkHcsnfESifh vJ0wfoGm;NyD; eHeufrSvmí
vJay;ygrnf[k ajymoGm;aMumif; od&av\/ uREkfyfonf tdyf&mrSxí
ol\vkHcsnfudk jzefUMunfh&m ygwdwfvkHcsnf tEGrf;uav;jzpfí
uREkfyf\vkHcsnfrSmum; a,mvkHcsnfyGifhxdk; jzpfavonf/ uREkfyfjyefí
pOf;pm;aomtcg uREkfyftm; wGJíydkUaom ausmif;aebuf oli,fcsif;\
rsufESmay:vmí jyefvmvdrfhrnf[k arQmfvifhonfESifh cyfat;at;yif
aevdkuf\/ okdU&mwGif xdkaeUuvnf; ay:rvm? aemufwGifvnf; wouf
vkH;rawGU&awmhacs/ þwGif uREkfyfrSm csnfvkHcsnfrSwyg; tjcm;vkHcsnf
aumif;vnf;ryg/ c;gü0wfvsuf&Sdaom ygwdwfvkHcsnf tEGrf;uav;ESifh
vnf; yGJwkd;&ef rjzpfEdkifaomaMumifh wnf;tdrfüom ukyfíae&awmhonf
jzpf&um; rdef;uav;ESifh rsufESmcsif; qdkif&zdkUtwGuf arQmfvifhcsufBuD;pGmESifh

173 
vmcJU&jcif;rSm ]cJavorQ oJa&us} jzpfcJU&ygawmhonf/ odkU&mwGif
oifcef;pmwckawmh&cJUyg\/ yxrtBudrf aomufjcif;ü csufcsif;
vufiif;cHvkduf&jcif;twGufaMumifh ]t&ufaomufcJUvQif rvGefapESifh}
[lonfh a,mvkHcsnfwxnfESifh vJ,lvkduf&aom Mo0g'onf woufvkH;
pJGrSwfavmufonfjzpfí uREkfyftzdkU&mü aemufaemifwGif þtrSm;rsKd;
rSm;cJvSygonf/ (udk,fusifhw&m; ESifh ywfoufonfh Mo0g'rsKd;wdkUrSm
pmavmufESifh rNyD;? olwyg; a[majymívnf; rvkHavmuf/ vufawGUBuKHrS
oabmaygufwwfonfjzpf aomaMumifh uREkfyfonf a,mvkHcsnfqkH;&jcif;
twGuf rESajrmvSay/)

tvpfray;aom rdcif

uREkfyfonf awmifNyHK;yJGwGif rdef;uav;ESifh wBudrfrQ rsufESmcsif;qdkifcGifh


r&ojzifh 0rf;enf;pGmjyefcJU&aomfvnf; (aemuf 15&ufwGif usif;yonfh)
&wemh*lyJGü okH;av;BudrfrQ jrifcJU&ojzifh auseyfcJU&ygonf/ rdef;uav;
wa,muftm; pdwfxJu cspfBudKufonfh tjcm;vlysKduav;rsm;tzdkU&mwGif
b,fuJUokdU&SdMuonfrqdkEdkif? uREkfyftzdkU&mwGifrl rsufESmudkwcPwmuav;
rQjrif&zdkUta&;onf udpöBuD;wckozG,f oabmxm;rdygawmhonf/ waeU
wBudrfrQ jrifzdkUta&;twGuf olwkdUtdrfa&SUodkUbmudpörQr&SdyJ vrf;ovm;&
av&m wacgufrjrif&vQif aemufwacguf xyfí avQmuf&jyefonf/
ta0;t&yfüaeoljzpfvQif awmfygao;\/ ,ckrSm okH;tdrfavmufomjcm;
aomaMumifh omí*Gusonfxif\/ þtxJwGif tdrfeD;yg;csif;rsm;u
&dyfrdoGm;rnfudkvnf; &Sufvdkufrdao;\/ &wemh*lewfyJGodkU twloGm;Mu
onfh oli,fcsif;ajcmufa,mufcefUteuf okH;a,mufavmufu rdef;uav;

174 
tm;ydk;yef;vsuf&Sd&m olwkdUurl ajymifajymifBuD;ydk;í aemufrS waumuf
aumufvdkufMuaomfvnf; uREkfyfurl olwdkUrodapyJ ]tkHUykef;}ydk;enf;rsKd;jzifh
vnf;olwkdUESifhtwl wyl;wJGwJG vkdufygvsuf&Sdavonf/ xdkvlpkteuf
wa,mufwavurl uREkfyftm; ]]cifAsm;eJU tdrfeD;csif;yJAsm? usKyfwdkUuawmh
cifAsm;udkuyf&rSmyJ}}[líyif ajymbl;avonf/ xdkrdef;uav;\xljcm;aom
tajctaewckrSm 4if;rdcifonf rnfhonfhvrf;okdUrQ wa,mufwnf;rvTwf?
tjcm;rdef;uav;rsm;ESifhvnf; taygif;toif; rvkyfapyJ wOD;wnf;aom
orD;ysKduav;udk rsufpdatmufu taysmufrcH qdk&avmufatmif xdef;odrf;
apmifha&Smufxm;jcif;yif jzpfavonf/

auseyfpGmESifh tHUMojcif;

rdef;uav;ESifhywfoufí uREkfyfpdwfxJü tMunfEl;qkH;jzpfcJUonfh ywÅjrm;


apwD bk&m;yJGoGm;jcif;? taMumif;udk azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/ uREkfyfü pdwfMunfEl;
onfqdkaomaMumifh ae&musvSNyD[k rarQmfvifhMuygESifhOD;/ uREkfyf\
yxrtBudrf nHUzsif;rIudkom awGU&rnfjzpfygonf/ uREkfyfonf þwBudrf
wGif umvom;oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifh r[kwfyJ Ak'¨bmomausmif; q&mtzJGUESifh
vkdufygoGm;jcif;jzpf&m ausmif;q&mrsm;ESifhtwl oabFmay:odkU wufvdkufrd
onfESifh wNydKifeuf &ifbwfudktwGif;rS wif;ykwfjzifhESufvkduf onfhES,f
uREkfyf\ESvkH;om;onf &ifbwfudk'def;ueJ wdkufaqmifhvdkuf\/ taMumif;rl
um; oabFmESifh wGJvsufvdkufygrnfh orÁefBuD;ay:wGif rdef;uav;wkdU
tdrfom;wpkudk bGm;ueJ jrifvkduf&aomaMumifhjzpf\/ uREkfyfonf
ywÅjrm;apwDyJGawmfodkU 4if;wdkUoGm;vdrfhrnf[k rod&aom aMumifh
þyGJawmfodkUvkdufrnfrBuHpnfyJ umvom; oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifh (awmfovif;

175 
vjynfh tzdwfaeU ausmif;ydwf&ufwGif) zdk;pdefBuD;yJGMunfhMuzdkU pdwful;xm;
&m ausmif;q&mrsm;\ ac:iifrIaMumifh tm;emyg;emESifh vkdufygvmcJU&
onfwGif rdef;uav;tm;rarQmfvifhyJ awGU&jcif;aMumifh 0rf;omvkH;qdkUoGm;
jcif;jzpfavonf/ azmfjycJUonfhtwdkif; rdef;uav;onf uREkfyfESifhorD;
&nf;pm;r[kwf&apumrl ,cktcsdefwGif uREkfyfodef;xDaygufí aMu;eef;
&onfqdkapOD;? xdktcguavmuf &ifbwfudkaqmifhavmufatmif ESvkH;ckef
vdrfhrnfrxifay/ zGifh[ajymqdk&jcif;? pum;udk vufcHjcif;[lírQ r&Sdao;yJ
rsufvkH;csif;BudKufonfqdkjcif;rSmyif udk,fhtxifoufoufrQom &Sdao;yg
vsuf þrQavmuf wkefvIyf&onfqdkaomvlysKduav;onf awmfawmf&Sm;
vdrfhrnfxifygonf/

vnfoavmuf csOf;uyfjcif;

oabFmxGufaomtcg 4if;wkdUrdom;pkonf oabFmESifh uyfvsuf&Sdonfh


orÁefydkif;wGif aumfaZmcif;vsuf vkdufygvmMu&m uREkfyfonfvnf;
orÁefESifh uyfvsuf&Sdaom oabFmydkif;wGif rwfwwf&yfvsufvdkufav\/
ausmif;q&mtzJGUonf oabFmOD;ydkif;wGif aumfaZmcif;vsuf xdkifívdkufMu
&muREkfyfonf 4if;wkdUaumfaZmteD;odkU rcsOf;uyfawmhyJ oabFmeHab;&Sd
oHwdkifudk rSDvsuf vdkufygvm\/ oabFmESifh orÁefrSm yl;wJGxm;jcif;jzpfaom
aMumifh uREkfyfESifh olwkdUtzJGUonf ESpfvHrQavmufom a0;uGm\/
rdef;uav;tkyfpkü t&yfxJrS tysKdBuD;wa,mufyg&Sd&m tysKdBuD;uyif
uREkfyftm; pwifíEIwfqufojzifh edrdwfaumif;onf[k uREkfyf0rf;omrd\/
xl;qef;jcif;wckrSm uREkfyfwkdUtdrfESifhrdef;uav;\tdrfrSm okH;tdrfausmfavmuf
omjcm;onfqdkaomfvnf; 0if;xJESifh vrf;rwef; jzpfonfwaMumif;?

176 
taygif;toif;rSmvnf; w*dkPf;pDjzpfonfwaMumif;aMumifh wtdrfESifhwtdrf
ac:iifEIwfqufjcif;rS&SdMuyJ udk,fh*kPfESifhudk,f cyfwnfwnfaecJUMuav
onf/ xdkaeUüuREkfyfonf oabFmoHwdkifudkrSDvsuf tysKdBuD;ESifhpum;ajympOf
rdef;uav;\tarESifh tvGefEIwfqufcsifaomf vnf; wcgbl;rQ rvkyfcJU
onfhtxJwGif ydk;yef;olaygrsm;aom orD;acsm wa,muf\ rdcifyDyD
cyfwnfwnfrsufESmxm;rsKd;&Sdonfjzpfí EIwfquf&ef r0HUawmhyJ
tysKdBuD;ESifhom tqufrjywf pum;ajym&awmhonf/ odkUESifh uREkfyfu
wcGef;wavajymonfh jyufvkH;uav;rsm;udk orD;u&,fí tarBuD;u
NyKH;azmf&jcif;twGufyif aus;Zl;wifvSygavNyD/ rdef;uav;\ &kyf&nfESifh
ywfoufí a&;om;&aomf tacsmtvSBuD;wa,muf[k rqdkEdkifaomfvnf;
wBudrfjrifvkdufvQif vSnfhírMunhfyJ raeEdkifonfh  (Striking)  &kyfqif;
oP²mefrsKd;&SdaomaMumifh oabFmay:ü vdkufygvmaom umvom;rsm;onf
rdef;uav;tkyfpkudk &pfywfaeMu&mrS [efusaeonfh trlt&mrsKd;jzifh
orÁefbufrS vSrf;ípum;ajymaeonfh uREkfyftm; emvdk[efrwlaom
rsufESmxm;rsm;ESifh MunfhMujcif;udk uREkfyfowdjyKrd\/ tcsKdUuvnf;
(enf;awmhenf;onf/) edyfygayhuGm[laom t"dyÜg,frsKd;ESifh MunfhMuojzifh
uREkfyf\ESvkH;ü acGUvSonf/ wcsufwcsufwGif tysKdBuD;u uvdaom
rsufESmxm;ESifh-
]]armifazodef; ranmif;bl;vm;}}
]]ranmif;aygif trBuD;&m? waeUvkH;&yf& &yf&}}[l ajymvkduf&mwGif
tysKdBuD;ESifhtarBuD;u &,fMuí rdef;uav;um; rsufESmvTJíoGm;onf/
]edyf[}[k pdwfxJuMobmay;vkduf\/

177 
tuJprf;vkdufykH

ywÅjrm;apwDbk&m;atmuf&Sd 0g;csufqdyfurf;odkU oabFmqdkufuyfí


oabFmay:rSqif;NyD; olUacsmifighacsmifwufMu&mwGif rdef;uav;wkdUtkyfpk
wnf;ckdrnfhacsmiftrnfudk rar;vdkufrdonfESifh uGJ&acsawmhrnfavm[k
wxdwfxdwfjzpfrdao;\/okdU&mwGifuREkfyfausmif;q&mtzJGUESifh wacsmifwnf;
wnf;cdkMuonfudkawGU&í 'kwd,tBudrf 0rf;tomBuD; omcJU&jyefygonf/
naeydkif;wGif ausmif;q&mrsm;ESifh uREkfyfwkdU onf ]acsmifvnfacsmifywf}
xGufMurnf[k Z&yfrSqif;vmMu&mwGif acsmift0if0&SdZ&yfuwkH;ay:ü
xdkifaeMuonfh uREkfyf\tysKdBuD;ESifh pHa'0DudkawGU&m (pHa'0DrSm rdef;uav;
tm; uREkfyf\pdwful;jzifh rSnfhxm;aom emrnfjzpfonf/) tysKdBuD;u
]]armifazodef;wdkU b,fxdatmif oGm;MurvdkUvJ}}[k ar;onfESifh uREkfyfu
]]b,f&,fvdkU r[kwfygbl; trBuD;? acsmifvnfacsmifywfygyJ}}[kjyefajym\/
]]'Dvdkqdktjyefawmh yef;cl;cJUaemf? NAdZifyef;awG aygvSNyDwJU}}
]]b,folyefrSmvJAs}}
]]trBuD;yefrSmayghuG,fh}}
]]trBuD;vJyefayghAsm? 'djyifvlvJ yeftkH;rSaygh? [kwfbl;vm;}}
þwGif tysKdBuD;onf pHa'0Dtm; NyKH;pdpdrsufESmxm;ESifh
vSrf;Munfhvkduf&m pHa'0Du ]]yefyghr,fawmf yefyghr,f? cl;om cl;cJUyg}}[k
ajymvkduf\/
xdkUaemuf uREkfyfwkdUausmif;q&mtzJGU xGufvmcJUMu&m cyfBuD;BuD;
q&mrsm;u a&SUrSoGm;Muí cyfi,fi,f&SdMuonfh q&mbOD;ESifh uREkfyfu
aemufrSvdkufMu\/ vrf;c&D;wGif uREkfyfonf NAdZifyef;rsm;udk tm;yg;w&
cl;av&m q&mbOD;u-

178 
]]AsKdU q&mazodef;? yef;awGbmvkyfzdkUvJ}}
]]ckeifu rSmvdkufwm q&m rMum;bl;vm;}}
]]tdk rvkyfeJUrcl;eJUAs? cifAsm; rMum;bl;bl;vm;}}
]]bmaMumifhvJ q&m}}
]]yef;ay;vQif usdef;auswwfw,fAs}}[kqdkum uREkfyf\vufxJrSyef;
rsm;udk,lí vTifhypfvkduf\/ uREkfyfonfq&mbOD;\ pum;t"dyÜg,fudk
&kwfw&uf em;rvnfonfESifh pOf;pm;aeNyD;rS oabmaygufí yef;tm;vkH;udk
vGifhypfvkduf\/
acsmifokdUjyefa&mufMuaomtcg tysKdBuD;u ]]a[h armifazodef;?
b,frSmvJuG,fh NAdZifyef;}}[kar;&m uREkfyfrSm tajzay;&ef BudKwifpdwful;
xm;NyD; r&SdonfESifh twwjzpfNyD; ]]yef;rawGUbl; trBuD;&JU}}[k jyefajym
vkdufjcif;udk pHa'0DauseyfykHr&acs/
pHa'0DwdkU\Z&yfESifh uREkfyfwdkUZ&yfrSm ,SOfuyfvsuf&Sd&m Z&yfESpfaqmif
tMum;wGif aomufa&tdk;rsm;xm;í ESpfbufvkH;ua&aomufMu&\/
vnfywf&mrS jyefa&mufvmí rMumrDtwGif; pHa'0DESifhuREkfyfonf
aomuftkd;pifüyufyif;oGm;qkHrdMuao;&m (uREkfyfuwrifqkHzdkU rBudK;pm;jcif;
rSefygonf/ tarBuD;udk &GHUvSygonf/) pHa'0Du a&rIwfudk tvsif&í
a&aomufaejcif;udk uREkfyfu apmifhae&\/ uREkfyfonf wckckajymcsifaomf
vnf; bmajym&rnfrodonfESifh ]]yef;rcl;cJUwm pdwfrqdk;ygeJU?
usdef;ausoGm; rSmpdk;vdkUygr&,f}}[k vTwfueJajymvdkuf\/ þwGifpHa'0Donf
a&rIefudkjyefcsí rsufckef;csDum rsufESmxm;wnfwnfBuD;ESifh vSnfjyefoGm;
av\/ pHa'0D\rsufckef;csDykHrSm Zmwfvkdufrif;orD;cifcifEk\ rsufckef;csDykHESifh
wlvSí cifcifEk-bwifhwkdU\ ]wjynfol}Zmwfum;udk Munfh&pOfu pHa'0Dudk
vGrf;rdygao;onf/

179 
rarhEdkifaom rsufESmxm;

bk&ifrwOD;wa,mufESifh pum;ajymvsuf&SdpOf pum;wvkH;rSm;oGm;


ojzifh bk&ifru tvdkrusonfhtaejzifh rsufvkH;jyL;MunfhcH&aom rif;cpm;
a,musfm;onf uREkfyfxufydkí xdwfvefU wkefvIyfvdrfhrnfrxifay/ trSefudk
a&;&vQif uREkfyfonf pHa'0Dtm; cspfBudKufvsuf&Sdaomfvnf; ua&mfacsmfr,f
jyuf&,fpum;ajymzdkU vkH;0r0HUyJ bk&ifrwa,mufuJUokdUyif aMumuf&GUHvsuf
&Sdjcif; rSefygonf/ ]]igawmhoGm;NyD? pdwfqdk;oGm;NyD? b,fhES,fvkyfrvJ?
b,fhES,frS rvkyfwwfbl;? cH&kHyJ}}[k atmufarhum oli,fcsif; udkazudkom
wrf;wrdygawmhonf/
rsufckef;csDjcif;onf tvkdrusaom t"dyÜg,frSwyg; bmrQr&Sd/ igawmh
vGJNyDqdkwm ,lBuKH;r&jzpfvsuf&Sd\/ t*Fvdyf0w¦K tajrmuftjrm;zwfzl;í
19ESpfom; &SdNyDjzpfaom uREkfyfuJUodkU ]a0;}aomvli,fwa,mufonf
þacwfwGif &Sdvdrfhrnfrxifay/ uREkfyfonf pdwfESvkH;nId;i,fpGmESifh
acsmifxJrSxGufvmí apmapmckdufu pHa'0DESifhtysKdBuD;wkdUxdkifcJUMuonfh
Z&yfuwkH;ay:wGif wa,mufwnf;xdkifae\/ cPrQMumaomtcg tysKdBuD;
wa,mufwnf; xGufvmí pyfNzJNzJ rsufESmxm;ESifh ]]a[harmifazodef; rif;u
rudkbmajymvdkufwmvJa[h}}[kar;vkduf&m-
uREkfyfrSm rsufESmxlyloGm;\/
]]pdwfqdk;oGm;ovm; trBuD;&,f}}
]]igharmifu w,f t ao;wmudk;}}
]]b,fvdkygvdrfh trBuD;&,f}}
]]bmrsm; pum;aumif;aeMuwmvJ? araruac:aew,f awmfa&U}}
acsmif0rS[pfac:vdkufolrSm pHa'0Djzpfav&m uREkfyfonf olUrsufESmudkvSrf;

180 
Munfhvdkufaomtcg rcsKdrcsOfvkyfaeaom rsufESmxm;udkjrif&rS ]vTwfap}
trdefUusaom w&m;cHuJUodkU &ifxJü at;oGm;awmhonf/ ightay:ü
pdwfqdk;vQif þrsufESmxm;rsKd; r[kwfEdkif[k aumufEkwfcsuf xkwfEdkifav
onf/ þwGif uREkfyftm;wufvmonfESifh-
]]'Dac:vkdufygtkH; trBuD;&JU}}
]]a[h r? vmygtkH;ath}}
]]rvkyfeJU? araru bkef;BuD;awGudkbdvyf&nfuyfrvdkUwJU jyifukefNyD
awmh}}
tysKdBuD;vnf; xoGm;&av&m tkwfavSum;udk ESpfa,mufwGJwuf
oGm;Muí xdyfodkUa&mufaomtcgwGif pHa'0Donf uREkfyfbufodkU qwfueJ
wcsufvSnfhí MunhfvkdufykH rsufESmxm;rSm ,aeUwdkifrarhEdkifatmif 0Jvsuf
&Sdygawmhonf/ uRekfyfonf xdkrsufESmxm;\ t"dyÜm,fudk trsKd;rsKd;awG;awm
cJU&m aemifwGif jzpfysufaom tjcif;t&mrsm; BuKH&onfwGifrS ]]armif&if t
ykHeJUawmh vGJukefMuygvdrfhr,f}}[k qdkvdk[efwlaMumif; pOf;pm;rdygawmhonf/

zdkoHay;jcif;

xdknü ausmif;q&mtzGJUESifh uREkfyfwkdUonf ywÅjrm;apwD awmifxdyf


odkUwufMuav&m vrf;wavQmufvkH;wGif uREkfyfuJUodkU aw;csif;qdkEdkifol
wa,mufrQr&dSay/ cspfBudKufygonf[k zGifhajymjcif;? wkHUjyef0efcHjcif; r&Sdao;
aomfvnf; uREkfyf\pdwfxJürl ]igwdkUESpfa,mufum; þb0wGif rvGJEdkifawmh
NyD? eHeuf aeUv,f ntcsdefra&G; olUrsufESmudk r0rcsif; MunfhEdkifayawmh
rnf? eD;eD;uyfuyf MunfhEdkifayawmhrnf}[laom pdwful;onf vrf;
wavQmufvkH; cPuav;rS vyfonfrxif? ay:NyD;,if; ay:,if;

181 
jzpfaeawmh\/ acsmifrS xGufcgpwGif OD;zdk;pdefBuD;\ opömxm; aw;csif;
wyk'fudk (&ifxJü jynfhvQHvGef;onfESifh) [pfí oDqdkvdkuf\/
]rodef;nGefU&,feJU armifpdef[m? *a[ESpfjzmul;? a&Tezmpl;&,feJU? a&Tezl;pm
av;av;aemfAs? aMomf-pyfMum;ewfrsm;a&;rS a&;wwfyav}þwyk'fudk
pHa'0DwdkUMum;avmufaomae&mü oDqdkNyD; &yfxm;vkdufonfwGif tysKdBuD;u
]]a[harmifazodef;qkH;atmifqdkuG,fhaemf}}[k ajymvkdufNyD; pHa'0D? tarBuD;?
tysKdBuD;ESifh tjcm;tdrfoltdrfom;wkdU\toHrsm;jzifh 0g;ueJ&,fvkdufMu
av&m yef;ray;zdkU ajymxm;onfh q&mbOD;u ]]q&mazodef;u zdkoHay;
aewm q&mwkdU&JU}}[k ajymvkdufonfESifh qufírqdkawmhyJ ]]aemufrsm;rS
trBuD;a&U}}[kjyefajymNyD; qufvufwufoGm;Muav\/

rarhEdkifaom nwn

awmifxdyf&Sd ywÅjrm;apwDbk&m;okdU a&mufMuaomtcg awmfovif;


vqef;14&uf vuvnf;xdefxdef0if;vsuf {&m0wDjrpfBuD;udk xif;xif;BuD;
jrif&jyef? apwDawmfüvnf; za,mif;wdkifrD;rsm;jzifh 0if;0if;vuf&Sdaejyef?
wD;vdkufonfh e&nf;oHuvnf; qdwfNidrfaomawmifxdyfü ntcsdefwGif
tonf;ESvkH;wdkUudk ,pfoGm;aprwwf om,mjyef? uREkfyf\pdwf"mwfuvnf;
arQmfvifhcsuftrsKd;rsKd;wdkUjzifh jynfhwif;azmif;um;vsuf &Sdjyefav&um;
MunfEl;&TifjrL;vkdufykHrSm woufwmwGifrarhEdkifqkH;aom nwntaejzifh
ESvkH;om;wGif wHqdyfESdyfcwfvsuf &Sdayawmh\/ tcspfESifhywfoufíbmwck
rQ r,fr,f&& r&Sdao;jcif;um; rSefyg\/ okdU&mwGif rsufESmudk
Munfhae&vQif bmvdkao;onf[k rawmifhwyJ auseyfjcif;\
txGwftxdyfodkU a&mufonf[k ,lqavmufatmif wif;wdrfa&mifh&Jjcif;

182 
&SdcJUaom uREkfyftzdkUrSm þrQavmufaom csrf;omrIonfyif {&mrokc
BuD;wck jzpfaeavNyD/ pHa'0Donf tjcm;a,musfm; wOD;wa,muf ESifhrQ
vufrxyforQ umvywfvkH; uREkfyfonfvuf&Sdtajctaexuf wkd;NyD;
reD;pyfcsifvnf;aeap? þtwdkif;ESifhyif av;ig;ESpf apmifhaeEdkifonf
[lí vnf; xdkpOfuxifcJUrdygonf/ ywÅjrm;apwDbk&m;yGJawmfrS tjyefc&D;
wGif oabFmay:ütwlpD;ívdkufcJUMu&m tarBuD;onf a&S;uESifhrwlyJ
uREkfyftm; pdwf0ifpm;aomrsufESmxm;rsKd;ESifh cPcPvSrf;Munfhonf[k
owdjyKrdcJUonf/ okdUaomf þonfrSmvnf; uREkfyf\txifrQom jzpfEdkif\/
Munfhjcif;um;rSefygonf/ pdwf0ifpm;jcif;[lonfrSmum; uREkfyf\txifouf
oufjzpfEdkifonf[kawG;rd\/ pHa'0DESifh yufouforQwGif uREkfyfonf
udk,fudkudk,f txifrBuD;yJ tNrJwGefUqkwfvsuf &SdcJU\/ BudKufvGef;tm;BuD;
aomaMumifhayavm? odkUr[kwf rdrdudk,fudk ,kHMunfrI  Confidence  r&Sdaom
0goemaMumifhayavm rajymEdkifyg/ rnfokdUqdkap ydk;yef;jcif;tvkyfü
tvGefnHUol wa,mufjzpfjcif;udk a&SUwavQmufwGifvnf; awGU&ygvdrfhOD;
rnf/

tysKdBuD;rSwqifh

ywÅjrm;apwDyJGawmfrS jyefa&mufMuonfESifh aemufwaeUnaewGif


tysKdBuD;onf uREkfyfwkdU\aetdrfodkU rvmpzl; aygufvm\/ (þtdrfrSm
uREkfyfwdkUtdrfyif jzpfaomfvnf; zcifonf nD0rf;uJGwa,mufodkU tvkyfyg
vTJay;xm;í 0ufvufokdUajymif;a&TUoGm;av&m uREkfyfvnf;baxG;ESifhtwl
qufvuf aexdkifjcif;jzpf\/) tysKdBuD;a&mufvmaomtcg rvmpzl;
vmjcif;jzpfí tvkyform;rsm;u NyKH;Muao;&m uREkfyfu tysKdBuD;tm;

183 
tay:xyfodkU ac:oGm;aomtcg wa,muf\rsufESmudk wa,mufvSrf;Munfh
Mu\/ uREkfyfonf pHa'0Dtm; cspfBudKuf&mü rnfolUudkrQ todray;yJ
Budwfíydk;jcif;jzpf&m tvkyform;rsm;u uREkfyftm; ]tysKd[dkif;BuD;}ESifh
NidaeNyD[k xifrdMuaMumif;ESifh aemifwGifajymjyMuao;onf/ 4if;tysKdBuD;um;
pHa'0DwdkUtdrfü tuRrf;w0if xGuf0ifvmcJUonfh ]vufuokH;awmifa0S;}jzpf
avonf/ uREkfyfonf tay:xyfwGif tysKd[dkif;BuD;tm; ae&mxdkifcif;ay;í
rsufESmcsif;qdkif xdkifrdMuonfwGif ]aumif;aom}pum; ygcJUonftxifESifh
]zdk;usKdif;wkwf}jzpfrdaomfvnf; wbufüum; rnfonfhpum; tquftoG,f
rQ r&SdygyJESifh ]aumif;aompum;}ygvm&ef rjzpfEdkif[k zsufcsvdkuf\/
xdkUaemuf tysKdBuD;u-
]]armifazodef;? rudk rif;wu,fBudKufwmvm;}}
xdkcPü oabFmqdyfwkef;uxuf jyif;xefaom xkESufjcif;jzifh
uREkfyf\ eH&dk;udk ESvkH;om;u aqmifhí wkd;vdkufonfESifh uREkfyf\rsufESmyif
wrsKd;wrnf jzpfoGm;jcif;udk tysKdBuD; jrifvkduf&onfh vu©PmESifh olyif
tHUtm;oifhoGm;\/ uREkfyfvnf; &kwfw&uf tajzray;EdkifyJ ai;Munfhaerd
ao;\/ aemufwGifrS ]]bmaMumifh ar;wmvJ trBuD;}}
]]ar;qdk 'Dvdkav? tarBuD;u vTwfvkdufw,f armif&JU}}
]][kwfuJUvm;Asm? uRefawmfhudkvSdrfhaewmrsm;vm; trBuD;&,f}}
]]igharmifu w,f&dk;wmudk;? ywÅjrm;apwDyGJrSm rif;eJUtwlwloGm;MuwJU
tzJGUxJu ausmif;q&mwa,mufu aiG3000deJU pdefem;uyfw&H wifyg
r,fwJU? pum;pyfaew,f armifa&U}}
]]b,fwkef;u pyfwmvJAsm? yJGu jyefvmrSvm;}}
]]r[kwfbl; armifa&U? wvavmuf &SdoGm;NyD}}
]]edkU b,fvdkwJUvJAsm}}

184 
]]tarBuD;uawmh cyfygygyJ? orD;uvJ rathpum;udk em;axmif&
rSmyJ}}
]][dkuf 'DvdkqdkNyD;Mua&maygh trBuD;&,f}}
]]NyD;MuvdkU&Sd,if 'DudktrBuD; bmvmp&m&SdovJ}}
uREkfyftm; xíckefvkdufcsifonf/
]]udkif;-'gjzifh ajymygtkH; trBuD;}}
]]rudk rif;BudKufaewm b,favmufM umNyDvJuG,fh}}
]]8 wef;uwnf;uygyJAsm}}
]]'DtaMumif;udk tarBuD;u rodbl; armif&JU}}
]]EdkUAsm oluawmh odw,fr[kwfvm; trBuD;&,f}}
]]odwmayghuG,f}}
]]EdkU'gjzifh tarBuD;u ay;pm;wdkif; ,lrSmwJUvm;As}}
]]r,lvdkU b,fhES,fvkyfrvJ? rif;u bmrSajymbl;wmvJ r[kwf?
ywÅjrm;apwDyJGu jyefawmhrS tarBuD;u rif;tuJcwfNyD; trBuD;
vTwfvdkufwmyJ}}
]]EdkU oluaumAsm}}
]]olu rif;vdkyJ &Sufwwfw,f? ighudkawmif bmrSrajymbl;bl;}}
]]trBuD;u b,fvkdxifovJAsm}}
]]trBuD;u tysKdBuD;ayr,fh em;vnfygw,f}}
]]zGifhvdkUawmh rajymbl;bl;aygh}}
]]w,fcufwJU vlyguvm;? a,mufsm;uav;u bmrSrajymbl;yJeJU
rdef;uav;u ajym&rSmvm;armif&,f}}
]]tarBuD;u b,fvkdrSmvdkufovJ trBuD;&JU}}
]]wu,fBudKufvdkU&SdvQif rdbrsm;vTwfNyD; ajymcdkif;ygwJU}}

185 
]]wckawmh uRefawmfodcsifw,f trBuD;&,f}}
]]bmrsm;vJawmf}}
]]uRefawmfBudKuwmu wu,fBudKufwmyg? olvJyJ odavmufygw,f?
,ck uRefawmfzGifhajymaeNyD r[kwfvm;? 'Dawmh olUqDu pum;wvkH;&atmif
awmif;NyD; uRefawmfhudkjyefajymyg rdbrsm;udk uRefawmf vTwfygr,f}}
]]olUtarBuD;u armifhqDudk vTwfvkdufvdkU trBuD;vm&NyD[myJ
armif&,f? pdwfcsavmufua&maygh}}
]]'gayr,fh olUqDupum;wvkH;udk uRefawmfMum;csifygao;w,f
trBuD;&,f? wqdwfavmufar;ay;ygAsm}}
]]'Dvdkqdk ar;ay;&wmaygharmif}}
]]wckawmh&Sdw,f trBuD;a&U? uRefawmfuawmh aiG3000dawG?
pdefem;uyfawG bmawGawmhrwwfEdkifaybl;Asm}}
]]'gawGodygw,f? 9 wef;orm;wa,muf[m aiGwifzdkU rvdkygbl;?
trBuD;uvJem;vnfygw,f}}
]]'gjzifh b,fawmhavmuf pum;jyefrSmvJ trBuD;}}
]]eufjzefcgawmh trBuD;&,f? olwkdUom;trdESpfa,muf&,f
rdw¦DvmoGm;MurvdkU? [dkutjyefawmh vmcJUr,f}}
]]rdw¦DvmudkbmvkyfvJAsm}}
]]olUarmifwa,muf&Sdw,f? [kwfvm;? 'DtaMumif;udkwdkifyifrvdkUwJU?
armifuom rdbrsm;eJUpDpOfxm;ayawmh}}
]]olUarmifu oabmrwlbl; qdk,ifaumAsm}}
]]trav; pdwfomcs? olUarmifu 7wef;atmifwJU vlqdk,if
ay;pm;vkdufwJU? igharmifu 2wef;awmifydkaeao;w,f}}

186 
tysKdBuD;jyefcgeD;ü uREkfyfu aomufa&tkd;pifteD;wGif ]yef;}taMumif;
ajymvdkufrdí rsufarSmifBuD; ukyfovdk? rsufckef;csDovdk vkyfoGm;ykHtaMumif;
ajymjyvkduf&m tysKdBuD;u ]]'DtaMumif;cPcP ajymNyD; trBuD;wdkU
&,fMu&ao;w,f? igharmifu w,f&dk;wmudk;}}[k &,farmumajymí
jyefoGm;av\/
þwGifrS ppfudkif;awmif&dk;ü acsmifavSum;twufwGif pHa'0Du
uRekfyftm; vSnfhMunfhvdkufaom rsufESmxm;ü ]]armif&ifh tykHeJUawmh
vGJukefMuygvdrfhr,f}}[laom t"dyÜg,f&Sdjcif;udk awG;qEdkifygawmhonf/
]ywÅjrm;apwDyJGawmf vdkufrdayvkdUaygh? EdkUjzifh vGJawmhrSmyJ? uHaumif;vdkUyg
wum;}[kvnf; uREkfyfpOf;pm;rdygonf/

jzLpifaomarwÅm

pHa'0Dudk ydk;yef;cJUaom tjzpftysufwGif þtcsdefonf uREkfyftzdkU&mü


arQmfvifhcsuftrsm;qkH;atmifjrifzdkU teD;uyfqkH;aom tcsdeftydkif;tjcm;jzpfí
xdknOfhü uREkfyfonf pHa'0DtaMumif;udk ajymwwfMuonfh oli,fcsif;
umvom;rsm;\0dkif;okdU roGm;awmhyJ udk,fhtdrfüyif pdwful;,Ofvsuf&Sd\/
pdwfxJü&Sdaom tjcif;t&mudka&;&vQif ,cifurl pHa'0DtaMumif;ajymjy
jcif;udk em;axmifEdkifaomfvnf; þnOfhürl csD;rGrf;jcif;udkvnf;aumif;?
uJU&JUjcif;udkvnf;aumif; rMum;csifaompdwfjzifhaecJUavNyD/ ]]udk&ifwkdUeJU
bmqdkifvdkUvJ}}[kar;vkdufcsifonfjzpf&m xkduJUodkU ar;&avmufatmifu
vnf; uREkfyftzdkU&mwGifvnf; bmrQr,fr,f&& ydkifqdkifao;onf
r[kwfaomaMumifh xdk0dkif;udk a&SmifcJUjcif;jzpf\/ udk,fhtjzpfudk jyefíppfaq;
vkdufonfhtcg tysKdBuD;\ pum;oufoufrQom&Sdao;í 4if;\pum;

187 
xJüyif ]]BudKufygonf}}[lí zGifhajymjyjcif;rsKd; ryg&Sd? olUtxifoufouf
rQom&Sdao; \/ odkU&mwGifuREkfyftzdkU&mü pdwful;,OfEdkifzdkU tcsuftvuf
rsm; yg&Sdonf jzpfaomaMumifh ysufEdkifaom tjcif;t&mrsm;udk z,f&Sm;NyD;
(arwÅm pifMu,f rIaMumifh)npfnrf;aom tjcif;t&mrsm;ryg? udk,fwOD;
wnf;ydkifypönf;tae jzifh rsufESmcsif;qdkifxkdifNyD; 00BuD;MunfhaeEdkifMu
awmhrnf[lonfxuf rydkjcif;udk uREkfyfopömjyK0HUygonf/ pHa'0D\udk,ft*Fg
tvkH;pkHwGif uREkfyf owd&qkH;? pdwftul;rdqkH;tydkif;rSm 4if;\rsufESmyif
jzpf&m wzefxyfí ppfaq;vkdufaomf rsufvkH;yifjzpfygonf/ ]umwpf}awG?
cg;ao;&ifcsDjcif; awGudkvkH;0owdr&jcif; rSefygonf/ jypfcsufawG
AvyG&SdcJUaom uREkfyfudk,fudk uREkfyfjyefíppfaq;vkdufonfhtcgrsm;wGif
pHa'0Dtay:ü xm;&SdonfharwÅm\ jzLpifjcif;onf tauseyfqkH;
jzpfygawmhonf/
aemufwaeUaeUv,fwGif pHa'0Dom;trdESifh tysKdBuD;wkdUonf rdw¦Dvm
okdU rD;&xm;ESifhoGm;Murnfjzpf&m 4if;wkdU\tdrfa&SUodkU jrif;&xm;qdkuf
jcif;udk Mum;vkduf&ojzifh xGufíMunhfcsifaomfvnf; &SufonfESifhyif
rMunfhyJ aevkdufygonf/
,cifurl uREkfyf\arwÅmudk rnfolUtm;rQ zGifhírajymbl;ao;aom
aMumifh r&Sufaomfvnf; ,ckrSmrl tysKdBuD;tm; zGifhajymNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh
tysKdBuD;udkvnf; &Sufonf? tarBuD;udkvnf; &Sufonf/ pHa'0Dudkyif
(pum;jyefr&ao;aomaMumifh) &Sufao;onf/ uRekfyfuJUodkU nHUaomvlysKd
uav;wa,mufonf urÇmavmuwGif &Sdygav\avm[k wcgw&HwGif
udk,fh[mudk,far;rdygonf/

188 
zcif\tpDtpOf

xdkaeUnaewGif zcifa&mufvm\/ zcif\rsufESmudk jrifvkduf&onf


ESifh wNydKifeuf zGifhajym&rnfh udpöudk owd&í 'dwfueJjzpf&\/ zcifurl
]]obufcgrif;vdkufcJU&r,fa[h? ausmif;q&mBuD;udkajymNyD; tm;vkH;jyifqif
xm;}}[k ajymonfESifh uREkfyfu ]]cGifhcHcJU&rSmvm;}}[kar;&m ]]r[kwfbl;
wcgwnf;xGufcJU&rSm}}[k ajymojzifh OD;acgif;BuD;íoGm;\/ aemufqkH;ü
uREkfyfod&onfrSmum; a&TbdkNrdKU ta&;ydkif&kH;wGif tulpma&;vkyfzkdUtwGuf
[ufuvufpma&;BuD;ESifhwuG &kH;tkyfpma&;BuD;ESifhyg pDpOfcJUNyD;jzpfaMumif;?
okH;vtwGif; tvkyfwck &vdrfhrnfhtaMumif; ajymonfwGif uREkfyf\rsufESm
üaoG;qkwfNyD; jzLzyfjzLa&mfjzpfoGm;onf xifvkdufrd\/ uREkfyfuacwÅ
qdkif;zkdU ajymaomfvnf; vufrcHonfESifh pHa'0DtaMumif;ESifh tysKdBuD;\
pum;rsm; taMumif;udk ajymjyav\/
]]'DvdkqdkbmcufovJ? 'DuaeUn igoGm;ajymr,fav}}þwGif uRekfyfu
olwkdUr&Sdao;aMumif;? pHa'0DxHrS pum;jyefudk apmifhae&aMumif; ajyjyav&m
zcifu ]]udpör&Sdbl;? rif;vkdufcJU &kH;ydkUNyD; igwacguf vmajymr,f? auseyfuJU
r[kwfvm;}}[kar;\/ uREkfyfu pHa'0D\pum;wvkH;twGuf apmifhapvdk
aMumif;? tysKdBuD;\pum;oufoufrQom &Sdao;aMumif; ajymaomfvnf;
]]rif;ajymwJUtwkdif;qdkvQif ae&musrSmyguG,f? vkdufomvdkufcJUyg? ig
wacgufvmNyD; ajymygr,f}}[k twif;ac:onfESifh vkdufoGm;&ygawmhonf/

189 
cH&cufqkH;aom &ufowÅywf

a&TbdkNrdKUodkUa&mufMuí &kH;tkyfpma&;BuD;ESifhawGUNyD; pDpOfNyD;&mwGif


(xkdacwfü a&TbdkwNrdKUvkH;ESifh&kH;tm;vkH;wGif 9 wef;atmifol wa,mufrQ
r&Sdao;&m tulpma&;rQavmufjzpfzkdUrSm tcuftcJr&Sd? rsufESmyif
&cJUao;\/) uREkfyfwifyg;wGif aoG;pkemBuD; csufcsif;aygufvmí vrf;yif
ravQmufEdkifyJ&SdonfESifh 0ufvufodkU vkdufvm&jyefonf/ aoG;pkem
[lonfrSm jynfrSnfhNyD;rS aysmuf&aomtemrsKd;jzpfí udpö wef;vef;twGif;
&ufaygif; 20rQavmuf apmifh&rnfhta&;aMumifh uREkfyftzdkU&mü i&Jjynf
ydkUxm;onfhES,f pdwfqif;&JcJU&ygonf/ þta&;wGif uREkfyfzcifum;
awmf&Smygayonf/ rEÅav;rS owif;udkem;axmifí pHa'0DwdkUom;trd
jyefa&mufNyD[k Mum;od&onfESifhwNydKifeuf csufcsif;qif; íajym&m
vufcHvkdufonfqdkaomaMumifh uREkfyf0rf;omvSonf/ okdU&mwGif jynfrSnfhzdkU
rSm &ufowÅywfcefU vdkao;aomaMumifh uREkfyf\woufwmwGif tcH&
cufqkH;aom &ufowÅywf[lírSwfwrf;wifxm;&ygonf/

obmay;Mujcif;

oDwif;uRwfvqef; 13 &ufaeUrSm ousoD[bk&m; qGrf;awmfBuD;


uyfaomaeUjzpfí uREkfyf\aoG;pkemvnf; jynfaygufonfESifh xdkaeUrSmyif
rEÅav;odkU qif;vmcJU\/ naecif;wGif blwm&kHodkUqdkufa&mufí umvom;
oli,fcsif;rsm; &Sdaomae&modkU oGm;av&m wusdyfcefUrQaom oli,fcsif;rsm;
onf xdknOfhü ousoD[qGrf;awmfBuD;uyfodkU oGm;Mu&eftwGuf pk&kH;vsuf
&SdonfESifh tqifoifhawGU&onf/ 4if;wkdUonf uREkfyfudkjrifvQifjrifcsif;

190 
]][pf[pf[l;a&;}}[k okH;BudrfMobmay;vkdufMuojzifh uREkfyftHUtm;oifhoGm;
\/ pkHprf;Munfhaomtcg 4if;wkdUonf zcif\pum;udk pHa'0D\rdcifu
vufcHvdkufaMumif; owif;Mum;MuNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh Mobmay;jcif;jzpf
onf[kod&\/ pHa'0Dudkydk;yef;olrsm;teuf wa,mufurl uREkfyf\vufudk
qGJvsuf ]]uGef*&ufusLav;&Sif;}[k qdkygayonf/ xdknaetzdkUü þvlpk
xJwGif uREkfyfrSm ][D;&dk;}BuD;wa,mufjzpfaeí cPcPMobmay; jcif;cH&\/
tcsKdUuvnf;]]awmfawmfvkHwJU vlwa,mufyJAsm? usKyfwdkUujzifh olUudk
awmif uyf&rvm;rSwfae? armifrif;BuD;om;u ]tHkUykef;BuD;}vkyfae wmudk;As
[k ajymMu\/ tcsKdUuvnf; ]]'gawmhrajymeJUav olUrSmvJrsufpdeJU yJAs}}[k
0ifajym\/ ]]BudKufwmawmh BudKuf&ygw,f? 'Dvdkqdk usKyfwkdU ajcanmif;rcH
bl;ayghAs}}[k ajymoluajymí wa,mufu ]]udk,fBudKufudk,f ydk;ayghAsm?
bmjzpfovJ}}[kajym&m tjcm;wa,mufu ]]olu 9 wef;orm; As? usKyfwdkU
av;ig;wef;eJU bmpGHEdkifrSmvJ}}[k ajymavonf/ þvlpkteuf wGifuREkfyf
xuf &kyfacsmolrsm;? 0wfpm;Edkifolrsm;? 0ifaiG&Sdonfh aps;onf uav;rsm;?
okH;EdkifjzKef;Edkifolrsm;&SdMuygvsuf t*Fvdyfpmudk rnfrQavmuf txifBuD;
aMumif; xif&Sm;vSygonf/

xl;qef;aomMunfhjcif;

xdknOfhü uREkfyfonf oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifhtwl ousoD[bk&m;yJGokdU


vdkufoGm;aomfvnf; pHa'0Dudk jrifvdkao;onfESifh vlpkESifhcJGNyD; wa,muf
wnf; vkduf&Sm\/ pHa'0DwdkU om;trdonf þbk&m;yGJokdU ESpfwdkif;
vmwwfjcif;udkvnf; uREkfyfodNyD;jzpf\/ bk&m;ay:odkUa&mufí ta&SUajrmuf
axmifhtay:rS &yfNyD; bk&m;zl;olrsm;tm; vSrf;MunfhvdkufpOf usOf;ajrmif;

191 
aom taygufuav;wGif pHa'0DESifhuREkfyf rsufESmcsif;qdkif&yfvsufom;
qkHrdMuavawmh\/ xdktcdkuftwefUü rdcifudk rjrif&yJ pHa'0Dwa,muf
wnf;&Sdae&m uRekfyfu 0rf;yef;wom EIwfqufvdkufrnftjyKwGif ol\
xl;qef;aom rsufESmxm;udk jrifvkduf& onfESifh wefUueJ &yfxm;vdkuf&\/
pHa'0Donf uREkfyftm; tvGefajymcsif aompum;wcGef;&Sdonfh vu©PmESifh
pdkufMunfhNyD;rS aemufodkUvSnfhMunfh vkduf&m tarBuD;a&mufvmonfESifh
rajymawmhyJqdkif;xm;vdkuf\/ okdU&mwGif pum;ajymcsifykH&onfh vu©Pm
rSmrl ol\rsufESmü usefvsufyif &Sdao;\/ tarBuD;a&mufvmí uREkfyfudk
jrifaomtcg uREkfyfarQmfvifhaom rsufESmxm;rsKd;r[kwfyJ &Sufovdkvdk
tm;emovdkvkd jzpfaejcif;udkawGU&\/ rnfodkUyifjzpfap tarBuD;um;
uREkfyfudkjrif&onfhtwGuf 0rf;omykHr&jcif; um;aocsmvSonf/ uREkfyfonf
om;trdESpfa,mufvkH;\ trlt&mudk em;rvnfEdkifonfESifh EIwfqufrnfh
tBuHudk &kyfodrf;í usOf;ajrmif;aom wHcg;0wGif wdrf;a&Smifay;vkduf&m
a&SUrSxGufvmaom pHa'0Donf ,cifrsufESmxm;twkdif; wcsufvSnfhMunfh
ao;aomfvnf; tarBuD;rlum; rsufESmikHUíoGm;awmh\/ þrdef;rBuD;um;
olUorD;tm;ydk;aom vlysKduav; rsm;udkMunfh&mwGif tvGefrsufvkH;&Jol
wa,mufjzpfaomaMumifhol\ þnOfhtjyKtrludk uREkfyfem;rvnfatmif
&Sdawmhonf/

tarBuD;nmw,f

uREkfyfonf oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifh rqkHawmhyJ wa,mufwnf;jyefvmí


tysKdBuD;\tdrfokdUoGm;&m tysKdBuD;rSm 4if;\nDrrsm;ESifh yGJMunfhoGm;Muaom
aMumifh rawGUcJU&acs/ owÅd&Sdaom vlysKduav;wa,mufjzpfcJUvQif pum;

192 
vufcHNyD;í w&yfvkH;odaeMuaom udpöjzpfaomaMumifh olwkdU\tdrf
odkUwdkuf&dkufwufNyD; ar;cGifh&Sd\/ uREkfyfvnf;ar;csifvkdufonfrSm tl,m;
vsuf&Sd\/ okdUaomfwa,mufwnf; rwuf0HU? tazmfac:&rnfh vlvnf;
rjrif? oli,fcsif;udkazudkom wrf;wrdygawmhonf/ aemufqkH;ü uREkfyfonf
yJGodkUrjyefawmhyJ aetdrfodkUjyefvmí baxG;\rdef;rxHwGif pHa'0DwdkU
taMumif;udk pkHprf;ar;jref;av\/ ta':uvnf; zcif\pum;udk vufcH
vkdufonfqdkapumrl vGef;cJUonfhav;ig;&ufavmuftwGif; ukefonfydkif;rS
vlwa,mufu aiGrnfírnfrQ wifornf qdkaomaMumifh tarBuD;u
vufcHvkdufovdkvkd Mum;&aMumif;? c&D;a&mufrqdkufjzpfí naeu
uREkfyftm;rajymyJ xm;cJUaMumif; ponfjzifhajymjyav\/ þpum;t&
axmufvdkufaomf om;trdESpfa,mufwkdU\ rsufESmxm;onf t"dyÜg,f
ay:vGifvsuf&SdavNyD/ uRekfyfrnfrQavmuf rcHcsifvkdufonfudk azmfjy&ef
vdkrnfr[kwfay/ odkUaomf uREkfyftzkdU&mü udk,fhodu©m udk,frvkH
atmifjzpfaejcif;rSm zcif\pum;udk olUrdcifu vufcHvdkufonfqdk
aomfvnf; pHa'0Dudk,füu cspfBudKufygonf[k OD;wdkufjzpfap?
wqifhpum;jzpfap zGifh[0efcHbl;jcif; r&SdonfhtwGufaMumifh uREkfyfonf
pHa'0DudkqlEdkifcGifhr&Sd? tarBuD;udkom qlEdkifrnf? uREkfyfqlcsifolum;
tarBuD;r[kwf? pHa'0Djzpfaeojzifh *Gusvsuf&Sd\/ 0wÅ&m;odaom
orD;wa,mufonf rdb\oabmtwdkif; ay;pm;aomvludk ,lcsifvQif
,lEdkifcGifh&Sd\/ cspfBudKufygonf[k zGifh[0efcHonfhpum;rsKd; OD;wdkuf&&Sdrxm;
onfhvlysKdwa,mufu rdbay;pm;wdkif; ,l&acsrnfavm[k qlylzdkU
tcGifhta&;&Sdonf r[kwfay/

193 
oli,fcsif;rsm;\ tm;ay;rI

xdknOfhwGif uREkfyfrSm *Rrf;o'gvefatmif cH&cufvsuf&Sd\/ &Sufvnf;


&Sufonf/ tvGefvnf;ESajrmonf/ pHa'0Dudka'gyGcsifaomfvnf; (azmfjycJU
onfh twkdif;) a'gyGydkifaom tcGifhta&;uREkfyfür&Sdacs/ tarBuD; tay:ü
a'gyGEdkifaomfvnf; bmrQ tusKd;&Sdrnfr[kwf/ omí t&SufuJGMuzdkU
omjzpfvdrfhrnf[k uREkfyfwGufrd\/ odkUaomf ousoD[ bk&m;yJGü pHa'0D\
rsufESmxm;udk owd&í]bmrsm;ajymcsifygvdrfh}[k odcsifaomqE´jzpfvm\/
þae&mwGif uREkfyf\nHUzsif;rI 0ifvm\/ owÅd&SdoljzpfcJUvQif b,fenf;ESifh
rqdk od&atmifvkyfrnfjzpf\/ uREkfyfurl ]]armifeJUusKyfeJUvJGMuygpdkU}}[l
aompum;rsKd;ajymvdkjcif;vnf; jzpfEdkifonf[k wGufrdonfESifh awGUqkH
ar;jref; zkdUyif rBudK;pm;csifawmhyJ 0ufvufodkUomjyefajy;zdkU pdwful;
jzpfay:vsuf&Sd\/ aemufwaeUeHeuf tdyf&mrSEdk;í 0ufvufodkUjyef&ef
pOf;pm;vsuf&SdpOf umvom; oli,fcsif;rsm;teufrS uREkfyf\ 9 wef;*kPfudk
txl;txifBuD; íuREkfyftm;cifrifav;pm;ol wa,mufonf uREkfyf\
aetdrfokdU a&mufvmí uREkfyftm; rsufESmwrsKd;ESifhMunfhjcif;udk owdjyKrd
onf/ xdkolonf uREkfyftm; MuifemaomrsufESmxm;ESifh MunfhaeNyD;aemuf-
]]owif;ckMum;&w,fAsm? cifAsm;awmh Mum;NyD;NyDvm; rqdkEdkifbl;}}
uREkfyfonf ol\rsufESmxm;udk jrif&jcif;tm;jzifh olajymcsifaom
owif;udk &dyfrdaomfvnf; bmrSrajymyJ qdwfqdwfaevdkufavonf/
]]raeUnuwnf;u bk&m;yJGrSm cifAsm;udkvkduf&SmMuwm rawGUbl;Asm?
usKyfwdkUu ajymcsifvGef;vdkUtludk,m;aeMuwmyJ? olwdkU'Dvdkvkyfwm bm
aumif;ovJAs}}

194 
]]ukvm;rsm;ajymMuovkd ]ezl;pm}yavAsm? usKyfawmh'DuaeU
0ufvufjyefawmhr,fAsm oli,fcsif;awGawmif rawGUcsifawmhygbl;}}
]]aMomf cifAsm;vJ Mum;NyD;NyDvm;}}
]]nuyJ Mum;ygw,f}}
]]vmAsm? tjyif cPxGuf&atmif}}
uREkfyfonf t0wfvSJvS,fí vkdufygoGm;av\/
oli,fcsif;onf tjcm;oli,fcsif;wa,muftdrfodkU 0ifíac:NyD;aemuf
okH;a,mufom;onf &kHawmfBuD;odkU oGm;Muav\/ w&kwfqdkifodkU0ifí
yxroli,fcsif;u 0DpuDwcsKd;ESifh qkd'gtjyifpm;p&mrsm;vnf; rSmNyD;aemuf
pHa'0D\ tarBuD;vkyfykHudk 4if;wkdUESpfa,mufu píajymum
uREkfyftm;Muifempum;ajymMuav&m uREkfyfvnf; yxrü 0DpuDudk jiif;rnf
jyKNyD;rS pdwfxGufvmonfESifh twlaomufrdav\/
wa,muf/ / ]][dkieJu aiGuav; ig;axmifwifEdkifwmeJU
ig;pdrf;jrif ig;uifypfowJUAsm? vlcsif;awmh cifAsm;eJUuGmygw,f? eHUomqDeJU
tD;ygyJAsm? cifAsm;aumifu okH;wef;atmifwJUaumifr[kwfbl;}}
wa,muf/ / ]]ynmwGifruygbl;Asm? vlykHcsif;MunfhygtkH;?
[dkaumifhrsufESmu a&SmufoD;aeylvSef;xm;ovdk &IHUaewJUrsufcGufBuD;rsKd;yJ?
cifAsm;u vlacsmBuD;r[kwfayr,hf usKyfwkdUrsufpdxJrSmawmh odyfa,musfm;yD
w,fAs? [kwfwmaygh? b,fvkdrsm; rsufpdolBuD;vJGwJUieJrvJ rqdkEdkif
ygbl;Asm}}
uREkfyf/ /]]tarBuD;cs,fvS,fwmqdkifxifyghAsm}}
wa,muf/ /]][if [kwfvm;? 'Dvdkqdk usKyfwdkUrcHEdkifbl;As?
tdrfa&SUrSm qdkif;bkwfxlNyD; t&SufcJGr,fAsm}}

195 
wa,muf/ /]]usKyfuawmh 'DvdkBuHw,f? udkarmifuav;udk
oDcsif;pyfcdkif;NyD; olwkdUtdrfa&SUu avQmufqdkapr,fAsm}}
[kwfr[kwf tyxm;í txufygpum;rsm;onf uREkfyftzdkU ESpfodrfh
aponfh pum;rsm;jzpfav&m uREkfyfonf 0DpuDtenf;i,fuav;rQom
(olwkdUpdwfauseyfatmif) aomufí waeUvkH; olwkdUESifhrcJGawmhyJ
vnfywfojzifh 0ufvufodkUrjyefjzpfawmhacs/
xdknOfhü vomomBuD;wGif uREkfyfwkdU umvom;oli,fcsif; 10
a,mufcefUwdkUonf pHa'0D\tdrfa&SU vrf;avQmufMu,if; udkarmifuav;u
udk,fwdkifa&;pyfaom oDcsif;wyk'fudk oludk,fwdkif[pfatmfum oDqdkav\/
4if;aw;csif;rS wyk'fudk uREkfyfrSwfrdonfrSmum;-
]].....trSefudk vif;&rSmjzifh owif;r<um;aygif? '*Fg;udkjzifh rufwm?
&Sufp&m uvufwmay:xif....}}[lonfyifjzpfavonf/
w&yfvkH;onf aw;oHudkMum;Muí tarBuD;\avmfrmrIudk &IwfcsNyD;
uREkfyfudkoem;Mujcif;aMumifh Oauúma',s jzpf&ao;onf[k aemifwGif
ta0;rSuREkfyfMum;&\/ uREkfyfrlum; aemufwaeUeHeufwGif 0ufvufodkU
jyefajy;í a&Tbdkta&;ydkif&kH;wGif tvkyf0ifvkyfavNyD/

uREkfyf\tdyfruf

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196 
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197 
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198 
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199 
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200 
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201 
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202 
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203 
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204 
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205 
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pum;wck&Sdw,fa[h? ckrSajymawmhr,f}}
]]pHa'0DtaMumif;vm; tar}}
]]at; [kwfw,f? [dkvGefcJUwJU &SpfESpfavmufwkef;u rif;iSufzsm;zsm;
ygavaum}}
]]yxrtdrfaxmif rvSrSL;eJUwkef;uvm; tar}}
]][kwfw,fav? 'Dwkef;u rif;wkdUu r*Fvmaps;em;rSm
aeMuw,fr[kwfvm;? igu0ufvufu rEÅav;udk vmcdkufrSm rifhpHa'0Du
ighwnf;tdrfudk vmNyD; idk&Smw,fuG,fh}} (wnf;tdrfrSmESr\tdrfjzpfonf)
]]bmawGrsm; ajymoGm;ao;ovJ tar}}
]][dkwkef;u rif;zsm;wmudk olMum;ygw,fwJU? aq;&kHawmif
vmMunfhzdkUpdwful;ygw,fwJU? tazmf&Smr&vdkU roGm;jzpfbl;wJU}}
]]onfhjyifaum bmrsm;ajymao;ovJ tar}}
]]oluvJ rifhtwkdif;yJ? &Sufwwfw,f? bmrSawmh rajymbl;?
rsuf&nfawmufawmufuswmyJ? rifhESrudkawmh zufoGm;&Smao;w,f}}
]]'DtaMumif;awGudk bmaMumifh uRefawmfhudk rajymwmvJ tar}}
]]iguawmhajymcsifyg&JU? olraocifu ajymvdkufvQif rif;u
udk;&dk;um;&m; vkyfukefrSmjrifvdkUrajymyJ zkH;xm;cJUwmyJ}}
]]jzpfcsif&m jzpfayghtar&,f? olUtarBuD;udk *Gvkyfvkduf&vQif
uRefawmfauseyfwmaygh}}
]]igvJ BudKufwmyJ? 'gayr,fh rvSrSL;u &Sdao;wmudk;om;&,f? rif;u
vGwfvGwfvyfvyfqdkvQif [kwfom;aygh}}

206 
&Sif;vif;csuf

txufyg tjcif;t&mrsm; jzpfay:vm&ykHrSm þodkUwnf;/ 1910


jynfhESpfü uREkfyfyxrtdrfaxmifusí 1912 ckESpfwGif iSufzsm; tBuD;tus,f
zsm;av&m iSufzsm;aysmufaomtcgwGif uREkfy\
f pdwfonf aemufawmuf
awmufjzpfcJU\/ (tBuD;tus,f zsm;emolwkdUonf a&m*g aysmufaomtcg
wGif xdkuJUodkU jzpfolrsm;vnf; &Sdonf[k uRekfyfMum;bl;\/)
uREkfyfpdwfaemuf ykHum; qkd;qkd;&Gm;&Gm;r[kwf? 0wfopfpm;opfrsm;
0wfívrf;avQmufjcif;? avyef;jcif;? igvkyfvQif bmrqdkjzpfEdkifonf[k
txifBuD;rdjcif;wkdU jzpfavonf/ okdUjzpfí uREkfyfonf tzsm;aysmufí
aq;&kHrS qif;vmaomtcgwGif t0wftpm; trsKd;rsKd; vJvS,fí
a&TrsufrSefwyfum wkwfaumufESifh vrf;avQmuf\/ pHa'0DwkdU\tdrfa&SUudk
(olESifh vJGuwnf;u) a&SmifuGif;vmcJU&m xkdtcgurl pdwfazmufjyefonfh
tavsmuf t&SuftaMumuf r&SdawmhyJ wGifwGifBuD;vrf;avQmufí pHa'0DESifh
wcgw&H rsufESmcsif;qdkif awGU&aomtcgwGif NyKh;í jycJUao;\/
þtjyKtrl rsm;udk jrif&aom pHa'0Donf uREkfyf\pdwfazmufjyefjcif;udk
r&dyfrdonfESifh wzefvmí ydk;jyefonfxifaomaMumifh ikyfaeaom
Muifempdwfjyefay:um rdcifxHodkU vmjcif;jzpfwef&macsonf/

207 
wa&;a&;ay:vmjcif;

uREkfyfonf rdcif\pum;udk Mum;&aomtcgwGifrS pHa'0D\


oabmxm;ESifh ywfoufíoHo, uif;&Sif;onfh tavsmuf atmufyg
tjzpftysufuav;rsm;onf pdwfxJwGif wa&;a&;ay:vmawmhonf/
ywÅjrm;apwD bk&m;yJGwGif pHa'0DwdkUtkyfpku Z&yfokdUtvsifa&mufESifhí
xrif;pm;aecdkufwGif uREkyfwdkUvlpk a&mufvmMuí uREkfyf\toHudkMum;&
onfESifh wNydKifeuf xrif;yJGwGiftarBuD;ESifh tysKdBuD;wkdU\ tMum;rS
uwfuwfowfowf acsmif;Munfhí uREkfyfESifh rsufvkH;csif;wdkufqdkifrdjcif;?
yqpf0dkif;ü pHa'0Du a<uypfí ]tpdwf}usjcif;udk uREkfyfu rjrifvdkuf&ojzifh
yef;uefxJokdUvufEdIfufvdkufrd&m qufvufíypfrnf[k a<uudkEIdufaeaom
pHa'0D\vufudk qkyfudkifrdojzifh vlBuD;awGu &,fMuaomfvnf; pHa'0D
&Suf[efr&SdyJ cspfp&maumif;aom rsufESmxm;rsKd;ESifh uREkfyftm;NyKH;vsufMunfh
jcif;? uREkfyfwkdU\ tdrfa&SUrS pHa'0D vrf;avQmufoGm;pOf tdrfay:rS
qif;vmaom uREkfyfESifhrsufESmcsif;qdkif MunfhvdkufMu&m tkwfusKd;tkyfyJUrsm;
cif;xm;ojzifh ZvkH;Zck jzpfaeaom vrf;jzpfípHa'0D cvkwfwdkufrdjcif;?
pHa'0DwdkU\ tdrfa&SUodkU uREkfyfvrf;avQmufoGm;pOf pHa'0Donf xdef;ausmif;
vsuf&Sdaom wluav;udk ajrBuD;ay:wGif csxm;,if; ikHUvsuf&Sd&mrS
uREkfyfudkjrifonfESifh rsufvkH;csif;qkHrdMu&mwGif ol\qGJBudK;onf wluav;
\ qGJBudK;rS avmhuwfoD;ESifh NidoGm;ojzifh tawmfjzKwf,l&bl;jcif; paom
tjcif;t&mrsm;onf rsufpdxJwGif w0J0Jjyefí ay:vmygawmhonf/ þtjzpf
tysufrsm;onf wckpDtaejzifh t"dyÜm,fxif&Sm;aumif;rS xif&Sm;rnf
jzpfaomfvnf; tm;vkH;pkaygif;vdkufaom tcgürlum; uREkfyftm;

208 
cspfBudKufonf[k xifcJUjcif;onf txifBuD;jcif;r[kwf[k,lqEdkifMuayvdrfh
rnfxif\/ okdUESifhvnf; uREkfyfonf þtjzpftysufuav;rsm;udk
jrKyfxm;í rdcif\pum;udkMum;&aomtcgrS uREkfyf\ txifudktwnfjyK
aomtaejzifh azmfjyvdkufjcif;jzpfygonf/

tBuD;qkH;aom ]ql;} BuD;aygufjcif;

pHa'0DtaMumif;udk þae&mwGif Zmwfodrf;NyD;aemuf 1909 ckESpfwGif


pHa'0DudkvufavQmhvdkufonfh tcsdeftydkif;tjcm;odkUjyefí aumuf&ayOD;rnf/
pHa'0Dtjzpftysufonf uREkfyf\obm0wGif tBuD;qkH;aom]ql;}BuD;
wacsmif;ay:aygufaponfjzpfí vlom;udkcspfcifMuifemwwfonfh pdwfxm;
rsKd; tawmfBuD;avsmhenf; qkwf,kwfoGm;cJUygavNyD/ cspfcifaom rdwfaqG
wa,mufwavrQ þXme xdkXmeponfrsm;wGif BuKHawGU&í tjyeftvSef
Muifemjcif; &SdMuaomfvnf; vlom;aomif;ajymif; taejzifhrlum;
txifBuD;rI r&SdawmhyJ vltrsm;ESifh aygif;oif;qufqHjcif; xuf
wudk,fwnf; ae&aomtjzpfudk ydkrdkESpfoufvmcJUavNyD/ e*dkuwnf;
uwudk,fwnf; aecsifwwfonfh ]OmOf}uav;ygvmcJUonfh txJwGif 
(Introvert  Type)  txufyg tqifrajyrIESifh BuKHvdkuf&aom tcgü
]vlawG[m tvum;ygyJ? wa,mufwnf; aejcif;u aumif;ygao;onf}[l
aomt,ltqonf wkd;íwkd;í jzpfay:vmNyD; omíomí oabmusvm\/
okdUjzpfí a&TbdfkNrdKUopfawm&kH;üpma&;vkyfpOf ,cifwacguf ta&;ydkif&kH;ü
vkyfudkifpOfuavmufrQ todtuRrf; r&SmawmhyJpmtkyfudkom tazmfjyK
ygawmhonf/ todrdwfaqG aygrsm;atmif vkyfay;Edkifonfh baxG;

209 
ESpfa,mufwkdU\aetdrfokdUyif wacgufwavrQavmufom a&mufygawmh
onf/

BuD;yGm;csifpdwf ukefcrf;ykH

tu,fí pHa'0Donf &mxl;&Sdaom vlwa,muf?okdUr[kwf ydkufqH&Sd


aoma,musfm;wa,mufESifh vufxyfonfqdkygu uREkfyfonf baxG;
ESpfa,mufxHokdU csOf;uyfí vufvSrf;rSDoavmuf wwfEdkiforQ tjrifhqkH;
tqifhtwef; rdef;uav;wa,mufa,mufudk &Edkif&ef tm;usrcH *kPfwk
*kPfNydKifoabmrsKd;ESifh BudK;pm;aumif; BudK;pm;rdvdrfhrnfxifonf/ ,ckrSmrl
(olwkdUtqdktwdkif;)eu©wfcsif; rwdkufqdkifí vGJMu&mwGif oludk,fwdkifrSm
vnf; tdrfaxmifjyKonf[k rMum;&aomaMumifh xdkuJUodkU BudK;pm;zdkUrvdkyJ
jzpfae\/ okdU&mwGif uREkfyf\ pdwfxm;ESifhywfoufí BuD;pGmaom
ajymif;vJcsufwckjzpfay:vmcJUykHrSm ,cifurl igonf pHa'0Dudk olwyg;
om;r,m;xuf atmufrusapyJ qifjyifEdkifap&ef &mxl;XmeEÅ&
wkd;wufatmif BudK;pm;&rnf[laom pdwftBuHtpnfrsKd; &SdcJU&m ,ckrSmrlum;
BuD;yGm;wdk;wufa&;twGuf vkH;0owdr&oavmuf jzpfcJU&avNyD/ vlysKd
uav;b0 vScsifycsif? 0wfcsifpm;csifpdwfrsKd;vnf; uG,faysmufoavmuf
jzpfae\/ xkdpOfu a&TbdkNrdKUxJwGif zGifhonfh t&yfxD wckwGif uREkfyfonf
Zmwfxkyf okH;xkyfygonfh "mwfpufwck xDayguf&m (300davmufwefí
aiGwefzkd;&SdaomacwfjzpfaomaMumifh awmfawmf 0,favmuf csrf;avmuf
onf/) 4if;"mwfpufudka&mif;NyD; t0wftpm;ESifh tokH;taqmifrsm; 0,frnf
[kpdwful;NyD;rS pD;yGm;tajc,dkifojzifh rEÅav;odkU wzefajymif;a&GU
aexdkifvsuf&Sdonfh rdbrsm;xHokdU ydkUvdkufygonf/ þonfrSm aiGa&;ESifh

210 
ywfoufírdbrsm;twGuf uREkfyftrsm;qkH; pGefUpm;axmufyHUvdkuf& bl;jcif;
yif jzpfyg\/ (rdbrsm; ajymif;a&TUaexdkifMuaom &yfuGufrSm pHa'0DwdkU
ESifhtwlaeaom ,cif&yfuGuf r[kwf? rdcif\tpfr0rf;uJGwa,mufaeonfh
"m;wef;&yfuGufjzpf\/) uREkfyfonf rdbrsm;ESifh ESruav;nDuav;rsm;
tay:wGif Muifempdwf uif;rJUolwa,muf r[kwfaomfvnf; pHa'0DEsifh
vJG&onfwGif vlUb0udk awmfawmfBuD; pdwfysufoGm;NyD; bmudkrQ
*&krpdkufcsifawmhyJ rxDw&D jzpfvmcJUjcif;aMumifh 0w¦&m;ysufuGufrIrsm;vS
ygonf/ pHa'0DESifh taMumif;yg&vQif vlUb0udk auseyfNyD; ,ckxuf
0w¦&m;odaom om;aumif;wa,mufjzpfvmvdrfhrnf[k xifrdygonf/
(odkUaomf þonfrSm txifrQomjzpfyg\/)

rdbrsm;\ tBuHtpnf

1910 jynfhESpf ESpfOD;avmufwGif rdcifonf uREkfyftwGuf tpDtpOf


wck &Sdonfqdkum tvkyfrS EIwfxGufcJU&efrSmxm;ojzifh rEÅav;okdU
a&mufvmcJU\/ rdcifwkdUum; "m;wef;&yfwGif tpfrawmfola&awmfcifav;\
wkdufü aexdkifvsuf&SdMu\/ rdcifESifhBuD;awmfwkdU\ tpDtpOfum; þdokdU
wnf;/ (uREkfyf\BuD;awmfrSm a&eHacsmif;NrdKUwGif a&eHwGif;tajrmuf
tjrm;&SdcJUí 4if;wkdUudk bDtdkpDukrÜPDokdUa&mif;csjcif;tm;jzifh <u,f0ol
wa,mufjzpfvm\/) BuD;awmfonf tdrfa&SUrif;\ orD;awmf rif;orD;
wa,mufESifh nDtpfrt&if;wrQ csifcifvmcJUMuí twlwuGaexkdifvsuf&Sd
&m 4if;wkdU\pdwful;rSm uREkfyftm; aqGawmfrsKd;awmf (rif;orD;uav;)
wa,mufESifh ay;pm;&ef? xdkUaemuf BuD;awmf\oli,fcsif; rif;orD;rSm
rif;aygufpdk;aygufjzpfí jrefrmjynf twGif;0efcsKyfBuD;xHodkU csOf;uyfNyD;

211 
uREkfyftm;NrdKUtkyfcefUzdkU awmif;cH&ef jzpfav&m (xdkacwfü þtBuHonf
pdwful;,Ofjcif; oufoufr[kwf? uREkfyfESifh ausmif;aebuf oli,fcsif;
wa,mufrSm 9wef;yif ratmifyJ þenf;jzifh NrdKUtkyfjzpfjcif;udk
jrifbl;ygonf/) BuD;awmfESifhrif;orD;onf uREkfyftm; 4if;tBuHtpnfudk
zdíajymMu&m rdcifzcifwkdUuvnf; oabmwlMu\/ aemufqkH;ü uREkfyfu
]]Munfhyg&ap}}[k ajymonfESifh BuD;awmfESifhrif;orD;onf uREkfyftm;
4if;tdrfay:odkU ac:oGm;Muav\/

uREkfyf\ 0goemwck

uREkfyf\pdwful;ü rif;orD;[lonfrSm tenf;qkH; oem;urm;


&Sdvdrhfrnf [kxifxm;\/ xkduJUodkUum;rawGU&acs/ &kyftqif;udk xm;ygOD;/
zD;vdrf;jyifqifrIESifh ywfoufíolUacwfESifhol a&SUqkH;rSajy;vsuf&Sdaom pHa'0D
tm; rsufpdusvmcJUaom uREkfyfrSm ]a'gif;wdarmif;wd}ESifh awmfovdk 0wfqif
xm;aom rdef;uav;udk jrif&aomtcgü rnfodkUrQ rxdcdkufyJ&Sdae\/
tjcm;wcsufrSmvnf; uREkfyfudk,füuom cyf&dk;&dk;ESifh 0wfykHcyf&dk;&dk; &Sdae
onf/ rsufpdusawmh xdyfwef;rS uswwfcsifonfjzpf&m rdef;uav;uvnf;
uREkfyftay:ü pdwf0ifpm;onfh trlt&mrawGU&acs/ tu,fí olUbufu
pdwf0ifpm;rIawGU&vQif uREkfyfbufuvnf; ajymif;vJjcif; &Sdaumif;&Sdayrnf/
pHa'0Dudk uREkfyfpJGcJUjcif;rSm tjcm;aomtaMumif;rsm;xuf uREkfyftay:ü
pdwf0ifpm;rI&Sdjcif;udk vGefyGJrSpí tcgcyfodrf; xif&Sm;pGmazmfjyaomaMumifh
jzpf\/ rdef;uav;wa,mufonf rdk;ysHatmif vScsifvSap? uREkfyftay:ü
pdwf0ifpm;jcif;&Sdonfudk rawGU&vQif uREkfyfpJGrufvdrfhrnfr[kwfacs/ wzef
uREkfyftay:ü &dk;om;pGmpdwf0ifpm;jcif;&Sdonfudk uREkfyfawGU&aomtcgwGif

212 
vnf; uREkfyfuwkHUjyefí pdwf0ifpm;jcif;&Sdvmwwfygonf? þonfum;
uREkfyf\toufwmwavQmufvkH; 0goemaywnf;/ a,musfm;jzpfap?
rdef;rjzpfap? vlBuD;jzpfap? vli,fjzpfap uREkfyfonf þtwdkif;yif
oabmxm;wwf\/ þodkUjyK&rnf[k wrifwum tpDtpOfa&;qJGxm;jcif;
r[kwf? uRekfyf\yifudk,fobm0  (Spontaneous  Reaction)  jzpfygonf/
uREkfyftay:ü pdwf0ifpm;ykHr&aom rdef;uav;wa,muftm; cspfBudKufvm
atmifvlysKdvSnfhzdkUaomfvnf;aumif;? pdwfr0ifpm;aom vlBuD;wOD;
wa,mufxHrS wpkHwck&vdkonfESifh rsufESmcsKdaoG;zdkUaomfvnf;aumif;
vkyfvnf;rvkyfcJU? b,fawmhrSvnf; vkyfvdrfhrnfr[kwfacs/ þonfrSm
rme[kac:MuvQif rdcifxHrStarGqufcH&jcif;jzpfí bmrSr&csifvnf;&Sdap?
þtwGufaMumifh 0rf;enf;vdrfhrnf r[kwfacs/ BuD;awmfESifh rif;orD;onf
uREkfyfESifh rif;orD;av;\tuJudk &dyfrdMuí tjcm;wa,mufESifh prf;MunfhMu
ao;\/ þwa,mufrSm ydk;ukefonfjzpfí oem;urm;&Sdyg\/ okdU&mwGif
pHa'0D\ &kyf&nfudkrrSDyJvsuf rdk;atmufokdU avQmhí rMunfhwwfonfh rme
rsKd; &Sdjcif;udk uREkfyf&dyfrdonfESifh aemufqkwfvdkufygawmhonf/ BuD;awmfurl
uRekfyf\ rdciftm; ]]rifhom;uolU[muvJGvQif zGJeJUqefuGJxif yg&JU
nDr&,f}} [k ajymbl;avonf/

txifBuD;cH&jcif;

1910 jynfhESpf ESpfvnfavmufwGif uREkfyfonf v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;


rif;BuD;&kH;wGif vc 50d? 5d? 75d pma&;tvkyfudk &&Sd\/ þ&kH;rSm rEÅav;NrdKU
ütjcm;om&kH;rsm;ESifhrwlyJ 9 wef;atmifaompma&;trsm;qkH;&Sdaom &kH;jzpfí
t*Fvdyfpmynm tqifhtwef;jrifhrm;aom vlrsm;csnf;awGU&\/ tjcm;&kH;BuD;

213 
rsm;rS pma&;rsm;onf ]atmufqdkuf}&MuaomaMumifh tpdk;&vcudk
avQmhxm;[efwlay&m þ&kH;ürlum; uREkfyfonf vpmti,fqkH;jzpfí 300d
txd&aompma&;BuD;rsm;yif &Sdavonf/ þ&kH;BuD;rSm a&Tbdk&kH;rsm;uJUokdU
t*Fvdyfpm rawmufwacguf a&;wwf&kHruyJ awmfawmfom;om;em;em;
a&;wwfonfh pma&;rsm;&SdMuí t*Fvdyfpm 0goemygaom uREkfyftzdkU
pdwf0ifpm;rI&SdvSonf/ uREkfyfrSmvufESdyfpufpma&;uav;wa,mufrQom
jzpfaomfvnf; tvGefzwf&cufaom tdkifpDtufpft&m&SdBuD;rsm;\ ]aomh}
vufa&;udkzwfEdkifí rSefuefpGm pufESdyful;,lEdkifjcif; twGufaMumifh
rMumrDemrnfuav;xGufvm\/ waeUoü xDeHygwfrsm;taMumif;udk
&kH;tkyfESifhwuG pma&;tm;vkH;0dkif;zGJUum aqG;aEG;vsuf&SdMupOf (xdkacwfü
&efukefaMu;eef;xD&Sdonf/) t*Fvdyfujym; &kH;tkyfpma&;BuD;u ]]111111
(wpfajcmufvkH;) odkUr[kwf 222222 (ESpfajcmufvkH;)rSpí *Pef;xyfaom
xDvufrSwfrsKd;onf tjcm;aomeHygwfrsm;xuf aygufzkdUcJ,Of;onf}}[kajym
&m uREkfyfu ]]twlwlyifjzpfonf}}[k ajym\/ tjcm;pma&;rsm;vnf; 0if
rpGufMuyJ em;axmifvsuf &Sd\/ &kH;tkyfuqifajcqifvuf taMumif;jyí
uREkfyfuvnf;  (Law  of  Probability)  jzpfwef&maom vu©PmOya'
pnf;urf;t& wGufíjy\/ aemufqkH;ü uREkfyfu EIwfjzifhajym&jcif;udk
tm;r&onfESifh t*Fvdyfvdkpmjzifh a&;om;wifjy\/ &kH;om;tm;vkH;onf
uREkfyf\ ajzvTmudk0dkif;0ef; em;axmifMu&m tawmfauseyfMuí &kH;tkyfudk,f
wdkifuvnf; ]]  Theory  pmvdkawmh [kwfonf? vufawGUawmh wrsKd;jzpf
onf}}[kajymjyef\/ þwGif uREkfyfu ]]þudpörsKd;ü pmvdk[kwfvQif
vufawGU vnf; rSef&rnf}}[k xyfqifhwifjyjyef&m pm;a&;tm;vkH;auseyfMu
í&kH;tkyfudk,fwdkifvnf; t&IH;ay;oGm;onf/ þwGif&kH;tkyfESifhwuG &kH;om;tm;
vkH;onf uREkfyf\A[kokwudkvnf;aumif;? usKd;aMumif;qifjcifwwfaom

214 
OmPfudkvnf;aumif;? t*Fvdyfvdkta&;tom;udkvnf;aumif;? txifBuD;
oGm;Mu\/ þ&kH;om;rsm;onf a&Tbdk&kH;om;rsm;xuf t&m&mwGif tqifh
twef; jrifhMuygayonf[k uREkfyfauseyfrdygonf/ wESpfcefUMumaom vc
60d? 5d? 80d &aom pma&;ae&m vpfvyfí (&kH;tkyf\ axmufcHcsuft&)
uREkfyftm; cefUxm;av&m waeUoü ,cifpma&;vkyfoGm;cJUonfh trSm;wck
rSm uREkfyftay:odkU trIywfí rif;BuD;\ xkacsvTmawmif;jcif;cH&\/
uRekfyfonf uREkfyfvufxufü trSm;r[kwfyJ trSm;a[mif;wckjzpfjcif;udk
a&vnf&Sif;vif;pGm xkacsvTma&;í wifvdkuf&m rif;BuD;u ]auseyfzG,fa&;
xm;aomxkacs csufjzpfonf}[k rSwfcsuf csvdkufavonf/ aemufrsm;
rMumrD &kH;tkyfBuD;u ]]a[h azodef; rif;udkrif;BuD;u awmfawmf
oabmusoGm;w,f? BudK;pm;vkyf? rif; wufvrf;&Sdw,f}}[kac:í
ajymygayonf/

vlysKdBuD;jzpfxdkufygvsuf

uREkfyf\cspfa&;jyóemudk jyefajymif;qifjcifvkduf&mwGif uREkfyfonf


pHa'0Dudk cspfBudKufjcif;ESifh wlnDaom arwÅmrsKd;&sdonfh rdef;uav;udkrS
vufxyf,lrnfqdkygu þwoufwGif vlysKdBuD;tjzpfESifhyif b0wkH;zdkU
&Sdayvdrfhrnf/ taMumif;ygcJUonfh tdrfaxmif okH;qufvkH;tm;vnf;aumif;?
taMumif;rygonfh tcsKdU rdef;rrsm;tm;vnf;aumif; pHa'0Dudk cspfBudKufcJU
jcif;ESifh wlnDaom arwÅmrsKd;rlum; woufwmwGif wOD;wa,mufrQ rBuKHcJU
bl;ay/ tjcm; rdef;rrsm;udkrl udk,fvkH;udk,fayguf oabmusjcif;? udk,f[ef
trlt&mudkBudKufjcif;? ajymykHqdkykHudk ESpfoufjcif; ponfjzifh&SdcJUbl;&m
pHa'0Dudkrl (tjcm;aom udk,ft*Fgtpdwftydkif;rsm;vnf; vlcsD;rGrf;cH&

215 
apumrl) rsufvkH;oufoufudkom uRekfyftxl;ESpfoufcJU\/ yxr
tdrfaxmif\ rsufvkH;rsm;rSm pifppftm;jzifh pHa'0D\ rsufvkH;rsm;xuf
vSyg\/ uREkfyfvnf;odyg\/ okdU&mwGif pHa'0D\MunfhykH Munfhenf;rsKd;
r[kwfaomaMumifh pGJruf&mürrDEdkifyg/ pHa'0Dudk wudk,fvkH;r&vQif aeap
ol\rsufvkH;ESpfvkH;udk t&Sifvdkuf&xm;í rSefaowÅmuav;xJwGif
xnfhxm;NyD; Munfhcsifaomtcgü Munfhae&rnfqdkygu woufvkH;
tdrfaxmifrjyKyJ aeEdkifvdrfhrnf[k xifrdygonf/ þrQavmufpJGrufvQif
tb,faMumifh pHa'0DtdrfaxmifrjyKrD rdrdu r,m;,l&ygoenf;[k
ar;zG,f&m&Sd\/ pHa'0DrSm olUacwfwGif pyfol[yfol owif;rsm;onf
uREkfyfxHodkUem;rqHUatmif a&mufvsuf&SdaomaMumifh uREkfyfü tawG;wck
jzpfay:vm\/ tu,fí olvif,lNyD; igr,m;r,lao;vQif ]zdk;usef&pf}
[kac:Muvdrfhrnfqdkum tdrfaxmifzuf&SmzdkU tavmokH;q,ftBuHjzpfvm
ygawmhonf/ tcsKdUvlrsm;um; udpör&Sd? uREkfyfrSmrl ESpfBudrfwdkifwdkif &yfod
&Gmod ausmfMum;NyD;rS vGJacsmfjcif;jzpfaomaMumifh ]apmifharQmfwkef;
&Sdao;onf}[k t&yfxJu ajymMurnfudk aorwwf&Sufrdygawmhonf/

yxr tdrfaxmif

þokdUaomtajctaewGif uREkfyfonf uREkfyfwdkU&kH;rS pma&;uav;


wa,mufESifh pum;pyfrdMuí ajrwdkif;ausmif;q&mBuD;\ orD;ESpfa,muf
tdrfodkU tvnfvdkufoGm;\/ orD;ti,frvSrSL;rSm rsufckef;rsufvkH;vSol
wa,mufjzpfí pHa'0D\pGJrufjcif;rsKd; r[kwfapumrl awmfavmufNyD[k
oabmus\/ uREkfyftdrfaxmifzuf&Smjcif;rSm ]tavmokH;q,f}&SdvS\/
pHa'0Dvifr,lrD OD;atmifr,m;,lrnfqkdum aemufrS vlvkdufouJUokdU

216 
tajy;tvTm;pdwful;awmh\/ þae&mürl pHa'0Dudk &GHUjcif;rsKd; vkH;0r&SdawmhyJ
&J&JBuD;pum;qdkí jrefjrefBuD;pDrHvdkuf&m &ufydkif;rQtwGif;avmufyif
vufxyfNyD;pD;oGm;cJUavNyD/ xdkpOfurl pHa'0Dvifr&rD tdrfaxmifjyK&jcif;
onfyif ]atmifNyD atmifNyD}[k pdwfxJu a<u;aMumfrdygao;onf/ (tu,fí
aemufydkif;wGif od&onfhtwdkif; pHa'0D\arwÅmudk pdwfcs&í zGifh[0efcHaom
pum;wcGef; &&Sdxm;cJUygrlum; uREkfyfonfaoonftxd apmifhqdkif;aecJU
vdrfhrnf xifrdygonf/ pHa'0DrSm 29 ESpft&G,fwGif uG,fvGefí
uREkfyfrSmtouf 30 rQ&SdygavNyD/)

&mxl;wufjcif;

xdktawmtwGif; uRekfyfrSm &mxl;wkd;wufvsuf&Sdyg\/ tu,fí


pHa'0DonfxdktcsdefwGif tdrfaxmifjyKNyD;jzpfcJUygrl uREkfyfonf tvkyfwGif
olvdk igvdkBuD;yGm;csifaompdwfrsKd;&Sdí olwkdUpHkwGJxufomatmifqdkum
0D&d,pdkufvdrfhrnfxif\/ ,ckrSm pHa'0Donf tysKdBuD;yif&Sdao;í
uRekfyfrSmaemufqHwiifiifjzpfvsuf&Sd\/ &kH;wGif awmfawmf tpte
aumif;aom pm;a&;uav;wa,mufjzpfaeygvsuf olwyg;enf;wl
rBudK;pm;yJ 0wfaus0wfukefrQavmufom tvkyfvkyfvsuf&S\
d / rif;BuD;url
uRekfyfudktawmftxifBuD;í tjcm;pm;a&;wa,muftay:okdU ausmfum
uREkfyftm; ol\awmvdkufpma&;cefUvdkuf\/ vcrSm 75dusyf-5dusyf-
100dusyfrQom jzpfaomfvnf; c&D;p&dwf 100dausmf&avonf/ rif;BuD;onf
v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;Xmeudk vnf;aumif;? or0g,rXmeudk vnf;aumif;?
vufrIynmXmeudkvnf;aumif; okH;Xmeudkif&í Xmewckwckonf jrefrm
wjynfvkH;twGuf jzpf&um;e,fvSnfhvkduf&onfrSm em;&awmhonf r&Sdacs/

217 
wvwGif 27 &ufrQ e,fvSnfh&í 3&ufcefUrQom rEÅav;NrdKUüaecGifh
&&Sdygawmhonf/ xdkUaMumifhvnf; uREkfyftwGuf c&D;p&dwf100dausmf&jcif;
jzpf&m vcESifh aygif;vdkufvQif 200dcefU&&Sd\/ þonfrSm yxrurÇmppf
rwdkifrdujzpfí ,ckaiG100d ausmfruokH;avmufpJGavmufay onf/
uREkfyf\toufrSm 22ESpfrQom&Sdao;í awmfawmf[efonf[k qdkEdkifavmuf
ygonf/

&efukefodkUyxrtacguf

rif;BuD;\ awmvdkufpma&;b0wGif uREkfyfonf jrefrmjynf


rD;&xm;vrf;wavQmufESifh oabFmvrf;wavQmufvkH;wGif ra&mufbl;aom
NrdKU[lír&Sd? a'oEÅ&A[kokw trsm;BuD;&cJUyg\/ or0g,rtoif;udpöESifh
aomfvnf;aumif;? v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;udpöESifhaomfvnf;aumif;? vufrI
ynma&;udpöESifhaomfvn;faumif; wckr[kwfwck? wae&mr[kwf
wae&mokdU tNrJoGm;ae&onfhjyif &efukefokdUvnf; vwdkif;a&muf&onfu
rsm;\/ uREkfyfrSm xdktcsdefu &efukefNrdKUokdU aumif;aumif;a&mufbl;ol
r[kwfao;onfESifh &efukefNrdKUESifhwuG NrdKUolNrdKUom;rsm;tm; txifBuD;cJUykH
udk azmfjy&ygOD;rnf/ 1912 ckESpf? azazmf0g&DvwGif &efukefNrdKU
*sLbvDa[mvf&kHBuD;ü uREkfyfwdkU\vufrIynmXmeu BuD;rSL;usif;yonfh
vufrIynmjyyJGBuD; jyKvkyf&mwGif rif;BuD;ESifhuREkfyfonf cyfapmapm
BudKwifqif;oGm;Muírif;BuD;u yJcl;uvyfüwnf;&m uREkfyfvnf; olESifhtwl
wnf;&\/ (twlqdkaomfvnf; tapcHrsm;ESifh tdyf&jcif;jzpfonf/)
þwacgufrSm uREkfyftzkdU&mü yxrtacgufjzpfí yuwdawmom;wa,muf
ESifh bmrQrjcm;? tvGefwGefUqkwfvsuf&Sd\/ (awmvkdufpma&;ae&mrSm

218 
pma&;BuD; udkjrpf\ae&mjzpfí udkjrpfcGifh,loGm;aomaMumifh uREkfyfwufí
vkyf&jcif;jzpf&m udkjrpfvnf; uREkfyfudk vmítultnDay;ayonf/)
ra&mufbl;ojzifh &GHUaMumufvsuf&Sdaom &efukefNrdKUBuD;wGif *sLbvDa[mvf&kH
BuD;ü EdkifiHvkH;qdkif&m jyyJGBuD;wckudk uREkfyfwa,mufwnf;
(rif;BuD;vufatmufü) OD;pD;vkyfudkif&rnfqdkvQif xGufajy;rdvdrfhrnfxif\/
udkjrpfu ]]rvefUeJUaemfudk,fhvl? rodwm&Sd usKyfudkar;? &J&Jomvkyf}}[k
cPcPtm;ay;&Sm\/ uREkfyfum; pma&;zdkUqdkvQif raMumuf? Am[D&tvkyf
rsKd;rlum; 0goemrygaomaMumifh bmrqdk cufonfcsnf;xifrd\/ rnfrQyif
tm;ay;&Smaomfvnf; uREkfyfum; vefUírqkH;atmif jzpfaeygawmhonf/

wu,fawmfaom vlwa,muf

jyyJGzGifhaomaeUü vmvdkufMuonfh t&m&SdBuD;awG? rsufESmjzLukrÜPD


olaX;BuD;awG? tcsKdUvnf;xD;wnf;? trsm;tm;jzifh pkHwGJponfjzifh
a[mvfBuD;wckvkH; jynfhoGm;\/ xdkpOfu uREkfyfrSm t*Fvdyf0w¦Krsm;
tawmftwefzwfbl;NyDjzpfaomfvnf; aomrwfpfydef;\ vlUtcGifhta&; 
Rights  of  Man  ac:rsufpdzGifhay;onfh pmtkyfa[mif;BuD;rsKd;udk
rzwf&bl;ao;onf jzpfaomaMumifh t*FvdyfvlrsKd;udk tvkH;pkHMunfndKí
tdkifpDtufpft&m&SdBuD; awGudk wpkwa0;wnf;jrif&aom þjyyJGwGif
4if;wdkUtm;vkH;udk tvGefnGwf aompdwfjzpfay:vsuf&Sd\/ ]w,fBuD;us,fyg
aywum;? tifrwefU vltzdk;wefBuD;awGxJwGif iga&mufae&acsonf
wum;}tp&Sdaom pdwful;rsm; jzpfay:vsuf&Sd\/ xkdtxJwGifrif;BuD;uawmf
a':jrar  (Mrs  Hla  Aung)  uvnf; vufa&G;pOf tysKdacsmwodkufESifh
*sLbvDa[mvf0if;BuD;xJwGif rkd;umwJBuD; wnfaqmufvsuf AkdvfBuD;rsm;

219 
tm; vufzuf&nf a&mif;vsuf&Sd&m (ausmif; tvSLaiGtwGufjzpfonf/)
t0wftpm;qifwljzifh pwdkifusus 0wfqifxm; onfh 4if;tysKdacsmrsm;u
AdkvfBuD;ESifh AdkvfrBuD;rsm;okdU csOf;uyfum t*Fvdyfvdk w&Twf&Twfajymvsuf
rkd;umwJodkUwGJxkwfoGm;Mujcif;rsm;onf vnf; uREkfyf\rsufpdü tvGefcefU
x,fí Munfhaumif;vSonf/ Armrdef;rawG t*Fvdyfvdkvnfvnfywfywf
ajymwwfjcif;udk rawGU&bl;ao;onfh uREkfyf(rEÅav;awmom;wa,muf)
tzkdU&mü tvGefBuD;us,fonfxifí wtHUwMojzpfrdygawmhonf/ (rEÅav;
awmom;qdkaomaMumifh rEÅa v;om; rsm;u tjypfrqdkMuygukefvifh?
uREkfyfrSm xdkpOfu rdrdudk,fudk wu,fhawm om;wa,muftaejzifh
jrifvsuf&SdaomaMumifh jzpfygonf/ zsif;onf[k qdkcsifqdk? ]um;}jcif;awmh
r[kwf&yg/) udkjrpfrlum; uREkfyfxuf 6ESpfcefUBuD; onfhjyif
&efukefaumvdyfü tJUzfat oifcJUbl;onfh vlv,fBuD;wa,muf
jzpfaomaMumifh ol\trlt&mudk uREkfyftwkcdk;í rukefEdkifatmif &Sdygawmh
onf/ (udkjrpfrSm ausmif;ü uRekfyfawGUcJUbl;onfh udkxGef;vSESifh
wef;wlxm;xdkufonfh vlwa,mufjzpf&m NrdKUtkyfpmar;yJGatmifí
ta&;ydkiftxdjzpfNyD;rS ppfrjzpfrD uG,fvGefoGm;&Smonf/ NAdwdoQ tpdk;&vuf
xufü ta&;ydkif[lonfrSm tawmftwefESifh jzpfEdkifonfr[kwf?
wu,fawmfaomvlpm;rsKd;omjzpfEdkifonf/ nmwwfvQif jzpfEdkifonf[k
tcsKdUu qkdayvdrfhrnf/ odkUaomf AkdvfBudKufatmif nm&kHESifhrNyD;ao;?
wu,fvnf; awmfrS jzpfEdkifygonf/ &Sdckd;&kHESifh jzpfEdkifvQif ta&;ydkifBuD;awG
trsm;BuD;jzpfukefMuayvdrfhrnf/ udkjrpfonf uREkfyf\ta&;tom;udk
oabmusonfESifh tpte&Sdol wa,muf[k,lqum AkdvfBudKufatmif
rnfodkUvkyf&rnf[k uREkfyftm; oifjyayonf/ okdU&mwGif 4if;bufü
tpGrf;tpr&Sdjcif;udk odjrifonfh vu©PmESifh ]]cifAsm;uawmh

220 
&dk;&dk;vrf;twkdif;vkdufygav? BudK;pm;vQifawmh BuD;yGm;ygw,f}}[k
NyKH;&,fum ajymbl;&Smonf/)

yxrtBudrf pdwfysufrdjcif;

uREkfyfonf t*Fvdyft&m&Sd tdkifpDtufpfrsm;tay:ü txifBuD;í


MunfndKbl;jcif;udk txufwGifazmfjycJU&m yxrtBudrf rausrcsrf; jzpfcJU&
bl;jcif;udk wifjy&ayrnf/ uREkfyf\Adkvfrpöwm uavwifwnf;qdk aom
yJcl;uvyfü uvyfrif;om;{nfhonfrsm;wnf;cdk&eftwGuf taqmufttkH
oD;oefU&Sdav&m {nfhonfAkdvfBuD;rsm;\ tdyfcef;rS a&csKd;cef;odkUoGm;aom
vrf;Mum;uav;wGif uRekfyfESifhtapcHrsm; tdyfMu&\/ weHeufü
AkdvfBuD;wa,mufonf tdyf&mrS apmapmBuD;xí a&csKd;cef;odkU oGm;&mwGif
vrf;Mum;ü&Sdaom uRekfyf\tdyf&mESifhacgif;tkH;rsm;udk ajcaxmufESifh wrif
cwfoGm;\/ tjcm;AdkvfBuD;rsm;onf tapcHrygMuyJ uRekfyf\rif;BuD;
wa,mufonfomvQif uREkfyfESifh csmy&mpDrsm;udk þvrf;Mum;uav;xJü
tdyfapjcif;jzpf&m xdkt&m&Sdonf uREkfyfwdkUudk &Iyfonf[kxifaomaMumifh
aomfvnf;aumif;? okdUwnf;r[kwf uREkfyfwkdU\ rif;BuD;ESifh roifhjrwf
aomaMumifhaomf vnf;aumif;? jzpfaumif;jzpfayvdrfh rnf/ rnfodkUyifjzpfap
uREkfyfum; tcsnf;ESD;oufouf apmfum;jcif;jzpfonf [k,lqonfESifh
Adkvft&m&Sdrsm;ay:wGif txifBuD;rI wxpfavsmhqif;oGm; cJUygavNyD/
þtaMumif;udkrif;BuD;tm; wdkifrnfBuHygao;\/ okdUaomfrif;BuD;u
ta&;,lvQifvnf; ,lrnf/ r,lyJaevQifvnf; aernf/ ta&;,lcJUvQif
AkdfvfESpfa,muf&efjzpfMurnf/ (rpöwmuavwifum; Akdvfcsif;&efjzpfzdkU
OD;rav;ol wa,muf jzpfaMumif;udk aemifwGifod&onf/) ta&;r,lyJ

221 
aevQifvnf; uREkfyf\pdwfü omíxdcdkufrnf/ xdkUaMumifh ta&;,lraumif;?
r,lraumif; jzpfonfqdkum rwdkifyJ xm;vkdufygawmh onf/
þtaMumif;udk udkjrpftm;ajymjy&m ]]olwkdUxJu wcsKdUaumifawG
raumif;bl;Asm? okdUaomf eJawmh eJygw,f}}[k jyefajymavonf/

toGifwlcsif; awGU&ykH

xdkuJUodkU 0ifaiGuav;awmfawmfaumif;vsuf&Sdaom tcsdefwGif


uRekfyf\ cRwf,Gif;csufuav;rsm;onf OD;acgif;jyLí xGufvmMuavNyD/
pHa'0DESifh taMumif;ygcJUygrlum; uREkfyfonf vcESifhpm;í c&D;p&dwfudk
udk,fhom;r,m; vSyatmifqdkum uspfuspfygatmif xkyfNyD; pkxm;onf
jzpfap? okdUwnf;r[kwf olUvuf0,fokdU tyfum pkaqmif;xm;onfjzpfap
jyKvkyfvdrfhrnfxif\/ ,ckaomfaiGuav;&TifvmonfwGif aysmfaysmfuav;
aecsifwwfaom 0goem\zsufqD;jcif;udk cH&avawmhonf/ þ&kH;okdUa&muf
cgpu udkcifarmifwifhtrnf&Sd pma&;wam,mufESifh uREkfyfonf jrifvQifjrif
csif; cifrifMu\/taysmfbufwGif tcsdefjzKef;cJUjcif;aMumifh pmar;yGJratmifcJU
yJ aemufqkH;wGif þ&kH;üpma&;tjzpfESifh 0ifa&muftrIxrf;&avonf/
uREkfyfawGUbl;orQaom ]bdvyfjyef}rsm;teufwGif þvlonf bdvyf\aysmf
p&mtaumif;jcif;udk tusteqkH; ajymjywwfolwa,mufjzpf\/ bdvyfrS
jyefa&mufonfrSm okH;av;ESpf&SdNyDjzpfaomfvnf; ,refaeUurS jyefa&muf
vmonfhES,f vef'efNrdKUBuD;ü olawGUjrifcJU&ykHrsm;taMumif;udk uGif;uGif;
uGufuGuf jrifvmatmif o&kyfygyg ajymjywwfoljzpf\/ uREkfyfuvnf;
vef'efNrdKUBuD;\t&IyfawmfykH0w¦KBuD;rsm;udk zwfxm;oljzpf&m olajymjyaom
taMumif;t&mrsm;udk tjynfht0axmufay;Edkifay&um; olESifhuREkfyfrSm

222 
wa,mufESifhwa,muf tjyeftvSef txifBuD;í waeUwjcm;wkd;í
cifrifvmMuavawmhonf/ pdwfrBuHUcdkifykH? aysmfaysmfaecsifwwfykHcsif;vnf;
wlnDMuonfjzpfaomaMumifh uREkfyfwdkUESpfa,mufrSm woufywfvkH;
cifrif&if;ESD;aom rdwfaqGtjzpfodkU a&mufvmMuavawmhonf/

]pJG}wwfaom 0goem

waeUoü udkcifarmifwifhonf uREkfyftm; bdvd,ufckHwckHodkU acLoGm;í


tjcm;vlwa,mufESifhupm;jy&m pkHcsifaom 0goem&Sdonfh uREkfyfonf
tvGefw&m pdwf0ifpm;pGmESifhapmifhMunfhvsuf&Sd\/ olwkdUupm;NyD;Muaom
tcg uREkfyfonf usLwHudkaumufudkifí abmvkH;rsm;udk xkd;Munfh\/
tvGeft&omawGUvSonf/ xdkUaemuf udkcifarmifwifhtm; oifjyay;apí
bdvd,ufxdk;awmh&m waeUwjcm;0goemBuD;vmawmh\/ wwfEdkifvQif
upm;csif\/ okdU&mwGif xdkpOfurl uREkfyf\vcrSm 50drQom &ao;onfESifh
wem&DvQif wusyfay;&aom upm;enf;rsKd;ü wcgw&HrQavmufom
upm;Edkif\/ rif;BuD;\ awmvdkufpma&;jzpfvmaomtcgürl wvvQif
0ifaiG200dcefU &&SdvmonfjzpfaomaMumifh bdvd,ufckHwGif tcsdeftwef
MumBuD; jzKef;EdkifcJUavNyD/ rif;BuD;ESifh e,fvSnfh&mwGif a&mufav&m
NrdKUBuD;rsm;ü bdvd,ufckH&SmNyD; tm;vyfoavmuf upm;ygawmhonf/
uREkfyfrSm tm;upm;tvkyfrsKd;üjzpfap? avmif;upm;tvkyfrsKd;üjzpfap
tavhtusifhrvkyfyJ aeawmhrSaeap tavhtxvkyfvdkufonfESifh wNydKifeuf
]pJG} wwfaom tusifhqdk;&Sd\/ bdvd,ufponfh tm;upm;tvkyf
rsKd;üvnf;aumif;? bm*sm? pE´&m;? apmif; paom twD;trIwfrsKd;üvnf;
aumif;? tpjyKvkdufvQif ]pJG}wwfaomaMumifh tjcm;vlrsm;xuf

223 
wwfvG,f\/ okH;vavmuf usifhvkdufvQif wESpform;avmuf wwfvm\/
okdU&mwGif tcReftrGefjzpfvmzdkUum; Zmwmyg[efrwlacs/ tcsKdUu uRekfyf\
wwfvG,fjcif;aMumifh txifBuD;wwfMu\/ okdU&mwGifa&SUavQmufawmh
bmrQr[kwfvSjcif;udk awGUMu&onf/ bdvd,ufü uREkfyfpJGvkdufykHudk
azmfjy&aomf vlESpfa,mufxdkifaeMujcif;udk jrif&onfhtcg uREkfyf\ae&mrS
]u,feif}  (Cannon)  xkd;íprf;awmh\/ tdyf&mxJü yufvufvSeftdyfpOf
jcifaxmifudk bdvd,ufckHozG,fxm;NyD; ]u,feif}? ]tif;aemhfzf}? ]ayghwf}
ponfjzifh pdwful;ESifh xkd;upm;awmhonf/ xkdpOfurl bdvd,ufxkd;jcif;
uJUodkU pdwf0ifpm;zkdUaumif;í aysmfp&maumif;aomtvkyfonf urÇmavmu
BuD;wGif b,frSmrSr&SdacsNyDwum;[k atmufarhrdonf/ t*Fvefjynfü
ajrydkif&SifolaX;BuD;rsm;onf rdrdwdkU\aetdrfü bdvd,ufcef;[k oD;oefU
xm;NyD; bdvd,ufckHwGif rdrd\aetdrfokdU tvnfvmaom {nfhonfrsm;ESifh
upm;Muonf[k zwf&bl;&m þvlrsKd;uJUokdU aysmf&aom vlrsKd;onf
vlUjynfü r&SdEdkifNyD[lí oGm;&nfuscJUrdbl;ygonf/ odkUESifh uREkfyfonf
e,fvSnfhpOfüvnf;aumif;? rEÅav;okdUjyefa&mufaomtcgüvnf;aumif;
bdvd,ufckHwGif wwfEdkiforQ tcsdef&oavmuf upm;ygavawmhonf/

r,m;&ykHta&;BuD;jcif;

uREkfyf\rdwfaqG udkcifarmifwifhESifh uREkfyfrSm bdvd,uf0goemtdk;csif;


wl\/ ol\0ifaiGrSm (uREkfyfuJUodkU c&D;p&dwfr&aomaMumifh) rrsm;vSaomf
vnf; ol\rdba&m? a,mu©rBuD;uyg 0dkif;0ef;axmufyHUMuonfESifh
uRekfyfuJUodkUyif okH;EdkifjzKef;Edkifolwa,mufjzpf\/ okdU&mwGif jcm;em;csuf
wck&SdonfrSm olonf ]pdwfwdkif;us}rdef;rwa,mufudk &&Sdxm;oljzpfí

224 
olUtdrfrSwyg; tjcm;ae&mwGif tenf;qkH;tcsdefjzKef;\/ bdvd,ufckHokdU
wcgw&HwGifomvm í wem&DcefUESifhjyefoGm;avh&sd\/ uREkfyfvnf;
pHa'0DESifhqdkvQif olUtwdkif; jyKvdrfhrnfxif\/ ,ckaomf (uREkfyf\ZeD;ü
tjypfr&Sdaomfvnf;) pHa'0DuJUodkU vIdufvIdufvSJvSJBuD; r[kwfvSaomaMumifh
aiG&TifonfqdkvQifyif bdvd,ufckHrsm;ü tvGeftrif; tcsdefjzKef;rd
ygawmhonf/ ZeD;rSmvnf; uREkfyfxufi,fvSí (vufxyfpOfu 16ESpfrQ
om&Sdao;onf/) acsmifacsmifvnfvnfae&onfqdkvQif awmfavmufNyD
qdkum auseyfEdkifonf jzpfaomaMumifh uREkfyfrSmausauseyfeyfyif
waeUwjcm; aysmfaysmfyg;yg; aevsuf&Sdygawmhonf/

wckNyD;wck wwfvmykH

waeUoü &rnf;oif;NrdKUAdkvfwJwGif rif;BuD;ESifhuREkfyf pwnf;csvsuf&SdMupOf


rif;BuD;onf&rnf;oif; &mZ0wf0efBuD;tm; AdkvfwJodkUzdwfí npmauR;\/
(4if;wkdUESpfa,mufrSm t*Fvefjynfü wNrdKUwnf;ae ausmif;aebuf
oli,fcsif;rsm; jzpfMuonfqdk\/) olwkdUESpfa,mufonf vomomwGif
AdkvfwJ0&HwmodkUxGufí a&cJpdrfbD,maomuf,if; wnvkH;pum;ajymMujcif;
udkuREkfyfjrif&í tvGefoGm;&nfusrd\/ ]w,fNyD; Zdrf&SdwJUtvkyfygwum;}[k
atmufarhrd\/ xkdnOfhrSmvnf;txl;yltdkufvSí (arv &moDjzpfonf/)
tvGefylaoma'ojzpfonfh &rnf;oif;NrdKUü a&cJpdrfbD,maomufMu&jcif;rSm
(tjrnf; trsKd;rsKd;udkvnf; bGdKifukvm;u jyifay;onf/) vlUavmuwGif
tBuD;qkH;aomZdrfwrsKd;aywnf;[k uREkfyfcsD;usL;rd\/ tm;usrd\/ þwGif
uREkfyfonf rif;BuD;bwÅvmodkU csOf;uyfNyD;rif;BuD;\ pwkd;aowÅmrS
bD,mwvkH;ESifh a&cJ&atmif ESL;NyD; aomufygavawmhonf/ aot&ufonf

225 
(azmfjycJUonfhtwdkif;) uREkfyftzdkU topftqef; r[kwfaomfvn;f
wcgw&Htazmfaumif;ygrS aomufrdcJUjcif;jzpf&m þnOfhürl bD,mudk
wa,mufwnf; aomuf&aomfvnf; a&S;uuJUokdU cg;awmhonfrxifyJ
]av;}aom t&omwrsKd; &Sdonfqdkum wykvif;ukefatmif
aomufEdkifcJUygonf/ ,cifurl tazmfaumif;í? okdUr[kwf aysmfcsifí?
okdUr[kwf aysmfonfqdkí aomufcJUbl;&m xdknOfhürlum; Zdrf&Sdonf[lyif
rSwfxifwwfavNyD/ bD,mESifh bdvd,uf onf tvGefzufrdaom
twGJjzpfonf[k aemifwGif wqifhwufí cHpm;wwfvmygawmhonf/

tnHUcHcJU&jcif;w&yf

bdvd,ufaMumifhwoufwGifwBudrf tnHUcHcJU&bl;jcif;udk
wifjyvdkygao;\/ e,fvSnfh&mrSjyefa&mufvm&mwGif we*FaEGaeU
aeUv,fjzpfí uREkfyfonf r*Fvmvrf;teD;&Sd bdvd,ufckHodkUoGm;rd\/
xdkaeUwGif tm;vyfMuonfhtavsmuf pma&;awmfawmfrsm;rsm;
vma&mufMuí wwJGNyD;wwGJupm;Mujcif;udk usefolrsm;onf tvSnfhr&í
xdkifapmifh,if;MunfhaeMu&\/ (xkH;pHrSm a&S;OD;pGma&mufolu a&S;OD;pGm
upm;í wwGJNyD; wwGJ udk,fhtvSnfha&mufrS xíupm;Mu&\/)
wem&DcefUapmifhí uREkfyftvSnfhokdUa&mufojzifh upm;rnf[k uREkfyfwkdUwwGJ
xvdkuf&mwGif cyfaxmifaxmif armif;armif;vlwa,mufxvmí
olUtvSnfhjzpfonf[k jiif;um pm;yJGudk,l\/ uREkfyfuvnf; udk,fhtvSnfh
jzpfonf[kqdkum pm;yGJ&zkdU BudK;pm;\/ olu olU[mol wu,f,kHMunf
avoavm? okdUwnf;r[kwf tEdkifusifh&efBuHpnfavoavm rajymwwfacs/

226 
uREkfyfonf þckHwGif xdkoludk jrifbl;aomfvnf; vlcsif;um; rodMu/
uREkfyf\txifrSm xdkolonf t&yfxJu ]*sydk;}wa,mufjzpfonf xif\/
ol& udk,f& vkMu&mwGif xdkolonf uREkfyfudkwGef;ypfojzifh
uREkfyf,dkifoGm;\/ vJawmhrvJyg/ uREkfyfum; tvGef&SufoGm;avNyD/ olonf
uREkfyfxuf Avtenf;i,fomaomfvnf; ol\Avudk raMumuf? *sydk;
vlrdkufwa,mufjzpfonf xifaomaMumifh wpkHwckjzpfcJUvQif uREkfyfyif
t&Suf&rnf[k pOf;pm;rdonfESifh atmifhcHvdkuf&\/ &SufvkdufonfrSmum;
aovkrwwfjzpfawmh\/ xdkaeUrSpí uREkfyfonf 4if;bdvd,ufckHodkU
roGm;awmhyJ tjcm;ckHrsm;okdUom oGm;\/ waeUoü udkjrpfu ]]cifAsmhaumif
awmh ajymif;oGm;NyDAsKdU}}[k ajymojzifh ]]b,faumifvJ}}[kar;&m ]]cifAsm;eJU
ckHvkMuwJU aumifav}}[k ajym\/ xdkpOfu udkjrpfr&Sdjcif;udk uREkfyfrSwfrdí
]]cifAsm;vJ Mum;oudk;}}[k ar;ojzifh Mum;aMumif; jyefajym\/
]]olub,fajymif;&atmif bmaumifvJAs}}[k uREkfyfuar;&m ,pfrsKd;buf
qdkifxdkift&m&Sd  (R.E.O)  jzpfaMumif;ajym\/ þwGifrS uREkfyf,lusKH;r&jzpf
awmhonf/ uREkfyfonf þtaMumif;udkod&vQif ol\wGef;jcif;udk
onf;cHvdrfhrnfr[kwf/ t&yfom; *sydk;vlrdkufwa,muf jzpfonfxifí
BudwfcHvdkuf&jcif; jzpfygonf/
þtaMumif;udk udkjrpftm; ajymjy&m udkjrpfu ]aMomf 'Dvdkvm;?
aumif;ygavAsm}[k jyefajymjy\/ cyf&G,f&G,furl uREkfyfonf þtwGuf
tcJraMuEdkifyJ xdkvlESifh awGU&mt&yfwGif awmif;yefckdif;rnf? rawmif;yef
vQif jzpfcsif&mjzpf owfykwfrnf[k oEédXmefcsxm;cJU&m uHtm;avsmfpGm
wBudrfwcgrQ rawGU&acs/ xdkwBudrf tnHUcHvdkufrdjcif;twGuf uREkfyfonf
rdrdudk,fudkrauseyfqkH;aom nHUzsif;rIwcktaejzifh rSwfwrf;wifxm;\/
aemufaemifwGif þtjzpfrsKd; BuKH&ygu bmbmnmnmrawG;yJ vdktyfvQif

227 
aotxd ckHcHrnf[k oEédXmefcscJUygawmhonf/ &efukefü ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm
aecJUí [dkw,faygif; pkHatmif bdvd,ufxkd;cJU&m xdktjzpfrsKd;ESifh
rBuKH&awmhyg/ þtaMumif;udk tus,fw0ifhazmfjyjcif;rSm zcifxHrS&onfh
]aMumufaoG;}udk pGefUpm;cef;pmtkyfrsm; zwfjcif;tm;jzifh z,fxkwf&ykHudk
xif&Sm;pdrfhaomiSm jzpfygonf/ aemufydkif;ürl xpfueJqdk rcHawmhyJ
wkHUjyefwwfjcif;aMumifh udk,fhudk,fü t&dk;ta& tjynfhtpkH &Sdaejcif;yifvQif
uHaumif;aomaMumifh jzpfygonf/

wm0efBuD;vSonf

waeUoü rif;BuD;ESifh uREkfyfonf rdw¦Dvm 'dpBwdwf rvIdifbufwGif


or0g,rtoif;rsm;xlaxmifjcif;? ppfaq;jcif;ESifh ywfoufíe,fvSnfh
vsuf &SdMu\/ rpöwm uavwifrSm vlysKdBuD;t&m&Sdwa,mufjzpfí
tdrfaxmifrI ypönf;taumif;qkH; okH;wwfoljzpf&m awmwufaomtcgwGif
ol\ypönf;rsm;twGuf vSnf;okH;pD; tNrJwrf;qifh&\/ ol\yef;uef
cGufa,muf? ZGef;? cuf&if;? "m;? zvfcGuf paom ypönf;rsm;xnfhonfh
opfom; aowÅmBuD;rSm bdvyfrS 0,fvmcJUjcif;jzpfí tvGefoyf&yfpGm
vkyfxm;jcif; jzpfaomaMumifh ypönf;wckESifh wcktMum;wGif ouúvyf
t0dkif;uav;rsm;? t&Snfuav;rsm;? av;axmifhuav;rsm; ponfjzifh
cHxm;&mwGif ypönf;wckESifhwck rxdEdkifojzifh rawmfwq aowÅmBuD;
vdrfhusapOD;awmh ypönf;rsm; ruJGaMuEdkifay/ 0goemygaom uREkfyfonf
bGdKifukvm;\ rD;zdkxJokdU 0ifMunhf&m rD;zdkud&d,mrsm;rSm uwfwavmufxJ
utwdkif; qef;jym;pkHvifvSygayonf/

228 
awmwufMu&mwGif uREkfyftjyif csmy&mpD ESpfa,muf? ypönf;xdef;
bwÅvmwa,muf? pm;yJGxkd;wa,muf? xrif;csuf  (Cook)  wa,muf?
vufaxmuf xrif;csufwa,muf? ]uGwfpfarwD;}ac: tdk;wdkufukvm;
uav;wa,mufyg&Sd\/ wcgw&HwGif NrdKUBuD;rsm;ü pwnf;csaomtcg
NrdKUay:rS t&m&SdBuD;rsm; zdwfac:um 'if;em;ygwD auR;vkdufacsao;\/
rif;BuD;u uREkfyftm; vSnf;okH;pD;wdkuf&onfh ol\ypönf;rsm;tm;vkH;onf
uREkfyf\wm0efjzpfaMumif;? awmüvdkufygvmaom tapcHrsm;tm;vkH;onf
uREkfyf\MoZmcHrsm;jzpfMuí tppt&m&mwGif uRekfyfuMunfhNyD; pDrH&rnfjzpf
aMumif; ajymjyxm;\/ udkjrpfuvnf; þAdkvfB uD;\ ypönf;cifwG,fwwf
aMumif; ajymxm;bl;avonf/

olBuD;rsm;\ tusifhqdk;wck

waeUoü uREkfyfwdkUonf awm&Gmuav;w&Gmü or0g,rtoif;


udpötwGuf Z&yfwckwGif (AdkvfwJr&Sd) pwnf;cstdyfMu&m nOfhokH;em&Dtcsdef
wGif okH;rdkifcefUa0;aom blwm&kHü rD;&xm;pD;Mu&efjzpf\/ awmvkdufpma&;
\wm0efrSm vdktyfaomvSnf;rsm;udk vdktyffaomtcsdefwGif Z&yfodkU
a&mufatmif olBuD;tm;qifhxm;&ef jzpf\/ tcsKdU&GmolBuD;rsm;onf
toif;rif;BuD;\ &mxl;BuD;jcif;udk odM uaomfvnf; tkyfcsKyfa&;bufrS
e,fydkif0efaxmuf? ykvdyfbufrS &mZ0wf0efpaom t&m&Sdrsm;avmuf
raMumufMuyJ cyfayghaygh vkyfwwfMuaomaMumifh vdkaomypönf;rsm;qifhí
awmif;&mwGif pma&;tzdkU tawmf*&kpdkuf&\/ olBuD;rsm;u ayghrnfom
ayghMuonf/ uREkfyfwkdUXmerS t&m&SdBuD;rsm;onf vSnf;cudkvnf;aumif;?
xif;? a&? Muuf? MuufO paom ypönf;rsm;twGufudk vnf;aumif;

229 
owfrSwfxm;aomEIef;twdkif; tjynfht0 ay;Muonfom jzpfavonf/
e,fbuft&m&Sdrsm;xHrSrl rawmif;0HUonfESifh r&vkdufonfrsm;vnf;
Mum;&bl;avonf/ odkUESifhvnf; tcsKdUolBuD;rsm;onf toif;rif;BuD;tm;
tqdyfr&Sdaom ]a&a>r}[k oabmxm;um aumif;pGmrav;pm;yJ aewwf
Mu\/ tjcm;ypönf;um; ta&;rBuD;? vSnf;rsm;udk tcsdefESifh&zdkUum; vGefpGm
ta&;BuD;vS\/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaom rD;&xm;rrSDvdkuf[kqdkvQif bm
ajymajym pma&;BuD;\ tjypf jzpf&aomaMumifh aywnf;/

awmvkdufpma&;wdkU Am[D&tvkyf

xdknOfhü rif;BuD;utvkyfvkyfí ola&;aompmrsm;udk uREkfyfu


vufESdyfpufjzifh &dkuful;jcif;vufrSwfxkd;apjcif;? eHygwfwyfjcif;? pm&if;oGif;
jcif;? pmtdwfwGifxnfhíydwfjcif;? wHqdyfacgif;uyfjcif;ponfjzifh aqmif&Guf
NyD;aomtcg 10em&DcJGNyD;avNyD/ þpmrsm;rSm uREkfyfwdkUpD;rnfh rD;&xm;jzifh
&efukefodkUydkU&rnfh tpkd;&pmrsm;jzpfavonf/ uREkfyfwdkUc&D;xGuf&ef tpDtpOf
rSm em&DjyefwcsufwGif tdyf&mrSxMu&ef? vSnf;rsm;a&mufvmaom tcg
ypönf;rsm;wifí wem&DcGJwGif Z&yfrSxGufcGmMu&ef? 2 em&DcGJwGif
blwm&kHodkUa&mufí ypönf;rsm;udk csdefwG,fjcif;? wefqmvkyfjcif;?
NyD;pD;csdefwGif (3 em&Dxdk;aomtcg) rD;&xm;a&mufvmí wufpD;Mu&ef
jzpfav onf/ uREkfyfonf 11 em&DwGif tdyf&mokdU0ifí wem&DwGif
uysmu,mxum tdyf&mvdyfNyD;aemuf vSnf;rsm;udkar;vdkuf&m ra&mufMu
ao;acs/ þwGifolBuD;tdrfodkU csmy&mpDudkapvTwfNyD; ac:cdkif;&ojzifh
wem&DcJGcgeD;rS a&mufvmMu\/ okdUESifhtcsdefvkNyD; uwdkufu&dkufwif?
tajy;tvTm;armif;Mu&ojzifh 2em&D 45 rdepfwGifrS blwm&kHokdU a&mufMuí

230 
ysm,D;ysm,m wefqmvkyfNyD; rD;&xm; 0ifvmavawmhonf/ ]awmfao;&JU}[k
pdwfxJü[D;csrd&m rawmfaom tcsif;t&mwck BuKH&ygawmhonf/

tqlcH&jcif;

aemufwpcef;odkU eHeuf 8 em&DavmufwGif qdkufa&mufMuí (NrdKUBuD;


jzpfonfhtavsmuf) AdkvfwJü wnf;cdkMuMu\/ csmy&mpDrsm;? bwÅvmrsm;?
xrif;csufrsm;onf rdrdwdkUESifh qdkif&mypönf;rsm;udk aexm;wus
pDpOfjyifqifvsuf&SdMupOf tapcHrsm;acgif;csif;&dkufum wD;wdk;wdkifyifvsuf
&SdMujcif;udkjrifí ]]bmjzpfMuwmvJ}}[k uREkfyfuar;\/ ]]rdk;awmh rD;avmif
awmhr,f pma&;BuD;a&}}[k bwÅvmu ajymojzifh uREkfyfxdwfvefUoGm;\/
]]b,fvdkjzpfwmvJ}}[k uREkfyfu xyfíar;awmh rif;BuD;\
&Gufzsifukvm;xdkifwGif csdwfxm;&onfh acgif;tkH;uav; ususef&pfaMumif;
od&av\/ ]][m 'Dvdkqdkrjzpfbl; aps;xJoGm;NyD; r&&atmif &Sm0,facs}}[k
ajymum csmy&mpDwa,mufudk uREkfyfvTwfvkduf\/ rif;BuD;onf eHeufpm
pm;NyD;rS &Gufzsifukvm;xdkifay:wGif owif;pmzwfavh&SdaomaMumifh
tcsdef&ao;onf[k atmufarhum pdwfrylvSyJ&Sdao;\/ rnfonfhenf;rqdk
þypönf;uav;rsKd;twGufrSm tapcHrsm;\tvkyfjzpfí &kH;aowÅmBuD;okH;vkH;
udk ypönf;aphpkHatmifxnfhcJUzdkU wm0ef,l&onfhpma&;BuD;\ tylr[kwfEdkif[k
cyfayghayghyif atmufarhvkduf\/ tvGefqkH;wGufvdkufvQif ]olwkdUtm;
qlonfudk igjrif&acsawmhrnfavm}[líom atmufarhí olwkdUtwGuf
ylyefrdao;\/ acgif;tkH;uav;wvkH;0,fzdkU apvTwfvdkufaom csmy&mpD
armifjyL;vnf; jyefrvmacs/ ]]vluav; pm;p&m,lcJU}}[k rif;BuD;u
awmif;vdkufaomtcgüyif armifjyL;a&mufrvmao;acs/ uREkfyfonf

231 
xrif;csufukvm;tm; jznf;jznf;csuf&ef ]]tmpaw;bmbl? tmpaw;}}
vufodyfxdk; ajymxm;&\/ rif;BuD;onf pm;p&mwyJGNyD;wyJGpm;í
okH;yJGukefonfwdkifatmifvnf; armifjyL;ay:rvmao;acs/ ]]owif;pm,lcJU}}
[kac:vdkuf&mwGifrS armifjyL;onf NrdKUxJrS zwfzwfarmajy;vmí
vufxJwGif acgif;tkH;uav;ygvm\/
xdktcdkufwGif rif;BuD;onf a&csKd;cef;okdU acwÅ0ifoGm;&m uREkfyfu
armifjyL;tm; ar;MunfhonfwGif wNrdKUvkH;ü þacgif;tkH;uav;rsKd; wvkH;rQ
r&SdaomaMumifh tMumBuD;&SmaeNyD;rS aemufqkH;wGif pufcsKyfqdkifwqdkifü
uwdkufu&dkuf csKyf,lcJU&aMumif; ajymjyav\/
]]awmfao;&JUuGm ighvl}}[k uREkfyfu csD;rGrf;rdao;onf/ rif;BuD;onf
a&csKd;cef;rS xGufvmí &Gufzsifukvm;xdkifay:ü xdkifrnfjyKonfwGif
acgif;tkH;uav;udkjrifí wefUueJ jzpfoGm;NyD; ]]pma&;BuD;}}[k ac:vkduf\/
uREkfyf\txifrSm tapcHrsm;azsmufypfcJUaom ypönf;wcktwGuf tpm;xdk;
Edkifatmif uREkfyfu pDrHxm;jcif;aMumifh rsufESmaumif;&vdrfhrnf[k arQmfvifh
rd\/ xdkuJokdUum;r[kwfacs/ rif;BuD;ujzpfykHudkar;í uREkfyfutrSef
twdkfif;ajymjy&mwGif rif;BuD;onf rsufESmrsm;eDvmí uREkfyf\ayghavsmhrI
twGuf Budrf;armif;avawmhonf/ uREkfyfuvSnf;udpöESifhwuG pDrH&í
nOfheufatmiftvkyfvkyf&jcif;? &kH;ESifhqdkif&m pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm;ESifh
zdkifwGJrsm;udk aphpkHatmif *&kpdkuf&jcif;wdkUaMumifh acgif;tkH;uav;udk
*&krpdkufEdkifaMumif;ajymjyav&m rpöwmuavwifonf wkd;ípdwfqdk;vm\/
aemufqkH;ü bmrQrajym0HUawmhyJ qdwfqdwfaevdkuf&ygawmhonf/

232 
qlNyD;í acsmhjcif;

tdkifpDtufpf t&m&Sdwkdif;onf þuJUodkUr[kwf? rif;BuD; rpöwm


uavwifonf vlqef;wa,mufjzpfjcif;udk BuKHbl;olwdkif; odMuygonf/
ol\ 0goemum; qlp&m&SdvQif BuD;i,fra&G; qlwwfí csD;ajrmufp&m
&SdvQifvnf; olUvludk rwufwufatmif xdk;wifay;wwfav onf/
uREkfyfonf þtaMumif;udkodyg\/ &kH;tkyfuvnf; uREkfyfawmvdkuf pma&;
jzpfawmhrnfqdk&mwGif ]]azodef;awmhaumfwmyJ? odyfuHaumif;w,f? 'Daumif
av; BuD;yGm;awmhr,f}}[k tjcm;pma&;rsm;tm; ajymbl;avonf/ okdU&mwGif
uREkfyf\ZmwmrSm tpdk;&trIxrf;tjzpfESifh BuD;yGm;zdkU ygvm[ef rwlacs/
rif;BuD;onf uREkfyftm;qlNyD; em&D0ufcefUMumaomtcg uREkfyfudk ac:jyef\/
rsufESmxm;rSm cyfcsKdcsKdjzpfaecJUavNyD/ uREkfyfurwfwwf&yfvsuf &Sd&m
rif;BuD;u teD;okdUcsOf;uyf&efajymojzifh ol\&Gufzsifukvm;xdkifteD; wGif
xdkif&avonf/ xkH;pHtwdkif;olu t*Fvdyfvdkajymaomfvnf; pma&;u
jrefrmvdkajzrS oabmusonf/ ]]uRefawmfrsKd;}}? ]]t&Sifbk&m;}}paom
pum;vkH;rsm;udk Adkvfrsm;ESpfoufMuonf/
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]][vdk i,fi,fuav;yguvm;}}
uREkfyf\yg;udk jznf;nSif;pGm qJGívdrfonf/
]]armifrif;eJU uREkfyfeJU q&mwynfhaemf? [kwf&JUvm;}}
]]rSefygw,f t&Sifbk&m;}}
]]q&mwynfhqdkwm q&muqlvQif wynfhu pdwfrqdk;&bl;?
[kwfvm;}}

233 
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]]rSefygbk&m;}}
]]tvkyfaumif;aumif;vkyf oGm;awmh}}
uREkfyfpdwfaumufavNyD/
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tvGefqlwwfonf[k emrnfBuD;aom t&m&SdwOD;u yg;udkvdrfjzpfum
pum;ajyajymjcif; cH&onfqdkygu pdwftm;wufMuNyD; BudK;pm;í
tvkyfvkyfayvdrfhrnf/ uREkfyfrlum; xdkuJUokdU r[kwfacs/ rdrd\tjypf
r[kwfygyJvsuf acgif;tkH;uav; aysmufjcif;twGuf qlyl&acsrnfavm[k
ESvkH;okdUcdkufatmif emxm;onfESifh rif;rIxrf;tvkyfonf tvum;tvkyf
jzpfonf/ Adkvfpdwfaumif;vQif aumif;ovdk? Adkvfpdwfqdk;vQif qdk;ovdk
olwdkUoabmtwdkfif;cH&onf/ pdwfqif;&JrI csrf;omrIonf olwkdU\
Munfjcif;aemufjcif; tay:wGif jzpfaomaMumifh rif;BuD;u ESpfodrfhapvdkaom
oabmESifh acsmhí qkH;rjcif; jzpfonf[k uREkfyfem;vnfygvsufESifh
aumif;aumif; pdwfrausyJ jzpfaeygawmhonf/ or0g,rXmebufü
uREkfyfuJUodkU twef;vnf; ratmif? ta&;tom;vnf; rawmf?
AdkvfESifhtxufyg tcGifhta&;rsKd;vnf; r&MuyJvsuf onf;nnf;cHNyD;
ukwfukwfywfywf BudK;pm;xrf;&GufMujcif;tm;jzifh  (Joint­Registrar)

234 
wGJbufrif;BuD;&mxl;wdkifatmif wufMuolrsm;vnf;&Sdavonf/ olwkdUESifh
uREkfyfjcm;em;jcif;rSm BuD;yGm;vdkaomqE´jyif;xefjcif; rjyif;xefjcif;rQom
uGmMu\/ pHa'0DESifh taMumif;ygcJUygrl BuD;yGm;vdkpdwfjzpfay:vmrnfavm
rajymwwfay/

tqifrajyrIwck

rif;BuD;\ awmvdkufpma&;onf xrif;csuf ukvm;okH;a,mufrSwyg;


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Armrsm;jzpfonf/) e,fvSnfhpOftwGif; xrif;auR;&aomxkH;pHwck udkjrpfu
vkyfxm;cJU\/ tvkyfvTJay;cgeD;wGif udkjrpfu ]]'djyif XmeawGrSmawmh
'DvdkxkH;pHr&Sdygbl;? usKyfuawmh xkH;pHvkyfxm;cJUrdNyD? cifAsm;vJ
auR;vkdufygAsm? olwkdUrSmc&D;p&dwfuvJ jzpfavmufatmif r&&SmMuygbl;}}[k
rSmxm;cJUbl;avonf/ uREkfyfvnf; udkjrpfrSmxm;cJUonfhtwdkif;yif auR;yg
onf/ &kH;csmy&mpDwa,mufu csufjyKwfrItwGuf wm0ef,lyg\/ usefol
rsm;um; tvum;pm;Mujcif;jzpf\/ pm;Mu&kHESifhrNyD;ao;/ bwÅvmESifh
pm;yGJxkd;onf uREkfyftm;i,f&G,faom vluav;wa,mufqdkí udkjrpfuJUodkU
rav;pm;csifyJ rxDrJUjrif jyKcsifMuykH&\/ rpöwmuavwif\ 0goemwckrSm
ol\bwÅvmudk vufoyfarG;xm;NyD; &kH;tvkyfrSwyg; t&yf&yfudpörsm;wGif
]vl,kHawmf} wa,muftaejzifh wdkifyifwwfí ]tcspfawmf}wa,mufyif
jzpfcJUavNyD/ or0g,rXmebufü trIxrf;Muaom NrdKUtkyfrsm;? 0efaxmuf
rsm;onf rif;BuD;\tdrfodkU 0ifMuaomtcg bwÅvmudka&S;OD;pGm csOf;uyfNyD;
tmvmy ov’mypum;ajymNyD;rS 0ifMu\/ tcsKdUrSmbwÅvmtwGuf
tao;tzGJ vufaqmifuav;rsm;yif ygvmwwfMu\/ wcgw&H

235 
bwÅvmuyif NrdKUtkyf0efaxmufrsm;tm; ]]OD;wdkUt&yfrSm [0graygbl;vm;?
uRefawmfeJeJ&csifw,f cifAsm}}[k qdkum rSmxm;vkduf&m t&m&Sdrsm;vnf;
,lcJUMu&\/ pifppfrSm bwÅvmonf t&m&Sdrsm;tm; aumif;usKd;aomf
vnf;aumif;? qdk;usKd;aomfvnf;aumif; bmrQ wwfEdkifonfh r[kwf?
wrifowfowf ]rif;rSD pdk;uyf}jzifh Adkvfusjcif; jzpf\/ uREkfyfonf
þtaMumif;rsm;udkodí bwÅvmudk o'¨gMunfjzLr[kwf vSaomfvnf;
udkjrpf\Mo0g't& xrif;awmh auR;ygonf/ okdUaomf raxrJUjrif
vkyfvGef;ykHudk azmfjyygOD;rnf/

'kwd,rÜdpdwfysufjcif;

waeUoü &Gmw&GmwGif uRekfyfwdkUvlpk pwnf;csvsuf&SdpOf uRekfyfonf


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awm&Gmrsm;ü aps;0,fjcif;[lonfrSm MuufESifhqD? qefwkdUom jzpfavonf/
xdkaeUü uREkfyfonf rif;BuD;u b@ma&;rif;BuD;xHokdU pm&SnfBuD;wapmif
a&;onfESifh rNyD;rcsif; vufESdyfpufjzifh &dkuful;&jcif;aMumifh 12 em&DcefUwGif
rS eHeufpmpm;Edkifawmhonf/ tvkyfNyD;pD;í xrif;yJGjyifcdkif;aomtcg
bwÅvmESifh pm;yGJxdk;wdkUpm;ESifhNyD;jzpfí uREkfyfESifhcsmy&mpD ESpfa,mufom
usefawmhonf/ xrif;yJGü xdkifvdkufí qmavmifpGmESifh Muufom;[if;cGuf
udkEIdufvdkufaomtcg &iftkyfESifh tonf;r&SdawmhyJ aygifESifht&dk;rsm;om
awGU\/ uREkfyftwGuf &iftkyfjzpfap? tonf;jzpfap xm;&rnfudk
olwkdUodvsufESifh bwÅvmESifh pm;yJGxkd;wdkUu pm;ypfvdkufMuavNyD/
ydkufqHxkwf&olu uREkfyf? csufjyKwf&olum; &kH;csmy&mpDjzpfygvsuf
wrifoufoufAdkvfusjcif; jzpfonf[k uREkfyfem;vnf\/ olwkdU,lqMuykHrSm

236 
um; pma&;BuD;qdkolonf rdrdwdkUocif\ pma&;rQomjzpfí &dkaozdkU rvdk[k
xifMuykH&\/ olwkdUESpfa,mufudk vSrf;Munfhvdkufaomtcg zvfcGufwdkuf
oluwdkufí pm;yGJcif;olu cif;vsuf&Sd\/ qlvdkufcsifonfrSmum;
ajymzG,f&m r&Sdacs/ okdUaomfrif;BuD;\ vljzpfaomaMumifh rql0HUyJ
BudwfcHvdkuf&onfwGif uREkfyfonf tjypfftvkH;pkHudk xdktvkyfay:odkU ykHcsNyD;
]tvum; tvkyfrsKd;yJ}[k rSwfcsuf csvkdufygawmhonf/ okdUaomf
þwacgufvGefyap? aemufwacgufwGif 'DtaumifawGudk xrif;rauR;
awmhNyD[k qkH;jzwfvkduf\/

tpDtpOfwrsKd; vkyfjcif;

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pdkufysKd;a&; jyyJGygonfESifh uREkfyfwdkUvlpkonf jrpfBuD;em;rS tpdk;&
oabFmuav;ESifh pkefqif;vmMu\/ uREkfyfwdkUESifhtwl 'kwd,
v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;0efBuD;vnf; ygvm&m ol\pma&;BuD;ESifh uREkfyfonf
bdvd,ufupm;bufjzpfí tvGefaysmfMuonf/ uREkfyftzdkU pm;aomuf&ef
tpDtpOfrSm rif;BuD;\ xrif;csuftm; uREkfyftwGufwaeUwusyfay;ípm;
NyD; bwÅvmESifh pm;yGJxkd;wdkUudk ayvm,suH ypfxm;vkduf\/ csmy&mpD
ESpfa,muftm;rl ydkufqHtenf;i,fomay;í uRekfyfwm0efr,lawmhacs/
þwGifbwÅvmESifh pm;yGJxdk;wdkUonf uREkfyfudk tawmf]atmifh} Mu\/
uREkfyfurl *&krpdkufacs/ rif;BuD;\pma&;u bwÅvmudkvefUraeEdkif[k
oabmxm;vkduf\/ waeUwusyf[laom aiGrSm xdkacwfu tawmfBuD;
t&ma&mufí uREkfyfrSmvnf; xrif;aumif; [if;aumif;pm;&ojzifh
auseyfvSonf/ AdkvfESpfa,mufwdkUonf tpdk;&oabFmtxyfxyf OD;ydkif;rS

237 
vdkufMuí uREkfyfwdkUpma&;ESpfa,mufonf atmufxyf OD;ydkif;rS
vdkfufygvmMu&m tpdk;&tvkyfESifh oGm;cJU&orQwGif Zdrf&SdqkH; c&D;jzpfí
tenf;i,fazmfjyvdkfygonf/

xl;jcm;aom tjcif;t&mESpfck

Aef;armfESifh jrpfBuD;em; c&D;rSm {&m0wDukrÜPDoabFmrsm; oGm;vmjcif;


r&SdyJ tpdk;&oabFmrsm;om oGm;vmonfjzpfaomaMumifh a&mufzdkU tvGef
cJ,Of;aom c&D;jzpf\/ tpdk;&oabFmrsm;onf yifvnf; tvGefa&i,fonfh
({NyDv 15 &ufaeUtxd) tcsdeftydkif;tjcm; twGif;om oGm;vmEdkif\/
jrpfa&i,faomtcsdeftydkif;jcm;udkrS a&G;NyD; oGm;vmMujcif;rSm 4if;a'o
wavQmufü {&m0wDjrpfonf tvGefusOf;onfjzpfí jrpfa& tawmftwef
BuD;onfqdkvQif a&pD;Murf;onfESifh oabFmckwfESifzdkU tvGefcJ,Of;aom
aMumifhjzpf\/ tpdk;&oabFmrSmvnf; BuD;BuD;rm;rm; r[kwf? ti,fpm;
uav;rQom jzpf\/ uREkfyfESifhpma&;BuD; udkbcifwdkUonf ('k0efBuD;\
pma&;jzpfonf) {&m0wDyxrjrpfusOf; taMumif;udk ausmif;ü oifcJUbl;Mu
onfjzpfí þc&D;wGif pdwf0ifpm;zG,f &Icif;rsm;awGUjrif&vdrfhrnf qdkjcif;udk
odMuonfESifh atmufxyf OD;ydkif;wGif arQmfwvifhvifhESifh [efjyifvsuf
&SdMu\/ AdkvfESpfa,mufrlum; txyfxyfwGif rSefajymif;rsm; wudkifudkifESifh
&Gufzsif ukvm;xdkifrsm;ay:ü xdkifvsuf&sdMu\/ jrpfBuD;em; rxGufcGmrDyif
xl;qef;aom tjcif;t&mESpfck awGUjrif&onfrSm {&m0wDjrpf a&onf
uRekfyfa&mufbl;onfh ae&mrsm;teuf rnfonfhae&m? rnfonfh
qdyfurf;ESifhrQrwlyJ aomufa&tdk;rS a&uJUodkUMunfvifí tvGefw&m
at;jraomaMumifh oMum;ESifhoHy&moD;cyfaomufvkdufvQif &Svywf&nf

238 
jzpfoGm;avawmhonf/ (rEÅav;NrdKUüa&mif;aom &Svywf&nfonfyif
a&cJ&Sm;aom aEG&moDü þrQavmuf at;onfrxif/) MunfvifvkdufykH
uvnf; oabFmeHab;ü uyfvsuf&SdMuaom ig;trsKd;rsKd; wdkUrSm zvfaygif;
acsmifxJwGif xnfhxm;onfh a&Tig;rsm;ozG,f xifxif&Sm;&Sm;BuD; jrifEdkif
ayonf/ tjcm;wcsufrSm jrpfurf;yg; wavQmufvkH; aq;BudwfausmufvkH;
rsm;jzifh jzefUBuJvsuf &Sdjcif;yif jzpf\/ jrpfqdyfodkU avQmufvmMupOf
vrf;c&D;ü ausmufwvkH;wavawGUonfESifh rqvmBudwf&ef qdkum
vdkvdkr,fr,f aumuf,lcJU\/ a&SUavQmufvmaom tcg xdkxufvSaom
ausmufvkH;udkawGUonfESifh yxrausmufvkH;udk ypfcsNyD; vJvS,f,lcJU\/
wvkH;xuf wvkH;vSaom ausmufvkH;rsm;udk awGUonfESifh wvkH;NyD;wvkH;
ypfcsum vJvS,f,lcJU&m aemufqkH;wGif jrpfqdyfodkU a&mufí
odef;oef;uka#&Sdaeaom ausmufvkH;rsm;udk jrif&awmhrS vuf&Sdudk ypfcsNyD;
tvSqkH;wvkH;udk a&G;,lcJU&ygonf/

yxrjrpfusOf;

{&m0wDjrpfonf jrpfBuD;em; qdyfurf;üyif tjcm;NrdKUrsm;rS


qdyfurf;rsm;xuf usOf;ajrmif;vSygavNyD/ odkU&mwGif oabFmxGufvmcJUí
yxrjrpfusOf;  (First  Defile)  okdUa&mufaomtcgü jrpfwck\
t&G,fr[kwfawmhyJ acsmif;uav;\t&G,f jzpfvmawmh\/ jrpfaMumif;
usOF;ajrmif;avav a&rsm;onf pkípkívmav jzpf&aomaMumifh a&pD;vnf;
tvGefxefí tvGefw&mvnf; eufykH&onf? tcsKdUae&mrsm;ü 'vwGef;
xkd;qif;aoma&onf a&SUü qD;umvsuf&Sdaom awmifBuD; okdUr[kwf
ausmifaqmifBuD;rsm;udk t[kefjyif;pGmESifh wdkufcdkufonf jzpfaomaMumifh

239 
a&rIef a&rTm;rsm;onf wzGm;zGm; jyefUpifí wa0ga0g wa[ma[m
jrnfaomtoHjzifh qlnHvsuf&Sd\/ urf;wbuf wcsufüum;
tvGefjrifhrm;aom awmifBuD;rsm;onf ZGwftwif; xkd;qif;aom
jrpfa&vkH;udk tomwMunfvrf;rz,fay;csifyJ uwfoD;uwfowf
vkyfMuonfh vu©PmESifh [dkrSqD; onfrSwm;? [dkrSmck onfrSmcH twefwef
BudK;pm;í taESmifht,Suf jyKonfhES,f ae&mwumwdkif;wGif twdkuftcH
vkyfae[efwl\/ tcsKdUae&mwGif wbufü&Sdaom awmifBuD;onf
(ajy;oGm;aom vlwa,mufudk ajcxkd;ícHvkdufjcif;uJUodkU) jrpfa&vkH;\a&SUrS
ausmufpGef;wckxkwfum uefUvefUcHvkduf&m jrpfa&vkH;onf ausmufpGef;udk
tMurf;enf;jzifh NzdKzsuf&ef rwwfEdkfifaom tcgwGif tEkenf;jzifh
yGef;wD;atmif wjznf;jznf; vkH;yg;yg;ap\/ wcgw&HwGif jrpfaMumif;onf
rnfrQ usOf;ajrmif;ygoenf;[lrl oabFmOD;rSxkdifí a&SUodkUarQmfMunfhumvdkuf
vmaom uREkfyfonf a&SUwnfhwnfhüawmifBuD;qD;vsuf &Sdjcif;udkomjrif&í
jrpfaMumif;vkH;aysmufNyD; awmifBuD;udkoabFmOD;jzifh aqmifhawmhrnfhqJqJ
&Sd&mwGifrS vuf,mbufüaomfvnf;aumif;? vuf0Jbufüaomfvnf;aumif;
a&aMumif;uav;ay:vmí 4if;bufodkU qwfueJvSnfhum auGUcsKd;vdkufjcif;
udk jrif&ygawmhonf/ jrpfaMumif; usOf;ajrmif;&onfhtxJwGif
]wawmifqpfcsKd;}auGU&onfh ae&maywum;/ xdkuJUodkU csKd;auGUvsuf&SdpOf
wcsufwcsufwGif oabFmOD;rSjzpfap? wcsufwcsufwGif oabFmyJUydkif;rS
jzpfap ckefcsvdkufygu urf;ay:odkU a&mufEdkifrnf[líyif xif&avmuf
ayonf/

240 
vlUpdwfonf cufvS\

4if;jrpfusOf;t&yfü wbufwcsuf&Sd awmifBuD;rsm;onf jrifhjrifh


rm;rm; BuD;&SdMuí opfyifrsm;xlxyfpGm aygufa&mufvsuf&SdMuojzifh uREkfyf
jrifbl;onfh awmifrsm;teufwGif tpdrf;vef;qkH;jzpfay&m jrpfaMumif;\
usOf;ajrmif;jcif;aMumifh oabFmESifh uyfvsuf&Sd&kHru tcsKdUae&mrsm;wGif
oabFmay:odkUyif rkd;vsuf&Sdonfxif&\/ opfyifrsm; ay:üvnf;
arsmufrsm;ESifh awmiSuftrsKd;rsKd;&SdMuí arsmufoH? iSufoHEsifh a&oHwdkU
pkaygif;a&maESmum em;xJokdU xkd;0ifonfjzpfaomaMumifh tcsKdUae&mrsm;wGif
oabFmay:ü tcsif;csif; pum;ajymí rMum;Edkifavmuf atmif qlnHpGm
&Sdaeawmhonf/ (þc&D;rSjyefvmí 1917 ckESpfxkwf &lyeE´D 0w¦Kudk
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a&;xnfhcJUjcif;jzpfavonf/) txufxyfü vdkufygvmMuaom AdkvfBuD;
ESpfa,mufwkdUonf &Gufzsifukvm;xdkifudk,fpDESifh rSefajymif;udk Munfhvkduf?
0DpuDqdk'gudk usKdufcsvdkuf? wa,mufuaq;jyif;vdyf? wa,mufu
aq;wHudkzGmvkduf? pum;wajymajymESifh vdkufygvmMu&m uREkfyfwdkU
pma&;ESpfa,mufrSmrl rSefajymif;vnf;ryg/ 0DpuD&Sdaomfvnf;
raomuf0HUMuonfESifh vufzuf&nfMurf;udk pD;u&ufESifhjrnf;&kHjzifh
auseyfMu&onf/ vlUpdwfonf cuf\/ uRekfwkdUonf vufzuf&nfM urf;rQ
ESifh auseyfMu&mrS AdkvfESpfa,mufbmvkyfaeMuonfudk odvdkMuí avSum;rS
acsmif;MunfhvkdufrdMu&mwGif 0DpuDqdk'gudk jrifMu&onfESifh uREkfyfwkdU\
vufzuf&nfMurf;rSm Zdrfr&SdyJ jzpfoGm;&ygawmhonf/ þwGif
bmrqdkjrnf;prf;csifwwfaom uREkfyf\0goemonf [kwfrS[kwfygav\
avm [k ,kHrSm;jcif;wBudrfjzpfcJUrdbl;ygonf/

241 
xkacsvTmawmif;cH&jcif;

vrf;wGif wnOfhtdyfí aemufwaeUwGif Aef;armfNrdKUokdU qdkufa&muf


Mu\/ 'k0efBuD;onf Aef;armfta&;ydkifESifh cifrifoljzpfí 4if;\tdrfü
wnf;cdkav&m rif;BuD;ESifh uREkfyfrSm AdkvfwJü wnf;ckdMu\/ xdknOfhü
uREkfyfESifhpma&;BuD; udkbcifwkdUonf a&TusD;em;bk&m;yJGodkU acwÅavmuf
omoGm;Muí 0goemtdk;rsm;jzpfMuonfhtwdkif; bdvd,ufckHü tcsdefjzKef;Mu
NyD; ckHydwfrS udk,fhae&mokdU toD;oD;jyefoGm;Mu\/ aemufaeU eHeufcif;ü
uREkfyfonf vkyfp&mtvkyfrsm;udkvkyfí eHeufpmpm;NyD;onfESifh wNydKifeuf
tapcHwJü&Sdaom uREkfyf\tdyf&mokdU 0iftdyfav\/ aeUv,f ESpfem&DcefUwGif
udkbcifvmEId;NyD; ]]AsKdUq&mBuD; xMunfhygOD;As? cifAsm;pm;yJGrSm rD;avmif
aeav&JU}}[kajym\/ uREkfyfonfAkdvfwJatmufxyfü&Sdaom uREkfyf\tvkyf
pm;yJGokdU oGm;Munfh&m rif;BuD;uxkacsvTmawmif;xm;onfh pmwapmif
udkawGU&\/ t"dyÜm,frSm aeUv,f 12 em&Davmufü tvkyf&Sdíac:&m
rawGU&aMumif;? aeUcif;tcsdefwGif tcGifhr&SdyJ xGufí vnfonfhtwGuf
tb,fhaMumifhtjypfray;xdkufaMumif;udk ckacs&rnfjzpfaMumif;yg&Sdavonf/
pmudkzwfvkduf&onfESifhwNydKifeuf rif;BuD;\tcspfawmf bwÅvm\
vufcsufjzpfonf[k uRekfyfawG;EdkifavNyD/ rif;BuD;uac:cdkif;pOf uREkfyf
tdyfaejcif;udk odvsufESifhbwÅvmu uREkfyfr&Sd[k ajymvkdufjcif;jzpfonf/
&efNidK;um; olwdkUtm; xrif;rauR;onfh twGuf jzpf&ayrnf/ uREkyfonf
udkjrpfuJUokdU tapHrsm;ESifh ajyjypfatmif rqufqHwwfonfh uRekfyf\tjypf
udkodyg\/ okdU&mwGif bwÅvmu uREkfyf&SdygvsufESifh r&Sd[k vdrfvnf
ajymjcif;aMumifh ta&;,lcH&jcif;udkpdwfqkd;onfESifh udkbcifudk oufao

242 
xl&ef rif;BuD;xHokdU ac:oGm;ygonf/ uREkfyfonftdkifpDtufpf t&m&SdBuD;
rsm;udk tcgcyfodrf; &GHUaMumufygonf/ okdU&mwGifrw&m;ojzifh pGyfpJGjcif;
cH&onfESifh a'goxGufvmí aMumufvefUpdwfr&SdawmhyJ tjzpftysuftrSef
udkrif;BuD;tm; a'gojzifh ajymjyí udkbcifudkoufa oxl\/ rif;BuD;onf
bwÅvmudkac:í ar;&m bwÅvmu uREkfyfudk&SmpOf tapcHwJxJokdU
0ifrMunfhrdaMumif;0efcH\/ rif;BuD;onfbwÅvmudk jyefxGufapNyD;aemuf
]]tb,fhaMumifh xdkuJU odkU ajymonfxifoenf;}}[k uREkfyftm;ar;&m
olwdkUudk xrif;rauR;aomaMumifh jzpfonfxifaMumif; ajymjy\/
xdktcgrif;BuD;u olwkdUudkxrif;auR;zdkU wm0efr&SdaMumif;? olwkdUvnf;
c&D;p&dwf&Muí olwkdU[molwdkU pm;EdkifaMumif;ajymavonf/ þudpöü
ri;fBuD;onf uREkfyftay:wGif tjypfwifp&m &SmrawGUaomfvn;f
ol\tcspfawmf bwÅvmESifh tqifrajyrI jzpf&jcif;twGuf uREkfyftay:ü
rsufESmraumif;jcif;udk uREkfyf&dyfrdonf/ xdktcsdefrSpí igonf
bwÅvmudkvnf; tavQmhray;Edkif/ þodkUaombwÅvmwa,muftm;
vufoyfarG;xm;onfh rif;BuD;wa,muf\ vufatmufwGif Munf&SnfpGm
tvkyfvkyfjcif;tm;jzifh pdwfcsrf;omrI &SdEdkifawmhrnf r[kwf[k
qkH;jzwfvdkufav\/

&kH;ajymif;jcif;

aemufrsm;rMumrD 'k0efBuD;\ [ufuvyfpma&;BuD; cGifh,loGm;&mwGif


&kH;ajymif;zdkU avQmufxm;\/ rif;BuD;\awmvdkufpma&;ESifh 'k0efBuD;\
[ufuvyfpma&;\vcrSm twlwljzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyf\vuf&Sd&mxl;onf
wufvrf;&Sdí c&D;p&dwfvnf;ydkaomaMumifh &kH;tkyfESifhwuG tjcm;pma&;

243 
rsm;u uREkfyf\tBuHtpnfudk zsufM u\/ okdU&mwGif uREkfyfrlum;
BuD;yGm;jcif;udk oabmrxm;? bwÅvmwa,muftm; OD;pm;ay;onfh
rif;BuD;wa,muf\ vufatmufwGif vufyGef;wwD; ae&onfh awmvdkuf
pma&;tvkyfü pdwfcsrf;omrI r&SdEdkifNyD[k qkH;jzwfum &kH;ajymif;vkduf
ygawmhonf/ okdUjzpfí uREkfyfonf pDbDvdkif;ü&Sdaom rif;BuD;&kH;rS
aAm"dukef;ü&Sdaom v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;'k0efBuD;\&kH;odkU ajymif;a&GUvkdufyg
awmhonf/ v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;Xme rif;BuD;rSm tdkifpDtufpf t&m&Sdwa,muf
jzpfí 'k0efBuD;rSm v,f,mpdkufysKd;jcif;ynmudk txl;wvnf oifMum;vmcJU
onfh Expert tdwfpywfac: t&m&Sdjzpfavonf/

tusifhqdk;jyefay:vmjcif;

rif;BuD;rpöwm uavwifonf qlylwwfoavmuf 'kwd,0efBuD;


rpöwmaomfrfqifrSm pdwfoabmaumif;onfh vlat;wa,mufjzpf\/
uREkfyfESifh wvcefUrQ tvkyfvkyfrdMuvQif 'k0efBuD;onf uRekfyfudktvGefcifrif
í olUvufatmufü tvkyfvkyf&jcif;rSm pdwfcsrf;omvSonf/ 0efBuD;onf
uREkfyfudktvGef,kHMunfí uREkfyfajymorQNyD;\/ þtjcif;t&monf
uREkfyftzdkU taumif;csnf;r[kwfvSacs/ 0efBuD; awmwufaomtcg
'kwd,pma&;onf 0efBuD;ESifh twlvkduf&av&m uREkfyfrSm [ufuvyf
tjzpfESifh &kH;xdkifusef&pfNyD; tawmfvGefvyfjcif;&\/ &kH;okH;aiGudk uREkfyfyif
udkif&í pm&if;udkvnf; uREkfyfyifudkif&\/ xdktcsdefwGif uREkfyfonf
pHa'0Dudk ydk;yef;pOfu umvom; oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifh wzeftqufjzpfí
4if;wkdUESifhtwl bdvd,ufckHü nOfhrsm;wGif tcsdefjzKef;vsuf&Sd\/ xkdpOfu
bdvd,ufckHrsm;wGif bdvd,uf&dk;&dk;ruyJ pupfwvfpf  (Skittles)  ac:

244 
9wdkifupm;enf; acwfpm;vsuf&Sd&m þupm;enf;wGif a*:vDtBuD;tao;
avmif;um;jcif;vnf; wGJzufvsuf&Sd\/ uREkfyfonfwnvQifwusyf ESpfusyf
avmif;upm;&mrS (i,fpOfu tvkyform;rsm;ESifh avmif;upm;bl;onfh
tavhtusifhaMumifh) ]aoG;BuD;}vmNyD; ig;usyfwq,fponfjzifh avmif;wwf
vmavNyD/ tpyxrü avmif;upm;jcif;tvkyf\ jzm;a,mif; aoG;aqmif
wwfonfh xkH;pHtwkdif;  Beginner's  luck  Edkifonfursm;í &IH;onfu
enf;ojzifh 0rf;omp&mBuD;jzpfae\/ twefMumaomf tEdkifukefí
&IH;rsm;vmcJUavNyD/ þwGif uREkfyfonf vcxkwfaomtcgü xnfhvkduf&\/
þtawmtwGif; avmif;upm;jcif;onf uREkfyftm; tylwjyif; aoG;aqmif
vsuf&SdavNyD/ bdvd,ufckHokdU roGm;awmhygqdkum wnESpfn atmifhaeaomf
vnf; ]]&Suf?&Suf?yGwfa'gif;}}[laom toHrsm;onf em;xJodkU wkd;íwkd;í
0ifvmawmhonf/ raeEdkif? oGm;&awmhonf/ yxrü wvcaiGudk
vnf;aumif;? xdkUaemuf ESpfvcaiGudkvnf;aumif; ,lí,líoGm;av&m
&IH;&onfcsnf;om BuKH&awmh\/ rxl;awmhNyD/ wwufpm;vnf;
MuufoGef[laom pum;udkvnf;aumif;? avSarsm avScsif;vkduf[laom
pum;udkvnf;aumif; owd&í &IH;xm;onfh&kH;aiGudk jyef&atmif
vkyf,ljcif;rSwyg; tjcm;enf;vrf; r&SdawmhNyDqdkum nwdkif;yif
a*:vD&Dkufrdawmhonf/ wcgw&H tenf;i,fEdkifaomfvnf; &IH;xm;onfh
&kH;aiGudk jyefxnfhavmufatmuf rjynfhaomaMumifh qufvufíom upm;&
\/ &kH;aiGxkwfokH;í tpdk;&odvQif axmifusrnf qdkjcif;udk odNyD;jzpfaom
aMumifh pdwfylvdkufykHrSm tqDpm;í tom;rjzpfqdkonfh pum;twkdif;
tawmfydefBuKHvsuf&SdavNyD/ 0efBuD;onf &kH;aiGudk wvwBudrf xkH;pHtwdkif;
ppfaq;aomfvnf; aiGpm&if;udk þES,fxdkES,f zvS,fíjyjcif;aMumifh
0efBuD;rod&Sday/ þokdUjzifh ajcmufvcefU Mumaomtcg &kH;aiGteufrS

245 
usyfwaxmifcefU avsmhvsuf&SdavNyD/ bdvd,ufckHrS jyefvmaomtcg
tdyfraysmfEdkifonfh nrsm;u rsm;ygawmhonf/

uHaumif;vkdU axmifrus

waeUoü vqef;w&ufaeUwGif rif;BuD;&kH;ppfvmrnfhtaMumif;


pm&&Sdav&m xdkaeUrSm 28&uf aeUjzpfí okH;&ufomusefawmh\/
OD;acgif;rD;avmifcJUavNyD/ a&Tuav; &SdpkrJUpkudk a&mif;csvkdufvQifvnf;
300drQavmufom &EdkifrnfjzpfNyD; rxl;awmhNyD/ rD;cHaowÅmxJwGif &kH;aiG
200davmuf&Sdao;\/ 4if;udk,lNyD;oli,fcsif; vlv,fwa,mufudkac:í
w&kwfuvyfodkU wufupm;&m yxrwGif 200davmufEdkifNyD; aemufqkH;ü
ajymifygavawmhonf/ cufacsNyD? rnfokdUvkyfrnfenf;/ xGufajy;vQifvnf;
tusKd;r&SdNyD/ aemufqkH; vukefrnfhaeUwGif uREkfyfonftjzpftysufudk
[kwfwkdif;rSef&mazmfjyí 'k0efBuD;oem;avmufatmif pmwapmifa&;vkduf\/
wnvkH;a&;NyD; eHeufapmapmwGifuREkfyf\a,mufzudk ydkUcdkif;vkduf&m
]]csufcsif;vmcJU}}[k 0efBuD;xHrS pum;jyefvm\/ 0efBuD;onfMuifemaom
rsufESmxm;ESifh uREkfyftm;Munfhvsuf þaiG1000dausmfudk olupdkufxnfhxm;
onfhtaMumif;? olESifhtwlawmwuf&modkUvkdufNyD; &&Sdaom c&D;p&dwfjzifh
jyefqyfí vcudk uRekfyfpm;EdkifaMumif;ajymav&m uREkfyfonf rpöwm
aomfrfqiftm; OD;okH;BudrfcsrdcJUygonf/ xdkaeUrSpí uREkfyfonf
þyk*¾dKvftm; aus;Zl;&SifBuD;tjzpf arwÅmydkUjcif;? uefawmhjcif;tm;jzifh
t&dktaojyKcJU&m ,aeUwdkifvnf;ol&Sd&mt&yfodkUrSef;í arwÅmydkUvsuf
yif&Sdygonf/ uREkfyfonf rdrdudk,fudkaxmifuszdkU Zmwmryg[k atmufarhcJU
&m zqyv tpdk;&vufxufwGifrS axmifodkUydkUjcif;cHcJU&\/ okdUaomf

246 
tjypfr&ojzifh axmifusjcif;r[kwf? tcsKyfcH&jcif;om jzpfonf[k
udk,fh[mudk,f ajzqnfrdygawmhonf/

aysmfyJGpm;xGufjcif;

xdktcsdefrSpí uREkfyfonf c&D;p&dwf&vdkrIaMumifh 'k0efBuD;\


awmvdkufpma&;vkyf&av&m þt&m&SdESifh vdkuf&jcif;rSm rif;BuD; rpöwm
uavwifESifhvdkuf&jcif;xuf aysmfp&maumif;vS\/ xpfueJqdkwkdif;
qlwwfylwwf Budrf;armif;wwfonfh t&m&SdESifh vkduf&NyD;aemuf oem;
Muifemwwfaomt&m&SdESifh vkduf&jcif;rSm ewfjynfa&muf&oavmuf xifrd
yg\/ okdU&mwGif uREkfyf\ZmwmrSm (aA'ifawmhar;Munfhonfr[kwf) tvkyf
wckü Munf&SnfpGm pGJpJGNrJNrJvkyfrnfholwa,muf r[kwfonfhvu©PmESifh
'k0efBuD;\ ta<u;ajyvkeD;csdefwGif rdrdtvkyfü raysmfydkufaompdwfrsKd;
wpwp 0ifvsuf&Sd\/ ,if;odkU&SdpOf uREkfyfonf &kH;pma&;rsm;jzpfMuonfh
Adkvfujym; nDtpfudkwpkESifh rwÅ&me,fqnfBuD;acg t&yfodkUiSufypfvkduf
oGm;\/
uREkfyfwdkUtm;vkH;rSm pma&;rsm;omjzpfí om;om;em;em; oGm;EdkifMu
onfr[kwf? avaoewfwvufpDESifh bdkifpu,fpD;NyD; oGm;Mujcif;jzpf\/
ig;aowÅm paom pm;p&muav;rsm; toifhtwifhygvmMu\/ uREkfyfurl
(jcifudkifvQifiSufzsm; zsm;wwfonf[k zwf&bl;aomaMumifh) jcifaxmif
wvkH;ygvmcJU\/ (aemifwGif azmfjyvwÅHUaom uome,f erf;aygif;&GmokdU
bk&ifcHqm[mukwf bwÅvmwkdUvlpk c&pfprwfwywf awmvnfxGuf
Mujcif;udk BuKH&aomtcgwGif uREkfyfwkdU\awmvnfjcif;rSm tvGef&,f
csifp&muav; wck jzpfvmaomfvn;f) xdkpOfurl udk,fh[muav;ESifhudk,f

247 
tawmfBuD;aysmfcJUygonf/ naecif;wGif vlwa,muf csKd;av;ig;aumif
pD&atmif ypfMuNyD;aemufxif;wkH;BuD;rsm; qdkufxm;onfh rD;zdkBuD;teD;wGif
tarG;EkwfoluEkwf? ckwfoluckwf? aq;oluaq;? aMumfoluaMumf?
csufolucsufNyD; a&a&maom 0DpuDuav;ESifh (qdk'grwwfEdkif) jrnf;Mu
aomufMu&jcif;rSm {&mr ZdrfBuD;wck jzpfaeygawmhonf/ þtawmtwGif;
taumf'D,ifwvkH;ygvmí wD;wwfolu wD;NyD; t*Fvdyfaw;csif;rsm;
0dkif;qdkum uolrsm;u uMuonfwGif tawmfedyfaomaysmfp&mwcktaejzifh
uRekfyf\OD;aESmufwGif trSwfxifvsuf usef&pfcJUygonf/
uREkfyfwdkUvlpk pwnf;csaomae&mü wJuav; ESpfwJ okH;wJ&Sdjcif;udk
uREkfyfrSwfrdao;&m wwJrSm uREkfyfwdkUvlpktwGufjzpf\/ csKd;aMumfESifh 0DpuD
wykvif;ukefí trl;ajyMuaomtcg uREkfyfwdkUonf wJuav;xJodkU
0iftdyfMu\/ uREkfyfonf ygvmaomjcifaxmifudk axmifí tdyf&mjyifav&m
tjcm;vlrsm;rlum; wOD;wa,mufrQ jcifaxmifrygcJUMuay/ xdknOfhrSm
tawmftdkufí jcifudkufjcif;udk uREkfyfrSwfrd\/ udk,fhae&mESifhudk,f
tdyfMu&mwGif ujym;uav;wa,mufonf jcifudkufvSonfqdkí
uREkfyf\jcifaxmifxJodkU 0ifvm\/ jcifaxmifrSm wa,muftdyfuav;
jzpfaomaMumifh r0ifavmufonfESifh OD;acgif;rQom oGif;yg&apqdkum
uREkfyfbufodkU OD;acgif;qdkufvsuf tdyf\/ twefMumvQif 'kwd,wa,muf
0ifvmjyefí yxrvlESifh ,SOfvsuftdyf\/ þenf;jzifh Adkvfujym;
4a,mufvkH;wa,mufNyD;wa,muf OD;acgif;oGif;xnfhMuNyD; ajcaxmuf
rsm;udk apmifzkH;xm;Muonf/ twefMumaomf olwkdU4a,mufrSm wacgacgESifh
a[mufMuí uREkfyfrSmum; tdyfraysmfEdkifyJ jzpfae\/ jcifaxmifrSm
Zmjcifaxmifr[kwf? ydwfcyfyg;yg;jzifh csKyfxm;jcif;jzpf&m olwkdUtouf&I
xkwfaomtaiGUrsm;onf uREkfyfudk rGef;apojzifh omíyif tdyfraysmfEdkifatmif

248 
jzpfae\/ aemufqkH;ü uREkfyfonfjcifaxmifudk olwkdUtm;ay;cJUNyD;vQif
wJjyifodkU wa,mufwnf;xGufí tdyfygawmhonf/ jzpf&ykHrSm ayghayghqq
vmcJUMuolrsm;tzdkU udpör&Sd? owd0D&d,ESifh jcifaxmif aqmif,lcJUaom
uREkfyfüomvcHvdkuf&jcif;udk a&SUwGifazmfjyygrnf/ (avmuBuD;um; bmrQ
pdwfcs&onfr[kwfacs/)

xl;qef;aom tjcif;t&mwck

tdrfodkUjyefa&mufNyD;aemuf &ufowÅwywftwGif;wGif uREkfyfrSm


tBuD;tus,f zsm;cUJavNyD/ tzsm;BuD;vGef;aomaMumifh wcsDwcsDwGif
]wuf}oGm;NyD; tMumBuD; owdvpfvsuf&Sd&m uREkfyf\yg;acsmif&kd;rsm;
ig;\yg;[ufuJUodkUum;csnf pkcsnfjzpfaejcif;udk rdbrsm;? r,m;ESifh r&D;wdkU
jrifMu&onf[k aemufwGif ajymMu\/ uREkfyf\rdbrsm;um; zsm;p
uwnf;u a&mufaeMuavNyD/ (xl;qef;aom tjcif;t&mwckrSm tzsm;
aysmufaomtcgwGif uREkfyf\yg;acsmif&dk;ESpfbufwdkUonf rdarG;wdkif;
zarG;wdkif; r[kwfawmhyJ cyfum;um;jzpfvmonf[k vlwdkif;u ajymav
onf/) xdkuJUokdU cPcPwuf&mwGif jyKpkoltm;vkH;onf uREkfyfaoacs
awmhrnfxifMuí idkukefMuonfqdk\/ aemufqkH;ü uREkfyftm; rEÅav;
aq;&kHBuD;okdU ydkUMu\/ rydkUrDurl q&m0efac:í ukMuygonf/

odyfqdk;wJUiSufzsm;wJU

rEÅav;aq;&kHBuD;rSm xdkpOfuBuD;BuD;us,fus,f r[kwfao;/  Paying 


Ward  ydkufqHay;&aom 'kwd,wef; olemcef;rSm txufxyf

249 
qif0ifaqmifuav;wGif wnf&Sdí uREkfyfESifhAkdvfujym;av;ig;a,mufrQom
&Sd\/ ydkufqHray;&onfh  Free  Ward  tcef;rsm;rSmvnf; jrefrmvlem
tvGefenf;í w&kwf ukvm; bdef;pm;rsm;avmufom &SdMu\/ ydkufqHay;&
aom tcef;rSmt&yfom;rsm;twGuf waeUwusyf? tpdk;&trIxrf;rsm;
twGuf waeU&SpfyJrQom ay;&onf/ aq;&kHokdUa&mufcgpü nwdkif;vkdvdkyif
tzsm;BuD;í 106 'D*&D&SdNyD; owdr&ojzifh nwdkif;yif OD;acgif;ay:okdU
a&cJtdwfwif&onf/ waeUoü uREkfyf\vufrrS aoG;azmuf,loGm;jcif;udk
odvdkufaomfvnf; bmvkyfrnfrodojzifh trSwfrJU aevdkufrd&m oli,fcsif;
armif&D (xdkpOfu NrdKUtkyfjzpfaeonf/) a&mufvmrS od&awmhonf/
armif&Donf vlemar;&ef a&mufvmí uREkfyf\ckwifteD;wGif
uyfvsufxdkifae&mrS acgif;&if;wGif csdwfxm;aom pm&Gufudk jrifonfESifh
xíMunfh\/ wzefjyefíxdkifaomtcgürl ukvm;xdkifudk cyfvSrf;vSrf;
odkUa&GUNyD;rS xdkif\/ uREkfyfonf ol\tjyKtrludk owdjyKvdkufrdaomfvnf;
þokdUrar;yJaeNyD; oljyefoGm;aomtcgrS csdwfxm;aom pm&Gufudk
xíMunfh&m t*Fvdyfbmomjzihf þodkUa&;xm;onfudk awGU&\/  (Malarial 
Parasites  Of  Malignant  Type)  touftEÅ&m,fjyKwwfonfh iSufzsm;ydk;rsKd;
awGU&onfqdkjcif;yifjzpfonf/ vu©PmrSm iSufzsm;ydk; trsKd;rsKd;&Sdonfhteuf
uREkfyf\aoG;ü awGU&aom ydk;rsKd;rSm txl;qdk;&Gm;onf qdkjcif;yifjzpfonf/
þwGifrSoli,fcsif;armif&D a&TUxdkifvdkufaomtjyKtrludk uREkfyfem;vnf
awmhonf/ xdktcgrS uREkfyf\tzsm;rSmiSufzsm;jzpfaMumif; uREkfyfod&í
qnfBuD;okdUoGm;pOfu jcifudkufcJUcJU&jcif;aMumifh jzpfaMumif;udkvnf;
uREkfyfpOf;pm;rdonf/ tjcm;wcsufrSmvnf; jyif;xefaom trsKd;tpm;[k
qdkxm;jyefojzifh aocsifaoEdkifonf[k uREkyfod&jcif;yifjzpfonf/
,cifurl wufNyD; owdvpfbl;aomfvnf; teD;&Sdvlrsm;uomaornfavm

250 
xifMuonf/ uREkfyfurl owd&aomtcg aowwfonf? aoEdkifonf[lí
wcgrpOf;pm;rdyJ cyfayghaygh cyf&Tif&Tifom aecJUygonf/ xdkUaMumifhrsm;
toufcsrf;om&m&avoavmrajymwwfay/ 4if;pmudk zwf&aom
tcgrSpírl udk,fhudk,fudk awmfawmf av;av;pm;pm; vkyfíaevm
ygawmhonf/ okdU&mwGif e*dkuwnf;u cyfayghayghvlpm;rsKd;jzpfí Mumr&Snf
vSyg/

ZGwf'&Gwf0goem

þae&mwGif uREkfyf\ pdwfazmufjyefjcif;aMumifhayavm? wcgw&HwGif


ZGwf'&Gwfvkyfcsifwwfaom 0goemaMumifhayavm rajymwwf/ uREkfyfvkyfykH
wckudk azmfjyygOD;rnf/ uREkfyfrSmevHxp jzpfaomfvnf; aumif;aumif;BuD;
tzsm;jywfao;[efr&SdonfESifh xrif;[if; rauR;ao;yJaygifrkefUESifh EGm;EdkUudk
csnf; pm;ae&\/ wa,mufwnf;qdkvQifvnf; atmifhtnf;Edkifygao;\/
,ckrlemvHxlvsuf&SdMuonfh Adkvfujym;uav;rsm;u uREkfyfteD;wGif
Muufom;[if;ESifh xrif;pm;Muonfudk jrifae&í arx&Gef Matron
AdkvfrBuD;tm;awmif;&m okH;&ufavmuf apmifhzdkUajym\/ þwGifuRekfyf\
pdwfxJüigonf ,aeUn Muufom;pm;NyD; aocsifao&ap? pm;jzpfatmifpm;
rnf[k oEédXmefcsvkdufav\/ aq;&kHay:wGif rnfoltm;rQckdif;p&mr&SdyJ
ae&mwGif rnfodkUvkyfonf xifMuoenf;/ uREkfyfonftdrfomokdU
oGm;ra,mifa,mifESifh aq;&kHtay:xyfrS qif;vmí aq;&kHa&SUü qdkufaom
"mwf&xm;rsm;onf aq;&kHvlemt0wftpm;ESifhwufvmaom uREkfyftm;
jrifMuí wa,mufa,mufMunfhMu\/ uREkfyfurl rjrifcsifjyKí
xdkifvdkufvm\/ aps;csKdteD; bDvrf; (xdkpOfu cspfwD;wef;ac:onf/)

251 
okdUa&mufaomtcg "mwf&xm;ay:rSqif;NyD; qdwfom;uifESifh Muufom;uif
wrwfzdk;pD0,f\/ xdkae&müpm;aomf anSmfapmfeHaevdrfhrnfqdkum rdbrsm;
wnf;cdkonfh aq;&kH0if;tdrfokdU ,loGm;NyD;tm;vkH;ajymifatmif xdkifí
pm;vdkufonf/ pm;NyD;onfhaemuf qefUiifqefUiifESifh aooGm;vQifvnf;
uREkfyfaemifw&vdrfhrnfr[kwf? taocHzdkU toifhjyifNyD;jzpf\/ þtjyKtrl
rsKd; okH;Budrfxufrenf; uRekfyf\woufwmü vkyfcJUbl;onf/

'l;axmufawmif;yef&jcif;

tHHUMovsuf&Sdaom rdbrsm;udk ESpfodrfhap&ef oifhawmfatmifajymí


vufzuf&nfMurf;wc&m;00BuD;aomufNyD;aemuf uREkfyfonf "mwf&xm;ESifh
yif aq;&kHBuD;okdU jyefoGm;í acsmarmpGm a&mufyg\/ vrf;c&D;üom
acsmarmygonf/ arx&GefAdkvfrBuD;ESifhrlum; tBuD;tus,fyif racsmarmyg/
uRekfyfxGufoGm;onfrSm pkpkaygif; wem&DcJGcefUMumvdrfhrnfjzpf&m xdktawm
twGif;ü q&mrBuD;onf cPcP vmíar;onf[k ujym;uav;rsm;u
ajymMu\/ uREkfyfrlum; tqlcHzdkU jyifNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh tvGeftrif;
rwkefvIyfvSacs/ odkUaomf uREkfyfonf þq&mrBuD;taMumif;udk
rqGuodcJUygrlum; xGufaumif;rS xGuf0HUrnfxif onf/ qlvdkufykHum;
yGufyGuf&dkufoGm;awmh\/ t*Fvdyfpum;vkH;&dk;&dk; tac:&SdorQ qdk;rdkuf
nHUzsif;aom tjyKtrlESifh ywfouforQ ukefcJUygavNyD/ yxrü uREkfyfonf
]em;jyiftdwfr&Sdbl;}[k oabmxm;um qlcsifwkdif;qlonfrsm;udk
rxDw&Dvkyfae\/ AdkvfrBuD;onf uREkfyf\cyfat;at;vkyfaeaom trlt&m
udkjrifonfwGif omíqlvmNyD;vQif emrnf&dkif;rsm;ac:&kHESifh rNyD;awmhyJ
q&m0efBuD;udk wdkif&rnf? xdkrSwqifh uREkfyf\tvkyfXme rif;BuD;okdU

252 
vnf;aumif;? 0efBuD;okdUvnf;aumif; wkdif&rnfponfrsm;jzifh qufvuf
qlyljcif;udk em;NiD;vmNyDjzpfí rnfuJUokdU jyK&ygrnfudk pOf;pm;\/
uREkfyfonf tBuHwck&onfESifh q&mrBuD;tm; vSrf;Munfhvdkuf&m
tenf;qkH;rdcift&G,f&Sdaom rdef;rBuD;wa,muf jzpfaejcif;udkawGU&í
tdyf&may:wGif rxDw&Dxdkifae&mrS xNyD;vQif olUa&SUwGif 'l;axmufvsuf
]]uRefawmfrSm;ygw,ftar? 'DtwGuf uRefawmf 0rf;enf;ygw,f? 'ghaMumifh
uRefawmfwdkUAk'¨bmomt& tESdrfhcsqkH;jzpfwJUenf;eJU uRefawmf0efcs
awmif;yefygw,f tar}}[k qdkum vuftkyfcsDvsuf wu,fhapwemESifh
0wfcsvdkufav\/ rdef;rBuD;onf uREkfyf\ &dk;om;ykH&aom tjyKtrludk
jrifvdkuf&onfESifh wNydKifeuf ol\yg;pyfrS a&&Gwfqlyljcif;rsm;rSm
rD;udka&jzifhNidrf;owfvdkufonfhES,f csufcsif;&yfoGm;í uREkfyfrsufESmudk
aphaphMunfh,if; trsufa'go ajyaysmufonfh vu©PmESifh rqdkpavmuf
uav; NyKH;vmvsuf  (That  will  do)  ]]awmfavmufygNyD}}qdkum
xGufoGm;av\/ ujym;uav;rsm;vnf; tHUMoaom trlt&mESifh uREkfyftm;
Munhfvsuf&Sd&mrS wa,mufu  (That  fellow  is  wise)  ]]'Daumif
awmfawmfynm&Sdw,f}}[k olwdkUtcsif;csif; ajymavonf/ (olwdkU\
pdwfxm;udk uREkfyfqifjcifvdkufonfhtcgwGif ]]yJGaumif;wck vufvGwfoGm;
onf}}[k atmufarhMuykH&onf/)

acwÅ pdwfazmufjyefjcif;

wveD;yg; aq;&kHwufí usef;rmojzifh qif;vmaomtcg uREkfyfrSm


(txufydkif;wGiftenf;i,f a&;om; azmfjycJUonfh twkdif;) ]b0ifjrifh}onfh
cRwf,Gif;csufwck usef&pfcJUygonf/ okdU&mwGif þtaMumif;udk

253 
(b0ifjrifholwdkU\ xkH;pHtwdkif;) udk,fh[mudk,f odonfr[kwf?
aysmufoGm;aomtcgrS qifjcifjcif;tm;jzifh od&jcif;jzpfygonf/ xdkpOftcg
ESifh ywfoufí &,fp&muav;rsm;jzpf&ykHudk azmfjyvdkygao;onf/ iSufzsm;
aysmufí aq;&kHrS qif;vmNyD; cGifhwv,lxm;onfhtcdkufwGif uRekfyfonf
a&TrsufrSefwvuf (xdkacwfrSm a&TrsufrSefwyfvQif *kPf&Sdonf xifMuí
bDatwdkif;vdkyif wyfMuNyD; &[ef;i,f uav;rsm;vnf; wyfcsifMuonf/)
cs,f&D wkwfaumufwacsmif;? qdwfom;a& vuftdwfjzLwpkH (xdkacwfu
Adkvfrrsm; pGyfMuonf/) acgif;aygif;tvJvJ? (bDataygif;awmh rwwfao;?
&efukefa&mufrS wwfygonf/) tqifaMumifaom ydk;vkH;csnf? zJvkHcsnf
tvJvJ (zJvkHcsnfrSm tvGefawmufajymifí þacwfwGif a,musfm;rsm;
r0wfMuawmhay/) aumif;ayhqdkonfh quúZkH;  (Sexone)  bGwfzdeyf
(xdkacwfü vlwa,mufESifh wa,mufonf tjcm;t&mudkrMunfh? zdeyfudk
a&S;OD;pGm vSrf;Munfhonfhwdkifatmif zdeyfaumif; NydKifMuaom acwfjzpfonf/
wenf;qdkaomf zdeyfaumif; pD;EdkifrS acwfrDonf[k ,lqMuonf/)
&SyftusFDvufrma<uwdkuf? pdwfwkvkyfxm;onfh zvf&SyfMu,foD;? acgif;
aygif;p&Snf&Snf? ydk;tppfajctdwf? qwfcsouúvyf eufjyma&mif
aumif;aumif; ponfwdkUudk tvJvJ 0wfqifí vrf;avQmufavonf/
qdwfom;a&vuftdwfjzLrSwyg; tjcm;aom t0wftpm; tjyiftqifrSm
ravsmfonfr[kwf? olUacwfwGifa&SUqkH;rS ajy;jcif;rQom jzpfaomaMumifh
uREkfyftaMumif;udk wavQmufvkH; odolrsm;u NyKH;Muaomfvnf; w&HpH
vlrsm;url armfhíMunfhMu&onf/ t0wftpm;wGifomru pdwfxJuvnf;
igvkyfvQifbmrqdkatmifjrif&rnf[k xifjrifvsuf&Sd&m pHa'0Dudk&J&JMunfhí
NyKH;jcif;twGufaMumifh rdcifxHodkUvmNyD; idk&SmykHudkvnf; txufwGif
azmfjycJUygNyD/ xdkpOftcgu pHa'0DESifh ESruav;wdkU ,OfxdkifaeMuonfh

254 
tcGifhta&;rsKd; BuKH&vQif 0ifíar;&kHomru vufudkyif qJG0HUvdrfhrnf
xifonf/ odkUqdkvQifvnf; atmifjrifrnf jzpfaMumif;udk aemuftaMumif;
t&mrsm;u oufaocHvsuf&Sdonf/

rdwfaqGopfrsm;

&,fp&mwck jzpf&ykHudk azmfjyvdkao;onfrSm uREkfyfonf &efukefokdU


rif;BuD;ESifh a&mufcJUpOfu ausmif;aebuf oli,fcsif;rsm;jzpfonfh armif&D
(puf&Sifw&m;olBuD; jzpfvmonf/) udk0ifharmf (opfawm0efaxmuf
jzpfvmonf/) udkzl;ndK (aiGwdkuf0efaxmuf jzpfvmonf/) wkdUtm;
4if;wkdU\ ausmif;odkUoGm;í awGUbl;\/ udk0ifharmfrSm r*dkvrf;
wdkufcef;wckwGif udkxGef;&Sdef? udkuGef;wnf;[laom (bDattwef;wGif
oifvsuf&Sdonfh) ausmif;om;ESpfa,mufESifhtwl tcef;iSm;íaexdkifvsuf
&Sd&m udk0ifharmfu rdwfqufay;jcif;aMumifh xdkvlESpfa,mufESifh uRekfyfoduRrf;
&kHru uREkfyf&efukef&SdcdkufwGif cPcPawUGí twlvnfywfMubl;onf/
xdkvl okH;a,mufvkH;rSm uREkfyfESifhtwl 9 wef;wESpfwnf; atmifcJUolrsm;
jzpfonfhtavsmuf udk0ifharmfu uREkfyftm;xdkvlESpfa,mufESifh rdwfqufay;
&mwGif uREkfyfrSmolwkdUuJUokdU aumvdyfausmif; ra&mufaomfvnf; tvGef
pmzwfolwa,muf[lí ajymMu\/ þwGif udkxGef;&SdefESifh udkuGef;wkdU onf
rEÅav;om; wa,mufudk ]qwf}Munhfvdkuf& OD;rnf[la om &nf&G,fcsufjzifh
t*Fvdyf 0w¦KBuD;rsm;ESifhywfoufí uREkfyf\t,ltqrsm;udk wD;acguf
pkHprf;Mu\/ uREkfyfuvnf; olwdkU\ bDat twef;pmrsm;udk roif&bl;
ojzifh ruRrf;usifaomfvnf; t*Fvdyf0w¦Krsm;Esifh ywfoufírl &G,fwlvQif
raMumuf[k udk,fh[mudk,f ,kHMunfpdwfcsxm;onfhtavsmuf (bDat

255 
ausmif;om;awGqkd&kHESifh) &GHUaMumufjcif; r&SdyJ &J&Jwif;wif; xifjrifcsuf
ay;awmYonf/ olwkdUzwfbl;onfh pmtkyfrsm;udk uREkfyftm;vkH;vdkvdkyif
zwfbl;í uREkfyfzwfbl;aom pmtkyfrsm;taMumif;udk wD;acgufMunfhaom
tcgürl olwdkUu ]]uRefawmfwdkUu ausmif;om;awG &Sdygao;w,fAsm?
cifAsm;vdk pmpkHatmif rzwf&ao;ygbl;? ausmif;pmuvJ wzufudk;As}}[k
ajymMuavonf/ rnfodkUyifjzpfap udk0ifharmfu ]]usKyfwdkUrEÅav;om;u
racbl;As}}[k ajymvdkuf&mwGif xdkvlESpfa,mufu vIdufvSJpGm 0efcHMuyg
awmhonf/ (xdkacwfurl pmorm;csif;qkHrdMuí ESD;aESmwdkufqdkifMunfh&mwGif
t*Fvdyf0w¦KBuD;rsm;  (Classics)  pkHpkHvifvif zwfbl;olrSm *kPfBuD;wckjzpf
avonf/ xdkrQru 4if;pmtkyfrsm;ESifh ywfoufí awmfawmf ajcajcjrpfjrpf
&Sdatmifxifjrifcsuf ay;wwfjcif;rlum; {&mr*kPfBuD;wck jzpfygawmhonf/
xdkvlESpfa,mufteuf udkuGef;rSm aemifwGif bdvyfrS 0wfvkHjzpfvmí
udkxGef;&SdefrSm rEÅav;NrdKU Ak'¨bmom ausmif;tkyfBuD;jzpfvmygonf/)

b0ifjrifhaomfvnf; rqdk;vS

]b0ifjrifh}vsuf&Sdaomtcsdefu uREkfyfonf pHa'0DwdkUt&yfrS vrf;


avQmufjyefvmí Ak'¨bmomausmif;teD;okdUa&muf&mwGif ausmif;tkyfjzpfae
aom udkxGef;&Sdefudk owd&onfESifh EIwfqufOD;rnf[k csKd;0ifcJU\/ tcsdefrSm
ausmif;tm;csdefjzpfonfESifh ausmif;tkyfBuD;ESifh tjcm;q&mrsm;onf
tcef;wcef;wGif twlwuG xdkifvsuf&SdMuí udkxGef;&Sdefu q&mrsm;tm;
vufcsmay;aeonfh vu©Pm&Sd\/ uREkfyfonf a&TrsufrSef? wkwfaumuf?
vuftdwfjzLwdkUESifhwuG 0wfaumif;pm;vS0wfvsuf ]quúZkH;} zdeyfudk
&J&Jeif;um 0ifoGm;&mwGif udkxGef;&Sdefonf &efukefü awGUcJUpOfu

256 
]udkazodef;}ESifh rwlaomaMumifh ,D;wD;,m;wm;jzpfí ai;Munfhaeao;\/
þwGif uREkfyfuvuftdwfwbuf udkcRwfum ]]udk,fhvlusKyfudk rrSwfrd
bl;vm;? azodef;avAsm}}[k t*Fvdyfvdkajymvsuf vufudkqefUwef;
ay;vdkuf&m udkxGef;&Sdefonf uysmu,mxvmí uREkfyf\vufudk
0rf;omtm;& qGJvIyfav\/ xdkUaemuf uREkfyftm; ae&mxdkifcif;ay;í
udk0ifharmftaMumif;? udkuGef;taMumif; ponfrsm;udk t*FvdyfvdkajymMu
av&m udkxGef;&Sdefu wcsufwcsufwGif jrefrmvdknSyfaomfvnf; uREkfyfu
jrefrmpum;vkH;0 rokH;aomaMumifh olvnf; t*Fvdyfvdkcsnf; ajym&
awmhonf/ ausmif;q&mrsm;rSm uREkfyfESifh tm;vkH;odMuolrsm;jzpfí
uREkfyfvkyfykHawGudk yg;pyfa[mif;avmif;ESifh ai;Munhfvsuf&SdMu&m uRekfyfu
wa,mufwavtm; OD;acgif;qwfvsuf EIwfqufonfwGif udkxGef;&Sdefu
4if;wkdUbufodkUvSnfhNyD; ]]aemufrS qufajymMuao;wmaygh q&mwdkU}}[k
qdkum oGm;cGifhjyKvdkufav\/ uREkfyfESifh udkxGef;&SdefwkdUvnf; ausmif;wuf
csdefwdkfifatmif qufvufí t*Fvdyfvdkajymvsuf&SdMu&m ausmif;q&mrsm;rSm
pyg;BuD;a>rnIdUaom ,kefrsm;uJUokdU tcef;jyifbufrS w&pfoDoDvkyfum
uReftm;MunhfvdkufMu? olwkdUtcsif;csif; MunhfvdkufMu? wD;wdk;pum;
ajymvdkufMu vkyfaeMuavawmhonf/ ausmif;wufcsdefwdkifcgrS uRekfyfu
udkxGef;&Sdeftm; pwdkifusus vufqGJEIwfqufí xGufvmcJUav&m
ausmif;q&mrsm;rSm rsufvkH;rsm; jyL;Mu&onfESifhyif rsufpdemMurnfudk
pkd;&drf;&ygao;onf/ olwkdUonf ausmif;0if;xJrS xGufvmaom uREkfyftm;
rsufpdwqkH; &yfMunfhaeMujcif;udk uREkfyfu vSnfhMunfhojzifh jrifcJU&
ygao;onf/

257 
ukdxGef;&Sdefu tuJcwfykH

txufyg tjzpftysufwGif ausmif;q&mrsm; (ausmif;aebuf


oli,fcsif;rsm;vnf; yg0ifonf/)ESifh ausmif;tkyfBuD; OD;xGef;&SdefwdkU\
trlt&mrsm;ESifhywfoufí uREkfyftzdkU pOf;pm;p&m oifcef;pm,lp&mrsm;
yg&SdonfjzpfaomaMumifh uREkfyf\rSwfwrf;udk 7 ESpfcefUrQ acwfausmfvTm;í
4if;wdkUtaMumif;udk qufvufazmfjyvdkayao;onf/ OD;xGef;&SdefESifh cGJcGmí
xGufvmaomtcsdefürl uRekfyfrSm ]b0ifjrifh}a&m*gt&Sdef &Sdaeao;onf
jzpfaomaMumifh OD;xGef;&Sdef\rsufESmxm;udk vnf;aumif;? ausmif;q&m
rsm;\ rsufESmxm;udkvnf;aumif; uREkfyfowdjyKrdaomfvnf; ]'DvlawG
ighudkawmfawmfvefUoGm;Muonf? tHUMooGm;Muonf? rSwfava&mh[?
ightaMumif;odMuava&mh[} ponfrsm;jzifh udk,fh[mudk,f tvGefauseyf
vmcJUygonf/
OD;xGef;&Sdef\ rsufESmxm;ü uRekfyfudkaumif;pGm em;rvnfonfh
vu©PmrsKd;wcsufwcsufawGU&aomfvnf; uREkfyf\pdwfxJu ]]em;rvnf
r&SdygeJUq&m? 'Dazodef;rS azodef;tppfyg}}[lí tajzay;vsuf &Sd\/
&J&Jwif;wif; oGufoGufvufvuf ajymjcif;rSwyg; uREkfyf\pum;rsm;rSm
trSm;ygonf rqdkEdkifaomaMumifh OD;xGef;&Sdefonf uRekfyf\rsufESmxm;
t"dyÜm,fudk vufcHí þESpfESpfcefUtwGif; onfvlwa,muf onfavmuf
wkd;wufvm&acsoavm[k pOf;pm;jcif;udkyif uREkfyfjrifEdkifonf/ yxrwGif
olUtzdkU jyóemjzpfí aemufqkH;wGif uREkfyftm; txufygtwdkif;vufcHjcif;
udkuREkfyfjrif&onf/ OyrmxdkpOfu bm;rm;u&pfwpf  (Burma  Critic) 

owif;pmt,f'Dwm trIjzpfvsuf&Sd&m 4if;trItaMumif;udk ola&muREkfyfyg

258 
owif;pmwGif vkdufízwfxm;ojzifh aqG;aEG;Mu&mwGif uREkfyfu uREkfyf\
xifjrifcsufudk &J&JBuD; ajymcsvdkufojzifh oltHUtm;oifhoGm;jcif;udk
uREkfyfowdjyKvdkufrdonf/ uREkfyf]b0ifrjrifh}rDu þpdwful;rsKd; &Sdcsif&Sdrnf
jzpfaomfvnf; xdkuJUokdU&J&Jwif;wif;ajym0HUrnfr[kwf? aemifwGif
b0ifjrifhaysmufí uREkfyfajymcJUonfh xifjrifcsufudk jyefvnfokH;oyf
aomtcg ]tom;vGwf}r[kwf? taMumif;tusKd; tquftoG,f
tawmfjynfhpkHjcif;udk awGU&ojzifh udk,fh[mudk,f csD;rGrf;&OD;rnfuJUokdU
awGU&ygonf/

aemufwzef awGUjyefjcif;

1919ckESpf aEG&moD ausmif;ydwf&ufwGif Ak'¨bmom ausmif;q&m


wpkonf &efukefNrdKUokdUa&mufvmMuí uREkfyf&Sdaeaom ol&d,wdkufodkU
0ifvmMuNyD;vQif vGefcJUaom 7ESpfcefUu OD;xGef;&SdefESifh uREkfyfAk'¨bmom
ausmif;ü awGUMuykHtjcif;t&mudk tm;&yg;& csD;usL;ajymqdk Muavonf/
vu©PmrSm uREkfyf\oli,fcsif;rsm;jzpfMuaom xdkausmif;q&m rsm;onf
ausmif;tkyfopf OD;xGef;&Sdef bDattm; tvGefaMumuf&GHUav;pm; aeMu&aom
tcsdef jzpfykH&onf/ (xdktcsdefwGif bDat&Sm;ao;aomacwfjzpf \/)
4if;ausmif;q&mrsm;onf xdkpOfu 6 vcefUrQ uREkfyfü ]b0ifjrifh}aecJU
jcif;udk vkH;0rodMuacs/ olwkdU\rsufpdü 9 wef;rQomatmifí pma&;
wa,mufrQomjzpfaom uREkfyfu olwkdU\emrnfBuD;ausmif;tkyfBuD;udk
&J&Jwif;wif;0ifNyD; t*Fvdyfvdk ]qwf}0HUjcif;twGuf r,kHEdkifavmufatmif
tHUMoMuavonf/

259 
q&mwa,muf/ /]]usKyfwdkUawmh cifAsm;vkyfoGm;vdkufykHudk
oabmusvdkufwmAsm? ckxufxdajymvdkUrqkH;bl;? 0wfxm;vkdufykHuvJ
wu,fhzuf&SifyJ? cifAsm;t*Fvdyfpmawmfwmuawmh usKyfwkdUodygw,f?
EdkUayr,fh [dkaeUuawmh rxpfraigheJU *dkufeJUqdkufeJU [efeJUyefeJU
pum;vkH;ajymifajymifawGa&G;NyD; ajymoGm;vdkufwmrsm; usKyfwkdUjzifh odyf
tm;&wmyJ? OD;xGef;&Sdefuatmufom;udk;As? usKyfwdkUua[m'g rEÅav;om;uG
vdkUawmif atmfvkdufcsifw,f}}
wa,muf/ /]]aeygtkH;As? cifAsm;u oleJUb,fwkef;u
awGUbl;vdkUvJAs}}
uRekfyf/ /]]rif;BuD;eJU e,fvSnfh,if; &efukefqif;oGm;Muwkef;
uygyJ}}
wa,muf/ /]]b,fESpfcgavmuf awGUbl;xm;vdkUvJAsm}}
uREkfyf/ /]]rrsm;vSygbl;? ESpfcgavmufygyJ}}
]]wa,muf/ /]]'geJUrsm;Asm? wu,fh ausmif;aebufoli,fcsif;
usaewmyJ? usKyfwkdUq&mBuD;udk cifAsm;vdkNydKifbufEdkifwJUvl rEÅav;rSm
wa,mufrS ray:vmao;bl;As}}
wa,muf/ /]][kwfw,fAs? cifAsm;vl[dkaeUuEIwfawmfawmfwGefU
w,f? cifAsm;udk rvTrf;Edkifbl;? usKyfwkdU u auseyfvdkufwmAsm}}
(trSefrSm OD;xGef;&Sdefum; vloGufwa,mufjzpfygonf/)
uREkfyfonf ausmif;q&mrsm;tm; w&kwf[dkw,fwckü xrif;weyf
auR;vdkuf&m awmifa&mufajrmufa&mufajym&mrS OD;xGef;&SdefESifh uREkfyf
taMumif;okdU cPcPvSnfhívmMuygao;onf/ uREkfyfonf pmzwfy&dowf
tm; ]b0ifjrifh}cJUbl;jcif;udk azmfxkwfajymjyaomfvnf; ausmif;q&mrsm;
tm;rlum; todray;cJUyg/ 4if;wkdUteuf wa,mufwavrQonf

260 
þpmudkzwf&vQif &,fcsifrnfjzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyf trSwf&oavmufrSm
wa,mufrusef uG,fvGefukefMu&SmavNyD/

OD;xGef;&SdefESifh awGUjyefjcif;

4if;ESpf aemufydkif;avmufwGif OD;xGef;&Sdefonf (]oajyEkcsdef


wif&efqif&ef yef;awGu rsm;vdkufygbdoESifh? azyk&Sdef t*Fvefeef;ajroGm;
wkdUrSmawmh}[lonfh rpöwmarmifrIdif;? ,ck ocifudk,fawmfrIdif;\
av;csKd;BuD;t&) rEÅav;rS &efukefodkUqif;vmí uREkfyfESifh 0dkiftrfbDat
toif;wdkufwGifwaeUawGUMu\/ olonf uREkfyftm; a&S;utwkdif;
vIdufvSJpGm awGUqkHí pum;ajymMuav&m (uREkfyfrSm ]b0ifjrifh}aysmufaeNyD
jzpfí uREkfyf\trlt&majymif;vJjcif;udk rnfodkUavenf;[k tuJcwf\/)
uREfkyfrSm Ak'¨bmomausmif;ü awGUpOfuuJUokdU &J&J0HU0HUr&SdyJ
cyfwGefUwGefUjzpfaeonf[k olxifykH&\/
xdktcsdefwGif uREkfyf\q&morm;ozG,fjzpfaom OD;bazESifh olonf
wef;wljzpfaeí uREkfyfu atmufusvsuf&SdaomaMumifh wGefUonf[k
olu,lqoavm rajymwwfay/ trSefrSm uREkfyfü ]b0ifjrifh}aysmufNyD;
]ykHrSef}twdkif; jzpfaeaomaMumifhrQom jzpfygonf/ OD;xGef;&Sdefonf uREkfyfESifh
ta&mw0ifjzpfatmif BudK;pm;ao;aomfvnf; uREkfyfü wGefUqkwfrI&Sdjcif;udk
oljrifonfESifh aemufqkH;wGifvufavQmhvdkufygavawmhonf/

261 
jyefajymif;awG;ac:csufrsm;

xdknOhfü uREkfyfonf udkxGef;&SdefESifhjzpfap? tcsKdUvlrsm;ESifhjzpfap


awGUqkHqufqH&mrsm;wGif ]OD;acgif;vQLd;}rdwwfjcif;udk udk,fh[mudkodí
rausreyf&SdonfESifh rdrd\woufwm aemufaMumif;udk jyefajymif;qifjcif
okH;oyfrdygawmhonf/ rnfodkUaom vlpm;rsKd;tay:ü uREkfyf ]OD;acgif;vQLd;}
wwfygoenf;[k ppfaq;vkdufonfhtcg ydkufqH&Sdolrsm;vnf; r[kwf?
&mxl;BuD;rsm;vnf; r[kwfao;/ A[kokw jynfhpkHvSygonf qdkolrsm;vnf;
r[kwfao;/ OmPfaumif;olrsm;vnf; r[kwfao;/ &efukefaumvdyfü
ynmoifcJUí bDatatmifcJUMuolrsm; jzpfonf[k ppfxkwfEdkifcJUygonf/
]]&efukefaumvdyfü ynmoifcJUí bDatatmifolrsm;}}[laom pum;udk
oD;jcm;cGJxkwf azmfjyvdkufjcif;udk owdjyKMuapvdk\/ &efukefü xdkacwfu
&efukefaumvdyf? *syfqifaumvdyf[lí ESpfausmif; &SdcJUbl;&m uREkfyfonf
*sifqifausmif;xGuf bDatxuf &efukefaumvdyfbDatrsm;udk ydkí
]OD;acgif;vQLd;}rd\/ aumvdyfodkUra&mufbl;yJ tvGwfynmoif tjzpfESifh
bDatatmifMuonfh oli,fcsif;rsm;vnf; &SdMuyg\/ uREkfyfonf
4if;wkdUtm; ]OD;acgif;vQLd;}jcif;udk rawGU&yg/ okdUqdkvQif oluawmh
&efukefaumvdyf ausmif;xGufjzpfí ]OD;acgif;vQLd;}&rnf? oluawmh
tvGwfynmoif tjzpfESifh atmifaombDatjzpfaomaMumifh ]OD;acgif;vQLd;}
p&m rvdk[lí wrifwum wGufudef;ESifh jyKvkyfjcif;um; r[kwf&yg/
uREkfyf\rsufpdü vlykHvlyef;ESifh [efyeftaetxm; uGmjcm;jcif;udk awGU&í 
(Unconsciously)  tvdktavsmuf wGefUrdjcif;rQom jzpfygonf/

262 
aumvdyfcsif; uGmjcm;ykH

þtaMumif;udk xif&Sm;ap&ef udk,fawGUtjzpftysufwckudk azmfjy


yg&ap/ rif;BuD;\awmvdkufpma&;tjzpfESifh &efukefokdU qif;oGm;pOf
a&Twd*kHbk&m; ajc&if;wGif bkef;BuD;ysH tBuD;tus,fwck&Sd&m xdknOfhwGif
uREkfyfonf *syfqifaumvdyfausmif;om; oli,fcsif;rsm;jzpfonfh armif&D?
udkzl;ndKwdkUESifh twlbkef;BuD;ysHokdUoGm;\/ yJGxJwGif udk0ifharmf? udkuGef;?
udkxGef;&SdefwdkU vlpkESifhqkHrdMu\/ 4if;wdkUonf &efukefaumvdyf
ausmif;om;rsm; jzpfMuav&m udk0ifharmfrSm uREkfyfwdkUvlpkESifhtwl rEÅav;
atbDtrfausmif;xGufjzpf\/ udk0ifharmfrSwyg; 4if;wkdUtm;vkH;rSm bDat
qDeD,m twef;om;rsm;jzpfMuavonf/ uREkfyfrSmrl udkuGef;? udkxGef;&SdefwkdU
ESifh awUGbl;NyD; jzpfMuí rdwfquf&efrvdkyJ udk0ifharmfu *syfqif
ausmif;om;rsm;jzpfMuonfh armif&DESifh udkzl;ndKwdkUtm; udkuGef;? udkxGef;&Sdef
wkdUESifhrdwfqufay;\/ xdkESpfa,muf teufwGif udkuGef;onf pwdkiform;
wa,muf jzpfav&m bDattwef;om;csif; wlaomfvnf; *syfqif
ausmif;om;rsm; jzpfonfh armif&DESifhudkzl;ndKwkdUtm;  (Patronising  airs) 

,Of,Ofaus;aus; uav;ESifhtxufpD;oHrsKd;jzifh pum;ajymavonf/


(OD;baz 0efBuD;jzpfpOfu ol\owif;pm uGefz&ifhokdU wufMuolrsm;
teufwGif 'D;'kwfOD;bcsKdESifh uREkfyfyg0ifav&m uGefz&ifhNyD;í ESpfa,mufom;
vefjcm;ESifh jyefvmMu&mwGif OD;bcsKduuREkfyftm; 4if;tcsKd;rsKd;vkyfonfESifh
uREkfyfurcHcsifaMumif; jyvdkufojzifhOD;bcsKdwefUíoGm;bl;onf/ cifrifrIum;
avsmhyg;avNyD/ okdUaomf uRekfyf*&krpdkufacs/) ausmif;om;csif; rdwfqufay;
NyD;aemuf twlavQmufMuzdkU udk0ifharmfu ac:&mwGif uRekfyfonf udkuGef;\
]ESdrfayguf}uav;rsm;udk rBudKufaomfvnf; (uRekfyfudkr[kwf? *syfqif

263 
ausmif;om;rsm;udk &nf&G,fonf/) rEÅav;om;csif;jzpfaom udk0ifharmfudk
tm;emonfESifh cyfwGefUwGefUjzpfaeonfh *syfqifausmif;om; ESpfa,muftm;
uREkfyfuwdkufwGef;um twlavQmufMuav\/ armif&DrSm pifppftm;jzifh
vlnHUwa,muf r[kwf? tvGefoGufvufol jzpfonf/ okdU&mwGif
&efukefaumvdyf ausmif;om;ESpfa,mufESifh qkHrduwnf;u EIwfqdwfoGm;NyD;
]]qifjzLrsufESm qifrJ rMunfh0HU}}qdkaom pum;ykHtwdkif; ZufusKd;rwwf
jzpfaeavNyD/ e*dkurS cyf&dk;&dk;&Sdaom udkzl;ndKrlum; ajymzG,f&m r&Sdawmhay/
þtawmtwGif;ü udkuGef;onf udkxGef;&Sdeftm; ,cifuJUodkU
t*Fvdyfvdk rajym? ygVdvdkcsnf;ajymavawmhonf/ (*syfqif aumvdyfwGif
ygVdroif? avm*spfomoif\/) {nfhcHr@yfrsm;teD;odkU csOf;uyf&mwGifvnf;
[dku udkuGef;? 'DuudkxGef;&Sdef ponfjzifh [pfatmfac:iifMu&m bDataygif;
t0ga&mif aoG;wlarG;wl qifxm;Muaom þvlESpfa,mufrSm acgif;aygif;p
uav;awGwvlvlESifh ajcaxmufuav;awG ajrmufawmuf ajrmufawmuf
jzpfaeMujcif;udk uREkfyfjrifrdonf/ {nfhcHr@yf wckESpfckwGif
olwdkUESifhtwl0ifí csKdyJG csOfyJGrsm; pm;aomufM uNyD;aemuf (*syfqifaumvdyf
ausmif;om; ESpfa,mufum; vufzsm;ESifhrQ rwdkU&SmMuacs/) uREkfyfonf
tajctaeudk oabmrusyJ þvlESpfa,mufudk oem;onfESifh wwd,
r@yfodkU0ifrnftjyKwGif uREkfyfuyifEIwfqufí cGJxGufvmMuygawmhonf/
(1914 ckESpfuvnf; uREkfyfonf a&eHacsmif;rS &efukefodkUoabFmjzifhvdkufyg
&mwGif &efukefaumvdyfrS bDatatmifNyD;ol wa,mufESifh *syfqifaumvdyfrS
bDatwa,mufonf uREkfyfESifhtwl c&D;onftjzpf ygvmMuí
tvm;wltjzpfrsKd; cyfqifqifBuKH&bl;&m tao;pdwfazmfjy&ef rvdkawmhyg/)
uREkfyfqdkvdkjcif;rSm xdkacwfü &efukefaumvdyfausmif;xGuf onf
*syfqifaumvdyfausmif;xGufxuf (ynmwwf rwwf tyxm;í)

264 
OD;acgif;axmifjcif;udk awGU&onf/ OD;acgif;axmifjcif;onf (yvTm;jcif;udk
rqdkvdk) ]OD;acgif;vQLd;}jcif;xuf BuD;yGm;a&;twGuf taxmuftyHUjzpfjcif;udk
uREkfyfawGU&onf/

uREkfyf\csKdUiJUcsuf

OD;xGef;&SdefESifh 0dkiftrfbDatwGif awGUcJU&aomnü uREkfyfonf rdrd\


]OD;acgif;vQLd;}jcif;udk qifjcifokH;oyfaomtcg igonf olwkdUvdkajymwwf
onf? olwkdUvdka&;wwfonf? olwkdUvdk0wfwwfonf? olwkdUvdk A[kokw
&Sdonf/ okdUygvsuf tb,fhaMumifh ]&GHU&oenf;}[k ppfaq;vdkufonfwGif
tajzxGufvm\/ tajzum; olwdkUuJUodkU bDatatmifvufrSwf
r&SdaomaMumifhr[kwf/ olwkdUuJUodkU &efukefaumvdyf ausmif;ü raecJU&
aomaMumifhjzpfonf[k oabmaygufvmygawmhonf/ xdkuJUokdU oabm
aygufvm&jcif;rSmvnf; a&Twd*kH bk&m;ajc&if; bkef;BuD;ysHü armif&DwdkUvlpkESifh
OD;xGef;&SdefwdkUvl[k qkHrdMujcif;udk pOf;pm;rdaomaMumifh jzpfavonf/
*syfqifaumvdyfaebl;olrsm;u &efukefaumvdyf raebl;olrsm;tm;
]OD;acgif;vQLd;}onf qdkvQif rnfonfh aumvdyfrS raebl;ol wa,mufonf
(rdkuf&l;&Jrsm;rSwyg;) ]OD;acgif;vQLd;} Mu&rnfrSm "r®wmwckozG,f
uREkfyfjrifvmygonf/ þwGifuREkfyfonf aumvdyfausmif; raecJU&bl;
onfhtwGuf yxrtBudrf 0rf;enf;&aumif;rSef; odvmygawmhonf/

265 
a&S;aumvdyfESifh acwfwuúodkvf

tu,fí uREkfyfonf aumvdyfausmif;ü av;ESpfcefUaecJU&bl;onf


qdkygpdkU/ (uREkfyfqnf;yl;xm;cJUonfh A[kokwrsm;udk axmufxm;aomtm;
jzifh) ,ckxufydkNyD; wwfaumif;rS wwfayvdrfhrnf/ (þtaMumif;udk
armif&DESifh udk0ifharmfwdkUuvnf; xkwfazmf0efcHNyD;jzpf&m udk0ifharmfurl ol\
txuft&m&SdxHodkU wifydkU&rnfh ta&;BuD;aom pmrsKd;udk uREkfyftm;yif
a&;cdkif;bl;ygonf/) okdUjzpfvQifaumvdyfausmif; aebl;jcif;tm;jzifh uREkfyf
tzdkU rnfodkUaom tusKd;aus;Zl;xl;xl;jcm;jcm; jzpfay:EdkifzG,f&m &Sdyg
oenf;/ &Sdonf? trsm;BuD;&Sdonf[k uREkfyfoabmaygufvmonf/ uREkfyf\
vuf&SdcsKdUiJUcsufrSm aumvdyfausmif;\ ]av}  (Atmosphere)  udk
av;ESpfavmuf r&SLcJU&jcif;yif jzpfavonf/ xdkUaMumifhvnf;
oufwl&G,fwl bDatrsm;ESifh ,SOfvdkufvQif uREkfyfOD;acgif;vQLd;rdjcif; jzpf\/
igonf olwkdUuJUokdU aumvdyfü raecJU&í nHUonf[k udk,fh[mudk,f
owd&aeaomaMumifh r[kwf? aumvdyf ]av} (ywf0ef;usif)ESifh rxdawGUcJU
&onfh twGufaMumifh ajyajyjypfjypf [efyefrsKd;  (Easy  Manners)  r&SdyJ
]cyfaxmifhaxmifh} jzpfae&jcif;udk qdkvdkonf/ aumvdyfausmif;ü
av;ESpfaebl;aom vlwdkif;onf ajyajyjypfjypf jzpfvmawmhonf[k
qdkvdkjcif;um;r[kwf? okdUaomf rae&rDuxuf wkd;wufvmjcif;&Sdonfudk
uREkfyfBudrfzefrsm;pGm avhvmawGU&Sd&onf/
þtaMumif;udkodvQif udk,fhudk,fudk jyKjyif,lEdkifonf r[kwfygavm
[k ar;zG,f&m&Sd\/ rjzpfEdkif[k uREkfyfu tajzay;vdkonf/ Oyrm
aq;&nfrpdrfcJU&aom om;a&pdrf;onf b,fawmhrS El;El;eyfeyfr&SdyJ

266 
uRyfqwfqwf jzpf&rnfuJUodkUyif aumvdyfausmif;\ taqmufttkHonf
vnf;aumif;? jrufcif;ESifhwuG ajr,muGufvyfrsm;onfvnf;aumif;?
q&mrsm;\ trlt&monfvnf;aumif;? atmufwef;ausmif;om;rsm;xuf
(tenf;ESifhtrsm;) oyfoyf&yf&yf &Sdoltcsif;tcsif; qufqHMu&jcif;onf
vnf;aumif;? rdrdwdkUwawGonf omreft&yfom;rsm;xufomonf[laom
pdwfxm;rsKd; tcgcyfodrf;&SdaeMujcif;onfvnf;aumif; i,f&G,folrsm;tzdkU
&mü pdwfBuD;0ifjcif; (aumif;aom t"dyÜm,fESifhokH;onf/) jzpfapEdkifonf[k
uREkfyf,kHMunfonf/ (þacwf wuúodkvf ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;onf
]aomauma&maum} jzpfaeaomaMumifh OD;xGef;&SdefESifh OD;uGef;uJUodkUaom
a&S;&efukefaumvdyfausmif;om;rsm;vdk þudpöwGif rrSDawmhyJ &Sdcsif&Sdrnf/
odkU&mwGif omreft&yfolt&yfom;rsm;xufrlum; omvsufyif&Sdonfudk
uREkfyfawGU&onf/) uREkfyftzdkU&mü þcsKdUiJUcsufaMumifh ]OD;acgif;vQLd;}
csifaompdwf"mwf  (Inferiority  Complex)  0ifvmonf[k qdkvdkygonf/
OD;acgif;rvQLd;yJ OD;acgif;axmifjcif;onf [efBuD;yefBuD;vkyf jcif;ESifh
ra&maxG;apzdkU owdjyKapvdkonf/ [efBuD;yefBuD; vkyfjcif;onf raumif;?
OD;acgif;axmifjcif;onf aumif;onf[k qdkvdkygonf/

om"kac:&jcif;

xdknwGifrS uREkfyfonf rnfonfhenf;ESifhrQ jyefí r&Edkifawmhonfh


tcGifhta&; qkH;&IH;rIudkvIdufvSJpGm ESajrmrdygawmhonf/ okdUaomf aumvdyf
ausmif; raeEdkifjcif;rSm uREkfyf\tjypfr[kwf? twdwfuH\ nHUzsif;rI
jzpfonf[k qkH;jzwfvkdufojzifh 0rf;enf;avmufatmif r&Sdyg/ twdwfuHudk
csNyD; 0rf;enf;jcif;onf uREkfyf\0goemr[kwfyg/ xdkUaMumifhvnf;

267 
uREkfyfonf tjcm;vlrsm;xufvlvm;ajrmufuwnf;u pdwfqif;&JrI
enf;cJUygonf/ awG;NyD;aqG;jcif;[lí tvGefenf;jcif;udkqdkvdkyg onf/
xdkpOfu uRekfyfonf 'kwd,tdrfaxmifESifh om;uav;wa,muf &cJUNyDjzpf&m?
4if;udkrnfonfhenf;rqdkwuúodkvfodkU ydkUjzpfatmifydkUNyD; 4if;\
wdk;wufrIrsm;udk apmifhMunfhavhvmrnf[líyif qkH;jzwfcJU\/ odkU&mwGif
uREkfyf\tdrfaxmifa&;tqifrajyrIaMumifh om;uav;rSm 10wef;ESifh
tvkyfvkyf&NyD; (1956 ckESpfwGif zqyvtpdk;&u uREkfyftm;
axmifxJydkUxm;pOf) b0Zmwfodrf;oGm;&SmavNyD/ þacwfüwuúodkvfwGif
av;ESpfrQ aecGifh&Muaom ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; (twef;atmifonf
jzpfap ratmifonfjzpfap) uREkfyfwkdUom;tzxuf uHxl;cRefMuygayonf[k
om"kac:vkduf&ygonf/

uREkfyf\tm;udk;

OD;xGef;&SdefESifhrawGUrD txufygtaMumif;rsm;udk rpOf;pm;&ao;


aomtcgurlum; igBudK;pm;vQifomEdkifonf? tenf;qkH; wlEdkifonf/ ighü
olwyg;xuf rnHUaom OmPf&Sdonfponfjzifh txifa&mufcJU\/
csmvfpf'pfuif;\ arQmfwvifhvifh  (Great Expectations)  0w¦KBuD;üypfyfonf
yef;yJorm;vifr,m;ESifh BuD;jyif;cJU&í cyfi,fi,fuyif ynmoifay;NyD; 
(Gentleman)  vlukHxH twef;tpm;jzpfatmif oGefoifay;cJU&m
txdkuftavsmuf xajrmufatmif jrifyg\/ odkUaomf i,f&G,fEke,fpOf
uwnf;u oGefoifay;jcif; jzpfvsufESifhvnf; wuúodkvfausmif;xGuf
wa,mufudk rrSDEdkifaMumif;awGU&onf/ wuúodkvfausmif;BuD;rsm;onf
vli,frsm;\ trlt&mESifh pdwfaeoabmxm;udk jyKjyifcGifh trsm;qkH;&aom

268 
XmeBuD;rsm; jzpfMuonfhtavsmuf  (Good  Breeding)  \wefzdk;udk
em;vnfatmif vkyfMuNyD;vQif ausmif;ol ausmif;om;wkdUtm; udk,fpDukd,fiS
trsm;qkH; cH,l&&SdMuzdkUwdkufwGef;vkduf&onf/ uRekfyftzdkU&mürlum; txuf
ygenf;twdkif; oabmaygufvmojzifh rdrdESifhrqdkifaMumif; em;vnfaom
tcsdefrSpí vlrIqufqHa&; qdkif&mwGifajymifajrmufzdkU rBudK;pm;awmhyJ
pdwful;OmPfESifh uavmifudkom tm;udk;&ygawmhonf/

ESrwa,muftaMumif;

þae&mü uRekfyf\arG;aygufazmfrsm; taMumif;udk nSyfí


azmfjy&ayOD; rnf/ armifESr &Spfa,mufarG;onfhteuf ig;a,mufrSm
i,fpOfuyif aoqkH;Muí ESrwa,mufESifh nDwa,mufrQom BuD;jyif;atmif
touf&SifMu\/ uREkfyf\rSwfwrf;tpavmufü ESruav;tm; tvGef
Muifemí olUtwGufaMumifhyif rdcifzcifrsm;tay:wGif tjypfwifcsifaom
pdwfrsKd;jzpfay:cJUbl;aMumif;a&;om;azmfjycJUbl;&m t&G,fra&mufwa&muf
tcsdefrSpí wOD;ESifhwOD; cyfat;at;jzpfoGm;cJUMu& ygawmhonf/
þodkUjzpf&jcif;rSm jrefrmvlrsKd; armifESifhESrwkdU\ aexkdifMuykH xkH;pHaMumifh
jzpfonf[k uRekfyfjrifrd\/ rsm;pGmaom jrefrmvlrsKd;wkdU\xkH;pHrSm armifESifh
ESrqdkvQif tysKdvlysKdt&G,fodkU a&mufMuaomtcsdefrSpí ta&mw0if
raeMuawmhyJ cyfrSefrSef cyfwe;fwef; aewwfMuonfh tpOftvm&S\
d /
wOD;\tcuftcJuav;rsm;? jyóemav;rsm;udk wOD;tm; wifjyum
aqG;aEG;wdkifyifMuzdkU a0;pG? ta&mw0ifyif raeMuawmhyJ rajymrNyD;aom
pum;rQavmufom ajymMuqdkMu avawmhonf/ þxkH;pH\ aumif;jcif;
qdk;jcif;udk uREkfyfra0zefvdk/ okdU&mwGif wa,mufESifhwa,muf &if;ESD;rI

269 
avsmhyg;jcif;um;trSefjzpf\/ &if;ESD;rIenf;yg;vQif cifrifrI avsmhyg;jcif;
onf t&dyfozG,fvdkufvm&wwfygonf/ wOD;ESifhwOD; rMumcP pum;
ajymcGifh&í jyóemuav;rsm;udk tjyeftvSef aqG;aEG;wdkifyifcGifh&jcif;
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270 
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271 
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272 
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yifjzpfavonf/

273 
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274 
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275 
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ajym&ef owd&ygonf/ okdUESifhvnf; ,kwfpGtqkH; awmwufMuaom

276 
tcgrsm;wGif 0,frdatmif 0,fcJUygao;onf/ uREkfyfonf a,mufzaumif;
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ausmfvTm;íroGm;yJ [kwfrSefonfhtwdkif; azmfjyygawmhrnf/

277 
]aAGaAmuf}&awmhrnf

a&eHacsmif;rS jyefa&mufvmMuaomtcgü yxruREkfyfwdkU ZeD;armifESH


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orD;a,mufzonf tvGwftvyfjzpfaomrdef;rESifh ta&m0ifonfxuf
0ifvmMuavNyD/ a,mufztwGuf trSefrod&aomfvnf; uRekfyftzkdUrSmrl
¤if;rdef;rtay:ü ]pdwfuGuf}jcif;r&SdyJ &dk;&dk;wef;wef; cifrifrdjcif;jzpfygonf/

278 
okdU&wGif a,mufsm;ESifhrdef;r ta&mw0ifqufqHaom xkH;pHr&Sdonfh
jrefrmvlrsKd;jzpfonfhtavsmuf uRekfyf\ZeD;onf uREkfyftay:üvnf;aumif;?
a,mufaz\ZeD;onf a,mufaztay:üvnf;aumif; ouFmruif;&Sdonfh
trlt&mrsKd;udk uREkfyf&dyfrdpjyKavNyD/ rdef;rvdkufzdkU 0goemvnf;r&Sd?
vdkufvnf;rvkdufcJU bl;aom uRekfyfonf ZeD;\rsufESmxm; ajymif;vJjcif;udk
&dyfrdí cyfwGefUwGefU jzpfoGm;cJUygonf/ tu,fí uREkfyfu taysmfvdkuf
csifOD;awmh a,mufzESifh tvkt,uf BuHpnfrnfr[kwf[kajym&vQif
trSeftwdkif; azmfjyjcif;rQom jzpfygonf/

qlyljcif;cH&ykH

uREkfyf\ZeD;onf t0g;r0&Smaom rdef;rwa,mufjzpf\/ uREkfyfu


{nfhonfrdef;rESifhywfoufí cyfwGefUwGefUjzpfoGm;jcif;udk ol&dyfrdaomfvnf;
y&d,m,f [efaqmifjcif;jzpfonf[k t"dyÜm,faumuf,l\/ waeUoü
uREkfyfwdkUvlpkonf aysmfyGJpm;xGufMuí a&qdyfwckwGif a&ul;vsuf&SdMu&m
uREkfyfwdkUteD;wGif avmif;avSuav;wpif;onf arsmvsuf&Sd\/ uREkfyfwkdU
onf avSuav;ay:okdU wufMuaomtcg tjcm;vlrsm; wwfEdkifaomfvnf;
{nfhonfrdef;rrSm rwwfEdkifyJ 0rf;vsm;xdk;vdkuf? vefusvdkufjzpfae\/
þwGif uREkfyfonf teD;okdUcsOf;uyfí ]&if&Sm;}xm;aom vkHcsnftxufqifh
udkausmbufrSudkifum avSay:odkU ajrSmufwifay;vkdufav\/ xdkUaemuf
ZeD;\rsufESmokdU vSr;fMunfhvdkuf&m tvGefrausrcsrf;jzpfaeaom trlt&m
udkjrifvkduf&\/ ¤if;\txifrSm uREkfyfESifh{nfhonfrdef;ronf tawmf
em;vnfrI &SdaeMuNyD[k ,lq[ef&Sd\/ xkdnOfhü ZeD;onf uREkfyftm;
trsKd;rsKd;emvdkcHcufajymavawmh\/ ZeD;u {nfhonfrdef;ronf uREkfyfuJUokdU

279 
aom tvkyfvufrJUwa,mufudk ta&;vkyfrnfr[kwfaMumif;? ol\armifBuD;
tifpydwfawmfudk ]jzKwf}&atmif vmjcif;jzpfaMumif;? tvkyftudkfif
r&SdyJvsufESifh ]ursif;ausmx}csifonfh twGuf tvGefESvkH;emvSaMumif;?
rdef;rudk uREkfyfub,fvdkyifydk;yef;aomf vnf; tzufvkyfvdrfhrnf r[kwf
aMumi;f? &atmifydk;EdkifvQif q,fjyef,loGm;apvdkaMumif; ponfrsm;jzifh
&Snfvsm;pGm qlylygawmhonf/ uREkfyfonf udk,fhtdrfwGif udk,fhtvkyftudkif
ESifh aeEdkifaomtcgrsKd;ü þuJUokdUqlyljcif;cH&ygu xí ]wD;}vdkfufvdrfh
rnfjzpfonf/ ,ckrlolUarmifBuD; \tdrfürSDcdkuyf&yfae&pOf wrifwum
]ESSdrfvkH;}rsKd;ajymonf[k pdwfemonf waMumif;? tvkyfvufrJUwa,mufudk
tzufvkyfvdrfhrnfr[kwfqdkjcif;onf vnf; uREkfyf\rme  (Vanity) 

udkxdcdkufonfwaMumif;aMumifh wpkHw&m jyefrajymyJ xdkrdef;rudk


&atmif,lrnf[k qkH;jzwfcsufcsvdkufav\/

xGufajy;Mujcif;

&dk;&dk;om;om;azmfjy&vQif uREkfyfonf xdkrdef;r\pdwfxm;udk ,cifu


av;av;eufeuftuJcwfrdjcif; r&Sdaomfvnf; xdknOfhürl ¤if;\rsufESmxm;
ESifh pum;rsm;udk jyefvnfazmfxkwfokH;oyf&mwGif jzpfEdkifavmufonf[k
xifjrifvm\/ ¤if;xifjrifcsufonf rrSm;acs/ aemufwaeUnü0w¦KajymNyD;í
tdyf&modkU 0ifMuNyD;aemuf oef;acgifausmfaom tcsdefwGif uREkfyfESifh
{nfhonfrdef;rwkdUonf tdyf&mxJü 0wfaom t0wfrsm;ESifh tdrfay:rS
qif;vmcJUMuav\/ yxrü tdrfaemufaz;wGif wdkifyif&efrQom BuH&G,fMu
aomfvnf; rsm;rMumrDtwGif;ü yif tdrfay:rS vufEdSyf"mwfrD;rsm;ESifh
qif;vmMujcif;udk jrifojzifh aemufaz;0if;x&HrS wkd;vQKd;um NcHBuD;rsm;xJü

280 
ajcOD;vSnfh&m avQmufvmMu av\/ uREkyfwkdUonf b,fodkUoGm;rnf[lí
BuH&G,fcsufr&Sd? tdrfrSa0;vQif NyD;a&mqdkonfh oabmESifhtdrfudkausmcdkif;um
arSmifrdkufBuD;xJwGif vufwGJvsuf avQmufoGm;Muav\/ aemufwaeU
eHeufwGif olUüygvmaom ydkufqHuav;jzifh &efukefodkU ul;wdkUoabFmESifh
vdkufMuí 0ufvufodkUrD;&xm;jzifh vdkufygvmcJUav\/ þonfrSm
uREkfyf\ 'kwd,tdrfaxmifjzpfavonf/

pmayavh vmcJUykH

1915 ckESpfwGif uREkfyfonf 0ufvufü rdbrsm;ESifhtwl aexdkifí


t*Fvdyf0w¦Krsm;ESifhtjcm; t*Fvdyfpmayrsm;udk trsm;qkH;zwf&IavhvmcJUyg
onf/ Classics  uavqpfufpf ac: pHwifxm;Muonfh t*Fvdyf0w¦KBuD;rsm;
udk,cifuwnf;u w&mausmfcefUrQ zwfxm;NyD;NyDjzpf&m xdktcsdefürl
abuGef rauúmav;? &wfpfuif? umvdkif;vftp&Sdonfh pma&;q&mBuD;rsm;\
(0w¦Kr[kwfaom) pmay rsm;udk &SmazGzwf&IavhvmcJUygonf/ urÇmausmf
pma&;q&mBuD;rsm;teuf 0guswnfaqmufykHESifha&;[efwGif rauúmav;udk
uREkfyftESpfoufqkH;jzpfí ¤if;yk*¾dKvfBuD;\ ygvDrefrdefUcGef;rsm;? pma&;q&m
ESifh pmtkyfa0zefcsufrsm;? &mZ0if pmtkyfrsm;omru vuFmBuD;rsm;udkyif
wwfEdkifoavmuf&atmif &SmazGí ukefvkrwwf zwf&IcJU\/ rauúmav;\
pmtkyfrsm;udkrl awmufavQmufzwf&I&kHr[kwfyJ pum;tokH;tEIef;ESifh 0gus
wnfaqmufykHwdkUudkyg avhvm\/ þpma&;q&mBuD;\a&;[ef  (Style) 

udkuREkfyfrnfrQavmuf ESpfoufoabmusygoenf;[lrl tcsKdUaom


pmydkf'frsm;onf uREkfyftm; ausmxJü pdrfhueJjzpfí MuufoD;arG;nSif;
xonftxd jzpfapcJU\/ xdkodkUaom pmydk'frsKd;udk uREkfyfonf pmtkyfwGif

281 
cJwHjzifh jcpfrSwfxm;NyD; tm;vyfaomtcsdefrsm;wGif tm*kHaqmifEdkifonf
wdkifatmifusufrSwfxm;\/ rauúmav;uolonf vuFmq&mBuD; rDvfwef 
(Milton)  \ ]aumif;uifbkHrSavQmusjcif;}  (Paradise Lost)  ac: vuFmBuD;udk
tm*kHaqmifEdkifaMumif;? xdkuJUodkU tm*kHaqmifEdkifjcif;rSmvnf; wrifwum
usufrSwfxm;jcif;r[kwf/ oabmusvGef;í tBudrfBudrf txyfxyfzwfxm;
aomaMumifhom jzpfaMumif;a&;om;bl;\/ uREkfyfuvnf; rauúmav;\
tuf'DqiftaMumif; pmwrf;BuD;rsm;udk &GwfqdkjyEdkifonftxd aususufcJU
bl;yg\/ xkduJUodkU &GwfjyEdkifjcif;rSmvnf; wrifwum usufrSwfxm;
aomaMumifh jzpfygonf/ (1912 ckESpfOD;wGif bDatwef;üoifvsuf&Sdoaom
armif&DESifhawGUpOf rauúmav;\ tuf'Dqif taMumif;pmrSm bDattwef;
pmjzpfonfhtavsmuf aqG;aEG;Mu,if; uRekfyfu tcsKdUpmydk'frsm;udk
&Gwfjyvdkuf&m armif&DrSm tBuD;tus,frsufvkH; jyL;oGm;bl;\/ þonfrSm
pmorm;wa,muf\ t&omaywnf;/ uRekfyfonf tjcm;vlwa,mufxuf
<um;csifwwfonf  (Vain)  rxifyg/ okdU&mwGif xdkae&mü oli,fcsif;
armif&Dtm; rsufvkH;jyL;atmifvkyfEdkifvdkuf jcif;rSm t0wfwpkH&jcif;xuf
0rf;omrdygonf/ þtjcif;t&mudk pmorm; r[kwfolrsm; em;vnfaumif;rS
vnfMuayrnf/

jrefrmESifht*Fvdyfpm

1915 ckESpfü uREkfyf\pmzwfoufrSm (ausmif;om;b0udk csefvSyfí)


ckESpfESpfausmfcJUygavNyD/ xdktcsdefwGif &G,fwlvQif uREkfyfxufydkí
pmzwfxm;ol r&Sd[kyif rSwfxifcJUyg\/ okdUaomf uREkfyfzwfaom
pmayrsm;rSm t*Fvdyfpm oufoufjzpfí jrefrmbufrS enf;yg;vSonf/

282 
waeUoü uREkfyf\zcifu jrefrmpmbufwGifvnf; avhvmzdkUoifh
aMumif; owday;onfESifh udk;cef;ysKdU? rCa'0? ZmwfBuD;q,fzJGU
ponfrsm;udkvnf;aumif;? £E´m0Ho? 0dZ,um&D paom0w¦Krsm;udk
vnf;aumif; zwf&Iyg\/ odkUaomf uREkfyftzdkUrSm (tusifhygvsuf
&SdaomaMumifhayavmrajymwwf) jrefrmbmom pum;xuf t*Fvdyfbmom
pum;udkydkít&om cHwwfvsuf &SdonfjzpfaomaMumifh t*Fvdyfbmom
pmtkyfrsm;bufodkU jyefa&mufoGm;awmhonf/ pifppfrSmvnf; jrefrmpmtkyf
rsm;onf avmukw¦&mbufüom rsm;jym;í avmuDbufwGif tvGefenf;yg;
ao;\/ avmukw¦&m pmayrsm;onfyif þacwfü wdyd#u tm*kHaqmif
yk*K¾d vfrsm; ay:xGufvsuf &SdaomaMumifh rrsm;vSaMumif; awGU&avNyD/
t*Fvdyfbmom pmtkyfrsm;rlum; toufw&m ae&aom vlom;rsKd;omru
urÇmcsifhatmif ae&aom trsKd;tpm; jzpfapumrl tm*kHrqdkxm;bd
ukefatmif zwf&IzkdUyif wwfEdkifvdrfhrnfr[kwfay/

0w¦Ka&;zdkUqkH;jzwfjcif;

0ufvufodkU 'kwd,tdrfaxmifESifh a&mufvmMuuwnf;u uREkfyfonf


jrefrmpmoifausmif;wnfaxmifonfh nDtm; t*Fvdyfpm oifjyay;jcif;?
ol\ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;tm; *Pef;ocsFmoifjyay; jcif;tm;jzifh
vnf;aumif;? uREkfyf\ZeD;u rdcif\aps;qdkifwGif ulnDa&mif;csay;jcif;?
xrif;[if; csufjyKwfjcif;tm;jzifh vnf;aumif; udk,fh0rf;pmtwGuf toD;oD;
ausyGefatmif tvkyfvkyfMuaomaMumifh uRekfyfwdkU vifr,m;twGuf
wm0efrwufvSay/ odkU&mwGif wnoürlum; r,m;ESifhnDwdkUtm;
0w¦Kwyk'fajymí NyD;qkH;aomtcgwGif ¤if;wkdUESpfa,mufu þrQavmuf

283 
0w¦KawGzwfxm;aom uREkfyfonf udk,fpdwful;jzifh 0w¦Kwyk'f jzpfatmif
zefwD;a&;om;&ef rjzpfEdkifoavm[k ajymMuavonf/ xdkpOftcgurl
tdrfa&SUrdzk&m;\ £E´m0HoESifh 0dZ,um&D 0w¦Krsm;? 0efpma&;\
armifrif;ausmf? csOfaygif&Gufonf armifrIdif;paom 0w¦Krsm;?
(rEÅav;armifcifarmif trnfESifh) v,fwDy@dwOD;armifBuD; a&;onfh
cifjrifhBuD; 0w¦Krsm;tjyif zwfp&m0w¦K [kwÅdywÅdr&Sdjcif;udk uREkfyfod\/
txufyg0w¦Kpmtkyfrsm;rSmvnf; &nf;pm;wa,mufNyD;wa,muf xm;onfh
vlysKdvSnfhcef;rsm;xufrydkjcif;udkvnf; uRekfyfod\/ okdUjzpfí vlUobm0udk
tao;pdwf wifjyonfh 0w¦KrsKd;  (Novel)  r[kwfyJ cspfcef;? BudKufcef;?
pGefUpm;cef;rSpí tonf;wkef tlwkefjzpfapavmufonfh tjzpftysufrsm;
yg0ifaom0w¦KrsKd;  (Story)  a&;om;&vQif rdrdvnf; wwfEdkifavmufonf/
jrefrmy&dowfuvnf; vufcHvdrfhrnf[k pdwful;jzpfay:vm\/ ,if;odkU
qdkvQif uREkfyfonfpma&;q&mwa,mufjzpfvmí rBuD;yGm;apESifhOD;awmh
00pm;í vSvS0wfEdkifvdrfhrnf[k pOf;pm;rd\/ uREkfyf\ ZeD;rSm
Edk0ifbmv8&ufaeUwGif orD;wa,mufzGm;jrifav&m uREkfyfonf ¤if;nüyif
pwifí&efBuD;atmif 0w¦Kudka&;om;ygawmhonf/

pma&;q&mtwGuf uREkfyf\vufeufrsm;

þae&mwGif uREkfyfpma&;q&m tvkyfudk prf;oyf&mwGif uREkfyfü


toifh&Sdaom ]vufeufu&d,mrsm;}ESifh pdwf"mwfcHudkwifjyvdkygonf/
uREkfyfonf t*Fvdyf0w¦Ktajrmuftjrm;udk zwfbl;í¤if;wkdUudkjyefajymif;
ajymjywwfjcif;? jynfwGif;a'oEÅ&A[kokw awmfawmfBuD;&Sdjcif;? vlUobm0
udk avhvmwwfaom 0goem&Sdjcif;? pma&;jcif;ü 0goemxkHjcif;? (odkUaomf

284 
t*Fvdyfvdkjzpfonf/) tjzpftysufrsm;udk pdwf0ifpm;zG,f jzpfatmif
pyf[yfazmfjywwfjcif;? þonfum; vltrsm;pdwf0ifpm;wwfonf?
þonfum;pdwfr0ifpm;wwfonf [lonfudkydkif;jcm;í odwwfjcif; ponf
wdkUonf uREkfyftzdkU ]vufeufrsm;}jzpfygawmhonf/ uREkfyfwGefUqkwfaom
tcsufwckrSm avhvmxm;jcif;um; t*Fvdyfbmompum;a&;&rnfh 0w¦Kum;
jrefrmvdk jzpfaejcif;yifjzpf\/ t*Fvdyfvdka&;zkdU pdwful;ray:onf r[kwf?
pdwful;ay:yg\/ a&;vQifvnf; txdkuftavsmuf jzpfvdrfhrnf[k ,kHMunf
yg\/ odkUaomf uREkfyf\t*FvdyfpmrSm  (International Standard)  EdkifiHjcm;odkU
xkwfa&mif;avmufonfh tqifhtwef;udkrrSDEdkif? jrefrmjynftwGif;ü
a&mif;&rnfh pmtkyfrsKd;omjzpfEdkifrnf[k od\/ (uREkfyfonf &cdkifjynfom;
wa,muf a&;om;onfh ]rjzL}trnf&Sd t*Fvdyfvdk 0w¦Kwtkyfudk zwf&bl;&m
a&;ykHtawmfaumif;aomfvnf; EdkifiHjcm;pmtkyf tqifhtwef;udkrrSDojzifh
&cdkifjynftwGif;üom usufpm;Edkifjcif;udkawGU&\/ uREkfyfonf vGefpGmUtqkH;
]rjzL0w¦K}tqifhtwef; rsKd;avmufom wwfEdkifrnfjzpfí tusKd;aus;Zl;
rrsm;vSjcif;udk odjrif\/) jrefrmjynftwGif;ü omzwfaom t*Fvdyf
0w¦KpmtkyfxGufcJUvQif EdkifiHjcm;rS t*Fvdyf0w¦Krsm;ESifh ,SOfNydKif&vdrfYrnf
jzpf&m jrefrmvdk a&;ygrlum; pdwf0ifpm;avmufonfh jrefrm0w¦Krsm;
ray:aygufao;onfh tavhtusifh xdkacwfwGif ]Muufqlyif} jzpfEdkifzkdU
vrf;&Sdonf[k wGufudef;&ygonf/ jrefrmvdk pDukH;jcif;ü tavhtusifh
r&Sdapumrl rauúmav;\ 0guswnfaqmufykHrsm;udk avhvmxm;aom
uREkfyftzdkUrSm tcReftrGeftvSty ra&;wwfapumrlvnf; rdrdqdkvdkaom
teuft"dyÜm,fudk uGufuGufuGif;uGif; &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif;&Sdí csufcsif;
em;vnfapNyD; pmzwf&müvnf;raxmifhrxpf ajyjypfacsmarmjcif; &SdapEdkif

285 
vdrfhrnf[k uREkfyf,kHMunfcJUygonf/ þonfwdkUum; pma&;q&m tvkyfü
uREkfyf\ vufeufrsm;aywnf;/

uREkfyf\pdwf"mwfcH

pma&;jcif;ESifhywfoufí uREkfyf\ pdwf"mwfcH? okdUr[kwf


0goemtcsKdUudk wifjyygOD;rnf uREkfyfonf vdkonfxuf ydkonfxifonfh
,Ofaus;vGef;aom a0g[m& tokH;tEIef;rsm;udk ESmacgif;&IHUcsifwwfaom
0goem&S\
d / uREkfyf\ rdcifonf eef;wGif;olwa,mufjzpfí tysKdawmfrsm;?
&Gmpm; NrdKUpm;rsm;? t&SifocifBuD;rsm;? t&m&Sdt&mcHrsm;\ om;orD;rsm;?
rif;orD; rif;om;ponfh rif;rsKd;rif;EG,frsm;onf uREkfyfwdkU\ aetdrfodkU
rMumcP vma&mufvnfywfavh&Sd\/ uREkfyfonf ¤if;wdkUtcsif;csif;
pum;ajymMuonfhtcg okH;EIef;Muaom pum;vkH;rsm;udk rsufuG,frS
em;axmifí 0rf;xJüNyKH;avh&sd\/ ¤if;wdkUESifh pum;ajymonfhtcg rnfuJUokdU
ac:a0:okH;EIef;&rnfudk rdcifu oifMum;xm;aomfvnf; wu,fajym&aom
tcgwGif &dk;&dk;yifajymonfESifh rdcif\xdyfacgufjcif; tBudrfBudrfcH&bl;\/
pifppfrSm uREkfyfarhonfr[kwf (rSwfOmPfaumif;ygonf/) wrifwum
ajymjcif;jzpf\/ olwkdUajymMuonfh tokH;tEIef;rsm;udk ]tydkawG}[k
uREkfyfrSwfxif\/ waeUoü ppfuJawmfrif;\tdrfwGif trIxrf;aom
armifNrJqdkolu ]]olwdkUom;orD;rsm; awmh armifarmifBuD;a&? cifarmifBuD;a&?
cifcifBuD;a&eJU wdkUrsm;usawmh ][JU iNrJwJU}? bmaumif;ovJ'g}}[k
nnf;wGm;aom pum;wvkH;onf uREkfyf\em;xJokdU pGyfí0ifoGm;bl;\/
xdkaeUrSpí uREkfyfonf armifNrJ\vljzpf vmNyD; ,Ofaus;onfqdkonfh
pum;vkH;rsm;jzifh olwdkUtcsif;csif;okH;EIef;Mujcif; udk &,fcsifí uREkfyf

286 
udk,füuvnf; rokH;csifawmhacs/ tcsKdUrdbrsm;onf rdrdwkdUom;rsm;tm;
]]armifboef;}? armifb&if} ponfjzifh armifwyfac:NyD; olwyg;\
om;rsm;tm; boef;? b&ifponfjzifh ac:Mujcif;rsm;udkMum;& aomtcg
(armifNrJ\pum;aMumifh) uREkfyf&GHUrkef;wwfvmavNyD/ tcsKdUrdbrsm;onf
]EIwfusKd;}aeojzifh trSwfrJUac:jcif;jzpfEdkifyg\/ okdU&mwGif udk,fhom;rsm;udk
]armif}wyfac:zdkU ]EIwfusKd;}wwfNyD; olwyg;\ om;udkrS tom;tvGwf
ac:jcif;udk uREkfyfcGifhrvTwfEdkifacs/ xdkodkUaomrdbrsKd;u uREkfyftm;
]azodef;}ac:cJUvQif vSnfhrMunfhjcif;rSm i,fpOfuwnf;u (armifNrJESifh
awGUNyD;onfhaemuf) uREkfyf\tusifhwckjzpfygonf/ tapcH wa,mufrQ
omjzpfaom armifNrJu emwwfvQif uREkfyftb,fhaMumifh remwwfyJ
&Sdygrnfenf;/ ausmif;om;rsm;teufwGif uREkfyfrSm toufi,fqkH; jzpfí
þtjzpftysufrsKd; cPcPBuKH&wwfonf/ þokdUaomfrdbrsKd;udk uREkfyf
awmfawmf&GHUwwfcJUavNyD/ uREkfyf\rdbrsm;rlum; uREkfyftm; ]azodef;}
ac:aomfvnf; tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;tm; ]armif}wyfíac:avh&Sd\/ uREkfyf
tvGefauseyfonf/

&dkif;onf[kqdkcsifqdkap

tcsKdUrdbrsm;onf rdrdwkdU\om;rsm;tm; ]0efaxmufrif;} ]OD;b,fol}


]OD;b,f0g} [lívnf;aumif;? orD;rsm;tm;vnf; ]rif;uawmf}
]rif;uawmfBuD;} ]a':b,fol} ]a':b,f0g}ponfjzifhvnf;aumif;
ac:wwfMuav&m uREkfyftvGef&,fcsifvSonf/ tavmif;rif;w&m;BuD;
OD;atmifaZ,s &Sifbk&ifjzpfcgpü ¤if;\OD;BuD;? OD;av;? BuD;awmf? ta':
paom aqGawmfrsKd;awmfrsm;onf 'efwdkrsm;ESifh eef;awmfxJodkU0ifvmMuí

287 
rSL;BuD;rwf&mrsm;tm; ]]atmifaZ,sb,frSmvJ[&dkU}}[k ar;Muonfqdk&m
uREkfyftvGefoabmusonf/ uREkfyfonfvnf; wlrsm;? om;rsm; b,frQ
avmufBuD;us,fMuap 0if;armif? oif;armif? pdk;Edkif[k ac:&rS auseyf\/
0efBuD;csKyfOD;Ekonf uREkfyf\wlwa,mufjzpfcJUvQifvnf; b,fae&mrS
0efBuD;csKyfac:vdrfhrnfr[kwf/ ]armifEk}yifac:vdrfhrnfjzpfonf/ &[ef;rS
wyg; uREkfyf\vufatmufajcom; aqGrsKd;jzpfcJUvQif tac:ta0: ajymif;vJ
vdrfhrnfr[kwfacs/ þonfwdkUrSm uREkfyfonfomvQif vrf;rSefusonf[k
qdkvdkjcif;r[kwf? uREkfyf\0goemudkwifjyjcif;rQomjzpf\/ qufvufí
azmfjy&OD;rnfqdkvQif vef'efNrdKUbDbDpD a&'D,dkrSt,fvpfZbuf bk&ifrESifh
tuf'ifbm&m e,fpm;wkdUtaMumif;udk azmfjy&mwGif ]yGJawmfwnfonf}?
]pufawmfac:onf}[laom tokH;EIef;rsKd;jzifh toHvTifhjcif;onfyif uREkfyftzdkU
em;uavmvSonf/ &dkif;onf[k qdkcsifqdkap uREkfyfum; aomrwfpfydef; 
(Thomas  Payne)  \ wynfhjzpfí vlESifhvlcsif; tawmftwefruyJ
tvGeftrif;ajrmufyifhjcif;udk em;cg;olwa,muf jzpfonf/ (rnfodkUqdkap
ya'ao&Zf? {u&mZfacwfonf ukefqkH;cJUavNyD/) uREkfyfonf xD;okH;eef;okH;
tac:ta0:rsm;udk i,fuwnf;u ,Ofyg;cJUolwa,muf jzpfaomfvnf;
trSwftom; jyKvkyfrxm;&kHomru arhaysmufypfzkdUyif BudK;pm;oljzpf\/
uREkfyfa&;xm;aom 0w¦Krsm;wGifvnf; tvGefajrSmufyifh&ma&mufaom
a0g[m&rsm;udk wrifa&Smifwdrf;í &dk;&dk;pum;vkH;rsm;udkom a&G;cs,fokH;eIef;zdkU
vkHUvjyKcJUygonf/ uREkfyfum; pum;vkH;\ ,Ofaus;rIxuf tjyKtrl\
,Ofaus;rIudk tav;ay;oljzpfygonf/

288 
uREkfyftvkyfvkyf&ykH

1915 ckESpf? Edk0ifbmv 8 &ufaeUnü uREkfyfonf &efBuD;atmif


0w¦Kudk pwifa&;om;av&m Zmwfvdkuf rESif;NrdKiftm; umvom;av;a,muf
u tavmif;tpm;jyKum vlysKdvSnfhMuaom tjzpftysufrSwyg; uREkfyf\
pdwful;jzifh ZmwfuGufqifjcif;jzpfygonf/ av;a,mufoabmwl
vlysKdvSnfhMuaom tjzpftysufrSm ]]vef'efNrdKUBuD;\ t&IyfawmfykHBuD;}}
[laom 0w¦KBuD;rS ckd;,ljcif;jzpfaomfvnf; vlysKdvSnfhykH vSnfhenf;rsm;rSm
cdk;csjcif;r[kwf/ uREkfyf\pdwful;OmPfjzifh tuGufqifxm; jcif;jzpf\/
uREkfyfonfcyfapmapmwGif tdrfoltdrfom;rsm;ESifh pum;ajymaeí
¤if;wkdUtdyf&modkU 0ifMuaomtcgrS a&;om;avh&Sd&m wcgw&HwGif eHeuf
vif;tm;BuD; tcsdefodkUyifwdkifa&muf\/ uREkfyfESifhZeD;wdkUaeMuaom
tdrfuav;rSm 0g;Murf;cif;í 0g;uyfum&Hxm;ojzifh aqmif;avonf
Murf;Mum;ESifh x&HMum;wdkUrSwkd;0if&mwGif tvGefyif csrf;at;vSaomaMumifh
uREkfyf\ukvm;xdkifteD;wGif rD;vif;zdkxm;ítvkyfvkyf&\/ odkUESifhyif
oef;acgifausmfonfhaemufwGif at;vGef;vSojzifh (0ufvufonf
rEÅav;xufcsrf;\/) tvkyf&yfem;um vufacsmif;rsm;udk cPcPrD;uif&
\/ wcgw&HwGif pdwful;awG jrL;aeygvsufESifh csrf;vGef;aomaMumifh
tvkyfodrf;vdkuf&\/ csrf;vQifvnf; csrf;ayrnf/ uREkfyfü&SdpkrJUpkt0wf
tpm;rsm;rSm wGHaw;NrdKUwGif xm;ypfcJU&avNyD/ þenf;jzifh nwdkif;tvkyfvkyf
í aeUtcsdefü tdyfaeygonf/

289 
uREkfyf\pma&;0goem

15&ufcefU a&;rdaomtcg uREkfyf\rdbrsm;? ZeD;ESifhnDwkdUonf


a&;NyD;aom pm&Gufrsm;udk zwfcsifMuvSavNyD/ nDonfNyD;orQaompm&Gufrsm;
udk,lzwfí tvGefaumif;onf[k csD;rGrf;&mwGifrdbrsm;uvnf; odcsifMu
ukefavNyD/ okdUjzpfí 0ufvufü aexdkifvsuf&SdMuaom OD;av;rsm;? t&D;rsm;?
nDrsm;? ESrrsm;udk tm;vkH;ac:,lpk&kH;NyD;vQif nDuzwfjypOf vufzuf&nf
Murf;0dkif;jzifh em;axmifMuav\/ vlysKdvSnfh0w¦Krsm;avmufom zwfbl;
Muí xdwfvefUwkefvIyfzG,frsm;? tonf;at;zG,f tjcif;t&mrsm;yg&Sd aom
uREkfyf\0w¦KrsKd;udk rMum;bl;? rzwfbl;Muonfh aqGrsKd;om;csif; tm;vkH;
wkdUrSm tvGefpdwf0ifpm;Muvsuf tm;yg;w& csD;rGrf;tm;ay;Muygayonf/
rnfonfh0w¦KudkrQ rzwfcJUbl;onfh uREkfyf\ zcifudk,fwdkifrSmyif
]]aumif;oa[h? odcsifvSNyDa[h}} ponfrsm;jzifh cPcPajymvsuf&S\
d /
£E´m0HoESifh 0dZ,um&D 0w¦Krsm;udk nufnufaMu vmcJUaom
rdcifudk,fwdkifuvnf; ]]qe;fw,fa[h? 'grsKd;rMum;bl;bl;a[h}} [kqdkum
wNyKH;NyKH;ESifh tm;ay;&Smonf/ aemiftcgüvlBudKufrsm;rrsm;? ykHESdyfxkwfa0
rnfhol &Sdr&Sdudkyif raocsmao;aomfvnf; uREkfyftzdkUrSm rdbrsm;ESifh
tdrfoltdrfom;rsm;? aqGrsKd;nmwdrsm;u oabmusonfqdk&kHESifhyif MunfEl;
0rf;jrL;vsuf &SdygavNyD/ þokdUjzifh uREkfyfonf ESpfna&;NyD;wdkif;
wwd,nwGif vlpkvla0;ESifh em;axmifMuygawmhonf/ aemufydkif;ürl
ntcsdefüa&;aom aumfyDrsm;udkaeUtcsdefwGif zl;puufpm&Gufay:ü tacsm
ul;&ygonf/ pmt&SnfBuD;a&;om;jcif;rSm þtBudrfonf yxrtBudrf
jzpfaomfvnf; zl;puufpm&GufrsufESm 140ausmf&Sdaom þ&efBuD;atmif

290 
0w¦Kudk tMurf;rS tacsmul;&mwGif pmrsufESmav;ig;&GufwGifrS wvkH;wav
rQom trSm;jyifcsuf&Sdjcif;onf uREkfyf\xl;jcm;csufw&yfjzpf onf[k
qdkoifh\/ awmfvfpwGdKifpaom pma&;q&mBuD;rsm;onf rdrdwkdUa&;
aompmudk okH;avig;Budrf (wcgw&Hq,fBudrfrQyif)jyifqifa&;ul;Muonf[k
Mum;&\/ urÇmausmfpma&;q&mBuD;rsm;ESifh EIdif;,SOfcsufxkwfum olwkdUum;
jyifa&;&onf? uREkfyfum; jyifra&;&aomaMumifh uREkfyfuyif omao;onf
[k qdkvdk&if;r[kwf&yg/ uREkfyf\0goemudk azmfjyjcif;rQom jzpfyg\/
uREkfyfonf pmtkyfudkrqdkxm;ESifh aqmif;yg;wyk'fudkyif ESpfBudrf okH;Budrf
jyifa&;&vQif ysif;onfESifhyif ao&vdrfhrnfxif\/ a&;NyD;aompmudk
jyefízwfonfhtcg trSm;&SmzdkUavmufom *&kpdkufrday&m omíaumif;atmif
&nf&G,fcsufrlum; &SdcJvSygonf/ xdkUtwGufaMumifh awmfvfpwGdKifwkdUuJUodkU
yxrwef; pma&;q&mwa,mufrjzpfvmvQifvnf; auseyfEdkifygonf/

&efBuD;atmifpGHavNyD

1916 ckESpf Zefe0g&Dv 21 &ufaeUwGif &efBuD;atmif0w¦Kudk


tacsmul;NyD;onftxd NyD;pD;cJUavNyD/ v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;Xmebufü
trIxrf;cJUpOfu ol&d,OD;baztaMumif;udk pma&;wa,mufuajymí
od&bl;\/ uREkfyfonf jrefrmjynfwGif jrefrm0w¦Krsm; tajctaetaMumif;
udkpm&SnfBuD;wapmifa&;om;í ol&d,wdkuftkyf OD;bazxHokdU 0w¦KESifhwuG
ydkUvdkuf\/ uavmiform;rsm;tzdkUrSm yxrOD;pGm wifydkUonfh ]pm}onf
rnfrQavmuf ta&;BuD;jcif;udk odMuNyD;jzpf\/ taysmfa&;jcif;r[kwfyJ
toufarG;0rf;ausmif;twGuf &nf&G,fcsufjzifh prf;oyfjcif;jzpfonfh

291 
uREkfyftzdkUrSm vGefpGmyifta&;BuD;\/ (pHa'0D\rdcifxHokdU uREkfyf\zcif
oGm;íajymbl;pOfu ta&;BuD;ykHESifh pdwfxJwGif EIdif;,SOfvdkufonfhtcg
tenf;i,frQom avsmhawmhonfxif\/) wvMumaomfvnf; vufcH&&Sd
ygonfqdkaom pmrSwyg; tqkH;tjzwfudk rod&ao;yJ&Sd&m okH;vcefUMum
aomtcgürl uREkfyfrSmtawmfpdwfylvsuf&SdavNyD/ xdktawmtwGif;
uREkfyfuvnf; wvvQif tenf;qkH; pmwapmifusa&;um EId;aqmfvsuf&Sd&m
pmESpfapmifvQif wapmifusavmufjyefMum;í ]zwfqJ&Sdygonf} [laom
taMumif;udkod&\/ uREkfyfum; tawmftm;avsmhp jyKvsuf&SdayNyD/
[oFmwNrdKUrS udkcifarmifwifh\OD;av; 0wfvkHwa,mufu olU xrif;pm
vc40dESifhpma&;vkyfNyD; a&SUaepmar;yJG0ifzkdU[laomtBuHudk vufcH&acsrnf
avm[líyif pOf;pm;vsuf&SdavNyD/ aemufqkH;ü arv6&uf aeUwGif
ol&d,wdkufrS pmjyefvmí aiG100dESifh 0,f,lvdkaMumif; od&ayonf/
0w¦Kwyk'fvQif wefzkd;rnfrQaygufaps;&Sdonf[k rMum;&bl;aom uREkfyfrSm
enf;onfrsm;onf em;rvnfyJ aiG100dtjyif 0w¦Kpmtkyf 25tkyf
jznfhay;zdkUawmif;cHNyD; oabmwlvdkuf\/ pmtkyfrsm;rSm wtkyfvQif
1usyf8yJwefonfjzpfí uREkfyfonf&efBuD;atmif0w¦KtwGuf pkpkaygif;
137usyf 8 yJrQ&&Sdygonf/

bBuD;baz\OmOf

¤if;ESpfarvukefcgeD;wGif uREkfyfwkdUvifr,m;onf 0ufvufNrdKUrS


&efukefodkUqif;vmMuí a,mu©rrsm;\aetdrfü wnf;cdkaexdkifMuonf/
ajymif;a&TUMujcif;\ &nf&G,fcsufrSm 0w¦Ka&;orm;wa,muftzdkU&mü
&efukefNrdKUBuD;onf awmNrdKUuav;xuf tayguftvrf;yGifhí arQmfvifhp&m

292 
rsm;onf[kwGufrdaomaMumifhjzpf\/ uREkfyf\ZeD;ü arG;aygufazmf (olyg)
&Spfa,mufrQ&Sd&m a,mu©rBuD;rsm;onf vnf;aumif;? r&D;rsm;? c,frrsm;?
a,mufzrsm;onfvnf;aumif; uREkfyftay:ü Muifemjcif;?umuG,fjcif;?
cifrifav;pm;jcif; &SdMuonfjzpfí uREkfyftzdkU&mü pdwfcsrf;omrI&Sdygayonf/
0w¦Ka&;orm;wa,muf [lonfrSm xdkacwfwGif cyfqe;fqef;jzpfaomf
vnf; uREkfyftm;acwfynmwwfwa,muftaejzifh av;pm;Muygayonf/
a,mufzrsm;uvnf; (uREkfyf\xl;qef;aomtusKd;ay;twdkif;) nD&if;tpfudk
wrQ cspfcifMuifemMuygayonf/ xdktawmtwGif; uREkfyfonf bBuD;baz
ESifh oGm;a&mufawGUqkHí 0w¦Ka&;jcif;taMumif; aqG;aEG;av&m bBuD;baz
u  East  Lynn  tdpvif0w¦KudkrSD;NyD; jrefrm0w¦Kjzpfvmatmif
a&;zdkUtBuHay;onfESifh ¤if;pufwifbmvtwGif; NyD;pD;atmif a&;om;
ay;ydkUvdkuf\/ ¤if;0w¦KrSm y-'k[lí ESpfwGJxkwf&aomfvnf;
165usyfrQom&aomaMumifh q&mvGef;u (aemifwGif) tvGefenf;onf[k
ajymbl;ygonf/ &efBuD;atmif0w¦KESifh &wemykH 0w¦Krsm;twGuf aps;EIef;
jzwfolrSm bBuD;bazjzpf&m xdkyk*¾dKvfBuD;onf uREkfyf\ yg;&Sm;aom
tajctaeudk &dyfrdí ol&d,wdkuftusKd;twGuf oufoufudkom MunfhNyD;
uREkfyftm; aps;EIef;zdESdyfíqpfvdkufonfh vu©Pm&Sd\/
(1953ckESpfü &wemykH0w¦Kudk ausmif;okH;tjzpf jyXmef;&mwGifwckaom
ykHESdyfwdkufydkif&Sifu ol&d,wdkufrS ¤if;pmrlrsm;udk aiG300drQESifh
0,f,loGm;NyD;aomif;csDí tjrwfxkwfEdkifavonf/ uREkfyftwGuf aiG5500d
&ao;aomfvnf; ol&d,wdkufrlum; aiG300dESifhyif NyD;&avawmhonf/
uREkfyfonf rdrdudk,fudk olawmfaumif;BuD;wa,muf[lí raMujimvdkaomf
vnf; þodkUaom tjcif;t&mrsKd;rSm uREkfyf\woufwmü tBudrfrsm;pGGm
awGUcJU&ygonf/)

293 
wwd,ydkif;

(armifazodef;rS udkazodef;odkU)

ol&d,wkdufom; jzpfvmjcif;

1917 ckESpf? azazmf0g&DvwGif uREkfyfonf ol&d,r*¾Zif; t,f'Dwm


tjzpfESifh ol&d,wdkufom;wa,mufjzpfvm\/ ol&d,wdkuftkyf ESpfa,muf
(OD;bazESifh OD;vSaz)wdkUonf uREkfyf\vufpGrf;vufpudk jrifMuonfESifh
ol&d,r*¾Zif; xkwfzdkU tBuHjzpfay:vmonf[k aemifwGifod&\/ vcrSm
yxrwGif 75djzpfaomfvnf; okH;vavmufwGif 100d? 101? 180d okdUwkd;
jrifhay;Muygayonf/ uREkfyfa&;cJUaom 0w¦KESpftkyfteuf ]&efBuD;atmif}
0w¦KrSm a&S;OD;pGm a&;jcif;jzpfaomfvnf; ol&d,wdkufu ]&wemykH}0w¦Kudk
tvsiftokH;jyKí 1916ckESpf? atmufwdkbmvrSpNyD; ol&d,owif;pmwGif
&ufjcm;xnfhay;\/ ¤if;aemuf pmtkyftjzpfESifhxkwfaomtcgwGifvnf;
olUacwfwGif  Best  Seller  twGifus,fqkH; a&mif;&onfh pmwtkyfjzpfvmyg
onf/ uREkfyfol&d,wdkufom;wa,muf jzpfcgptcsdefü &wemykH0w¦KrSm
pmtkyftjzpfESifh xGufvmjcif;jzpf&m eHeuftcsdefwGif uREkfyfwdkufodkU
a&mufoGm;í pmtkyfa&mif;pma&;u tNrdKUNrdKUrS vufvDrSmxm;Muaom
&wemykH0w¦Kpmtkyf tzkH;pdrf;rsm;udk olUpm;yJGa&SUü jzefUcif;xm;ojzifh
wcef;vkH; pdrf;vsuf&Sdjcif;udk uRekfyfawGU&onfESifh pma&;q&m vufopf
wa,muftaejzifh tvGefauseyfESpfodrfhrdjcif;udk rSwfrdygao;onf/
xdkacwfü 0w¦Kpmtkyf tajrmuftjrm;ay:xGufao;onf r[kwfonfh
tavsmuf wdkufoGm; wdkufjyeftcsdefrsm;wGif "mwf&xm; (bwfpfum;

294 
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rsm;udk Mum;&onfrSmvnf; tm;&Sdp&m aumif;vSygayonf/ (þacwfürl
jrefrmjynfwGif 0w¦KESifhpma&;q&m\ae&mudk &kyf&SifZmwfum; ESifh Zmwfvkduf
rsm;u ,loGm;Muonfh vu©Pm&Sday\/)

]acG;0ifpm;}t,f'Dwm

þae&mwGif uREkfyfESifh tuRrf;w0ifjzpfcJUaom ol&d,wdkufom;


(pma&;q&mrsm;) taMumif;udka&;om;azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/ ol&d,r*¾Zif;udk
1917ckESpf? rwfvwGif pwifí xkwfrnf[k owfrSwfxm;&m uRekfyfrlum;
azazmf0g&Dv w&ufaeUrSpí tvkyf0if&rnfjzpf\/ uREkfyfrSm tm;vyfvsuf
&SdonfwaMumif;? owif;pmwdkuf tvkyftaMumif;udk prf;0g;rdap&eftwGuf
waMumif; azazmf0g&Dvw&ufaeUwdkifatmif rqdkif;yJ Zefe0g&Dvv,f
avmufuwnf;u wdkufokdU0ifNyD; (vcr&SdyJ) avhvm yg&ap[k tcGifhawmif;
ojzifh tcGifh&cJUonf/ uREkfyfonf0w¦Ka&;orm;wa,muftaejzifh OD;baz
wa,mufwnf;ESifhom qufqH&í oduRrf;cJU&m xdkaeUwGif OD;bazu
uREkfyftm; OD;vSazESifhrdwfqufay;avonf/ OD;bazonf owif;pm &dkufESdyf
ol tjzpfESifh vnf;aumif;? OD;vSazonf xkwfa0oltjzpfESifhvnf;aumif;
rSwfykHwifxm;Muí ESpfa,mufvkH; wdkuftkyftjzpfESifh todtrSwfjyKMujcif;
cH&av&m ¤if;wkdU\ wm0efrSmrl OD;vSazonf taxGaxG refae*smjzpfí
OD;bazrSm aMumfjimbufoufouf tkyfcsKyf&ol jzpfavonf/ OD;bazonf
ol&d,owif;pmwGif ]ewfBuD;okH;yg;cef;} udkifjcif;rSwyg; tjcm;wm0efrsm;
udkr,l/ OD;vSazonfomvQif tBuD;tuJ jzpfav&m OD;buav;rlum;
ol&d,aeUpOfowif;pm t,f'Dwmjzpfí uREkfyfESifhqufqHrI tvGefenf;yg;

295 
cJUygonf/ uREkfyfonfol&d,r*¾Zif;tvkyfwGif OD;vSaz vufatmufü
vkyf&í trsm;qkH; qufqHrI&Sdol jzpfavonf/ uREkfyfESifh rdwfqufNyD;
onfhaemuf OD;vSazonf uREkfyftwGuf ae&mwoD;wjcm; jyifqifrxm;
&ao;onfESifh (xdk&ufrsm;wGif uREkfyfrSm ]acG;0ifpm;} t,f'Dwm wa,muf
tjzpfom &Sdaeao;onf/) uREkfyftm;yDrdk;eif;\pm;yJGwGif twlxdkifzdkU
ae&mcsxm;ay;\/ yDrdk;eif;um; aeUpOfowif;pmbufwGif vufaxmuf
t,f'Dwm wa,mufjzpfí OD;buav;\ vufatmufü acgif;BuD;rsm;
a&;aom wm0efudk,l&avonf/

udkausmf (ac:) yDrdk;eif;

uREkfyfonf yDrdk;eif;ESifh wpm;yGJwnf;rsufESmcsif;qdkif xdkifvdkufMu&m


wGif wa,mufESifhwa,mufvluJcwfMu\/ yDrdk;eif;u uREkfyftaMumif;udk
odxm;ESifhoavmuf uREkfyfu yDrdk;eif;taMumif;udk rod&ao;acs/ (pifppfrSm
xdkpOfurl uRekfyfonf yDrdk;eif;[lí rodao;yJ ]udkausmf}[líomoday&m
ol&d,wdkufrS xGufoGm;NyD;aemuf ynmhtvif; owif;pmwGif
t,f'DwmjzpfvmaomtcgrS yDrdk;eif;[laom trnfudkMum;& bl;\/
odkUESifhyif yxrü yDrdk;eif;ESifh udkausmfonf vlwa,mufwnf; jzpfonf[k
uREkfyfroday/) OD;vSazu udkausmf[laom trnfjzifh uREkfyfESifh
rdwfqufay;ojzifh uREkfyfonfrsufESmcsif;qdkifxdkifvsuf&Sdaom udkausmfudk
vSrf;Munfhvdkuf&m uREkfyfESifh waeUaeUwGif &if;ESD;aomrdwfaqGwa,muf
jzpfvmEdkifzdkU &Sdjcif;udk xdkaeUuyif tuJcwfrdwfonf[k a&;om;azmfjyygu
<um;onf[kxifaumif; xifMuayvdrfhrnf/ pifppfaomfum; uREkfyfonf
rdrdESifh tuRrf;w0if jzpfrnfhvl [kwfr[kwfudk wxdkifwnf;ESifh

296 
tuJcwfEdkifay&m uRekfyf\tuJcwfjcif;rSm woufvkH;wGif &mcdkifEIef; 90
ausmfrQ rSefuefjcif;udk awGU&ygonf/
uREkfyfonf udkausmftm; vSrf;Munfhvdkuf&m NyKH;NyKH;uav;&Sdaomol\
rsufESmxm;wGif uREkfyftm;pdwf0ifpm;&kHomru tawmfauseyf[ef&Sdaom
trlt&mudk awGU&\/ y&d,m,frokH;wwfjcif;wGif uREkfyfESifhwlvdrfhrnf[lí
vnf; tuJcwfrd\/ tjcm;vlrsm;\ xifjrifcsufudkvkH;0 *&krpdkuf[k
rqdkEdkifaomfvnf; *&kpdkufrIenf;yg;jcif;ü uREkfyfESifh wlvdrfhrnf [lívnf;
xifrd\/ vlUavmuwGif rdrdESifhxdkufwefaom ae&mudk r&&Sd[lí olUudk,fol
txifa&mufvsuf &Sdjcif;udkvnf; uRekfyf&dyfrd\/ (uREkfyfrlum; xkdpOfu
¤if;txifrsKd; ruyfao;onfhjyif aemifwGifvnf; þtwGufaMumifh olwyg;
tay:ütjypfwifcsifaom pdwfrsKd; jzpfcJvSonf[k xifygonf/)
xdkacwfwGif &efukefNrdKUü touf20ausmft&G,frsm;om ywfaygif;
(bDataygif;)aygif;Muí xdkUtxufvlrsm;rSm tkyfaygif;acwfjzpfaeaomf
vnf; touf30 xufrenf; &Sd&rnfh udkausmfrSmrl ]bDataygif;}r[kwf
onfhywfaygif;&dk;&dk;jzifhom awmfawmfuav; oyf&yfpGm aygif;xm;\/
ol&d,wwdkufvkH; (uREkfyftygt0ifpma&;rsm;rusef tkyfaygif;ESifh
*dkufxkwfvsuf &SdMuaom xdkacwfwGif ykodrfxD;udk *sKdif;wGifnSyfxm;vsuf
uGif;xdk;zdeyfvQLdum ywfaygif;&dk;&dk;uav;ESifh aq;ayghvdyfcJvsuf
tvkyfwufavh&Sdaom udkausmfrSm vlqef;wa,mufvkdvdkjzpfae\/
&efukefodkUa&mufcgpjzpfí t0wftpm;wGifolwyg;xufaemufrus&atmif
BudK;pm;ae&aom uREkfyfrSm udkausmfudkjrif&í tm;vnf;&Sdonf/
oabmvnf;usvSygonf/

297 
ajymykHqef;vSjcif;

pm;yJGwGif twlxdkifrdvQif xdkfifrdcsif; udkausmfu jrefrm0w¦Krsm;


taMumif;ESifh ywfoufí ol&d,wkdufodkU uREkfyft*Fvdyfvdk a&;ydkUbl;aom
pmwapmifudk olzwfvkduf&uwnf;u uREkfyftay:ü txifBuD;í vlcsif;
awGUvdkaMumif;? owif;pmü w&ufjcm;xnfhvsuf&Sdaom &wemykH0w¦K
udkvnf;olzwfí oabmusaMumif;? olvnf; ]bDatarmifwifhESifh
uacsonf r,fjrifh}0w¦Kwyk'f a&;cJUbl;aMumif; ponfjzifhajymav&m
þrQESifhyif uRekfyfonf udkausmfESifh tawmfBuD; &if;ESD;oGm;cJUavNyD/
uREkfyfuvnf; ol&d,acgif;BuD;rsm;udk (&wemykH0w¦K xnfhuwnf;u
tvum;&í) zwfvmcJU&m ¤if;wdkUrSmudkausmf\ vuf&m jzpfaMumif;
,ckod&í csD;usL;ygaMumif;? rdrdrSm 0w¦KESpfyk'fa&;cJUbl;aomf vnf;
owif;pmacgif;BuD;rsm; a&;zdkUqdkvQif tdyfrufrQyif rruf0HUaMumif;
ajymjyav&m oluvnf; oabmusykH&onf/ aeUv,f vufzuf&nf
aomufcsdefwGif udkausmfonf uREkfyftm; tdrfodkUac:oGm;í ol\ZeD;ESifh
rdwfqufay;NyD;aemuf t*Fvdyfpmtkyfrsm;taMumif;udk aqG;aEG;Muav&m
uRekfyf\pmzwfpkHjcif;udk csD;rGrf;í oludk,fwdkifrSm toifhtwifhrQavmufom
zwfbl;aMumif; 0efcHavonf/ ol\t*Fvdyfpum;ajymykHudk uREkfyfMum;
&onfESifh xdk0efcHcsufonf ESdrfhcsjcif; jzpfonf[k xifrdaomfvnf;
aemifwGifwu,fajymjcif;jzpfonf[k uREkfyfod&onf/
udkausmf\t*FvdyftoHxGufrsm;rSm awmfawmfvefUavmuf\/
jrefrmwa,muf ajymaomtoHxGufESifhyif rwlacs/ uREkfyfonf t*Fvdyf
pum;vkH;rsm; rSefuefatmif toHxGufwwfzdkU avhusifhxm;aomf vnf;
jrefrmwa,mufu yDyDooxGufaom toHrsKd;rQomjzpfav&m udkausmf\

298 
toHxGufrlum; abmif;bD0wfwa,muf\ toHae toHxm;rsKd; jzpfaeí
uRekfyfvefUrdjcif;jzpf\/ vlcsif;ESD;&if;vmaomtcgü þtaMumif;udk
pkHprf;MunfhonfwGifrS jyifopf(bk&if*sD)bkef;BuD;vkyfcJUbl;í jyifopfbkef;BuD;
rsm;ESifhtwl ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmaecJUbl;aMumif;? vufwifbmomvnf; wwf
aMumif; od&avonf/ udkausmf\ t*Fvdyfpum;ajymykHrSm uREkfyf\
oli,fcsif; (bdvyfjyef) udkcifarmifwifhuJUodkU Adkvfqefjcif;rsKd;r[kwfyJ
jyifopfbkef;BuD;rsm;ESifh i,fpOfu tMumBuD;aebl;jcif;aMumifh vQmwrsKd;
jzpfaejcif;jzpfavonf/ rsm;rMumrD udkausmfonf *syfqifaumvdyfwGif
vufwifbmomjyq&m tvkyfudkavQmufxm;&&Sdojzifh ol&d,wdkufrS
xGufoGm;av\/ okdU&mwGif olESifhuREkfyfcifrifrIrSm tqufrjywfvSyJ
1938ckESpfü olaoonftxd &if;ESD;pGm &SdcJUMuavonf/

q&mvGef;\csD;usL;csuf

azazmf0g&Dvw&ufaeUü uREkfyfr*¾Zif;t,f'Dwm jzpfvmaomtcg


ol&d,onf av;xyfwkdufB uD;wGif atmufqkH;wxyfudkom iSm;Edkifao;onf
jzpfí vkyfom;ESifh ae&mrrQatmif usOf;usyfonfhtwGufaMumifh q&mvGef;
ESifh uREkfyfwdkUtwGuf pm;yGJwckwnf;om ae&may;Edkifavonf/
þwGifuREkfyfwkdUESpfa,mufonf aeUwdkif; rsufESmcsif;qdkifxdkifMuí
axG&mav;yg; pum;ajymcGifh&Mu\/ q&mvGef;onf uRekfyftm; rEÅav;om;
qdkuwnf;u pdwf0ifpm;onfh vu©Pm&Sday&m uREkfyfuvnf; EIwfcrf;arG;
a&;a&;ESifh tNrJuGrf;pm;avh&Sdojzifh ]tnm*dkuf}&Sdaom þvlBuD;tm;
jrifvQifjrifcsif; MunfndKrdygonf/ q&mvGef;rSm uREkfyfxuf touf14
ESpfBuD;í xdkpOfu 42 ESpf&SdNyDjzpf&m touf40ausmfvQif {&mr

299 
vlBuD;wa,muf[lí xifcJUrdaom uREkfyf\rsufpdü tawmfBuD;&ifhNyD[k
atmufarhcJUygonf/ q&mvGef;uvnf; udkausmfenf;wl uREkfyfESifha&pufyg
onfhvu©PmESifhol\wkdufcef;odkU ac:oGm;í aeUv,fcif;rsm;wGif ol\
wkdufcef;ü wa&;warmtdyfum tyef;ajzzdkU tNrJzdwfMum;xm;ygonf/
uREkfyfonfq&mvGef;ESifhvnf;aumif;? udkausmfESifhvnf;aumif; a&pufyg
aomfvnf; ¤if;wkdUESpfa,mufrlum; &if;ESD;Mu[efrwlacs/ olwkdUESpfa,muf
taMumif;ESifh ywfoufí udkausmfajymbl;aom pum;wcGef;udk uREkfyf
rSwfrd\/ waeUoü olwkdUESpfa,mufonf jrefrmpmaytaMumif;udk aqG;aEG;
vsuf&SdpOf udkausmfajymvdkufaom pum;wvkH;udk q&mvGef;u t"dyÜm,f
t,ltqvJGonfhvu©PmESifh ]]a[h armifausmf? q&mu ArmjynfrSm
udk,fhudk,fudk 'dwfxm;wJU vlwa,muf armif&? bmrSwfvdkUvJ}}[k
£ajEéESifhajymbl;onfqdk\/ [kwfykHvnf;&onf/ xdkolESpfa,mufonf
uREkfyfa&SUü tuRrf;w0if&SdMujcif;udk uREkfyfrjrifcJU&bl;ay/ q&mvGef;
ESifhuREkfyfrlum; ol&d,wkdufom;rsm; tjzpfESifhvnf;aumif;? woufvkH;wGif
vnf;aumif; qufqHa&;wGif tzktxpfr&Sd? ajyajyjypfjypf&SdcJUygonf/
okdUESifhvnf; q&mvGef;onf uREkfyftm; *sme,frsm;wGif av;csKd;jzifh
uvdaom tvkH;uav;rsm;udk taMumif;t&majymjyí q&mvGef;u
ola&;aeusjzpfaom pum;jyifrsKd;jzifh us,fus,fjyefUjyefUqefUí a&;xkwf
vkdufaomtcg pmrsufESmeHygwf tawmfrsm;vm\/ q&mvGef;\
pum;jyifa&;enf;rSm OD;Mobmo\ ZmwfBuD;q,fbJGU a&;enf;rsKd;uJUodkU
um&efuav;awG iJUumiJUuma&; jcif;aMumifhzwfítvGefacsmarmaomfvnf;
r*¾Zif;twGuf &SnfvGef;ouJUodkU jzpfae\/ þwGif OD;vSazonf
uREkfyfudkac:í acgif;BuD;okH;yk'fudk wqufwnf; awmufavQmufajymNyD;
a&;ckdif;\/

300 
uREkfyfonfcJwHjzifh wvkH;wavrSa&;rSwfjcif;vnf;r&Sd? csufcsif;vnf;
ra&;ao;yJ av;ig;&ufMumaomtcgrS okH;yk'fa&;NyD; wifjyvdkufonf/
q&mvGef;onf uREkfyf\yxrOD;qkH;vuf&mjzpfaomacgif;BuD;okH;yk'fudk
zwfMunfh&mwGif OD;vSaz\OD;acgif;rSxGufaom tBuHrsm;[lí olodNyD;jzpf
aomfvnf; jrefrmpm a&;ykHa&;enf;udk oabmusonfh vu©PmESifh
]][dkacG;rom; awG'Davmufra&;wwfygbl;}}[k qdkum wdkuftkyfrsm;bufodkU
ar;aighíjybl;avonf/ trSefudk0efcH&vQif uREkfyfonf OD;vSazu erlem
tjzpfESifh t,f'DwmtzGJUtm; a&;jybl;onfh acgif;BuD;wyk'fudk zwf&bl;
ojzifh ol\ta&;tom;udkav;pm;vsuf &Sdygonf/
q&mvGef;u txufygpum;udk ajymvdkufaomtcgwGif igonf
OD;vSazxuf a&;wwfonf[k pdwfBuD;0ifroGm;jcif;udk opömjyKí
ajym0HUygonf/ odkU&wGif uREkfy\
f yxrOD;qkH;acgif;BuD;rsm;udk q&morm;
jzpfaom q&mvGef;u xdkuJUokdU ajymvkdufaomtcgwGifrlum; igonf
acgif;BuD;a&;jcif;tvkyfwGif vlnHUwa,mufr[kwfawmh [kqdkumvGefpGm
tm;wufoGm;ygonf/

q&mawmfOD;OwÅr

ol&d,wdkufü oduRrf;&aom yk*¾dKvfausmfrsm;taMumif;udk azmfjy&mwGif


q&mawmfOD;OwÅrtaMumif;udkvnf; azmfjy&efvdkayvdrfhrnf/ ol&d,wdkufodkU
uREkfyfa&mufNyD;aemuf rsm;rMumrDtwGif; q&mawmfOD;OwÅronf uREkfyf\
pm;yGJodkU vmíxdkifavh&Sd\/ q&mawmfonf uREkfyf\0w¦Krsm; zwfavh&Sdol
jzpf&m uRekfyftm; (OD;baz? OD;vSazwdkUrSwyg;) wkdufom;rsm;teufwGif
pdwft0ifpm;qkH;wa,mufjzpf[ef&Sd\/ q&mawmfonf tdE´d,jynfESifh

301 
jrefrmjynfwkdUudk acgufwkHUacgufjyef ul;oef;oGm;vmvsuf&Sdaom EdkifiHa&;
bkef;BuD;wyg;jzpfjcif;? &cdkifom;jzpfonf qdkjcif;rSwyg; uREkfyfbmrQrodacs/
uREkfyfrSm xdkpOfu pmayrSwyg; EdkifiHa&;ü pdwf0ifpm;jcif; r&Sdao;onfjzpfí
q&mawmftay:ü txifvnf;rBuD;? pdwf0ifpm;rIvnf; enf;yg;vSonf/
uREkfyfonfol&d,wwdkufvkH;wGif (r*¾Zif;t,f'DwmtjzpfESifh) tvkyftacsmif
qkH;aom zwfolwa,mufjzpfcJUbl;&m q&mawmfonf uREkfyftvkyfacsmifjcif;
udkodonfwaMumif;? 0w¦K0goemygí uRekfyftm; 0w¦Ka&;orm;wa,muf
taejzifh cifrifav;pm;onfwaMumif;aMumifh uREkfyf\pm;yJGwGif tMumBuD;
xdkifum pum;ajymavh&Sd\/ uREkfyfurlpmzwfysufonfqdkum q&mawmftm;
tomwMunfajymír&vQif aigufíyif xkwfcJUrdbl;ygonf/
xdkpOfu q&mawmfonf b,fqDrSm qGrf;bkrf;ay;onfrod? nOfhtcsdef
rsm;wGifrlum; ol&d,wdkufüyif usdef;pufonf[k uREkfyfod&\/ uREkfyf\
rsufpdü q&mawmfonf bkef;BuD; ]*sydk;}xJu xifrdonfESifh aigufíxkwfrd
jcif;jzpfygonf/ ]]wynfhawmfwkdUu udk,fawmfwdkUvdk vltm; r[kwfygbl;
bk&m;? vkyfEdkifrSpm;&wJUvlawGyg? t&Sifbk&m;vdk avryef;tm;ygbl;
bk&m;}}ponfrsm;jzifh ESifxkwfcJUrdbl;ygonf/ odkUaomfq&mawmfonf
þrQjzifhvnf; remwwf? þxuf Murf;Murf; avQmufívnf;remwwf?
ESifxkwfonfhtcdkufwGif cPwjzKwfxoGm;í awmfawmfMumvQif pyfNzJ
pyfNzJESifh a&mufvmjyefygawmhonf/ aemufydkif;wGif jrefrmjynfü [kr®&l;
wpcef;xvmaom tcsdefwGifrlum; uREkfyfonf tvGefwefcdk;BuD;vsuf&Sdaom
]i,faygif;} q&mawmfqdkí zl;awGU&ef a&mufoGm;aomtcg tapmifhtMuyf
awGtxyfxyf 0dkif;&Hvsuf&SdonfESifh yk*¾dKvfBuD; tqihfqifhxH 0ifcGifhawmif;
NyD;rS q&mawmfa&SUarSmufodkU a&mufcJU&jcif;udk BuKHcJU&bl;ygonf/ xdktcg
wGif a&S;,cifu &Iyfonfxifí pm;yJGrS ESifxkwfcJUrdzl;aom tjcif;t&mudk

302 
owd&rdojzifh NyKH;cJUrdygao;onf/ ]a[h azodef;? rif;uighudk&Iyfw,f
qdk}[laom rsufESmxm;rsKd; jyacsrnfavm[k uRekfyftuJcwfao;&m
xdktrlt&mrsKd;um; jyawmfrrl&Smay/

tHUMozG,fbkef;ay;Edkifjcif;

uREkfyfonf q&mawmftm; ESifxkwfrdcJUbl;aomfvnf; pifppfrSm


q&mawmfrBuD;us,fao;rDtcsdefuyif q&mawmf\ tcsKdUaompdwfae
oabmxm;rsm;udk MunfndK&aumif;rSef; odonfESifhtdrfodkUyifhí qGrf;ESpfBudrf
auR;bl;ygonf/ qGrf;auR;jcif;udk vlodapvdkír[kwf? q&mawmfOD;OwÅr\
bkef;ay;ykHxl;jcm;jcif;udk azmfjyvdkaomaMumifhjzpfygonf/ qGrf;ESpfBudrf
auR;bl;onfhteuf yxrtBudrfrSm qGrf;vdkufaom ZvkHBuD;ESifh bkOf;ay;í
wZvkHvkH; tukefcRwfjcif;rQavmufom &Sdojzifh pmrzJGUavmufyg/ okdU&mwGif
'kwd,tBudrf auR;aomtcgürl uREkfyfudk,fwdkif wtHUwMo jzpfrdonfESifh
q&mawmfOD;OwÅrtaMumif;ESifhywfoufí pdwf0ifpm;rI &Sdolrsm;tzdkU
azmfjyvdkufygonf/ 'kwd,tBudrfyifhaomtcgwGif q&mawmfu ]]ighrSm
qD;csKda&m*g&Sdw,f? xrif;vJrpm;? *sKHvJrpm;? om;ig;oufoufom
pm;w,f}}[k trdefU&Sdvdkuf\/
uREkfyfonfq&mawmf\bkef;ay;ykHtpGrf;udk odNyD;jzpfí atmufyg
pm;p&mrsm;udk csufjyKwfjyifqifxm;\/
(1)Muufwaumif&dkUpf(jyKwfausmf)? (2)t&nf cyfrsm;rsm;ESifh
bJwaumif pGyfjyKwf? (3)0rf;bJO ajcmufvkH;[wfbGdKif? (4)0uftlacsmif;uif
25usyfom;? (5)ig;Muif;om;aMumf 25usyfom;? (6)EGm;EdkU50om;wkdUudk
toifhjyifxm;NyD;vQif rdwfaqG udkcifarmifwifhtm;vnf; xrif;pm; zdwfxm;

303 
\/ ¤if;eHeufwGif uREkfyfwkdUtwGuf txl;wvnfrpDrHyJ xrif;tdk;wvkH;
omcsufxm;\/ q&mawmf<uvmí xdkifvkduf&mwGif uREkfyfwkdUvifr,m;ESifh
udkcifarmifwifhonf teD;wGifxdkifvsuf apmifhMunfhaeMu\/ q&mawmf
onfbJwaumifvkH;aygif;NyD; 0rf;bJOykH yef;uefBuD;wGif xnfhxm;aom
pGyfjyKyf&nfxJrS w0ufcefUrQaomt&nfrsm;udkaomufvdkufNyD;aemuf bJom;
udkzJUí bkOf;ay;\/ &iftkyfESifhaygifrsm; ukefonfhaemuf awmifyH&dk;
ponfrsm;udk udkufvdkufao;\/ ¤if;aemuf &dkUpfvkyfxm;aom Muufa umif
udkvSrf;udkifí bJaumifa&mufESifhaomae&modkUydkUvdkuf\/ <uif;usefaom
bJ&dk;ESifh Muuf&dk;rsm;rSm tnDtrQavmuf&Sdí rnfonfht&dk;wGifrS tom;xlxl
uyfvsuf r&Sdawmhacs/ Muufaumifukefonfhaemuf w0ufcefU usefao;
aom bJpGyfjyKyf&nfxJrS aemufxyf w0ufaomufjyef\/ teD;rSxdkif
MunfhaeMuaom uREkfyfwdkUokH;a,mufonf wa,mufrsufESmudk
wa,mufvSrf;MunfhaeMuavNyD/ ¤if;aemufq&mawmfonf bJO[wfbGdKif
ajcmufvkH;ESifh 0uftlacsmif;udk bkOf;ay;,if; usefaeao;aom bJpGyfjyKyf&nf
xJrS wcsufcsuf wZGef;ESpfZGef; cyfíaomuf\/ ¤if;wkdUuRwfaomtcg
ig;Muif;om;aMumfudk vSrf;udkifí tmajcmufaomtcgwGif pGyfjyKyf&nfjzifh
usKdufcs\/ ig;aMumfvnf;ukefí pGyfjyKyf&nfvnf;ajymifavNyD/ þwGifrS
q&mawmfonf EGm;EdkU 50 om;udk pum;wajymajymESifh wjznf;jznf;
usKdufí usKdufí csav&m uREkfyfrSm q&mawmf bkOf;ay;NyD;aemuf
apmifhírMunfhEdkifawmhyJ zdwfac:xm;rdaom {nfhonfESifh uREkfyfwkdUtwGuf
bJuifwaumifajy;0,f&ygawmhonf/ r&GHwwfvQif q&mawmfudkufí
csxm;aom bJ&dk; Muuf&dk;rsm;rS tom; tuyftoyf uav;rsm;udk
udkufpkwf,l&efrSwyg; bmwckrQ pm;p&mrusef awmhyg/ þonfum;
q&mawmfOD;OwÅr udk,fawmf\ wxyfpm qGrf;bkOf;ay;awmfrljcif;aywnf;/

304 
]rSD;}aom 0w¦Krsm;

1917ckESpf? rwfvxkwf yxrOD;qkH; ol&d,r*¾Zif;wGif uREkfyf\


]]armifodef;wif rodef;&Sif}} 0w¦Kwdkwyk'fxnfhoGif;NyD;aemuf wdkuftkyfOD;vSaz
u &Sm;avmh[krf;  (Sherlock  Holmes)  \ pkHaxmuf0w¦Krsm;udk rSD;NyD;
jrefrm0w¦Ka&;&ef tBuHay;onfhtavsmuf {NyDvxkwf ol&d,r*¾Zif;wGif
]pkHaxmufarmifpH&Sm;}0w¦Ka&S;OD;pGm ay:xGufvmygawmh onf/ xdkpOfurl
t*Fvdyfpmwwfol ,ckxuf &Sm;ao;onfhtxJwGif 0w¦Kzwfolrsm;vnf;
tvGefenf;yg;Muao;&um; armifpH&Sm;0w¦KrsKd;zwf&olwkdUu armifpH&Sm;
onf a&TOa'gif;\ pdwful;jzifha&;om;jcif; jzpfonf[k rSwfxifMu\/
armifpH&Sm;0w¦Kudkvnf;aumif;? &wemykH0w¦Kudkvnf;aumif; taMumif;jyKí
a&SOa'gif;tm; csD;usL;pum;ajymoHrsm;udk uREkfyfMum;&onfhtcg &efBuD;
atmif0w¦KudkcsD;usL;jcif;uJUokdUuRekfyf*kPfr,lrdjcif;rSefygonf/ tcsKdUaom
t*Fvdyfpmwwfrsm;url uREkfyftm;  (Plagiarism)  ckd;csonf[k ESdyfESdyfe,fe,f
pGyfpJGcsifMuygonf/ cdk;csjcif;[lonfrSm vlrodatmif wuGufwav
cdk;csjcif;rsKd;udkqdkvdkí taemufwdkif;jynfrsm;ü tBuD;tus,f &Iwfcsjcif;
jzpfyg\/ armifpH&Sm; tp&Sdaom uREkfyf\0w¦Krsm;rSm wenf;tm;jzifh
bmomjyefrQomjzpf&m wdkuf&dkufjyefcJUvQif Eke,fao;aom jrefrmpmzwf
y&dowftzdkUü pdwf0ifpm;rI enf;yg;vdrfhrnf[k od&Sd&aomaMumifh ]rSD;}&kH
oabmrsKd;jzifh a&;om;jcif; jzpfygonf/ þacwfwGif pmzwfolaygrsm;vm
ojzifh ]rSD;}jcif;xuf wdkuf&dkufoufoufjyefjcif;onf omíoifhavsmfonf[k
qdkcsifqdkEdkifaomfvnf; vGefcJUaomESpfaygif; 40ausmf tcsdefurl ]rSD;aom
0w¦KrsKd;udkyif (wdkuf&dkufbmomjyefjcif;xuf) ydkí zwfcsifMuygonf/

305 
]rSD;}aom tvkyfonf pma&;q&mtwGufpm;omonfum; rSefygonf/
aemufayguf pma&;q&muav;rsm;onf a&S;vlrsm; pm;omjcif;udk remvdk
Muonfh vu©PmESifh awmifaumf ajrmufaumf uavmf a&;om;Mujcif;rQom
jzpf[efwlygonf/ uREkfyfonf vnf;aumif;? uREkfyfaemufü]rSD;}Muaom
pma&;q&mrsm;onfvnf;aumif; rdrdwdkU ]rSD;}aom 0w¦Kpmtkyfrsm;
atmifjrifrIaMumifh vufraxmif&JMuonf r[kwfyg/ olrsm;xuftvsifarG;í
pm;vdkuf&ayonf[lí om atmufarhMuygonf/

yxrOD; *sme,f

&efBuD;atmif0w¦K &wemykH0w¦K? &lyeE´D0w¦K? pkHaxmufarmifpH&Sm;0w¦K?


&wemyl&0w¦K ponfrsm;udka&;om;NyD;aomtcgwGif a&TOa'gif;[laom
trnfrSm tawmfwufvmcJUygavNyD/ xdkpOfurl 0w¦KbufwGifyDrdk;eif;ESifh
uREkfyftjyif xifxif&Sm;&Sm; ray:xGufao;onfjzpfí *kPf,lavmufatmif
r&SdvSyg/ a&;orQ 0w¦Krsm;a&mif;í pGH&kHrQavmufom &SdMuyg\/ okdUaomf
uREkfyf&&Sdaom ]rlydkif}wefzdk;aiGrSm renf;vSyg/ Oyrm &wemyl& 0w¦KtwGuf
ol&d,wdkufrS aiG600d &cJUbl;&m ¤if;aiGrSm þacwfaiG 3000d
xufrenf;aom wefzkd;&SdaomaMumifh awmfawmf[efonf[k qdkEdkifavmufyg
\/ xdktcsdefwGif v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;bufü rdwfaqGjzpfcJUaom udkcifarmif
wifhrSm &efukefNrdKU ukefonfvrf;wGif bm;rm;a[mufpf  (Burma  House) 

trnfESifh jrefrmjynfjzpf opfom;yef;yk? qifpG,fyef;yk? aiGxnf?


,Gef;xnfpaom ypönf;rsm;udk EdkifiHjcm;om; c&D;onfrsm;odkU a&mif;onfh
qdkifwqdkif zGifhvSpfí tawmfwGifus,fpGm a&mif;csvsuf&S\
d / udkcifarmifwifh
ESifh uREkfyfonfjrefrmhAsL[m*sme,fac: &ufowÅywfpOfxkwf pmapmifudk

306 
xkwfa0cJU&m jrefrmjynfwGif yxrOD;qkH; ]*sme,f}jzpfavonf/ ¤if;*sme,frSm
wapmifwrwfa&mif;í yef;a&mifrsufESmzkH; &Sdav&m *sme,fxGufaom
paeaeUnaersm;ü pma&;pmcsDrsm;\ vufwGif wtkyfpD ukdifvmMuojzifh
wNrdKUvkH; eDoGm;rwwf jrif&jcif;rSm vkH;0wm0ef,lum pwifpDpOf
xkwfa0&aom uREkfyftzdkU&mü MunfEl;tm;wufzG,f aumif;vSygayonf/
¤if;*sme,frSm udkcifarmifwifhu aiGpdkufí uREkfyfu tvkyftm;vkH;twGuf
wm0efcHjzpfavonf/ jrefrmhAsL[m *sme,frSm yxrOD;qkH; *sme,fjzpfí
y&dowf\ tm;ay;jcif;udk cH,l&&Sdygvsuf oufwef; r&Snf&jcif;rSm
udkcifarmifwifhESifh uREkfyfwdkUESpfa,mufvkH;\ aysmhnHUrIESifh EkHcsmrIaMumifh
jzpfavonf/ uREkfyftzdkU&mü pdwful;bufwGifvnf;aumif;? ta&;tom;
bufwGifvnf;aumif; rnHUvSaomfvnf; tvkyfwckudk wm0ef,lcsifonfh
av;pm;rIr&Sdjcif;? udkcifarmifwifhbufü jrefjrefoaX;jzpfcsifjcif;wnf;
[laom cRwf,Gif;csuf &Sdjcif;wkdUaMumifh *sme,fuav; ysuf&jcif; twGuf
uREkfyfESajrmvSonf/

,Of,Ofuav; zsufqD;jcif;

þae&mü udkcifarmifwifhESifh uREkfyftaMumif;udk tenf;i,f


azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/ rEÅav;NrdKUv,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;Xmebufü twlwuG
tvkyfvkyfMupOf udkcifarmifwifhonf aysmfaysmfaecsifwwfolwa,muf
jzpfaomfvnf; ol\pdwfwkdif;us &&Sdxm;aom r,m;udk av;pm;onfhtwGuf
aMumifhtvnftywfem;ygaMumif; azmfjycJUbl;&m &efukefodkUa&mufaomtcg
ürl ol\yxrtdrfaxmif ysufpD;í 'kwd,tdrfaxmifrSm rdef;racsmwa,muf
jzpfNyD; wOD;wnf;arG;xm;onfh tvGefcspfpzG,faumif;aom om;uav;

307 
wa,mufESifh [efusvsuf&Sdaomfvnf; av;pm;rIt&mwGif yxrtdrfaxmif
udkrrSDacs/ cspfcifMuifemrIum; wlygvdrfhrnf/ av;pm;rIum; rwlacs/
þwGifudkcifarmifwifhonf aysmfaysmfaecsifwwfaom 0goemtwdkif;
tdrfrSxGufí aysmfaomtcsdefrsm;cJUavNyD/ uREkfyfonfol\erlem udkMunYf
jcif;tm;jzifh pHa'0DESifh taMumif;ygcJUvQif awmfawmfNidrfvdrfhrnf[k ,lqrd
jcif; jzpfygonf/
,ckaomf uREkfyfrSm yxrESifh'kwd,tdrfaxmifwkdUtay:wGif pHa'0D
uJUodkUav;pm;rIr&Sd&um; udkcifarmifwifhESifh ]buf}&í twlwuG aysmfaysmf
aecJUMuygawmhonf/ okdU&mwGifuREkfyfwdkUaysmfjcif;rSm [dkw,fwckrS wckodkU
ajymif;NyD; bdvd,ufxdk;,if; bD,maomufMujcif;rQomjzpfygonf/
bdvd,ufxkd;jcif;? bD,mwykvif;wavaomufjcif;wkdUonf tjypfBuD;rsm;
r[kwfaomfvnf; pkaygif;vkdufonfhtcgürl aysmfonfxuf aysmfcsifaompdwf
rsKd; waeUwjcm; jyif;xefvmí ,Of,Ofuav;ESifhvludkzsufqD;aom
aysmfenf;rsKd;[lí uREkfyfrSwfcsufcsvdkufonf/ tjcm;vlrsm;twGuf
rajymwwf? uREkfyfESifh udkcifarmifwifhwkdUrSmrl þtwGufaMumifh
tawmf'PfcH vdkfuf&ygonf/ 'Pf[lonfrSm tjcm;r[kwf? tkd;ESifhqef
rwefavmufatmif ydkufqHukefusjcif;yifjzpf\/ uREkfyfrSm xdkpOfu
vcESifh0w¦Ka&;jcif;twGuf pkpkaygif; 200d ausmf &&Sdygvsuf (aiG 200d
onfxdkacwfü tawmfBuD; t&ma&mufonf/) nwdkif; 5usyf? 10d
okH;jzKef;csifonfhtwGuf tb,frSm acsmifcsdEdkifygtHUenf;/ uREkfyfwdkU\
tjypfum; tjcm;r[kwf? vcwaxmifausmf&aom t*Fvdyft&m&SdBuD;rsm;\
aysmfyg;enf;rsKd;udk bdvdjyefq&m udkcifarmifwifh\ vrf;jyjcif;t&
oGm;&nfusí twkcdk;rdjcif;yifjzpfavonf/

308 
[efBuD;yefBuD;vkyfrdjcif;

þtawmtwGif; uREkfyf\ajczsm;axmufaom tjypfuav;rsm;vnf;


yg&Sdao;\/ 1917-20 jynfhESpfrsm;wGif ol&d,aeUpOfowif;pmtwGuf
0w¦Krsm;udk uREkfyfwa,mufwnf; ]'kdifcH}a&;&aom tjzpfodkUa&mufcJUavNyD/
ol&d,aeUpOfowif;pm t,f'DwmOD;buav;onf tjcm;pma&;q&mrsm;
ydkUMuonfh0w¦Krsm;udkvnf; rBudKuf? uREkfyftm;vnf; a&;ay;zkdUrajymcsifyJ
jzpfae\/ uREkfyfrSmvnf;jrefrmhAsL[m*sme,f? jrefrmhEk*¾[*sme,f
ponfwkdUwGif aps;EIef;aumif;aumif;ESifh a&;&aomaMumifh ol&d,aeUpOf
twGufrl olwkdUuawmif;rS a&;ay;awmhrnf[k [efBuD;yefBuD;vkyfvm\/
þwGifOD;buav;onf tjcm;pma&;q&m wa,mufa&;onfh 0w¦Kwyk'fudk
aeUpOfowif;pmwGif xkH;pHtwkdif; xnfhay;vdkuf&m wvrQrMumrD
pmzwfolrsm;u 0dkif;íqlMuojzifh &yfypfvkduf&\/ okdUESifhuREkfyftm;vnf;
ta&;rcdkif;? uREkfyfuvnf; r*¾Zif;twGufom wm0ef&Sdoljzpfí
aeUpOfowif;pmtwGuf rcdkif;yJra&;[k ayuyfae\/ ol&d,wkdufwGif
txufydkif;vlBuD;rsm;jzpfMuaom OD;vSaz? OD;bazESifh OD;buav;wkdUonf
uREkfyfuJUodkUaom tjcm;vkyfom;rsm;tay: wGif AsL&dku&ufqefMuonf[k
uREkfyfxifaomaMumifh uREkfyfu wrifwum uyfzJUvkyfjcif;jzpf\/
uREkfyfESihftwl ESpfvcefUtvkyfvkyfoGm;bl;onfh yDrdk;eif; uvnf;
þtwdkif;yif xifjrifcsuf&Sdí uREkfyftm; ajrSmufay;bl;onf/ þonfrSm
uREkfyf\tjypf[lírxif/ tjcm;ae&mrsm;wGif odyfonf;pGm aexdkifwwfygu
uRekfyfyif rEdkifapOD;? t&IH;xGufvdrfhrnfrxifyg/ ,ckrSm &orQaiGudk

309 
udkcifarmifwifhESifhtwl (azmfjycJUonfhenf;twkdif;) vufusefrxm;yJ
okH;jzKef;ypfcsifwwfonfh uREkfyf\tusifhqdk;aMumifh tnHUcHcJU&bl;ygonf/

tqifrajyrIrsm;

ol&d,wdkufESifh ywfoufí uREkfyftnHUcHcJU&ykH tjcif;t&mudk


razmfjyrD ol&d,wkdufom;tcsKdUESifh uREkfyftqifrajyrIuav;rsm;&SdykHudk
azmfjyygOD;rnf/ ol&d,t,f'Dwm tzJGUwGif uREkfyfonfvctBuD;qkH;
r[kwfaomfvnf; (OD;bazESifh OD;vSaz 300d rQpD vnf;aumif;? OD;buav;
180d rQvnf;aumif;? vG,ftdwfOD;bvIdifESifh olBuD;a*Zuf OD;cifarmifwkdUrSm
uRekfyfESifh ydefromvdrfromrQvnf;aumif;? udkboef;rSm uREkfyfESifh
wef;wlrQvnf;aumif; &&SdMuonf/ wkduftkyfESpfa,mufrSwyg;) uREkfyfrSm
0w¦Krsm;ESifh tjcm;pmayrsm; a&;om;jcif;aMumifh 0ifaiGtaumif;qkH;
wa,mufjzpfae\/ &efukefom;wa,mufr[kwfyJ raeUwaeUurS
&efukefodkU a&mufvmoljzpfonfESifh <um;vdkvSír[kwf? tnmom;wa,muf
taejzifh txifao;rcH&apjcif;iSm awmfawmfBuD; ajymifajymifvufvuf
0wfqifavh&Sd\/ (xdkacwfrSm þacwfESifhrwl? a,musfm;csif;
tNydKif0wfaom acwfjzpf\/) þacwfwGifacgif;aygif;vnf; ae&mwdkif;
raygif;Mu? csnfvkHcsnfESifh bkHbdkifzdeyfavmufjzihf NyD;Muolrsm;aomfvnf;
xdkacwfürl pma&;pmcsD twef;tpm;vlrsm;onf udk,fwdkifaygif;&aom
bDataygif; (armifhusufoa&acgi;faygif;r[kwf) ydk;? okdUr[kwf ouúvyf?
odkUr[kwf wmzufwmtuFsD? aemfefx&uf? odkUr[kwfquúZkH; paomzdeyf
aumif;rsm;udk vlwdkif;vdk 0wfqifMuonf/

310 
uREkfyf\ toufwmwavQmufvkH;wGif (xdkacwfuuJUodkU &efukefNrdKUü
a,mufsm;csif;t0wfNydKifaomacwfudk rBuKHcJU&bl;ay) wdkuftkyfOD;vSazrSm
ydk;om;awmif&Snfudk aeUwdkif;0wfí vkHcsnfESifhtvkyfwufaomaeUyif
rjrifbl;acs/ t,f'Dwm OD;buav;vnf; ydk;vkHcsnf ]xnfvJ}ESifh
opfvGifaom tuFsD? zdeyfrsm;udk aeUwdkif;0wf\/ OD;bazum; (aiGpkorm;
wa,mufjzpfí) t0wftpm;bufwGif oifhwifh&kHrQ 0wfavonf/ uREkfyf
rlum; 0ifaiGaumif;onfhjyif ]tnmom;}udk txifao;rcHEdkifonfh
twGufaMumifh OD;buav; paom vlpkxuf rnHUatmif 0wfqifcJUonf/
uREkfyf\ *dkufqdkufajymif;vJvmjcif;udk jrifMu&aomtcg uREkfyftm;
rsufESmxm;wrsKd;ESifh MunfhMuonf[k uREkfyfxifonf/ olwkdUa&SUrS
uREkfyfjzwfoGm;í vGefvmNyD;rS &kwfw&uf zsyfueJ vSnfhMunfhvdkufaomtcg
olwkdUtcsif;csif; ]rsufpypf}jyjcif;udk uREkfyfjrifvkduf&bl;onf/ rSm;onf
jzpfap ? rSefonfjzpfap uREkfyftm; tjcm;wkdufom;rsm;u 0dkif;NyD;
remvdkvsuf&Sdonf[k uREkfyftxifa&mufvsuf&SdavNyD/

ol&dt,f'DwmtzGJU

þokdUaom tajctaewGif olwkdUESifha&maESmaygif;oif;jcif;onf


taumif;qkH;enf;vrf;jzpfjcif;udkvnf;aumif;? a&maESmjcif;tvkyfwGifvnf;
rdrdutemcHí ]arQm}jcif;onf t&ma&mufqkH;jzpfjcif;udkvnf;aumif;
aemifaomtcgü uREkfyfem;vnfygonf/ Oyrm [dkw,fwckü
¤if;wdkUa&mufaeMupOfuREkfyf0ifoGm;aomtcg olwkdUpm;yJGwGif 0ifxdkifNyD;
wcGufpDwdkufvdkufvQif (uREkfyfwwfvnf;wwfEdkifygonf/) tajctae

311 
tawmfaumif;oGm;rnfjzpf\/ xdkuJUodkU ESpfBudrfokH;Budrf 0wfjyKvdkufygu
tm;vkH; ae&musoGm;&rnfjzpf\/ ,ckaomf uREkfyftm; qD;írac:aom
vlrsm;[kqdkum xdkvlpkudk rjrifcsifjyKí olwkdUESifhta0;qkH;aom
pm;yJGwckodkUoGm;NyD; wa,mufwnf; xdkifaomuf\/ (ol&d,t,f'DwmtzJGU
wGif vlvwfydkif;url vG,ftdwfOD;bvIdifrSwyg; tenf;tusOf;aomufwwf
olrsm;ygonf/ okdUaomf,pfxkyfrsm;um; r[kwfMuyg/ ao&nft&ufaomuf
jcif;ESifh ywfoufí vltrsm;ESifhuREkfyft,ltq uGJvJGrI&Sd\/ aemufydkif;wGif
tcsKdUvlrsm;onf uREkfyftm; ]]yDrdk;eif;BuD;wa,muft&ufaomufwwfw,f
qdk}}[k ar;wwfMu&m uREkfyfu ]]uRefawmfvJaomufwwfwmyJ}}[k vkH;ydk
oufoufjznfhpGufajzqdkavh&Sdygonf/) xdkpOfu t,f'DwmtzGJU0ifrsm;teuf
aemiftcgwGifraeEdkifonfh ],pfxkyf}jzpfoGm;Muolrsm;vnf; &SdMuonf/
okdUaomf uREkfyfrlum; xdkuJU odkUrjzpfapyJ rdrd\pdwfudk xdef;odrf;EdkifcJUjcif;
twGuf auseyfygonf/ aomufwwfbl;jcif;twGuf &Sufp&mBuD;wck
[lír,lqyg/ uREkfyf\tbdk;u]]a,mufsm;uav;qdkwm ]pkH}rSuG,fh}}[l aom
pum;wvkH;udk uREkyfoabmusbl;aMumif; azmfjycJU&m ]pkH}jcif;[lonf rSm
ok&mar&, oufoufudkom qdkvdkjcif;r[kwfaMumif;udk a&SUwGif
tvsOf;oifhaomae&mü &Sif;vif;azmfjy&ygOD;rnf/

tjrifuwfp&mvlwa,muf

uREkfyftm; 0ifaiGuav;aumif;í ]axmifvTm;aom tnmom;


wa,muf}[k tcsKdUwkdufom;rsm;u tjrifuwfvmMunf[k uREkfyfxifvm
aomtcsdefrSpí uREkfyfonf azmfjycJUonfhenf;twdkif; a&maESmzdkU rBudK;pm;
awmhyJ (BudK;pm;xdkufonf[lívnf; uREkfyfem;rvnfao;) omí tjrifuwf

312 
atmifvkyfcsifaom pdwfrsKd;om jzpfay:vmygawmhonf/ xdkacwfü uGrf;NcH
(&efukef)blwmteD; yef;qdk;wef;vrf;ay:wGif ]qdk&S,f&JUpfawm&ifh}ac:
[dkw,fü bdvd,ufckHrsm;&Sd&m ¤if;wGifuREkfyf bdvd,ufxdk;avh&Sdojzifh
[dkw,fydkif&Sif Adkvfujym; vifr,m;ESifh tuRrf;w0ifjzpfvm\/ ¤if;wkdUü
a'gufuwfaumif;wck&Sd&m olwdkUujym; tcsif;csif;tm; wem&Dig;usyfEIef;
jzifh iSm;avh&Sd\/ jrefrmrsm;tm;rlum; olwdkUuvnf;riSm;? iSm;pD;aom
jrefrmrsm;vnf;&Sm;vSonf/ uREkfyfrlum; olwdkUvifr,m;ESifh tuRrf;w0if
&Sdí ¤if;EIef;twdkif;iSm;\/
uREkfyfa'gufuwf armif;wwfjcif;udkvnf; olwdkUod\/ okdUjzpfí
a'gufuwfudknae5em&DwGif ol&d,wdkufodkUydkU&ef uREkfyfrSmxm;NyD;
ol&d,wdkufü wOD;wnf;aom rdwfaqG ]oHwGJarmif}tm;vnf;ajymxm;\/
nae5em&Dxkd;í wdkufom;rsm;onf tvkyfrSqif;vmMuojzifh wdkfufa&SUü
vIyfvIyf&G&G&SdaeMuonf/ uREkfyf (xdkaeUtzdkUtxl;wvnfqifvmcJUonfh
t0wfopfrsm;jzifh) oHwGJarmifESifhtwl wdkufay:rS qif;vmNyD;a'gufuwfay:
odkU wufum ql;avbk&m;vrf;wavQmuf armif;vmcJUav\/ jrif;BuD;rSm
acsmacsmvSvSESifh tquftuGif;usí xGm;BudKif;aom tvkH;t&yf&Sday&m
,ckuJUodkU rdkwmum; toGm;tvm rjrm;vSao;onfh ql;avbk&m;
(uwÅ&map;) vrf;BuD;ay:wGif uREkfyfwdkUa'gufuwfjrif;BuD;\ cGmoHBuD;rsm;
onf wajzmif;ajzmif;wajAmif;ajAmif;jzifh wbufpDwvkH;pD yDDyDoo
jrnfcsoGm;av\/ a&SUüawGUaom vHcsm;rsm;ESifh jrif;&xm;rsm;udkvnf;
wa'gifa'gifw'if'ifjrnfatmif bJvfudk aqmifheif;jcif;tm;jzifh z,f&Sm;
ap\/ þtjcif;t&mudk jrifMuaom ol&d, wdkufom;rsm;teuf uREkfyfwkdU
ESpfa,muftm; (txl;ojzifh a'gufuwfarmif; aoma&TOa'gif;tm;)
tjrifruyfaom ol&d,wdkufom; cyf&Sm;&Sm;&Sdvdrfhrnfxifonf/ uREkfyf\

313 
OmOfqkd;wckrSmvnf; uREkfyftm; taMumif;rJUtjrifuwfol? remvdkolrsm;udk
wkd;í tjrifuwfatmif? remvdkatmif vkyf&jcif;onf t&omwckjzpf\/
þ0goemrSm uREkfyftzdkU&mü azsmufzsufzdkUtcJ,Of;qkH;wck jzpfaeygawmh
onf/ þenf;jzifh uREkfyfESifh oHwJGarmifwdkUonf wywfvQif ESpfBudrfrQ
avmuf uefawmfBuD;odkU avnSif;cH xGufM uav&m oluvnf; þZdrfrsKd;udk
vQmvnfvmonfjzpfí wvSnfhwywfwGif tukeftuscHygavonf/
uREkfyfonf rdkwmum;udkawmh rarmif;bl;yg/ odkU&mwGif a'gufuwf
aumif;aumif;wGif jrif;&G&GvSvS wyfí armif;&jcif;onf ]armif;}jcif;wum
wdkUwGif Zdrft&SdqkH;[lí qdkcsifygonf/

csJvifhcsf vkyfrdbl;jcif;

waeUoü oHwGJarmifESifh ol&d,wdkuf pma&;wa,mufonf


(rnfonfh taMumif;aMumifh[lí rrSwfrdawmh) wdkufxJwGif pum;rsm;Mu&mrS
&efjzpfMuav&m pma&;onf oHwGJarmiftm; ta0;BuD;rSajy;vmNyD;
ajcaxmufESifhuefausmufvdkufojzifh oHwGJarmif ,dkifoGm;\/ vlESpfa,muf
rSmvkH;wl&yfwl cyfxGm;xGm;csnf;jzpfí vufa0SUyJG Munfh&awmhrnf[k
arQmfvifhMu\/ okdU&mwGif oHwGJarmifonf pma&;udk wkHUjyefuefausmuf
onfjzpfap? ,kwfpGmhtqkH; vufoD;ESifh xdk;onfjzpfap jyKvkyf&rnfhtpm;
pm;yJGwckodkUajy;NyD; riftdk;wvkH;udk aumuf,lum pma&;tm; ayguf\/
rxdrSefacs/ þwGifoHwGJarmifonf awmifajy; ajrmufajy;ESifh vufeuf
wckckudk&Smav&m owif;pmwdkufjzpfí (olu &Sm[ef&Sdonfh) wkwf? "m;?
aoewfpaom vufeufaumif;rsKd;udk rawGU&acs/ xdktcg pma&;onf
aemufwcg uefausmufOD;rnf[k ajy;oGm;&ef [efjyifvsuf&SdpOf uREkfyfu

314 
]]a[hvlawmfawmhuG? rif;ucsnf; vkyfae&wmyJ}}[k ajymvdkufonfESifh
wefUoGm;NyD; &efyJGNyD;oGm;\/ oHwGJarmifrlum; olUpm;yJGwGifjyefxdkifum
tHoGm;Budwfjcif;? vufoD;qkwfjcif; ponfrsm;jzifh a'goudkjyvsuf&Sd\/
xdktcg uREkfyfonf pma&;u t,f'Dwmtm; wbufowf
uefausmufjcif;udk rcHcsifonfwaMumif;? oHwGJarmifudk oem;onf
waMumif;? uREkfyfutvkyfoGif;ay;aom t,f'DwmjzpfonfwaMumif;?
vkH;wl&yfwljzpfvsuf vufoD;csif;vnf; rxdk;? ajcaxmufcsif;vnf;
NydKifíruef0HUyJr&Sdaomvufeufudk &Smae&acsrnfavm[k pdwfaygufvm
onfwaMumif;aMumifh ]]a[hvl? rif;eJUigeJUwdkufacgifrdk;ay:wufNyD; wcsDwyJG
owfacsMupdkUvm;}}[k csJvifhcsf vkyfvdkuf\/ uREkfyfwdkUokH;a,mufvkH;rSm
vkH;wl &yfwl vefbm;csnf; jzpfíwu,fowfMuvQif rnfol&IH;rnf?
Edkifrnfudk cefUrSef;&efcJ,Of;ayvdrfhrnf/ uREkfyftzdkU&müum; bkef;BuD;ausmif;
om;b0wGif &G,fwlvQif vlra&G;qdkum xkd;owfcJhbl;onfh tavhtusifhrQ
avmufom tm;udk;&Sdygonf/ pma&;onf uREkfyftm; vSrf;Munfhí
]]cifAsm;eJUawmhrowfcsifbl; tajy;NydKifcsifw,f}}[k jyefajymavonf/
þtaMumif;t&mudk a&;om;azmjfy&jcif;rSm uREkfyf\owÅdudk odapvdkaom
aMumifh r[kwf&yg/ ol&d,wdkufrS uREkfyftvkyfjyKwf&mwGif þpma&;\
vufcsufyg&Sdjcif;udk azmfjy&OD;rnf jzpfaomaMumifhjzpfygonf/ oJwHGarmif
um; ol\toa&udk uREkfyfuq,fvdkaom&nf&G,fcsufjzifh pma&;csJvifhcsf
vkyfonf[k em;vnfrwl? aemifwGif [dkw,fwckü uREkfyfudk ykvif;ESifh
&dkufrnf BuHpnfbl;av&m uREkfyf\nDu olUtBuHudkodí vkHcsnfxJü
0Sufxm;aom ykvif;udkxkwf,lvdkufEdkifonfESifh tBuHysufoGm;ygawmhonf/
(,cktcsdefü pma&;a&m oHwJGarmifyg uG,fvGefukef&SmMuavNyD/)

315 
rdbESpfyg;udk yifhac:cJUjcif;

1920 jynfhESpf? Mo*kwfvwGif uREkfyfonf (vkyfouf okH;ESpfwGif


cGifhwvay;aom ol&d,wdkufpnf;urf;twkdif;) tcGifhwv,lí om;r,m;
rsm;ESifhtwl 0ufvufü&Sdaom rdbrsm;xHokdU tvnfoGm;Mu&ef jyifqif\/
uREkfyfESifhtwlaeaom nDvnf;ygonf/ (vGefcJUaom wESpfavmufu
uREkfyfonfol&d,wdkufwGif pma&;tvkyfwckvpfvyfí wkduftkyf OD;vSazxH
nDtwGuf avQmufxm;bl;\/ uREkfyf\nDrSm q&mjzpfpmar;yJGvnf; atmifí
t*Fvdyfa&m jrefrmpmta&;tom;wGif omrefpma&;rsm;xufomaMumif;
ajymxm;\/ aemufqkH;ü OD;vSazu wdkufwwdkufwnf;wGif vkyfom;
nDtpfudkcefUxm;aom ]rl}udk oabmrus aMumif;? wcgu
nDtpfudkESpfa,muf cefUxm;bl;onfhtwGuf vkyfom;tcsif;csif; jyóem
ay:ayguf&bl;aMumif;? ol\nDt&if; wa,mufudkyif ol&d,wdkufokdU
roGif;yJtjcm;ae&mwckwGif vkyfudkifapaMumif;ajymí jiif;y,fvdkufbl;
ygonf/ (uREkfyfonfoHwGJarmifESifh &efjzpfbl;onfh pma&;\ (&efrjzpfrDu)
rdwfqufay;jcif;aMumifh 0wfqifwdkufrS t0wftxnfESifhvlokH;ypönf;rsm;udk
]vcxkwfay;} ta<u;,lí vpOfay;qyfvmcJUonfrSm wESpfausmfcefU
&SdygavNyD/ tcGifhoGm;rnfhvürl tukeftusrsm;vdrfhrnfudk odonfESifh
a<u;,lxm;onfh aiG40dausmfudk rqyfcJUyJxm;cJUrdygonf/ uREkfyf\tBuHrSm
þvrqyfEdkifvQif aemufwGif ay;qyf&efjzpf&m ,cifuvnf;wpfBudrf
ESpfBudrfrQ þtwdkfif;vkyfcJUbl;\/ 0ufvufodkU a&mufMuí rdcif aps;a&mif;
&jcif;udk uREkfyfawGUaomtcg rdrdwwfEdkifaom wm0efudkxrf;rnfqdkum

316 
aps;qdkifudk jzKwfapí uREkfyfwdkUESifhtwl &efukefodkUvdkufae&ef rdbESpfyg;udk
ac:vmcJUyg onf/ om;orD;u auR;arG;jcif;udk rpm;csifwwfaom
uREkfyfrdcifu twefwefjiif;aomfvnf; uREkfyfu uREkfyfuJUodkUaom
om;wa,mufvkH; &SdvsufESifhrdcifu qdkifuav;a&mif;ae&jcif;rSm
uREkfyftzdkU&Sufp&maumif; onfqdkum taMumif;jyonfESifh pdwfrygwygESifh
vkdufvmMu&Smavonf/ 0ifaiG 200d? 300d qdkonfrSm xdkacwfü
pm;ae0wftwGufvkHavmufonf jzpf&m rvkHavmufao;vQifvnf; uREkfyf
tvkyfydkívkyfrnf? tydkokH;jzKef;jcif; rsm;udk avsmhypfrnf[k tm;cJxm;cJU
ygonf/ uREkfyfwkdUrdom;pkonf aysmfaysmf yg;yg; c&D;oGm;Murnf
qdkumrD;&xm;jzifh rjyefyJ oabFmjzifhpkefqif;vmMu&m uREkfyftvkyfjyef0ifzdkU
&ufraphrD w&ufwGif &efukefodkUqdkufa&muf&efjzpfavonf/ odkU&mwGif
vrf;c&D;ü aomifwifvsuf&Sdaom tpdk;&oabFmwpfpif;udk uREkfyfwdkU
oabFmu oJoJrJrJ qGJcszdkU BudK;pm;onfESifh tcsdefw&ufzifhoGm;\/
aomifwifaomoabFmudkvnf; vufavQmhíxm;cJUonf/

rvdkolrsm;\vufcsuf

&efukefodkU jyefa&mufonfrSm w&ufaemufusaomfvnf; tpdk;&tvkyf


r[kwfojzifh udpör&SdEdkifqdkum pdwfylyefjcif; r&Sdacs/ nwGifoabFmqdkufí
aemufwaeUü tvkyfwdkufodkUoGm;aomtcg tvkyform;rsm;onf uREkfyftm;
rsufESmxm;wrsKd;ESifh MunfhMujcif;udk uREkfyf&dyfrd\/ okdU&mwGiftaMumif;jcif;
&mudkrlum; uREkfyfbmrS rod&ao;ay/ uREkfyfonfrdrd\pm;yGJwGifxdkifum
pm&Gufrsm;udk&Sif;vif;vsuf&SdpOf wdkuftkyfOD;vSaza&mufvmí uREkfyfxHodkU

317 
pmwapmifydkUvkduf\/ ¤if;rSm xkacsvTmawmif;onfhpmyifjzpfavonf/
xkacs&rnfh tcsufrsm;rSm (1)cGifhwv,l&m w&ufaemufusí jyefa&muf
jcif;? (2) 0ufqifwdkfufrS ukefypönf;rsm;udk ol&d,wdkuf vufaxmuf
refae*sm[kqdkum ta<u;,ljcif;wdkUjzpfavonf/ þESpfcsufteuf w&uf
aemufusjcif;rSm azmfjycJUNyD;onfhtwdkif; oabFmqdkufa&mufjcif; aemufus
aomaMumifhjzpfí ta&;rBuD;vSacs/ 'kwd,tcsufrSm [kwfcJUvQif
ta&;BuD;ay&m [kwfr[kwf&Sif;jyef&ef vdkayonf/ uREkfyfonf¤if;pGyfpGJcsuf
jzpfay:&jcif;ESifh ywfoufí pkHprf;Munfhaomtcg uREkfyfcGifhoGm;cdkufwGif
0ufqifukrÜPDonf ol&d,wdkufBuD;udk a<u;0g;&rf;uyfxm;aMumif;?
eHeuftcsdefwGifOD;vSaz a&mufvmaomtcg wHcg;wGif uyfxm;onfh
0g;&rf;pm&Gufudkjrifí uREkfyftay:üta<u;aiGav;q,f &&ef&SdaomaMumifh
0g;&rf;uyfonf Mum;&onfwGif uREkfyftm;pdwfqdk;aMumif; uREkfyfuvnf;
vufaxmuf refae*sm tjzpfESifh ta<u;,lonf[k qdkaomaMumifh
OD;vSazomípdwfqdk; aMumif; od&Sd&av\/

qufpyif;cscH&jcif;

þpGyfpJGcsufudk xkacs&mü ta<u;,ljcif; r,ljcif;onf ta&;r[kwf/


vufaxmufrefae*sm[laom &mxl;udk tokH;jyKí,ljcif; [kwf r[kwfonf
omta&;BuD;\/ xdkpOftcgu 0ufqifwdkufonftvkyftudkif&Sdaom pma&;
pmcsDrsm;tm;yif ]vcxkwfay;}ta<u;ay;vsuf&Sd&m ol&d,wdkfuft,f'Dwm
wa,mufjzpfaom uREkfyftzdkUrSm vufaxmufrefae*sm wa,muf[lí
vdrfvnfvSnfhzsm;aezdkUrvdkjcif;rSm tvGef&Sif;aomtcsufjzpf\/ wif&Sdaom
ta<u;rSmvnf; 40drQomjzpfí rnfonfhtvkyform;tm;rqdk ,kHMunfEdkif

318 
avmufaom ta<u;jzpf\/ odkUygvsuf oHwGJarmifESifh &efjzpfaompma&;
onfolUudkcsJvifhcsfvkyfonfhtwGuf uREkfyftay:ü tmCmwxm;onfh
vu©PmESifh uREkfyfr&Sdcdkuf 0ufqifukrÜPDtm;bmawGajymonfrqdkEdkif/
ol&d,wdkufodkU 0g;&rf;vmuyfjcif; jzpfavonf/ rnfodkUyifjzpfap
uREkfyfonf vufaxmufrefae*sm wa,muftaejzifh ta<u;,ljcif;
rjzpfEfdkifonffudkOD; pGm xkacsí OD;vSazxHodkU wifydkUvdkuf&m OD;vSazu
þudpöudk pkHprf;&eftwGuf uREkfyftm;qwfpfyif;  Suspension  vkyfvdkuf
onf[laom pmjyefvmonfESifh uREkfyftdrfodkUjyefvmcJUonf/ uREkfyfonf
xdktcsdefürl b,folawGu acsmufcsxm;onf[k r&dyfrdao;yJ
uREkfyf\tvGef&Sif;aomxkacscsufudk &kwfw&uf vufrcHjcif;rSm tukodkvf
uH zdpD;ESdyfpufjcif; oufoufjzpfonf[k oabmydkufvsuf&Sdonf/

tvkyfjzKwfcH&jcif;

tdrfodkUjyefa&mufí rdbrsm;tm; tjzpftysufudkajymjyaomtcg zcif


onf q&mvGef;uodonfESifh xdknwGif ¤if;\tdrfokdUoGm;\ uREkfyftzdkUrSmrl
tu,fítvkyfjyKwfapOD;awmh a&TOa'gif;trnfESifh 0w¦Ka&;pm;vQif
,kwfpGtqkH; acRacRwmwm pm;Edkifavmufonf[k ,kHMunfaomaMumifh
pdwfylyefavmufatmif r&SdvS/ okdUaomf rdbrsm;udk ZGwfac:vmcJUonfh
tacgufwGifrS pdwfrcsrf;omzG,f jzpf&onfqdkum olwkdUtwGuf
0rf;enf;rdygonf/ xdknüzcifjyefvmaomtcg q&mvGef;vnf; ygvm\/
uREkfyfMum;od&onfrSm zcifESifhq&mvGef;onf OD;vSaz\tdrfokdU a&mufcJU
aMumif;? tusKd;taMumif;udkajymjyaomtcg OD;vSazu ]q&mhvlu bmrS
0efrcHbl;q&m&JU? rcufbl;vm;}}[k ajymaMumif;? okdUjzpfí uREkfyfu

319 
0efcHapvdkaMumif;ESifh zcifua&m q&mvGef;uyg uREkfyftm;wdkufwGef;
Muav\/ uREkfyfu tjypfr&SdyJvsufESifh bmudkrS 0efcHp&mr&SdaMumif;
ajymaomtcg zcifu ]]bmyJjzpfjzpf tazwdkUpdwfcsrf; omatmif 0efcHvdkfufyg
ighom;&,f}}[k zdíajymjyef&m q&mvGef;uvnf; ulnDíajymjyef\/
olwkdU\xifjrifcsufum; [kwf[kwfr[kwf[kwf OD;vSazu 0efcHapvdkonfh
twdkif; 0efcHvdkufí tvkyfrjyKwfvQif tm;vkH;at;oGm;rnf[k qdkMuav
onf/ uREkfyfum;rBuKHwwfatmifjzpfaeavNyD/ tptqkH; ouFm&Sif; cGifh&
vQif uREkfyfütjypfr&SdaMumif; azmfjyEdkifavmufygvsuf zcifESifhq&mvGef;
wkdUu wzufowfzdNyD; 0efcHcdkif;aeMu&mwGif jiif;qef&ef rwwfEdkifawmhyJ
¤if;wkdU\qE´twkdif; vdkufemygawmhrnf[k ajymNyD;vQif pm&Gufw&GufwGif
]]uRefawmf0efcHygonf}}[ka&;í q&mvGef;\vufodkU ay;vdkufojzifh
q&mvGef;vnf; NyKH;NyKH;&Gif&GifjyefoGm;av\/ xdkUaemuf &ufowÅwywfcefU
avmufwGif uREkfyf\]trI}udk 'g&dkufwmbkwftzGJUodkU wifíaqG;aEG;NyD;vQif
uREkfyftm; tvkyfrSxkwfy,fvdkufonf [laomtrdefU csrSwfvdkufMuav
onf/

,lusKH;r&jzpf&ykH

uREkfyf\jypfcsufrSm vufaxmufrefae*sm [efaqmifonfqdkjcif;yif


jzpf&m uREkfyfonf 0ufqifukrÜPDokdUvnf;aumif;? tjcm;wpkHwa,muf
aomyk*¾KdvfokdUvnf;aumif;? rdrdudk,fudkvufaxmufrefae*sm jzpfygonf[l
í EIwfjzifhvnf;aumif;? pmjzifhvnf;aumif; b,feHa&mtcgurS ajymqdk
a&;om;jcif;r&SdcJUbl;ygvsuf (trSefrSmvnf; vufaxmufrefae*sm
jzpf&jcif;xuf t,f'Dwmjzpf&jcif;udkuREkfyfydkí*kPf,lygonf/) zcifESifh

320 
q&mvGef;wkdU\ wdkufwGef;rIaMumifh ajzmifhcsufoabmrsKd;a&;ay;vdkufrdjcif;
twGuf,lusKH;r&jzpfrdygonf/ uREkfyftrIudk'g&dkufwmbkwftzGJUokdUwifí
uREkfyfudkppfaq;ygu vufaxmufrefae*sm [efraqmifbl;jcif;udk &Sif;vif;
atmif jyEdkifavmufygonf/ wdkfuftkyfOD;vSazonf uREkfyfudk tvG,fwul
jzKwfvdkonfhtwGufaMumifh ([kwf r[kwfawmhrajymwwf)0efcH cdkif;jcif;
jzpfonf[k awG;xifvdkufrd&mwGif wdkuftkyfOD;vSazESifh ywfoufí
uREkfyfaqmufvkyfxm;onfh ]avxJrS &JwdkufB uD;}onf wcgwnf; NydKus
ysufpD;oGm;ygawmhonf/

txufjrufqkH; ]ql;}BuD;aygufvmjcif;

&Sif;ygOD;tHU/ uREkfyfonf ol&d,wdkufokdUa&mufonfhaeUrSpí uREkfyf


xuf &mxl;BuD;onfh OD;vSaz? OD;bazESifh OD;buav;wdkU okH;a,mufudk
wapmif;rS tNrJapmifhítuJcwfcJU\/ OD;buav;onf uREkfyfxufvrQ
avmufomBuD;í bdvd,uf upm;bufvnf;jzpfjcif;? tvkyftm;jzifh
qufoG,frIvnf;r&Sdjcif;aMumifh ta&;wBuD;rxm;yJ wdkuftkyfESpfa,mufudk
ydkí *&kpdkufcJU\/ OD;bazum; uREkfyf\0w¦Krsm;udk ]aps;ESdrf}onf xif
uwnf;u ]vifaoa<u;yl}&Smaom pD;yGm;a&;orm;BuD; wa,mufjzpfonf?
ynmonfwa,mufudk csD;ajrSmufvdkolr[kwf[k qkH;jzwfumav;pm;rI
enf;yg;cJUygonf/ (OD;vSazxGufoGm;onfhaemuf uREkfyf\ 0w¦Krsm;pmrlrsm;
ESifh ywfoufí OD;bazESifh wywfausmhjyefquf &onfwGif pmrludk
jzefUMunfhNyD; pmwaMumif;wGif pmvkH;aygif; rnfrQyg0ifonf[k wvkH;pD
a&wGufMunfhjcif;udkvnf; uREkfyfjrif&bl;ygonf/ okdUaomf OD;bazonf
xdktcsdefwGif uREkfyfESifhtawmftweftuRr;f0ifvsuf &SdNyDjzpfí uREkfyftm;

321 
usDp,faomoabmESifh jyKvkyfjcif;vnf; jzpfEdkifygonf/ uREkfyfurl
]cJrSefbl;aompmoli,f} qdkbdodkU aps;EIef;ESifh ywfoufvmvQif OD;bazudk
vefUíomaeygawmhonf/) OD;vSazrlum; uREkfyf\0w¦Kpmrludk 200drS
600dxd wkd;ay;oljzpfí wdkuftkyfyifjzpfaomfvnf;ynmonfudk nSmwmwwf
onf[k uREkfyfem;vnfygonf/ xdkUjyif &dk;ajzmifhwnfhrwfjcif;? w&m;rQw
jcif;? (tenf;i,f[efBuD;onf xif&aomfvnf;) wdkfuftkyfyDoaom
um,dajE´&Sdjcif;? t*FvdyfjrefrmESpfbmomvkH;udk ususee a&;wwfjcif;?
(OD;aratmifvufatmufü t*Fvdyfxkwfaom  Burman  bm;rif;owif;pm
wGif t,f'DwmvkyfcJUbl;onf/) odu©morm"d&Sdí vlBuD;yDojcif;?
pdwfoabmxm;BuD;&ifhykH&jcif;? tvkyform;wa,mufudk zdírcdkif;jcif;?
pmtkyfawmfawmfrsm;rsm;zwfbl;onfh pmorm;wa,mufjzpf jcif; tp&Sdaom
*kPft*Fgt&nftcsif;wkdUESifh jynfhpkHaom vlBuD;wa,muf[lí uREkfyf
udk,fwdkif ,kHMunf&kHomru uREkfyf\rdbrsm;ESifhwuG awGUorQaom
uREkfyf\rdwfo*F[ taygif;wkdUtm;vnf; tm;&yg;& ajymjyavh&Sd\/
rEÅav;NrdKUü pDtD;tdktjzpfESifh trIxrf;oGm;bl;onfh uREkfyf\q&m
OD;bvIdifESifh ol&d,wdkuftkyf OD;vSazonf uREkfyfawGUbl;aom vlrsm;teuf
wGif t&dk;ajzmifhqkH;ESpfa,muf[lí trSwfonmxm;cJUygonf/ OD;vSazonf
uREkfyftm; tjypf&Sdonfqdkí &dk;&dk;enf;jzifhjzKwfypfygrlum; uREkfyfbmrQ
ajymp&mr&Sdyg/ ,ckrSm rvdrfhwywfenf;rsKd;jzifh 0efcHcdkif;NyD;rS jzKwfonf[k
uREkfyf,lqrdaomtcgwGif avmuü vl[lonfrSm wa,mufrQ
,kHMunfp&mr&Sd[laom xifjrifcsufwcka&mufvmí uREkfyf\obm0wGif
tawmfxufjrufcdkifrmaom ]ql;}BuD;wacsmif; aygufvmcJUjyefygonf/
þql;rSm BuD;jyif;vmaomtcgrS aygufvmaom ]ql;}jzpfonfhtwGufaMumifh
tawmf&ifhrmí xufjrufykH&ygonf/

322 
0w¦Ka&;pm;zdkUtBuH

uREkfyftm; tvkyfjzKwfvdkufjcif;udk q&mvGef;udk,fwdkif tdrfokdUvmí


ajymaomtcg q&mvGef;u ]armifazodef;&m rifhudk ol&d,wdkufwckwnf;
rSmvkyfpm;zdkU rifhtaru arG;xm;wmr[kwfygbl;uGm}}[kajym\/ uREkfyfvnf;
oabmaygufyg\/ uREkfyf\pdwfü xdcdkufjcif;rSm 0rf;a&;twGufr[kwf?
rdbESpfyg;wdkUudk ac:vmcJU&mwGifrS jzpf&aomaMumifh uREfkfyftwGuf
&Sufvnf; &Sufí rdbrsm;udkvnf;oem;onfwaMumif;? uREkfyftvGef
MunfndKaom wdkfuftkyfOD;vSazu rvdrfhwywfajymNyD; jzKwfypfonf[k
xifonfwaMumif;aMumifh 0rf;enf;rdjcif;jzpfygonf/ odkUaomf rnfonfh
udpötwGufjzpfapMum&SnfpGm pdwfrnpfwwfaom uREkfyf\0goemtwdkif;
av;ig;&ufrQ tem;aeNyD;aemuf tvkyfxGufí&Smygonf/ waeUwGif
uREkfyfwdkUaexdkifvsuf&Sdaom MunfhjrifwdkifrS &efukefodkUxGufvmcJUí
,cifu0w¦Ka&;ay;zdkUajymbl;aom ykHESdyfwdkufrsm;odkU 0ifípum;pyf\/
ykHESdyfwdkufom;rsm;onf uREkfyf\0w¦Krsm; pGHjcif;udkodí olwdkUtwGuf
a&;ay;&ef [dkuajymonfuajymESifh wdkufwGef;Mubl;&m uREkfyfrSm
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323 
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324 
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325 
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326 
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vu©PmESifh uREkfyftm; waphwapmif;rQomMunfhí ¤if;wdkUtcsif;csif;om

327 
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328 
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ygtawG;rsKd;udk armif;xkwfEdkifcJUygNyD/ oabFmay:wGif uREkfyfwkdUnDtpfudk
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329 
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330 
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331 
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&Sdckd;csifpdwf jzpfrdygonf/ xdkolonf ausmif;ü wwef;wnf; twl
ynmoifcJUolljzpfaomfvnf; ol\usDpm;wwfaom 0goemaMumifh uREkfyfESifh
tcifrifqkH; oli,fcsif;wa,mufr[kwfcJUay/ okdU&mwGif &efukefaumvdyf
ausmif;odkU a&mufaomtcgrSpí vli,f ]vlaemuf}uav;wa,muftjzpfrS
vlBuD;vlaumif;wa,muf jzpfoGm;&kHru udkuGef;? udkxGef;&Sdefpaom
vlawmfvlaumif;uav;rsm;ESifh aygif;oif;qufqH&jcif;aMumifh a&a&
vnfvnf ywfywfeyfeyf&Sdaom vlwa,muftjzpfodkU a&mufoGm;cJUavNyD/

332 
uREkfyfonf udkuGef;? udkxGef;&SdefwdkUESifhtwl udk0ifharmftm; &efukefü
rawGUcJU&bl;ygu olUxHodkU vmzdkUa0;pG/ olUudkjrifvQif a0;a0;ua&Smifajy;
csifaom pdwfrsKd;&Sdvdrfhrnfjzpf\/ þrQavmuftxd aemufajymifaom
ausmif;om;wa,mufjzpfygonf/ odkUaomf&efukefaumvdyfü av;ESpfrQ
aevdkuf&jcif;onf udk0ifharmf\ trlt&mESifh pdwfaeoabmxm;udk rrSwfrd
avmufatmif ajymif;vJypfvkdufygawmhonf/ (xdkUaMumifhvnf; aumvdyf
ausmif;üuREkfyfav;ESpfavmuf aecGifhr&cJUonfh uREkfyf\tjzpfudk 0rf;enf;
yef;enf; a&;om;cJUjcif;jzpf\/) udk0ifharmfrSmrl &efukefaumvdyfomru
tdE´d,jynf ',f&'Gef;NrdKUopfawmausmif;üvnf; ESpfESpfrQ qufvuf
ynmoifcGifh&cJUoljzpfonfESifh uREkfyf\rsufpdü omíauseyfzG,faumif;aom
vlwa,mufjzpfvmonf jrifrdonf/ (þae&mü EdkifiHjcm;okdU ynmoif
oGm;Edkifonfh tajctae&Sdaom vli,frsm;tm; ]]bmrQ pOf;pm;raeeJU
oGm;omoGm;}}[k uREkfyfwdkufwGef;vdk onf/) a,bk,stm;jzifh ajym&vQif
NrdKUuav;om;ESifh NrdKUBuD;om;wdkU\ jcm;em;jcif;uJUodkU wdkif;BuD;jynfBuD;
rsm;ü raebl;olESifh aebl;olwkdU\ jcm;em;jcif;onfvnf; xif&Sm;onf[k
uREkfyfjrifrdygonf/

rawmif&Gm

xdknOfhü xrif;pm;aomufNyD;Muaomtcg udk0ifharmfu ]]vmMuAsKdU?


cifAsm;wdkUudk jrawmif&GmtaMumif; od&atmifvdkufjytkH;r,f}}[kqdkum taEG;
xnfuav;rsm; 0wfzdkUajym\/ (uREkfyf\xl;jcm;csufwckrSm om;r,m;ESifh
uJGcJU&onfhtcgwdkif; t0wfwxnf udk,fwckESifh qif;vmcJUonfhtjzpfrsKd;udk
ESpfBudrfvkH;BuKHcJU&jcif;jzpfonf/ þwBudrfürl nDüygaom t0wftxnfrsm;

333 
udk cGJa00wf&íawmfygao;\/) &moDrSm oDwif;uRwfvjynfhausmfrQom
&Sdao;aomfvn;f &efukefütawmftaeMum vmcJUaom uREkfyfwdkUtzdkUrSm
nOfheufcsdefwGif awmfawmfuav; at;pjyKavNyD/ udk0ifharmfrSm jrefrmrif;
vufxufu aMu;eef;0ef\ ajr;jzpfí tom;0g rsufvkH;jyL; EIwfcrf;arT;
aumif;aumif;ESifh vlacsmvlcefUwa,muf jzpfav&m vlysKdvnf;jzpfjyef?
t&m&Sdwa,mufvnf;jzpfjyef (aemifwGifod& onfhtwdkif;) pdwfBuD;r0if
wwfyJ &Gmom;rsm;ESifh a&ma&maESmaESmvnf; aewwfjyefav&um; jrawmif
&GmodkUvlcspfvlcifaygaom t&m&Sdwa,muf jzpfae\/
olonf rdef;rvdkufpm;aom 0goemr&Sdaomfvnf; tysKdacsm&Sdaom
vlBuD;vlaumif;rsm;\tdrfodkU rdwfjzpfaqGjzpf jy&rnfqdkum wtdrfwufqif;
vSnfhvnfwwfav&m uREkfyfwkdUtm; þnwGifjrawmif&GmtysKdacsmrsm;udk
jy&rnfqdkum ac:oGm;jcif;jzpfavonf/ txufazmfjy&myg t*Fg&kyfrsm;ESifh
jynfhpkHaom udk0ifharmftzdkUrSm ysLysLiSmiSm {nfhrcHcsifaom tdrf&Sifr&Sd?
tdrfay:odkUwufoGm;MuonfqdkvQif aumfaZmcif;NyD; vufzuf&nfMurf;ESifh
tjrnf;jzpfap? okdUr[kwf aumfzDESifh bDpuGwfrkefUaowÅmjzpfap wnfcif;
auR;arG;Muonfcsnf;jzpf\/ wtdrfESpftdrfrQ wufrdMuvQif uREkfyfonf
jrawmif&Gm\ xl;jcm;csufwckudk owdjyKrd\/ uREkfyf\zcif arG;zGm;&m
jzpfaom a&Tbdke,fbufürl awm&Gmuav;rsm;wGif {nfhBuD;{nfhaumif;qdkí
xdkufwefatmif om;om;em;em; cif;usif;jyifqifauR;arG;Edkifaomtdrf
[lonfrSm olBuD;tdrfrSwyg; cyf&Sm;&Sm;awGU&\/ olBuD;tdrfqdkonfrSmvnf;
NrdKUtkyf0efaxmufpaom t&m&Sdrsm;vmwwfojzifh {nfhcHEdkifzdkU wrifjyifqif
xm;&jcif;rQom jzpfavonf/
a&Tbdke,frS awm&Gmrsm;udkxm;ygOD;? a&TbdkNrdKUESifh rEÅav;NrdKUBuD;
ay:üyif (xdkpOftcgu) tdrfwdkif;wGif aumfaZmtopfwcsyf&Sdaomtdrf

334 
cyf&Sm;&Sm;&Sdí nOfhtdyf{nfhonfvmonfqdkvQif [dktdrfonftdrfrS
apmif?acgif;tkH; riSm;&aomtdrf[lí &Sm;vSayonf/ jcifaxmifrlum;
q,ftdrfwGifrS tydkwvkH;xm;Edkifol r&SdcJUacs/ jrawmif&Gmuav;rlum;
(þ&Gmomr[kwf? jrpf&dk;wavQmuf&Sd &Gmwdkif;vdkyif þenf;ESifESifawGU&\/)
opfukefonfrsm;? tif;wdkifrsm;qdkonfh txufvTmvlpm;omru ESJorm;
wa,muf\ tdrfüyif oifhwifhavsmufywfpGm {nfhcHEdkifjcif;udk awGU&onf/
xdknOfhü uREkfyfwdkUonf olBuD;tdrfESifh opfukefonfwa,muf\ tdrfwtdrf
rQom wufMuNyD;aemuf ESJorm;wa,muf\tdrfü tcsdeftMumqkH;aeí
aemufydwfqkH;taejzifh vufpowfvkdufM u\/ ESJorm;\tdrfodkU a&mufMu&
jcif;rSm xdkolü toHaumif;í aw;csif;qdkwwfaom orD;uav;wa,muf
&Sd&m udk0ifharmfrSm *Dw0goemygoljzpfí uREkfyf0goemygjcif;udkvnf;
odonfESifh orD;uaw;qdk? zcifu ESJrIwfjcif;jzifh ]a&Tem;awmfoGif;}Muap&ef
tBuHESifh 0ifa&mufjcif;jzpfavonf/ oli,fcsif;0efaxmuf udk0ifharmf\
xl;jcm;aom 0goemwckrSm wJpkwfaom ESpfaqmifNydKiftdrfaom ra&G;?
olcifrifvQif 0ifcsif&m0ifNyD; xdkifcsif&m xdkifwwfjcif;yifjzpfavonf/
rsufESmBuD;i,f rvkdufwwfjcif;? *kPFyumoeudk *&krpdkufjcif;?
[efBuD;yefBuD; rvkyfwwf jcif; wnf;[laom t&mXmewGif udk0ifharmfudk
rSDEdkifol[lí uREkfyfrawGU& bl;acs/

0&efwmrS&Icif;

jrawmif&GmwGif ,cifu taumuf0efaxmuf[lír&SdcJU? udk0ifharmf


onf yxrOD;qkH; taumuf0efaxmufjzpfí ¤if;twGuf aetdrfoD;jcm;
aqmufvkyfxm;jcif;r&Sdao;yJ opfawm&kH;taqmufttkHudkyif 0efaxmuf

335 
aetdrftjzpfESifh tokH;jyK&\/ {&m0wDjrpfonf jrawmif&GmteD;wGif
xkH;pHtwdkif;awmifESifhajrmuf rpD;qif;yJ auGUauGUaumufaumuf &Sdonf
jzpfí jrpfurf;yg;ay:ü wnfxm;onfh &Gmrsm;\xkH;pHtwkdif; &Gm&SnfBuD;
jzpf&m a&Tbdke,fbufürl &Gmrsm;onf trsm;tm;jzifhcyf0dkif;0dkif; &SdMuav
onf/ jrawmif&Gm\ taemufbuftpGef; (&GmNrD;)ü opf0g;jzifh
aqmufvkyfxm;onfh tdrfjrifh (AdkvftdrfBuD;) ESpfaqmif&Sd&m wtdrfrSm
awmtkyfBud;twGufjzpfí 'kwd,tdrfrSm taumuf0efaxmuftwGufjzpf\/
tdrfESpfaqmifvkH;onf jrpfbufodkU rsufESmrlvsuf&Sdí &Icif;omvS\/
0&efwmrS yufvufukvm;xdkifwGif xdkifvsuf arQmfMunfhvkdufaomtcg
wbufurf;&Sd xD;csKdifhNrdKUESifh awmifxdyfrS jrodef;wefbk&m;udkvnf;aumif;?
{&m0wDrsufESmjyifü pkefqefoGm;vmvsuf&SdMuonfh oabFm? orÁef?
avmif;avS? ydef;aumrsm;udk vnf;aumif;? wtdtd wa&GUa&GU
arQmcsvmMuonfhopfazmif? 0g;azmif? Budrfazmif ponfrsm;udkvnf;aumif;?
[dkbufurf;onfbufurf; acgufwkHU acgufjyef wuRduRdwuGduGdESifh
avSmfcwfMuonfh ]iSuf}(orÁef)rsm;udk vnf;aumif; jywfawmhonfr&SdyJ
aeUa&mnOfhyg jrif&Mum;&\/ odkUaomf uREkfyfwdkUvlpk arQmfvifhtm;xm;qkH;
aom tcsdefonfum; naecif; tcsdefaywnf;/

jrawmifol tysKdacsmrsm;

&Sif;ygOD;tHU/ {&m0wDjrpfonf txufwGif azmfjycJUonfhtwdkif;


jrawmif&GmteD;wGif auGUauGUaumufaumuf pD;qif;í tcsKdUae&mrsm;ü
urf;yg;NydKvsuf &SdaomaMumifh jrawmif&Gmonf wckwnf;aom a&qdyfudkom
tokH;jyKEdkif\/ ¤if;a&qdyfrSmvnf; opfawm&kH;a&SUwnfhwnfhü &Sdae\/

336 
xdka&qdyfwGif 0g;azmifrsm;vnf; (wazmifNyD;wazmif) tNrJvdkyif
qdkufuyfvsuf&Sd&m a&cyfolrsm;vnf; azmifay:okdUwufí (a&aumif;
a&oefU &apjcif;iSm) azmiftpGef;odkU avQufoGm;NyD;rS a&cyfMu\/
a&csKd;olrsm;vnf; ¤if;enf;twdkif;yif jyKvkyfMuonf/ okdUjzpfí naecif;
tcsdefrsm;wGif jrawmifw&GmvkH;&Sd tysKd[lorQonf ig;a,mufwwef;?
ajcmufa,mufwwef; ponfjzifh a&tdk;rsm;&Gufum a&qdyfokdU vmMuav&m
opfawm&kH; 0&efwmrS xdkifvsuf wnaerQ arQmfMunfhvdkufygu
jrawmif&Gm&SdtysKdaygif;pkHudk wa,mufrusef jrif&onf[k qdkEdkifavmuf
ayonf/ (opfawm&kH;ü vlysKdvlacsm opfawmt&m&SDwa,muf
&Sdaejcif;onf jrawmifol tysKdrsm;twGuf a&cyf&jcif; tvkyfü NiD;aiGUjcif;
ajyaysmufapavoavm rajymwwfay/) rnfokdUqdkap a&qdyfodkU npfwD;
npfpkwf rvmyJoyfoyf&yf&yf0wfqifvmapzdkU wdkufwGef;csufwck jzpfap
onf [líum; uREkfyf,kHMunfonf/ a&qdyfodkUvmMuaomtysKdrsm; onf
yGJaeyGJxdkif xGuf&ouJUokdU 0wfaumif;pm;vSBuD; r[kwfaomfvnf;
o&ufxnfvkHcsnfvwfvwfESifh (wwfEdkifolrsm;u) tuFsD'dkbDcsrQavmufudk
awmh 0wfqifvmMuonf/ qHyifaumif;olrsm;uvnf; qHyifzm;vsm;csum
vmwfMuay&m oeyfcg;yef;yef[lonfrSm tysKdwdkif;vdkyif yefqifvmMujcif;
udk awGU&\/ a&tdk;udk acgif;ay:wGif &Gufxm;&aomfvnf; a&pD;usNyD;
oeyfcg;ysufjcif;r&Sd&avatmif tysKdwkdif;vdkyif usifvnfrI&Sdavonf/
uREkfyfwdkUvlpkonf 0&efwmüxdkifvsufa&qdyfbufodkU arQmfMunfhaeMupOf
opfawm&kH;bufodkU rodrom rxifr&Sm;apmif;iJUí rMunfhrdaomtysKd[lí
r&Sdjcif;udkvnf; uREkfyfowdjyKrd\/ þwGif uREkfyfu udk0ifharmftm;-
]]b,fhES,fvJAs udk0ifharmf? jrawmif tysKdacsmawGu cifAsm;&kH;bufudk
w,fMunfhMuyguvm;}}[k ajyvdkuf&m udk0ifharmf\pma&;uav;u ]]cgwdkif;

337 
'gavmufr[kwfygbl;cifAsm? 'DaeUawmhq&mwkdUa&mufwJU owif;Mum;vdkU
'gavmufMunfhwmyg}}[kajym\/
]][kwfEdkifyghrvm;ighvl&m? igwkdUu pdwf0ifpm;avmufwJU vlawGrS
r[kwfyJ}}
]]0efaxmufrif;tdrfudk a&mufwJU{nfhonfqdkvQif [dkNrdKU 'DNrdKUu
opfukefonfavmufudkawmif*&kpdkuf MunfhMuwmyJ q&m&JU? aemifBuD;wkdUu
&efukefu a&mufvmMuwJU r*¾Zif;t,f'DwmnDtpfudkqdkawmh pdwfr0ifpm;yJ
b,frSmaeEdkifMurSmyJ aemifBuD;&JU}}
]]wdkUtaMumif;awGudk b,fhES,fvkyfNyD;odovJarmif&,f}}
]]aemifBuD;wdkUnDtpfudk oabFmuqif;NyD; 0efaxmufrif;&kH;udk
wufvmMuwnf;u b,fu{nfhonfawGygvdrfhvdkU armfhMunfhukefMuNyD;
raeUnu olBuD;tdrfudk 0efaxmufrif;eJU aemifBuD;wdkUoGm;vnfvdkufMuw,f
qdkvQif reufvif;awmh aemifBuD;wkdUtaMumif;udk w&GmvkH; odukefMuwm
ayghcifAs? wcsKdUuawmh 0efaxmufrif;vdk vlysKdawGyJvm;? bmvm; nmvm;
eJUawmif ar;ukefMuNyDaemifBuD;&JU}}
]]ar;olawGu tysKdawG[kwfuJUvm; ighvl&JU}}
]]tysKdawGua&m? olwkdUrdbawGua&maygh aemifBuD;&,f}}
udk0ifharmf\ pma&;uav;u udk0ifharmf\ a&SUarSmufü uREkfyfwdkUtm;
þuJUodkU vGwfvyfpGmajym0HUjcif;udk awGU&jcif;tm;jzifh udk0ifharmfonf
vufatmufi,fom;rsm;ESifh ta&mw0ifqufqHavh&Sdjcif;udk uREkfyftuJ
cwfEdkifayonf/
a&qdyfESifh uREkfyfwkdU&Sdaeaom opfawm&kH;rSm vGefpGmreD;uyfvSaomf
vnf; a&cyfvmMuaomtysKdrsm;teuf rnfonfum; acsmonf? rnfonf
um; racsm[lonfudk tuJcwfEdkifavmufonf/ tysKdacsmudkjrifonfhtcg

338 
uREkfyfu pma&;uav;(armifjr)tm;ar;&m armifjru tysKdacsmrsm;\
trnfemromru rdbtajctaersm;udkyif ajymjyEdkifavonf/

teD;MunfhwrsKd;

nae av;em&DavmufrSpí tysKdrsm;a&cyfqif;Mu&m ig;em&DcefU


&SdaomtcgwGif tysKdwdkif;okH;av;acgufrQpD a&cyfqif;NyD;MuNyDjzpfí qHyif
zm;vsm;ESifh tysKdacsmum; rnfolrnf0g jzpfonf/ vkHcsnftusm;BuD;ESifh
tysKdacsmum; rnfol? o&ufxnftuFsDyef;a&mifESifh tysKdacsmum;
rnf0gponfjzifh uREkfyfrsufrSef;wef;rdukefavNyD/ (racsmaom tysKdrlum;
ta&twGufwGif rxnfhoGif;acs/) uREkfyfa&mufbl;orQaom aus;&Gmrsm;
teufwGif jrawmif&Gmonf tysKdacsm &mcdkifEIef;trsm;qkH;[lí ¤if;naeuyif
uREkfyfrSwfwrf;wifvkdufNyD;ygNyD? ig;em&D ausmfausmfavmuf wGif
uREkfyfuudk0ifharmftm; ]]cifAsm; b,ftcsdef a&csKd;wwfovJAsKdU udk0ifharmf}}[k
ar;vkduf&m udk0ifharmfu ]]a[h zkd;uGef;? a&vJydkif;wdkU rsufESmokwfy0gwkdU?
qyfjymcGufwkdU,lcJUuGm? igwkdU a&csKd;r,f}}[k tvdkufodpGm pDrHavawmhonf/
(wu,fcspfp&maumif;aom oli,fcsif; wa,mufaywum;/) a&qdyfü
a&csKd;MupOf uREkfyf\tvkyfrSmqHyifzm;vsm; ESifhtysKdacsmonf vnf;aumif;?
vkHcsnfusm;ESifhtysKdacsmonfvnf;aumif;? yef;Eka&mifo&ufxnftuFsDESifh
tysKdacsmonfvnf;aumif; ta0;rSacsm oavmuf teD;üacsmygav\avm
[k pkHprf;&jcif;yif jzpfavonf/
teD;okdUcsOf;uyfíMunfh&mü xyfrHawGU&Sd&aom tjcif;t&m
wckonfum; tysKdtm;vkH;wGif t&kyfqdk;ol tvGefenf;í ,kwfpGmhtqkH;
oem;urm;ESifh ]&GufMurf;a&BudK} &SdMuolwkdUom aygrsm;vSjcif;aywnf;/

339 
tysKdacsmwumwkdUwGif eHygwfwpf xm;xdkufolrSm uREkfyf\ ]c,fravmif;}
uav;yifjzpfavonf/ uREkfyf\wwd,ZeD;avmif; (rpdk;)rSm a&cyfolrsm;
teufwGif ryg0ifacs/ (rpdk;rSm xdkpOfu touf22ESpf&SdNyDjzpfí ¤if;\nDr
ti,fESpfa,mufu a&cyfaom wm0efudk ,lMuaomaMumifh a&cyfMu&mwGif
ryg0ifyJ ]]tdrfaxmifxdef; tpfrBuD;}}tjzpfodkUa&mufaecJU avNyD/)

udk0ifharmf\ 0goemwck

þae&mü oli,fcsif; udk0ifhfarmfESifh ywfoufí uREkfyfudktuJcwfEdkif


avmufp&m jzpfay:vmaom taMumif;t&mwckudk trSwf&í azmfjy&OD;
rnf/ uREkfyfwkdUonf azmifpGef;wGif (a&nmrS) a&csKd;Muí rdef;rBuD;
okH;a,mufwkdUvnf; atmufydkif;rS a&csKd;vsuf&SdMu\/ azmifpGef;jzpfonfh
twGufaMumifha&onf þae&mü tawmfeufí raxmufrdyJ &SdonfESifh
a&ul;rwwfolrsm;rSm azmifudkudkifwG,fvsuf a&csKd;Mu&\/ odkUESifhyif
a&ul;rwwfolrsm; tzdkUrSm ab;tEÅ&m,fruif;vSay/ uREkfyfwdkUrlum;
a&ul;wwfolrsm;jzpfí azmifudkvTwfum jrpfjyifodkU xGuful;Muavonf/
(þae&mü uREkfyfa&ul;wwfykH qef;Mu,fjcif;udk azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/)
uREkfyfonfbkef;BuD;ausmif;om;uav; b0uwnf;u a&Twacsmif;ü
Budrfzefrsm;pGm a&csKd;cJUjcif;taMumif;udk azmfjycJUonfjzpf&m a&ul;wwfzkdU
twefwefBudK;pm;aomfvnf; rul;wwfyJ ]azmfh}&kHrQom ]azmh}wwf\/
uREkfyf\ q&mawmfNrdwfudk,fawmfuvlonf a&rsufESmjyifay:wGif
yufvufvSefí ajcvufrsm;udk um;&m;BuD;xm;NyD; OD;acgif;udk aemufodkU
vSefum ESmacgif;ay:&kHuav;rQ xm;wwfygu a&repfEdkifaMumif;?
OD;acgif;udk aemufodkUrvSef0HUyJ cyfaxmifaxmif vkyfvdkufvQifrlum;

340 
jrKyfoGm;rnfjzpfaMumif; rdefUawmfrlbl;avonf/ uREkfyfonf q&mawmf\
pum;twdkif; a&Twacsmif;ü prf;oyfMunfh&m [kwfrSefaMumif;awGU&\/
okdUjzpfí uREkfyfrSma&rul;wwfyJvsuf a&ay:atmif ]azmh}Edkifvsuf&SdavNyD/
waeUoü uREkfyfESifharmifykonf bkef;BuD;ausmif;rS xGufNyD;í q,fhokH;
av;ESpf t&G,fwGif tjcm;oli,fcsif;rsm;ESifh jrpfqdyfodkUoGm;í azmifrsm;teD;
wGif a&csKd;Mu\/ uREkfyfrSwyg; tm;vkH;a&ul;wwfMu\/ tjcm;oli,frsm;
onf azmifpGef;wGif a&ul;vsuf&SdMupOf uREkfyfrlum; urf;yg;teD;
cg;avmufrQom eufaom ae&mwGif (Nrdwfq&mawmf\enf;twdkif;)
wa,mufwnf; ]azmh}vsuf&Sd\/ uREkfyfonf a&ay:wGifajcvufum;&m;
xm;í yufvufvSefum aygavmay:vsuf&SdpOf aeudkMunfhae&ojzifh
aeonfcsmvywfvsuf &Sdonfxif&\/ trSefrSm aeuvnfjcif;r[kwf?
uREkfyf\udk,fonf a&ay:üywfcsmvnfvsuf&Sdjcif;rQomjzpf\/ taMumif;rl
um; jrpfa&onf 'va[m pD;qif;vsuf&SdpOf uREkfyf\udk,fonf a&ay:ü
ywfcsmvnfvsuf arsmygjcif; jzpfayaomaMumifhwnf;/ þtaMumif;udk
em;rvnfaomuREkfyfrSmrl a&rsufESmjyifü arsmívdkuf&jcif; onf
]Nidrfh}onfqdkum ZdrfESifharsmygvsuf&Sd\/ wcPüuREkfyf\vufudk
wpkHwa,mufu qJGvkdufonfESifh yufvufarsm&mrS wefUueJ jzpfoGm;NyD;
ajrBuD;udkajcaxmufvkduf&m ajrBuD;&SmrawGUonfESifh tBuD;tus,f
xdwfvefU&kHru a&rsufESmjyif atmufodkUjrKyfoGm;NyD; ESmacgif;xJodkU
a&rsm;0ifukefavawmhonf/ vefUvdkufykHum; ajymzG,f&mr&Sdacs/
aemufwcPü uREkfyftm; qGJxm;aom vufudkudkifzrf;um ¤if;udk
tm;jyKvkdufonfwGif a&ay:okdUOD;acgif;ay:vmí jzpf&ykH tajctaeudk
uREkfyfjrif&ygawmhonf/ þwGifwpfBudrfxyfí vefU&jyefygawmhonf/
jzpfaeykHrSmum; uREkfyfonf azmifBuD;\tpGef;a&eufxJodkU a&mufvsuf&Sdí

341 
armifyku azmifpGef;udkvufwbufESifh udkifumtjcm;vufwbufjzifh
uREkfyf\vufwbufudk qGJzrf;xm;jcif; jzpfavonf/ armifykujrif&
uREkfyfa&rul;wwfjcif;udk odonfESifh ajy;vmNyD; azmifudkudkifum
uREkfyftm;qJG,lvdkufjcif;jzpfavonf/ tu,fí armifykonf uREkfyf\
tajctaeudk tcsdefrDrjrifvdkufyJ wpuúefUrQ aemufusoGm;onfqdkygrlum;
uREkfyfrSm þrSwfwrf;jzifh pmzwfy&dowftm; nSOf;yef;cGifhr&awmhyJ
tapmBuD;u b0 &kyfodrf;NyD; jzpf&ayawmhrnf/

tacsmifa&ul;wwfjcif;

1914 ckESpfü wGHaw;NrdKUokdU uREkfyfa&mufoGm;pOf ]0gqdk0gacgif


a&azmifazmif}qdkaom &moDjzpfí wHGaw;wl;ajrmif;rSm urf;jynfhurf;vQH
qdkavmufatmif a&rsm;vsuf&Sd\/ tdrfrsm;onfacsmif;udkausmay;vsuf&SdMu
&m tjcm;&moDrsm;wGif wGHaw;acsmif;rSm a&csKd;avmufatmif roefUjyefU
aomfvnf; ¤if;&moDürl {&m0wDjrpfaMumif; a&ozG,f MunfvifoefU&Sif;
vsuf&Sd\/ okdUjzpfíacsmif;udkausmcdkif;um aqmufvkyfxm;onfh tdrfrsm;rS
vlrsm;onf tdrfaemufaz;ydkif;udk a&qdyfjyKíacsmif;xJodkU ckefqif;um
a&csKd;Muavonf/ wnaeü a,mufzESpfa,mufu uREkfyftm;a&csKd;&atmif
[kajymí tdrfaemufaz;rS ckefqif;Muav&m uREkfyfvnf; ¤if;wkdUaemufrS
ckefqif;vdkufav\/ þae&mü ]a&wdrf}[lír&Sd/ ckefcsvkdufonfESifh
wNydKifeufraxmufrdyJ a&ul;Mu&avonf/ a,mufzESpfa,mufonf
a&SUrSul;oGm;Muíacsmif;v,f okdU a&mufoGm;Muav&m uREkfyfvnf;aemufrS
vkduful;oGm;av\/ acsmif;v,fodkUa&mufoGm;Muaomtcg uREkfyf\pdwfxJ
ü wpkHwckudk owd&í xdwfueJjzpfoGm;\/ owd&aom tjcif;t&mrSm

342 
]]b,fwkef;ua&ul;wwfygvdrfh}} [lonfyifjzpf\/ uREkfyfrSm armifykESifh
Budrfzefrsm;pGm a&ul;oifcJUbl;aomf vnf; a&ul;um;rwwf ]azmh}Edkif&kHom
wwfcJUbl;jcif;udkowd&\/ jzpf&ykHum; rdrdudk,fudk a&ul;wwfNyD;txifESifh
ckefcsNyD; ul;,ufcJU&m wu,ful;wwfaomtjzpfodkU ]tacsmif} a&mufoGm;
jcif;yif jzpf[ef&Sdonf/ þtjcif;t&monf xl;qef;aomfvnf;rjzpfEdkifaom
t&mr[kwf/ acG;uav;rsm;onf a&xJodkUcsvdkufvQif ul;oGm;EdkfifMu
onfomjzpfavonf/ vltzdkU&mü ]iga&rul;wwf}[laom txifuyfvsuf
&SdaomaMumifh wrifwum avhusifh,l&jcif;jzpfwef&monf/ rnfodkUyif
jzpfap uREkfyftzdkU&müum; ]a&ul;wwfNyD;}[laom txifrSm;rIaMumifh
wu,ful;wwfjcif;jzpfonfudk oufaocH&Jygonf/ odkU&mwGifrul;wwfyJ
vsufESifh ul;wwfonf[k wrifwumxifzdkUrSm tvGefcJ,Of;aom
udpöwcktaejzifh tBuHay;vdkjcif;um; r[kwf&yg/

udk0ifharmf\ i,frlay:jcif;

uREkfyfwdkUvlpkonf azmifpGef;ü a&csKd;vsuf&SdMupOf azmif\atmuf


ydkif;wGif rdef;rBuD;ESpfa,muf okH;a,mufvnf; a&csKd;vsuf&SdaMumif;
a&;om;azmfjycJU&m udk0ifharmfonf a&csKd;,if;wef;vef;rS rdef;rBuD;rsm;
&Sd&modkU avQufoGm;í azmifpGef;udkvufwbufjzifh udkifwG,fum a&csKd;ae
aom rdef;rBuD;teD;odkU csOf;uyfvsuf-
]]bmvkyfwmvJAs a':jrifh}}
]]a&csKd;wmaygh 0efaxmufrif;}}
]]a&csKd;wm'Dvdk csKd;&ovm;As? jrpfjyifxGufNyD; ul;rSayghAs}}

343 
]]ajymajymqdkqdkESifh azmifüwG,fxm;aom rdef;rBuD;\vufudk
jzKwfawmhrnf[efjyifav&m-
]]rvkyfygeJU 0efaxmufrif;&JU ta':a&rul;wwfygbl;? ao&yg
vdrhfr,f}}
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wG,fxm;aomvufudk jzKwfrnfvkyfjyef\/
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]]raMumufygeJUAs? uRefawmfa&ul;wwfygw,f}}
]]0efaxmufrif; ul;wwfayr,fh ta':u rul;wwfbl;}}
þtawmtwGif; udk0ifharmfrSm w[m;[m; &,farmvsuf&Sd&m
rdef;rBuD;aMumufavav olu&,fí aumif;avavjzpfaeawmhonf/
rdef;rBuD;\vufudk wu,fjzKwfjcif;um; r[kwf? jzKwfrnfh[ef jyKjcif;om
jzpfaomfvnf; wbufom;url wu,fjyKrnfxifí aMumuf&Smjcif;
jzpfonf/ a&csKd;NyD;í wufvmMuaomtcg uREkfyfu ]][dkrdef;rBuD;u
b,folvJAs}}[k ar;&m udk0ifharmfu ]]awmtkyfuawmfBuD; ayghAsm?
aumif;wJUrdef;rBuD; r[kwfbl;As? vifudk'ku©ay;wJU ta':BuD;yJ?
olUa,mufsm;r,m;i,f,lwmudk opfawm0efwufwdkifowJUAsm? tvkyfjyKyfvJ
at;wmyJwJU? aumif;Edkif&JUvm;Asm? olUa,mufsm;u usKyfwdkUeJU ausmif;ae
bufyJ? [dk[0gavAsm}}
uREkfyfrSm udk[0gudk rrSwfrdaomfvnf; rdef;rBuD;tm; acsmufvSefU
jcif;ü udk0ifharmfwGif &nf&G,fcsuf&Sdjcif;udk &dyfrdí ]i,fusifh}uav;
ay:vmjcif; jzpfonf[k owd&onfESifh NyKH;rdygao;onf/ okdU&mwGif
þtjzpftysufrsKd; udk aemufwBudrfxyfí rawGU&awmhyg/

344 
tqif;ESifhtcsif;

¤if;a'o\ xkH;pHwckrSm w&yfwaus;rS vlysKdwa,mufonf


tysKdwa,mufudk ]vnf}vdkonfqdkvQif &Gmom;vlysKdwa,mufudk csOf;uyfí
&Gmom;u tysKd\tdrfodkU ]wif}ay;vQif tysKduvufcHpum;ajym&aom
0w¦&m;&Sd\/ tu,fívufcHpum;ajymjcif;rjyKygrl ]wif}ay;aom &Gmom;u
tysKday:ü ]*sKdus}rnfjzpfavonf/ *sKdusvQif rnfodkUjyKvkyfvdrfhrnf[k
rajymEdkifaomfvnf; a,bk,stm;jzifh ¤if;xkH;pHudk razmufzsufyJ
vufcHMuonfom rsm;avonf/ uREkfyfwdkUrSmrl ¤if;xkH;pH\
taxmuftul,lzdkU rvdkyJ a&qdyfü jrifvdkuf&aom tysKdacsmrsm;\
aetdrfrsm;odkU udk0ifharmfESifhtwl wtdrfwufqif;a&mufMuí udk0ifharmfu
rdwfzGJUay;avonf/ nDawmfarmifrSm uREkfyfwdkUESifh rvdkufawmhyJolESifh
&G,fwlcsif;jzpfonfh pma&;armifjrESifh wpfpcef; oGm;Muavonf/ þenf;
tm;jzifh okH;av;nrQvnfywfMu&mwGif ¤if;t&yfol t&yfom;rsm;ESifh
ywfoufí uREkfyftuJcwf&aom tcsuftvufrsm;udk azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/
uREkfyfrSma&Tbdke,ftquftEG,fjzpfí tjcm;e,frS vlrsm;udk jrif&onfhtcg
a&Tbdke,fol e,fom;rsm;ESifh EIdif,SOfMunfhwwfaom tavh&Sd\/ þ&Gmom;
rsm;onf a&Tbdke,fom;rsm;xuf oyfoyf&yf&yf aexdkifwwfjcif;udk azmfjycJU
NyD;jzpf&m &kyf&nfrSmvnf; usm;a&m ryg uREkfyfwdkU\e,fxuf rGef&nf
oefU&Sif;Muygayonf/ a&Tbdke,fbufü ]tom;jzL}? ]tom;0g}? tvGef&Sm;í
]tom;euf}? ]tom;ndK}wdkUom aygrsm;Muay&m ]tom;vwf}avmuf
qdkygua'0DajrmufMu&avonf/ (uREkfyf\pHa'0DrSmvnf; rEÅav;oljzpfí
ndKacsmwa,muf tjzpfESifhom todtrSwfjyKjcif;cH&ol jzpfavonf/)
0wfpm;jyifqif&müvnf; jrawmifrSvlrsm;onf (txl;ojzifh rdef;uav;rsm;

345 
onf) a&Tbdke,fu vlrsm;xuf ]ref;qef}onf[k qdkxdkufygayonf/
a&Tbdke,fom;rsm;\tm;udk;rSm &kyfqif;oP²mefr[kwf? t&nftcsif; yifjzpf
onf/ wenf;qdkaomf jrpf&dk;wavQmufonf ]tqif;}tm;udk;jzpfí a&Tbdke,f
onf ]tcsif;} tm;udk;jzpf\/ uREkfyf\ udk,fawGUudkwifjy&aomf jrawmif&Gm
(e,fwavQmufvkH; tygt0if)rS vlysKdayguft&G,fumvom; vlvnf
wa,mufonf a&Tbdke,frS EGm;ausmif;om;t&G,f oli,fuav; wa,muf
ESifhpum;NydKifí ajymygu uREkfyfurl EGm;ausmif;om;bufrS avmif;vdrfh
rnfjzpfonf/ pum;t&mü vnf;aumif;? yg;a&eyfa&&Sdjcif;ü vnf;aumif;
tvnfywfqkH;aom jrawmifom; wa,mufonf xlvS tvSygonf
qdkaom a&Tbdkom; wa,muf\aemufbufü ae&pfvdrfhrnfxifonf/
jrpf&dk;e,fbufü tvGefvnfywfaom rdef;rwa,mufwavudk awGU&bl;
yg\/ (uREkfyf\ wwd,tdrfaxmifudk rqdkvdkyg/ ¤if;rSm &dk;&dk;xJu
jzpfygonf/) odkU&mwGif a,musfm;rsm; teufrS þrQavmuf pGrf;oludk
wa,mufrQ rawGU&bl;yg/ arG;xl;a&jcm; rdef;rwa,muf[lí
qdkoifhygonf/

zl;pma&;ewf

oli,fcsif;udk0ifharmfum; tvGef pum;aMum&Snfaom vlwa,muf


jzpf\/ uREkfyf\qE´rSm a&qdyfüjrifvdkuf&onfh tysKdacsmrsm;teufrS wn
twGif; okH;av;a,mufrQ jrifawGU&í rdwfquf&efjzpfav&m udk0ifharmfurl
wtdfrfodkU wufrdvQif awmfawmfESifh jyefrqif;wwfyJ w0g;0g; w[m;[m;
ESifh pum;aumif;csifwwfol jzpfavonf/ tcsKdUaom tysKdacsmrsm;ESifh
¤if;wkdU\ rdbrsm;onf &efukefNrdKUBuD;rS ylylaEG;aEG;BuD;a&mufvmonfh

346 
acwfynmwwf r*¾Zif; t,f'Dwm pma&;q&mwa,muftaejzifh uREkfyf
tay:ü txdkuftavsmuf pdwf0ifpm;jcif; &SdMuykH&aomfvnf; udk0ifharmfESifh
rlum; EIdif;,SOf&ef rjzpfEdkifay/ wtdrfwavwGif rdbvkyfolwkdU\
pdwf0ifpm;rIudk cH,l&&Sdaomfvnf; tysKdacsmrsm;udk,fwdkifürlum; 0efaxmuf
vlacsmbufodkU rJwif;vsuf&Sdjcif;udk uREkfyf&dyfrdonf/ uREkfyfvdkcsifonfum;
rdbrsm;r[kwf? tysKdacsmrsm;jzpfav&m xdktcsif;t&mudk (15rdepfcefUtwGif;)
uREkfyftuJcwfrdonfrSpí zifylatmif rxdkifcsifawmhyJ 0wfaus0wfukef
em&Dw0ufcefU xdkifNyD;Muuwnf;u uREkfyfrSm zifw<u<ujzpfaecJUavNyD/
uREkfyfu rsuf&dyfjyíjzpfap? pum;t&dyft>rufjzifhjzpfap tcsufay;aomf
vnf; udk0ifharmfonf rodcsifjyKí [m;NrJwkdif; [m;vsuf&Sd avonf/
aemufqkH;ü uREkfyfrSm wwfEdkifygbl;qdkum vufavQmhvdkuf&av &m
þokdUjzifh wtdrfvQif tenf;qkH; ESpfem&DcefU MumaomtcgrS
qif;vmMu&avonf/ uREkfyfum; wnvQif av;ig;ajcmuftdrfwufcsif
ay&m udk0ifharmfvkyfykHESifhrl ESpftdrfavmufom wufcJUEdkifMuonf/
þtaMumif;udk udk0ifharmftm; ajymjy&m olu ]]bmhaMumifh ta&;BuD;
ae&wmvJAs? cifAsm; eufjzefcgjyefawmhrSmrdkUvm;}}[k jyefar;í ]zifNrJNrD;wdkif;
NrJyghavawmhonf/ olvkyfykHESifhqdkvQif tysKdacsmuvnf; aygonfESifh
&GmOD;wGif&SdMuaom tysKdacsmrsm;tdrfodkU vaygufvdkUrS a&mufygrnfavm[k
atmufarhrdonf/ okdU&mwGif uREkfyf\qE´udk jznfhpGrf;ay;ouJUokdU&Sdaom
tjcif;t&mwck jzpfay:vm&avNyD/ zl;pma&;ewf\ zefwD;csuf[k
qdk&efrSmvnf; uRekfyf\ezl;wGif ol\]pm}awG tawmfxyfíaeayawmhrnf/
okdUaomf þtxJwGif pHa'0D\trnfwck yg[efr&Sdjcif;twGuf tHUMord
onf/ a&;NyD;zsufypfjcif;ayavmvnf; rajymwwfacs/

347 
rawGUbl;onfh tpfrBuD;

aemufwaeUü udk0ifharmfonf xD;csKdifhaiGwdkufodkUoGm;&ef


udpö&SdonfESifh uREkfyftm; twlvdkufcJUzdkUac:\/ ol\tBuHrSm uREkfyftm;
xD;csKdifhNrdKUodkU a&mufapvdkonfhjyif NrdKUtkyfuawmfrSmvnf; uRekfyf\tpfr
awmfpyfaMumif;olodí rdwfqufay;&efjzpfavonf/ armifESifhtpfrjzpfvsuf
]rdwfquf}[laompum;udk okH;&jcif;rSm atmufygtaMumif;aMumifhjzpf\/
rEÅav;atbDtrfausmif;ü ynmoifMupOf ysOf;rem;NrdKUrS udkyktrnf&Sd
ausmif;om;wa,mufonf uREkfyfwdkUESifhtwl wwef;wnf;&Sdí 9wef;udk
wNydKifwnf;atmifoGm;\/ udkykonf oDaygbk&ifvufxufu opfBudwf0ef
\om;jzpfav&m uREkfyf\rdcifESifh opfBudwf0efrSm aqGrsKd;awmfonf[k
aemifwGifrSod&í udkykESifhuREkfyfrSm ausmif;xGufcgeD;wGifrS nDtpfudkawmf
aMumif; od&onf/ udk0ifharmfESifh udkykwkdUonf &efukefaumvdyfausmif;wGif
qufvufynmoifMum;MupOf uREkfyftaMumif;udk cPcP ajymMuonf
qdk\/ uREkfyfjrawmifodkU a&mufaomtcsdefü udkykrSm uGefvGef&SmNyDjzpf&m
udkyk\tpfrNrdKUtkyfuawmf rrav;ESifh uREkfyftm;rdwfqufay;&ef udk0ifharmf
u uRekfyfudkac:oGm;jcif; jzpfavonf/ uREkfyfwdkUonf xD;csKdifhbufokdUul;í
NrdKUtkyfuawmf rrav;\tdrfodkU a&mufMu&mwGif udk0ifharmfu ]]tpfrBuD;
olUudkodovm;}}[k uRekfyftm;nTefjyum ar;vkdufojzifh rawGUbl;aom
armifESrESpfa,muf rsufESmcsif;qdkif MunfhvdkufMu\/ þrdef;rBuD;um;
tvGefaphpyfí qlwwfylwwfonf? a&S;t&m&SdBuD;wOD;\orD;? acwft&m&Sd
wOD;\ ZeD;yDyD pdwfBuD;0ifvdrfhrnf[k uREkfyftuJcwfrdonf/ EIwfcrf;yg;
vQmyg;&Sdaom rdef;rrsKd;udk uREkfyfvefUwwfí rrav;udk jrifvQifjrifcsif;

348 
uREkfyfvefUrdonf/ rnfodkUyifjzpfap uREkfyfonfrif;uawmfrrav;tm;
tpfrwa,muftaejzifh cPcP awGUcsifvdrfhrnfr[kwf[k pdwfxJü
qkH;jzwfvkdufonf/ rrav;u uREkfyftaMumif;udk olUarmifudkyku cPcP
ajymbl;ygonf[kqdkum csKdomaom rsufESmxm;ESifhEIwfqufaomfvnf;
þrdef;rBuD;ESifh ywfoufí wGefUaompdwf? &GHUaompdwfrlum; raysmufEdkifacs/
xdktcsdefwGif NrdKUtkyfBuD;onf &kH;wufvsuf&Sd&m rrav;onf uREkfyfwdkUtm;
aumfzDwdkuf,if; udk0ifharmf\aeykHxdkifykHESifh ywfoufí vufcsmay;avawmU
onf/ udk0ifharmfonf vufatmuftrIxrf;rsm;ESifhvnf;aumif;? &Gmol
&Gmom;rsm;ESifhvnf;aumif;? ta&mw0ifaewwfonf[k rdrdMum;&aMumif;?
ta&m0ifvQif t&dkaowefonfqdkaom jrefrmpum;&Sd onfjzpfí
txufwef;t&m&Sdwa,mufyDyD £ajE´&&? wnfwnfwefUwefU?
cefUcefUnm;nm; aewwf&rnfjzpfaMumif;? wtdrfwufqif;vnfywfjcif;rSm
omreft&yfom;rsm;\ tvkyfjzpfí 0efaxmufwef; t&m&Sdwa,muf
tzdkU&mü £ajE´rJUvSaMumif; ponfrsm;jzifh &Snfvsm;pGm vufcsmay;av\/
rxDw&Dvkyfwwfaomt&mwGif ausmif;om;uwnf;u emrnf&vmcJUaom
udk0ifharmfonf rrav\ Mo0g'vufcsmrsm;udk em;wbufrS oGif;í
em;wbufrS xkwfypfvkdufonfhES,f NyKH;NzJNzJBuD;vkyfum pm;p&mrsm;udk
wGifwGifBuD;pm;NyD; olESifh uREkfyfESpfa,mufwnf;&SdonfhES,f pm;zG,frsm;udk
uREkfyfbufodkUwGef;ydkUum ]]pm;ygAs? vkyfygAs? aomufygAs}}[k wkdufwGef;
av\/ udk0ifharmfonf rrav;\pum;rsm;udkwBudrfrQvnf; ruefUuGuf?
wcGef;rQvnf; rSwfom;em,lcJUonfh vu©Pmr&Sdacs/

349 
oHa0*&zG,fw&yf

uREkfyf\tpfr rrav;rSm uREkfyf\rSwfwrf;wGif Mum&SnfpGm yg0ifrnf


r[kwfaomaMumifh olUtjzpftysufESifhywfoufí oHa0*&cJUrdbl;aom
tjcif;t&mwckudk wifjyjcif;tm;jzifh olUtaMumif;vufpodrf;vdkufygawmh
rnf/ rrav;\cifyGef; NrdKUtkyfBuD;OD;jronf rrav;xuf toufBuD;ay&m
rrav;\pdwful;rSm NrdKUtkyfBuD;uG,fvGefonfhaemufwGif rkqdk;rtjzpfESifh
tcsdefumvMum&SnfpGm ]xdkifpm;}&pf&OD;rnfjzpfaomaMumifh aiGpkzdkU ta&;BuD;
onfqdk\/ þtwdkif;vnf; acRacRwmwmokH;í uspfuspfygatmif
xkyfxm;NyD;vQif txl;ojzifh vuf0wfvufpm;rsm; pkaqmif;\/ (tdrfaxmif
uspOfu rrav;onf tysKdBuD;jzpfí OD;jrrlum; rkqdk;zdkjzpfav&m om;BuD;
orD;BuD;rsm;vnf; &Sd[efwlonf/) rrav;\pum;wvkH;rSm olUorD;
tBuD;awGtzdkUawmh vuf0wfvufpm;jynfhpkHcJUvSNyD/ rdrdrSmawmh ,ckrS
pkaqmif;&onfqdkum tjcm;aom NrdKUtkyfuawmfrsm;xuf acRwma&;
avhusifhonfonf[k vlwdkif;u ajymMu\/ ukefoifhonfxuf wjym;
wcsyfrQ ydkírukefap&[lívnf; ajymMu\/ jrawmifodkUuREkfyfa&mufí
rMumrDtwGif; NrdKUtkyfBuD;rSm tjcm;we,fodkU ajymif;a&TU&av&m xdke,fodkU
a&mufívydkif;twGif;üyif NrdKUtkyfuawmfrrav;rSm acgufueJ ysufpD;&
&Smavonf/ rkqdk;rtjzpfESifhxdkifpm;zdkUqdkaom txkyfuav;ESifh pdefa&T
vuf0wfvufpm;rsm;onf NrdKUtkyfOD;zdk;jr\ wwd,tdrfaxmiftwGuf
jzpfavoavm? okdUwnf;r[kwf? yxrtdrfaxmifrS orD;BuD;rsm;twGuf
jzpfavoavmrajymwwf? uREkfyfrsufajcjywfíoGm;cJUonf/ odkUaomf
rrav;twGufrSm (oljyKaomur®rSwyg;)bmrQ ygroGm;jcif;um; aocsm
onf/

350 
vl&nfrvnfaom jrawmifom;rsm;

udk0ifharmf\ &kH;udpövnf; NyD;pD;onfESifh uREkfyfESifh udk0ifharmfwkdUonf


NrdKUtkyftdrfrSqif;cJUMuí jrpfqdyfokdUavQmufvmMu&m urf;okdUcsOf;uyfrdaom
tcgü iSufwpfpif;onf urf;rScGmí jrawmifbufodkUavSmfcwfoGm;onfudk
jrifonfESifh udk0ifharmfu vSrf;ac:\/ iSuform;onf rMum;csifjyKí
avSmfcwfNrJavSmfcwfoGm;\/ xdktcdkufwGifjrpfqdyfü tjcm;iSufrsm;r&SdonfESifh
udk0ifharmfu us,fus,fBuD;[pfac:&m iSuform;vnf;ZGwfcwfajy;\/
þwGif ]vlaumif;pdwfwdk}jzpfaom udk0ifharmfonf a'gojzpfvmí cwfajy;
aom iSuform;rSm rnfolrnf0gjzpfonf[k jrpfqdyfwGif xdkifvsuf&Sdaom
oli,fwa,muftm;ar;\/ vli,fuvnf; bmrQrajymyJ ikwfwkwfBuD;
xdkifaeav&m e*dkuwnf;ua'gyGvsuf&Sdaom udk0ifharmfonf rdrduar;
onfrajymyJ ayvsuf&Sdaom vli,ftm;pdwfqkd;onfESifh ajcaxmufjzifh
wcsufuefvdkufavonf/ (jrawmifom;rsm;\ ra&vnfykHrSm oabm
aumif;vSonf[k emrnf&vsuf&Sdaom 0efaxmufwa,muftm;yif ac:r&
ar;r& vkyfcsifvkyfao;onf/ vli,fa&miSuform;yg jrawmifbufrS
jzpfonf[k aemifwGifod&onf/ a&Tbdke,fom;rsm;rlum; udk0ifharmfuJUodkU
oabmaumif;aom 0efaxmufwa,muftm; þuJUokdU jyKrlvdrfhrnf
r[kwf[lí uREkfyfEIdif;,SOfcsufxkwfrdonf/) rsm;rMumrD xD;csKdifhbufrS
iSufwpfpif;ay:vmí ¤if;jzifh jrawmifbufodkU ul;cJUMu&\/ oli,fcsif;
udk0ifharmfrSm qif;&Jom;udk Muifemwwfoljzpfí iSufcray;yJ aernfhvl
wa,mufr[kwfjcif;udkvnf; uREkfyfodojzifh xdkolESpfa,mufwdkU\ tjyKtrl
udk tHUMordonf/

351 
acgif;rmwJUvluav;awG

xdknOfhü &GmxJrS tbdk;BuD;wa,mufa&mufvmí ajcuefcH&aom


vli,frSm tvl;tvJjzpfaeaMumif;? 0efaxmufrif;vdkufMunfhzdkUtaMumif;
awmif;yefajymqdkav\/ udk0ifharmfonf csufcsif;xívdkuf&m uREkfyftm;
vnf; tazmfvkdufcJUzdkU ac:oGm;avonf/ &kH;ay:rSqif;í awmtkyfBuD;\
tdfrfa&SUodkUa&mufMu&mwGif taMumif;jcif;&mudk Mum;odESifhNyD; jzpfaom
awmtkyfBuD;onf tdfrfay:rS ajy;qif;vmí jrawmif&Gmom;rsm; raumif;
aMumif;? bmrQr,kH&aMumif;? vl&rf;um;uav;rsm;vnf; &SdaMumif;? 0ef
axmufrif;udk,fwdkif rvdkufoifhaMumif;ajymum wm;qD;av\/ (awmtkyf
BuD;um; þe,fwGif ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm aebl;oljzpfí e,ftaMumif;udk
udk0ifharmfxuf ydkíodonf/) þwGif udk0ifharmfu ]]b,fhES,fvJAsKdU
udkazodef;}}[k ar;&m uREkfyfu ]]cifAsm;oGm;vQifawmh usKyfvdkufrSmyJ}}[k
jyefajymonfESifh ]]udkif;vmAsm? oGm;r,f}}[kqdkum xGufvmMuavonf/
toufig;q,fausmfNyDjzpfaom awmtkyfBuD;url ]]awmfawmfacgif;rmwJU
vluav;ESpfa,mufyJ}} [laom rsufESmxm;rsKd;ESifh Munfhae&pfav\/
ajcuefcH&aom vli,f\tdrfokdU a&mufMuaomtcg (0efaxmufESifhywfouf
aomtrIjzpfonfESifh) vli,faqGrsKd;rsm;omru w&GmvkH;vdkyif pk&kH;a&muf&Sd
aeMuavNyD/ uREkfyfwdkUonftdrfay:okdUwufí vlemteD;ü xdkifMu&m
vlemrSm cg;udkuefrdaom'PfaMumifh &Gmol&Gmom;rsm; 0dkif;0ef;ESdyfES,fay;
aeMu\/ uREkfyfonf vlem\rsufESmudk wcsufvSrf;Munfh vkduf&mwGif
a0'emjyif;xefykHr&aMumif; tuJcwfrdonfESifh y&dowfudk vSrf;Munfhvdkuf
jyef\/ ¤if;wkdUteufwGif a&cyfqdyfü jrifvdkuf&í uREkfyfrSwfrdaom
rdef;racsmuav;udk awGU&\/ olUteD;wGifvnf; &kyfcsif;cyfqifqifwlaom

352 
rdef;racsmuav; ESpfa,mufudkvnf; jrif&av&m nDtpfrrsm; jzpfwef&m
onf[k tuJcwfrdí xdktwdkif;rSefuefjcif;udkvnf; aemifwGifod&onf/
nDtpfrokH;azmfwdkU\rsufESmrsm;rSm &Srf;qefonfxifrd&m þonfvnf;
rSefuefaMumif;awGU&onf/ &Gmol&Gmom;rsm;onf udk0ifharmf\ ajcuefrIESifh
ywfoufí wpdwfudk wtdwfjzpfatmif csJUxGifajymqdkvsuf&SdMu &m uREkfyfrSm
vlUpdwfudktuJcwfoavmuf ajyvnfatmifrajymwwfonfESifh pum;jzifh
rulnDyJ &Gmom;vli,frsm;\tuJudkom apmifhMunfhae&ygawmh onf/
&Gmolrsm;teufwGif tawmfpum;wwfaom rdef;rBuD;wa,muf\ pum;cs
csuft& udk0ifharmfu vlemtwGuf t&m&mwm0ef,lygonf[k uwdjyKNyD;
aemuf tdrfay:rS qif;vmcJUMuav\/

tysKdacsmrsm;ESifh tuRrf;0ifykH

aemufwaeUeHeufwGif xD;csKdifhbufodkU uREkfyfESifhpma&;uav;wdkU oGm;


í q&m0efac:NyD;vlem\tdrfodkU ydkUay;&\/ udk0ifharmfrlum; awmtkyfBuD;
owday;csufaMumifh udk,fwdkifrvdkufawmhacs/ xdkaeUüyif udk0ifharmf\rdb
rsm;xHrS aMu;eef;&í rEÅav;odkU udk0ifharmfvdkufoGm;&av&m q&m0efESifh
vlem\wm0efudk uREkfyftm;vTJxm;cJUí aeUwdkif;oGm;MunfhzdkUvnf; uwdjyK
vdkuf&avonf/ vlem\tdrfESifh rsufESmcsif;qdkif&Sdaom tdrfwGif uREkfyf
rsufrSef;wef;rdonfh rdef;racsmuav; nDtpfrokH;a,mufwdkU aexdkifMu
av&m uREkfyfrSm udk0ifharmfvTJxm;cJUonfh vlemMunfhwm0efudk xrf;&Guf&
onfESifhyif rdef;uav;rsm;ESifh tawmfoduRrf;vsuf&SdavNyD/ wcgw&H vlem
xHrStjyefwGif¤if;wkdU\tdrfbufodkU ul;0ifum tcsdeftwefMumatmif
pum;pjrnfajymavh&Sd\/ yxrü tvwfrdef;uav;onf tacsmqkH;jzpfonf

353 
[k xifcJU&mrS tawmftwef tuRrf;w0if&SdvmaomtcgwGif tBuD;qkH;ESifh
ydkí rsufrSef;wef;rdvmonf/ odkU&mwGif pHa'0DESifh rsufrSef;wef;rdjcif;rsKd;um;
r[kwfao;ay/ trSefrSm udk0ifharmfr&Sdonfh &ufowÅywftwGif;ü aeUpOfvdk
awGU&aomfvnf; rdwfjzpfaqGjzpfom oabmxm;í ]vlysKdvSnfh}vdkonfh
tBuHtpnfyif ray:aygufao;yg/ þ&ufrsm;twGif; tjcm;aom
tysKdacsmrsm;ESifhvnf; oduRrf;atmif vrf;azmufvsuf&Sdygonf/ uREkfyfonf
[kwfrSefonfhtwdkif; ajym&rnfqdkvQif vdifESifhywfoufí acgif;yg;ol
wa,muf jzpfygvsuf woufwmwGif xdktcsdeftydkif;tjcm;uJUodkU
rdef;rpdwful;aom tcsdefonf r&SdcJUbl;yg/ rvkyfuvnf;r&Sd? vGwfvyfaom
rdef;racsmrsm;uvnf; aygonfESifh rnfolUudk ]vSnfh}&vQif awmfvdrfhrnf?
[efvdrfhrnf? ae&musvdrfhrnfqdkonfudk tcsdefukefcHí pOf;pm;pdwful;
rdygonf/ [kwfcsif[kwf? r[kwfcsifae? aemifcgvm aemifcgaps;qdkum
taysmfvdkufwwfaom 0goemvnf;r&SdaomaMumifh rnfolUtm;rQ xda&muf
pGmtBuHrjyKao;yJ tuJcwfqJ &Sdygonf/ odkUaomf igonf þ&Gmol
wa,mufa,mufESifh tdrfaxmifusvdrfhrnf[laomtxifrSmrl a&mufuwnf;
u uyfvsuf &Sdyg\/ rdef;rwa,mufomjzpfcJUvQif ]tnSmvG,f}onf[k
qdk&vdrhfrnf xifygonf/

opfoif;xGufjcif;

rEÅav;rS udk0ifharmfjyefa&mufaomtcg ajcuefcH&aom vli,frSm


aumif;pGmaysmufuif;NyDjzpfí udk0ifharmfrSm q&m0eftwGufvnf;aumif;?
vlemtwGufvnf;aumif; oifhwifhavsmufywfatmif ay;&onfwGif
udk0ifharmfu ]]awmfawmfaps;BuD;wJU ajcwcsufyJAs?  (An  Expensive  Kick)}}[k

354 
&,fumarmum ajymavonf/ aemufwaeUwGif opfawm0efxHrS udk0ifharmf
xHokdU trdefUpma&mufvm\/ ¤if;rSm udk0ifharmftm; awmacgif;ESpfa,muf
ESifhtwl opfawmodkUcsufcsif; ]opfoif;} xGuf&ef jzpfavonf/
opfoif;aomtvkyfrSm opfawmt&m&Sdrsm;ESifh vufatmuftrIxrf;rsm;
tzdkU&mü tyifyef;qkH;aom tvkyfwckjzpfí tawmfidkifoGm;Muav&m
rjrifbl;aom tjcif;t&mjrifvdkvSaom uREkfyfrlum; 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om
jzpfoGm;avonf/ uREkfyf\&TifjyaomrsufESm udkjrif&aomtcg udk0ifharmfu
]]cifAsm;u 0rf;omaeAsm;? awmfawmfMum awmhrnnf;eJUaemf}}[k ajym&m
uREkfyfuvnf; ]]cifAsm;wkdUvkyforQ vkyfyghr,fAsm? rnnf;ygbl;}}[k
jyefajymrdygonf/ aemufwaeUnaewGif 0efpnfpvnfrsm;udk qifESpfaumif
jzihfwifí uREkfyfwkdUvlpkonf opfoif;pcef;odkUxGufcJUMuav\/ opfawm
t&m&Sdrsm;rSm qifrsm; &onfqdkaomfvnf; vlpD;&efr[kwf? ypönf;wif&ef
jzpfav&m vlUtzdkUrSm ajcESpfacsmif;udkom tm;udk;&avonf/ uREkfyfwdkUonf
yxropfoif;pcef; jzpfaom erf;aygif;&GmokdU oGm;&efjzpfaomfvnf; 16
rdkifc&D;udkwnaejzifh aygufatmif roGm;EdkifaomaMumifh 9 rdkifa0;onfh
aygufeuf&Gmuav;ü wntdyfMu&\/ aygufeuf&Gm&Sd opfawmbef*vdkrSm
ESpfrsufESmwGif tum&Sdí ESpfrsufESmwGif vSyfxm;aom (Z&yfuav;t&G,f)
taqmufttkH wckjzpf&m ¤if;pcef;wGif jrawmif awmtkyfBuD;ESifhqkHrdMuí
npm twlwlpm;Muonf/ 9 rdkifc&d; avQmuf&jcif;twGuf udk0ifharmf
ESifhtrIxrf; rsm;tzdkU rnfokdUrQr&Sdaomfvnf; uREkfyfwdkUnDtpfudkrSm tawmf
zm;í xrif;tvGefNrdefMuonf/ uREkfyfwdkUtdyf&modkU 0ifMuaomtcg
wefaqmifrkef; vqef; 8&uf vuav;onf qD;ESif;rsm;tMum;rS arS;rdSefpGm
omvsuf&Sdav \/

355 
qifypfxGufjcif;

n 10 em&dtcsdefcefUwGif &Gmom;ESpfa,mufa&mufvmí teD;&Sd


v,fawmwGif qif&dkif;0ifípm;aeaMumif; owif;ay;vm\/ þwGif
udk0ifharmfonf aigufueJxí &dkifz,faoewfudk qGJudkifav&m awmtkyfBuD;
u ]]0efaxmufrif; rawmfygbl; xifygw,f}}[k owday;aomf vnf;
udk0ifharmfu ]]bmjzpfovJ awmtkyfBuD;&JU? ypfcGifh&Sdw,f r[kwfvm;}}[k
ar;\/ awmtkyfBuD;u ]]ypfwmuawmhypfEdkifcGifh&Sdygw,f? odkUaomf pdk;&drfvdkU
ajymjcif;yg}}[k jyefajym\/ udk0ifharmfu ]]Oya'vGwfuif; vQifawmfNyDAsm?
qifudkawmh raMumufygbl;? wcgrS qifrypfbl;vdkU prf;Munfhcsifw,f}}[k
ajymajymqdkqdkESifh qif;rnfjyKNyD; ]]udkazodef;aumAsKdU vkduf0HU&JUvm;}} [k
ar;\/ trSefudkajym&vQif ausmif;üaepOfu udk0ifharmf\ usDpm;jcif;rsm;udk
a&SmifcJU&jcif;rSm olwkdU\nDtpfudkav;a,muftzGJUudk vefUaomaMumifhjzpf&m
þae&mürl oluJUodkUyif owÅd&SdaMumif; jyvdkonfESifh ]]vdkufwmayghAsm}}
[kqdkum qif;ívdkufav\/ þwGifawmtkyfBuD;u ]]q&muav;
bmvkyfvkdufrSmvJ? 'DvdkqdkusKyfaoewfudk,loGm;tkH;}} [kajym&m uREkfyfu
aoewfrypfwwfaMumif; ajymí AvmvkdufoGm;av\/ uREkfyfonf
udk0ifharmftay:ü tnHUrcHcsif&kHcsnf;r[kwf? qifypfjcif;udkvnf; jrifbl;vdk
aomaMumifh jzpfav&m &Gmom;ESpfa,mufu a&SUqkH;rSvnf;aumif; udk0ifharmf
utv,frS uREkfyfuaemufqkH;rSvnf;aumif; pDwef;um avQmufoGm;Muí
wzmvkHcefU a&mufaomtcg v,fawmtpyfodkU a&mufvmMuonf/
&Gmom;ESpfa,mufonf a&SUqkH;rS acwÅ&yfí em;axmif&m ]jAKwf jAKwf
jAKwf}rnfaom toHrsm;udkMum;&\/ ¤if;rSmpyg;yifrsm;udk EIwfpm;aom
toHyifjzpfonf/ xdkUaemuf &Gmom;wa,mufonf jrufwqkyfudk eIwfí

356 
ajrSmufMunfhvdkuf&m uREkfyfwdkUu avatmufrS &Sdaejcif;udk awGU&ojzifh
wjznf;jznf;qufvuf avQmufoGm;Mu\/ va&mifrSm wjcrf;rQom&Sdaom
vrS xGuf&jcif;jzpfonfhtxJwGif qD;ESif;rsm;vnf; tenf;i,f zkH;vsuf
&SdaomaMumifh uREkfyfwdkUonf v,fuefoif;udkyif a&;a&;omjrifí ajcracsmf
ap&atmif owdESifhavQmufMu&\/ ]jAKwf jAKwf}jrnfoHrsm;onf us,fí
us,fívm&mrS zswfueJ&yfoGm;&mwGif &Gmom;ESpfa,mufwkdUonf wefUueJ
&yfí jym;ueJ 0yfvdkufMu\/ uREkfyfwdkUvnf; olwkdUenf;wl uefoif;ay:
wGif av;bufaxmufum ukef;vkdufMuonf/ &Gmom;wa,mufonf
jrufwqkyfudk ajrSmufprf;jy&m uREkfyfwkdUonf avatmufrSyif &Sdaejcif;
udkawGU&onf/ ]jAKwf jAKwf}oHvnf; rMum;&? uREkfyfwkdUvnf; uefoif;&dk;
ay:wGif jym;vsuf wrdepfcefU Mumonfh tawmtwGif; uREkfyf\&ifywf
vIyfcefaomtoHrSm udk,fh[mudk,f Mum;&kHru udk0ifharmfMum;rnfpdk;í
vufjzifh zdxm;&ygao;onf/ &Gmom;awG Mum;vQifMum;ap? qifESifh
udk0ifharmf rMum;vQifNyD;a&m[k atmufarhrdonf/ aeufwcPü ]jAKwf
jAKwf}oHr[kwfyJ odrfhueJ odrfhueJ jzpfaom tjcif;t&mudk cHpm;&Muay&m
ae&mwumwGif twifh&Jaom udk0ifharmfonf ukef;ae&mrS OD;acgif;axmifum
arQmfMunfhvdkufojzifh uREkfyfvnf; olvkyfovdk vdkufívkyf\/ uREkfyftxif
ayw&mcefUavmufwGif arS;rSdefvSaomva&mifü rnf;eufaom t&m0w¦K
BuD; wckudkjrif&\/ &Gmom;ESpfa,mufuvnf; ]]ypfyg? ypfyg}}[k wD;wkd;
ajymoH Mum;&\/ þwGif udk0ifharmfonf uefoif;ay:wGif rkqdk;xdkif
xdkifvsuf &dkfifz,fudk yckH;ü axmufum armif;jzKwfcsvdkuf\/
aoewfoHudk þrQavmuf eD;eD;uyfuyfrMum;&bl;aom uREkfyfrSm
toHaMumifh vefUrdaomfvnf; pdwfcsvufcs rvefUEdkifyJ a&SUrnf;rnf;BuD;udk
vSrf;íMunfhvdkuf&ao;\/ uREkfyftxif qifaumifonf a&SUokdUOD;pdkuf

357 
oGm;&m rS wzefjyefítxwGif &Gmom;ESpfa,mufvnf; okwfajcwifMuí
udk0ifharmfESifh uREkfyfwkdUvnf; ¤if;wkdUaemufrS vdkufajy;Mu\/ udk0ifharmfum;
aoewfBuD;wbufESifh uREkfyfudkrSDatmif rajy;Edkifacs/ vrf;c&D;wGif aoewf
ESifh ajy;vkdufvmaom awmtkyfBuD;udkawGUí udk0ifharmfu jyefMunfhzdkUajym&m
awmtkyfBuD;u Oya't& v,fudkpm;aom qif&dkif;udk ajcmufvSefU&kHom
tcGifh&Sdonf[k ajymí udk0ifharmftm; twif;jyefac:oGm;avonf/ eHeuf
vif;í vmMunfhMuaomtcg qifaumifum; rawGU? aoG;uGufBuD;ESifh
OD;pdkufaom ae&mudkom awGU&avonf/ rkqdk;0g&ifhaomawmtkyfBuD;u
OD;acgif;udk xdrSefaomfvnf; OD;aESmufrazmufyJ ]&Syf}írSefNyD; rl;oGm;jcif;
jzpfwef&monf[k ajym\/ rnfodkUyifjzpfap uREkfyftzdkUum; qifypfjcif;udk
jrif&bl;í jrwfonf[k qdkEdkifygonf/

c&D;qufMujcif;

aemufwaeUeHeufwGif uREkfyfwdkUvlpkonf aumfzDaomufNyD;aemuf


c&D;xGuf&ef jyifqifMuav\/ awmtkyfBuD;wdkU vlpkrSm jrawmifbufodkU
vnf;aumif;? uREkfyfwdkUvlpkrSm erf;aygif;pcef;odkUvnf;aumif;qufvuf
c&D;xGufMu&efjzpf\/ ypönf;rsm;udk qifESpfaumifay:okdUwifí udk0ifharmf\
wynfhrsm;? awmacgif;rsm;? pma&;armifjrESifh uREkfyf\nDawmfarmifwkdUu
wzGJU? udk0ifharmfESifhuREkfyfwkdUaemufrS aoewfxrf;í vkduf&onfhwynfh
wa,mufuwzJGU vrf;avQmufvmMu\/ ypönf;rsm;wifonfh qifESpfaumif
udk yxrü rSDatmif vkdufEdkifMuaomfvnf; wa&GUa&GU wtdtdESifh oGm;Mu
onf xif&aomqifESpfaumif\ ajcvSrf;BuJrIaMumifh Mum&SnfpGm rSDatmif
rvdkufEdkifMuyJ okH;uJGuJGí oGm;avawmhonf/ udk0ifharmf\tBuHrSm vrf;c&D;

358 
wGif acsuav;? '&,fuav;rsm; awGUvdkawGUjim;qdkum aoewfxrf;aom
wynfhaemuf vkdufygvmonfhtwGuf uREkfyfwkdU okH;a,mufrSm aemufqkH;
tzGJUjzpfaeavonf/
vrf;avQmufoGm;MupOf uREkfyfrSm þrQavmufeufaom awmodkU
wBudrfrQ ra&mufbl;onfESifh pdwf0ifpm;zG,faom tjcif;t&mrsm;udk
awGU&\/ ]pdrfhBuD;? NrdKifBuD;? &dyfBuD; awmawmif aea&mifrc}[laom
&uefBuD;twdkif; tvGefBuD;rm;xlxyfaom opfyifBuD;rsm;wGif aygifvkH;cefU
wkwfaomEG,fBuD;rsm; ywf&pfvsuf aeaysmufrxdk;onfh vSnf;vrf;ay:ü
avQmufoGm;pOf opfyg;ysOf;BuD;rsm;udk jrif&í aomEkw¦dK&f rkqkd;onf
q'´efqifrif;\ tpG,fudkjzwf&ef oGm;pOfu awmtkyfudkvnf;owd&rd\/
wae&mü a&tdkfifwckbGm;ueJ ay:vmí qwfokH;av;aumifudkvnf;
awGUvkdufojzifh udk0ifharmfonfwynfhvufrS aoewfudk vSrf;,lvkduf\/
odkUaomfqwfrsm;um; aysmufoGm;avNyD/ þwGifudk0ifharmfonf aoewfudk
wynfhvufodkUjyefay;yJ oludk,fwdkifxrf;um avQmufvm\/ okdU&mwGif
rnfonfhawmaumifudkrQ rawGUyJ erf;aygif;okdU a&mufvmMuygawmhonf/

erf;aygif;AdkvfwJ

erf;aygif;&GmokdU a&mufMuaomtcg &GmESifhreD;ra0;wGif AdkvfwJwck&Sdí


ypönf;rsm;csNyD; csufolucsuf? cif;olu cif;? jyifolu jyifvsuf&SdMuonfudk
awGU&\/ erf;aygif;AdkvfwJrSm aygufeufAdkvfwJuJUodkU Z&yfuav;t&G,f
r[kwf? 0if;ESifhcsif;ESifhtapcHwJyg us,f0ef;pGm &Sdonfhjyif AdkvfwJBuD;rsm;
xkH;pHtwdkif; tdyfcef;ESpfcef;ESifh a&csKd;cef;rSwyg; tawmfus,f0ef;aom
0&efwmBuD;vnf; &Sdonfjzpfí aeavmufxdkifavmuf&Sdygayonf/ rus,f

359 
r0ef;yJ &Sdygrnfavm/ jrefrmjynfbk&ifcH qm[mukwfbwÅvmudk,fwdkif
trJypfxGufpOfu &ufowÅwywfcefU aexdkifcJUbl;onfjzpf&m þtaMumif;
udka&SUwGifrS azmfjyygOD;rnf/ (]]&Sifbk&if wcgxGuf yJBuD;wavScsuf}}[laom
pum;ykHudk xif&Sm;apvdkaomaMumifh jzpfygonf/) AdkvfwJodkU jrefrmESifh
rwlonfh tvkyfMurf;orm; q,fa,mufcefUwdkUvnf; a&mufESifhaeMu&m
u'l;opfckwform;rsm;jzpfí opfoif;&eftwGuf a&mufESifhMuaMumif; od&
avonf/ ae&mXme ajymif;vJ&jcif;udk tvGefESpfoufol uREkfyfrSm erf;aygif;
AdkvfwJ 0&efwmwGif tarmajy xdkifvsuf&SdpOf t&yfav;rsufESmü awmBuD;?
NrdKifBuD;? pdrfhBuD;? prf;BuD;rsm; 0dkif;&Hvsuf&Sdaom &Icif;topftqef;udk
jrif&onfESifh pdwfxJwGifwrsKd;MunfEl;rdygawmhonf/
tjcm;a'orsm;ü v,fawmrsm; NcH&Hjcif;udkom jrif&wwfay&m
erf;aygif;AdkvfwJay:rSrl opfawmrsm;udkom rsufpdwqkH; jrif&yg\/
a&S;acwfü &rnf;oif;ESifh ysOf;rem; blwmrsm;tMum; rD;&xm;ckwfoGm;pOf
uRef;awmBuD;rsm;udk jrif&í erf;aygif;opfpcef;udk owd&vGrf;qGwfrd&m
þacwfwGifrlum; uRef;awmrsm;udk rjrif&awmhyJ (jyKef;ukefavonfrod)
rD;&xm;vrf; eHab;wavQmufü &Sif;&Sif;BuD;jrif&ojzifh a&S;acwfa[mif;
atmufarhvSygonf/

awm0ufwaumif&jcif;

qdkufa&mufaomaeUü vltm;vkH; tem;,lvsuf&Sd&m udk0ifharmfonf


awmacgif; wa,mufESifh &Gmrkqdk;wa,muftm; aoewfay;vdkufí
vlESpfa,muf trJ&SmxGufMuonf/ þa'oum; orif? '&,f? awmMuuf?
awm0ufrS pdkif? ajymif? BuHU? qifodkUwdkifatmif awmaumifpkHaom

360 
a'ojzpf&m pifppfrSm jrefrmwjynfvkH;wGif awmwd&pämef tpkHqkH;jzpfí
bk&ifcH qm[mukwfbwÅvmESifh t*Fvdyft&m&SdBuD;rsm; tzGJUwdkUvGefcJUaom
ESpfu awmypf&ef vma&mufcJUMubl;avonf/
awmacgif;wa,mufESifh &Gmrkqdk;onf ae0ifcsdefomomwGif jyefa&muf
vmMuí rkqdk;u awm0ufuav;waumifudk ausmydk;vsuf ygvm\/
tdrfMuuf? tdrf0ufom;rsm;udkom trsm;tm;jzifh pm;&bl;aom uREkfyfwdkU
nDtpfudkrSm awm0ufwaumif&cJUjcif;twGuf taysmfqkH;vlESpfa,muf
aywnf;/ tjcm;vlrsm;onf csufjyKwfNyD;&Sdaom [if;xrif;jzifh npm
pm;Muaomfvnf; uREkfyfwkdUnDtpfudkrlum; awm0ufom;usufrS pm;rnfqdk
um xrif;rpm;ao;yJ 0ufaumif]zsuf}jcif;udk apmifhMunfhaeMu\/
aygifom;rsm;udk uif&eftwGuf wkH;wpfjcif;? 0rf;wGif;om;ac: tonf;ESvkH;
ponfrsm;udk csuf&eftwGuf vSD;jzwfjcif; ponfjzifh jyifqifNyD;aemuf
pdwfyg0ifzG,f taumif;qkH;aom tvkyfrSm OD;acgif;udkjyifqif&jcif;yifjzpf\/
wae&mü usif;BuD;wckudkwl;í tifzuf? iSufaysmzuf ponfwdkUudk
xlxyfpGmcif;usif;NyD;vQif tarG;trSifrsm; ajymifpifatmifjcpfum &EdkiforQ
aom *sif;? i&kwf? MuufoGefjzLponfh tarT;tBudKifrsm;jzifh vl;e,fxm;onfh
0ufacgif;udk zufrsm;ay:üwifí wzef zuf&Gufrsm;jzifh xlxyfpGmzkH;tkyfNyD;rS
tay:qkH;wGif ajrBuD;rsm; zkH;zday;Mu\/ ¤if;aemufaygcsifwdkif;aygaom
xif;wkH;BuD;rsm;udk usif;ay:üwifí {&mrrD;ykHBuD;jzpfatmif &IdUarT;ay;Mu\/
xif;wkH;BuD;rsm;udk avmifuRrf;í&J&JeDaom rD;usDcJBuD;rsm; jzpfvmaomtcg
wHpdkUjzifh xdk;xm;onfh 0ufaygifom;wkH;BuD;rsm;udk rD;teD;üuifí 0rf;wGif;
om;tdk;udk vnf; rD;zdkeHab;wGif csufMuavonf/ rD;usD;a&m rD;awmufyg
tvGeftm;aumif;onfjzpfí 0ufom;uifrSm uREkfyfwdkUxifoavmuf rMumyJ
usufaomtydkif;udk zJUpm;Edkifaom tajcodkUrMumrD a&mufvmavonf/

361 
tb,fhaMumifh t&ufaomufoenf;

wefaqmifrkef;vrjynfhao;aomfvnf; pdrfhBuD;NrdKifBuD;rsm;\ tv,fü


&Sdaomerf;aygif;AdkvfwJrSm qD;ESif;rsm; &Hvsuf&Sdí uREkfyfwdkU nDtpfudk
tzdkU&mü tawmfuav; csrf;at;aeNyDjzpf&m 0ufom;uifrsm;pm;íjzpfaom
tajcokdU a&mufonfESifh wNydKifeuf udk0ifharmfonf ema&;zsm;a&;twGuf
aq;0g;tjzpf ,laqmifvmcJUonfh tduúa&Sm b&ef'DwvkH;udk xkwfav\/
uREkfyfMunfEl;vdkufykHrSmajymzG,f&mr&Sdacs/ (uREkfyftm; t&ufBudKufwwfonf
[k txifa&mufMuaom vlrsm;onf ]uREkfyfMunfEl;onf}[k a&;vdkufaom
tcgü NyKH;Muvdrfhrnfjzpf&m uREkfyfESifht&uftaMumif;udk þae&mü&Sif;vif;
a&;om;&ayvdrfhrnf/) uREkfyfonfpifppftm;jzifh t&ufudk BudKufjcif;r[kwf?
tpm;aumif;udkBudKufjcif;jzpf\? t&om&Sdaom tpmwckudk onftwdkif;
pm;jcif;xuf t&ufuav; wcGufavmuf aomufNyD;rSpm;onfhtcg
t&omydkjcif;rSm uREkfyf\udk,fawGUjzpf\/ woufywfvkH; uREkfyft&uf
aomuforQwGif rl;csifíaomufjcif;r[kwf? pm;aumif;csifí aomufjcif;
jzpf\/ rl;,pfjcif;oufoufudkBudKufwwfaom vlrsm;onf pm;p&m rygcsif
aeap? aomufp&m&vQifNyD;a&m[k oabmxm;wwfMu\/ uREkfyfrSm
i,foli,fcsif;rsm;ESifhjyefvnfqkHawGUaom tcsdefrsKd;rSwyg; t&ufoufouf
aomufbl;jcif;udk uREkfyfrrSwfrdyg/ oli,fcsif;a[mif;rsm; qkHqnf;&mürlum;
]vlnDvQif}bmrqdkvkyfrnfqdkaom vlwa,mufjzpf\/ [efaqmifjcif;onf
uREkfyf\0goemr[kwfyg/ ]]pm;p&mawGudk Adkufjynfhatmif pm;raeygeJU?
aomufzdkUae&mr&SdyJ aeygvdrfhr,f}}[k tcsKdUvlrsm; ajymwwfMuay&m uREkfyf
rlum; xdkvlrsKd;wGiftygt0ifr[kwfacs/ aomufuwnf;u pm;aumif;csifí
aomufjcif;jzpf]/ tpm;rygyJ aomufjcif;onf uRekfyftzdkU t"dyÜm,fr&Sdacs/

362 
pm;p&maumif;rsm;ygaom xrif;yJGudk jrif&jcif;onf uREkfyftzkdUBuD;pGmaom
aoG;aqmjcif;BuD;wckjzpf\/ taomufuav;ygvQif omíaumif;avpG[k
owdr&yJ raeEdkifatmif jzpf\/ xdkUaMumifhvnf; w&kwfjynfodkU
a&mufcJUpOfu xrif;pm;yGJrsm;wGif wcGufwavrQudk vufrvTwfEdkifyJ
jzpfcJU&\/ uREkfyftzdkU&mü taomufudk csKd;ESdrfvdkvQif tpm;aumif;
pm;csifwwfaom0goemudkyg csKd;ESdrfrS jzpfrnf[k odjrif\/
xdkUaMumifh toufBuD;&ifhvmNyDjzpfaom þaemufydkif;wGif xrif;[if;
udka&Smifí rkefvmxkyf? Al;oD;? c0JoD;? rkefvmO ponfh [if;oD;
[if;&Gufrsm;udkcsnf; NyKwfNyD; &ufowÅwywfwdkifwkdif pm;cJUonfh
tywfaygif;rSm awmfawmfrsm;cJUygNyD/ þenf;rSm tpmtdrfudk &Sif;vif;jcif;
jzpfí usef;rma&;twGuf aumif;onfhjyif tpm;aumif;pm;csif wwfonfh
]tmomief;ief;}&Sdjcif;udkvnf; jywfapEdkifonf[k awGU&\/ tpm;aumif;
pm;zkdU wrf;wjcif;r&SdcJUvQif omíaumif;ap&efqdkum taomufuav;
awmifhwrIqdkonfrSmvnf; t"dyÜm,fr&Sd jzpfvmygawmhonf/ þtavh
tusifhaMumifh w&kwfpm;yGJrsm;ü wcGufavmuf aomufcsifaompdwfudkvnf;
csKd;ESdrfEdkifcJUygNyD/ odkU&mwGif uREkfyfþrQavmuf BudK;pm;jcif;rSm Ak'¨u
'kp&dkufq,fyg;wGif oGwfoGif;í a[mawmfrlcJUonfh ok&mar&,twGuf
aMumifh i&JBuD;vdrfhrnf[k ,kHMunfaomaMumifhum; r[kwf? w&m;tm;xkwf
jcif;ü taESmifht,Sufjzpfí "r®rdwfaqGrsm; txifvJGrnfudk (olwkdUtwGuf)
pdk;&drfaomaMumifh [if;&GufjyKwf oufoufpm;NyD; wyifwyef;avhusifhxm;
jcif;jzpfygonf/

363 
Zdrf&Sdaomnwn

udk0ifharmfonf ]iSufawm acG;awm}wuf&onfh opfawm


t&m&Sdwa,muf jzpfaomfvnf; iSufzsm;umuG,f&efqdkí t&ufaomufaom
vlwa,mufr[kwfygay/ awmxJü zsm;emvQifokH;rnf/ odkUaomfumuG,f&ef
qdkí aomufwwfolr[kwfacs/ odkU&mwGif]]toufudktaocHrnf? aot&uf
udkvQmay:rwif}}[k 0g<um;ajymqdkwwfMuonfh t,loD;aom vlpm;rsKd;
wa,mufum; r[kwfay/ rdwfaqGoli,fcsif;rsm;tm; xrif;pm;yJG auR;aom
tcgrsm;wGif olwyg;tm;vnf; wdkuf\/ olvnf;aomufygonf/ okdUaomf
uRekfyfwkdUESifh aeUwdkif;pm;Muaom xrif;pm;yJGrsKd;ürl t&ufrygacs/ xdknrSm
awm0ufom;uif\ qJGaqmifjcif;aMumifh olESifhuREkfyfwcGufpD aomufMu
aomfvnf; nDawmfarmiftm;rl zdwfac:jcif; wkdufwGef;jcif;rjyKyJ tpm;
aumif;rsm;om auR;arG;ygonf/ tawmfuav;csrf;at;pjyKaeaom &moD
wGif w[kef;[kef; awmufavmifaom rD;ykHBuD;ESifh rvSrf;rurf;ü &Gufzsif
ukvm;xdkifwvkH;pDESifh taumif;qkH; b&ef'DwcGufpD vufwbufwGifudkifum
wusKdufaomufvkduf? awm0ufom;uifwkH;udk wudkufudkufí wzJU0g;vdkuf?
i,foli,fcsif;csif; a&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpfrsm;udk wvSnfhpDajymvkduf? wcsuf
wcsufü t&ufESifhpm;p&m tmomajycdkufwGif (olu pD;u&uf? uRekfyfu
aq;wHudk) wcgwcg zGmvdkufMu&onfrsm;rSm ,aeUwdkifrarhEdkifonfh
Zdrfwck jzpfygawmhonf/ udk0ifharmfu 0ufom;uifwkH;BuD;rsm;udk "m;jzifh
vSD;í cuf&if;wyfum jyif,lcJUzdkU trdefUay;onfudk uREkfyfuzsufí
awmpcef;tvdkuf awmyDyD pm;prf;yg&ap[kajymum udkufí udkufí
zJUpm;Mu\/ xdknOfhü t&ufwcGufpDom aomufrnf[k BuH&G,fMu
aomfvnf; pum;wajymajymESifh oHkH;cGufpDcefUaomufrdMuonf xif&m

364 
wydócefU&Sdaom awm0ufom;wuifrSmvnf; uRwfvkeD;yg;&SdcJUavNyD/
xrif;um; tvsOf;rpm;Muawmhacs/ a&S;a[mif; aESmif;jzpfrsm;taMumif;
ajymíukefEdkifonf r&Sdaomfvnf; wcsufwcsuf pum;tjywfwGif uREkfyfu
qm[mukwfbwÅvm trJypfvmpOfu taMumif;udk ar;ojzifh udk0ifharmfu
olodorQudk tao;pdwfajymjyonfh txJrS uREkfyfrSwfrdoavmuf a&;om;
azmfjy&ygOD;rnf/

bk&ifcH trJypfjcif;

qm[mukwfbwÅvmonf jrefrmjynfodkU bk&ifcHtjzpfESifh ESpfBudrfwdkif


vma&muftkyfcsKyfbl;onfhteuf yxrtBudrf (1918 ckESpfavmuf xif
onf/) bk&ifcHjzpfpOfu c&pfprwf &ufowÅywf  (Christmas  Week) 

twGuf uom'dpBwdwftwGif;&Sd erf;aygif;AdkvfwJü pwnf;csum trJypf


xGufMu&ef tpDtpOfjyKvkyfMu\/ c&pfprwf &ufowÅywf[lonfrSm
'DZifbmv 25&ufaeUrS Zefe0g&Dv w&ufaeUtxd jzpfav&m Edk0ifbmv
qDavmufuwnf;u opfawmbufqdkif&m awmMuyf? awmacgif;?
awmtkyfuav;? awmtkyfBuD;rS pí 0efaxmufwdkifatmif ¤if;udpötwGuf
BudKwifpDrHMu&\/
xdk&ufrsm;twGif;ü opfawmt&m&Sdrsm;tzdkU&mwGif opfawmudpöonf
ta&;rBuD;ao;? bk&ifcHawmvnfvmrnfh udpöonfomvQif ta&;BuD;\
opfawmvkyfief;ESifh ywfoufí 0wÅ&m;wpkHw&m vpf[if;ayghavsmhrI
&SdcJUvQif xkacsvTm awmif;cH&&kHrQavmufESifh NyD;Edkifaomfvnf; bk&ifcH
trJypfvmrnfhudpöESifh ywfoufírl wcsufuav;rQ vpf[if;ygu csufcsif;
tvkyfjyKwfoGm;Edkifonf[k em;vnfM uavonf/

365 
NAdwdoQtpdk;&\ yg;eyfykHrSm xdkrQavmuf ta&;BuD;onf[k
trdefUxkwfqifhonfr[kwf? odkUaomfopfawmbuf t&m&Sdrsm;tm;vkH;ESifh
e,fbufqdkif&m 0efaxmuf? NrdKUtkyfrSpí &GmolBuD;rsm;wdkifatmif þtwdkif;
yif em;vnfxm;Muavonf/
Edkif0ifbmv tpjyKonfESifh wNydKifeuf erf;aygif;&Gm ywf0ef;usif
{&d,mpwk&ef;rdkifaygif;rsm;pGm twGif; awmMuyfawmacgif;rsm;u ae&m
tESHUtjym;wGif qm;rsm;pkHykHcsxm;Mu&\/ qm;rsm;a&mufatmif wifydkU&jcif;
rSm e,ft&m&Sdrsm;\ wm0efjzpfí awmMuyfawmacgif;rsm;u ¤if;qm;rsm;udk
oifhavsmfaom ae&mrsm;ü pkykHMu&\/ awmwd&pämef&dkif;rsm; onftiefBudKuf
wwfaom obm0&Sdav&m ¤if;e,fy,fw0dkufwGif BuJjzefUum vSnfhvnf
usufpm;vsuf&Sdaom awmwd&pämefrsm;udkerf;aygif;&Gm e,fw0dkfuftwGif;
pk&kH;a&muf&SdvmMuapjcif;iSm qm;ykHrsm;jzifh jzm;a,mif;aoG;aqmif,ljcif;
jzpf\/ awmwd&pämefrsm;onf qm;udkvmí vsufMuav&m awmacgif;rsm;
u qm;ykHrsm;udk rMumrMum vmMunfhNyD; qm;jznfhay;&avonf/ qm;ykH
rsm;udkvSnfhvnfí ]tifpyuf&Sif;}vkyfaom t&m&Sdu wckaom qm;ykHü
qm;jywfvyfaejcif;udk awGUonfqdktHU/ wm0efusaom awmacgif;
awmMuyfrlum; tvkyfjyKwfzdkUaocsmavNyD/ þtaMumif;udk t&m&Sdu
ta&;r,lyJ oufnSmvdkufygvQifvnf; olUtxuft&m&Sdu (&Gmom;rsm;\
tultnDjzifh) wenf;enf; odwwfonfjzpfí t&m&Sdyg jyKwfzdkUaocsm
avonf/

366 
bk&ifcHqdkufa&mufjcif;

þenf;jzifh awmaumifrsm;udk BudKwifum jzm;a,mif;aoG;aqmifxm;


onfjzpfí 'DZifbmvtv,favmufa&mufonfqdkvQif qm;BudKufwwfaom
awmaumif[lorQonf (rBudKufaom awmaumifrsKd;vnf; cyf&Sm;&Sm;
&Sdvdrhfrnf/) erf;aygif;&Gmywf0ef;usifwGif ajccsif;vdrfrwwf aygrsm;vsuf
&Sd\/ xdktawmtwGif; ¤if;ywf0ef;usifwGif Muufuav;? iSufuav;rQ
rypf&[k wm;jrpfxm;\/ tb,fhaMumifhqdkaomf aoewfoHMum;vQif
waumifwavjzpfap xdwfvefUxGufajy;rnfudk pdk;&drf&aomaMumifh
aywnf;/ erf;aygif;&Gmom;rsm;onfvnf; erf;aygif;AdkvfwJESifhwuG
ywf0ef;usifudk ajymifpifatmif vSJusif;okwfoif xm;Mu&ay&m ¤if;wkdU
tzdkUrSmvnf; woufwGifwcgBuKH&cJaom ]awmvnfyJG} BuD;jzpfí
arQmfwvifhvifh &SdaeMuav\/ aeU&ufeD;uyfvmaomtcg erf;aygif;&Gmonf
&Gmi,ftjzpfrS NrdKUuav;tjzpfodkUajymif;vJí bk&ifcHESifhtzJGU\ tapcHrsm;
wnf;cdk&eftwGuf wJtkHuem;rsm;ESifh tvdk&Sd&m cdkif;ap&eftwGuf opfawm
bufe,fbuf trIxrf;rsm;jzifh jynfhESufpnfum;pGm &SdaeavNyD/ 'DZifbmv
24 &ufaeUwGif tpdk;&oabFm okH;av;pif;onf jrawmif&Gmtxuf&Sd
a&ysH&GmodkU qdkufuyfí bk&ifcHtjyif twGif;0efcsKyf? twGif;0efuav;rSpí
aoewfypf 0goemygonfh rsufESmjzLt&m&Sd ajrmufjrm;pGm ygvmMuonf/
¤if;wkdU\ypönf;rsm;udk tpdk;&qifrsm;ESifh rvkHavmufojzifh bDbDwDpD?
pwD;b&m;om; paomopfukrÜPDBuD;rsm;rS opfqJGqifBuD;rsm;jzifh wifaqmif
,lMu\/
þtawmtwGif; bk&ifcHESifh tzJGUtm; jrawmif? xD;csKdifh? atmifom paom
&Gmrsm;rS ,drf;tujzifh azsmfajzMu&onf/ aemufqkH;ü bk&ifcHESifhtzJGU onf

367 
erf;aygif;&GmokdU jrif;rsm;ESifh oGm;Muí ypönf;rsm;udkqifrsm;jzifh a&S;OD;pGm
wifvTwfvkduf\/ bk&ifcHonf a&ysH&GmqdyfwGif oabFmay:ü wntdyfí
aemufwaeUwGif erf;aygif;okdUa&mufaomtcg AdkvfwJudk0dkif;&Hvsuf
rkd;umwJrsm; toifhaqmufvkyfNyD;jzpfaeavNyD/ bk&ifcHonf AdkvfwJay:wGif
eef;xdkifí twGif;0ef? tjyif0ef? tBuD;? ti,f? tvwf wkdUonf
rkd;umwJrsm;ü pwJcsMuvonf/

om;aumifrsm;\oif;csKdif;

uom'dpBwdwf erf;aygif;awmrSm wd&pämef&dkif;rsm; aygvnf;ayg


pkHvnf;pkHaomaMumifh rkqdk;rsm;\ ewfjynf  (Paradise  of  Hunters)  [k
¤if;wkdUac:Mu\/ jrefrmwjynfvkH;wGif BuHUrsm;onf þtydkif;wGifom
awGU&onfqdk&m rkqdk;rsm; wcgw&H awGU&wwfaomfvnf; ynwfxm;aom
wd&pämefrsKd;jzpfaomaMumifh rnfolrQ ypfcGifhr&qdk\/ bk&ifcHESifhtzJGUrlum;
Oya'txufrS vlpkjzpfaomaMumifh bmaumifrqdk ypfEdkifcGifh&SdMu&m
ypfvnf;ypfMuonfqdk\/ rsufESmjzLt&m&Sd aoewform;rsm; onfvnf;
aumif; ? olwkdU\trdefUESifhypfaom rkqdk;rsm;onfvnf;aumif; aeUa&m nyg
ypfvkdufMuonfrSm rdk;rTefoGm;awmhonf/
awmaumifrsm;rSm ,cifuwnf;u þw0dkufü pkH&kH;aeMuatmif
qm;ykHrsm;jzifh jzm;a,mif;xm;jcif;jzpfay&um; &Gmom;rsm;u aoewform;
rsm;&Sd&modkU ]awmacsmuf}ay;vdkuf&mwGif olwkdUu ukvm;xdkifay:rS ZdrfESifh
xdkifNyD; waumifNyD;waumif ypfcsvkduf&kHom &Sdonfqdk\/ awmaumifrsm;
aovdkufMuonfrSm aomufaomufvJ&Sdí wESpfwBudrfrQavmuf þenf;
twdkif; trJypfxGufMurnfqdkvQif rMumrDtwGif; awmjyKef;oGm;zG,f&m

368 
&Sdonfqdk\/ &Gmom;rsm;rlum; ¤if;wdkUtwGuf a0pk&&Sdaom tom;rsm;udk
Muyfwifajcmufvkyfjcif;? aevSef;trJajcmufvkyfjcif; ponfjzifh tawmfpD;yGm;
jzpfMuí tvGefaysmfMuonfqdk\/ aemufqkH;ü ESpfukefí c&pfprwf
&ufowÅywf NyD;qkH;ojzifh bk&ifcHwdkUvlpk jyefoGm;Muaomtcg erf;aygif;
AdkvfwJ ywf0ef;usifw0dkufrSm om;aumifrsm;\ oif;csKdif;ukef;yrmjzpfí
ykyfapmfeHusef&pfonf[k ajymMuavonf/
udk0ifharmfonf txufyg taMumif;t&mrsm;udkajymjyí NyD;qkH;aom
tcg qD;ESif;rsm;onf atmufwGifuREkfyfwkdUxdkifvsuf&Sdoam opfyifBuD;\
t&Gufrsm;tMum;rS xdk;azmufumusvmí rD;ykHBuD;rSmvnf; w&SJ&SJjrnfvsuf
&Sd&mwGif uREkfyfwkdUrSm wntwGufwmtzdkU pum;ukefavmufNyDqdkum
AdkvfwJay:odkU wufvmMuav\/ ppfppfrSm pum;ukefMujcif;um; r[kwf?
(okH;av;nqufNyD; rtdyfyJ ajymp&m pum;&SdolESpfa,mufjzpfonf/)
eHeufapmapm opfoif;xGufMu&rnftwGufaMumifh ]csKd}xm;vdkufMujcif;
rQom jzpfavonf/ uREkfyf\ 0goemwckrSmvnf; aumif;pGmtuRrf;
r0ifaom vlwa,mufESifh 10 rdepf ajymp&mpum; &SmrawGUwwfaomfvnf;
avpyfwnfhaom oli,fcsif;a[mif;wa,mufESifhrl okH;av;nrtdyfyJESifh
pum;ajymEdkif\/ ajymvnf;ajymcJUbl;vSavNyD/

pmpkHjcif;\ tusKd;aus;Zl;

aemufwaeUeHeufwGif tdyf&mrS xMuaomtcg (uREkfyfrSm EdkifiHa&;


oabmw&m; acgif;yg;ao;olwa,mufjzpfonfhtavsmuf) þum;
qm[mukwfbwÅvm tdyfaomtcef;? þae&mum;bk&ifcH aumfzDaomuf
aom pm;yGJae&m? þum; aeylpmvIHaom 0&efwm ponfjzifh trSwf&um

369 
pm;NrKHUjyefvsuf&Sd\/ (uREkfyfrSm 'pfuif;? paumh? ouúa&;paom t*Fvdyf
pma&;q&mBuD;rsm;\ 0w¦Kaumif; tajrmuftjrm;udk zwfcJU&bl;í
t*FvdyfvlrsKd;rsm;\ aumif;jrwfaom tcsuftvufrsm;udk odxm;&onfhjyif
rdcifzcifwkdU udk,fwdkifuvnf; rif;pdk;&mZmESifh ywfouforQaom udpörsm;
wGif txifBuD;atmif oifjyxm;cJUMuonfjzpfaomaMumifh bk&if0g'ESifh
¤if;\tquftoG,fjzpfaom AsL&dkua&pDudk awmfawmf txifBuD;cJUrd\/
pOf;pm;OmPfu awmfvSefcsifapumrlvnf; twGif;pdwfu OD;nGwfvsuf&Sd\/
touf 40 t&G,favmufwGif aomrwfpydef;\ ]vlom;\tcGifhta&;}
[laom pmtkyfudkzwf&onfwGifrS pOf;pm;OmPf aumif;aumif;BuD;yGifhvif;NyD;
AsL&dkua&pDESifhya'o&mZf? {u&mZfpepfrsm;udk MunfndKav;pm;umjzifh
OD;nGwfcsifwwfaom apwemrsKd; vkH;0 tjrpfuRwfxGufoGm;cJUygonf/
þtjcif;t&mudk awG;rdaomtcg ]igonf pmpkHatmif rzwfcJU&vQif
tawmfEkHcsmaom vlwa,mufjzpfvdrfhrnf[lívnf; rSwfcsufcscJUygonf/
xdkeHeufü udk0ifharmfonf qm[mukwfbwÅvm\ ae&müvnf;aumif;?
uREkfyfonf twGif;0efcsKyfae&müvnf;aumif; toD;oD;xdkifumaumfzD
aomufNyD;aemuf opfoif;pcef;odkU xGufMuav\/ nDawmfarmiftm;rlum;
awmtkyfuav;rsm;ESifh pma&;armifjrwdkU\ pm;yJGokdUydkUvkduf&onf/

]opfoif;}tvkyf

pm;aomufNyD;Muaomtcg uREkfyfwkdUvlpkESifh opfckwform;rsm;onf


uRef;yifBuD;rsm;&Sdaom tpdk;&opfawmBudK;0dkif;okdU xGufMuav\/ AdkvfwJrS
ESpfrdkifausmf okH;rdkifcefUa&mufMuaomtcgwGif opfoif;&rnfh uRef;awmBuD;
odkU a&mufMu\/ ]opfoif;}jcif;[lonfrSm tjcm;r[kwf? uRef;yifBuD;rsm;udk

370 
aoatmif owfay;&aomtvkyfyifjzpf\/ xkdpOfurl uRef;opfrsm;xkwf
vkyfjcif;tvkyfudk jrefrmopfukefonfrsm;teufrS [kwÅdywÅdvkyfEdkifol
enf;yg;í bDbDwDpD? pwD;vfb&m;om;? ruf*&*¾gpaom EdkifiHjcm; ukrÜPD
BuD;rsm;om vkyfudkifEdkifMuavonf/ jrefrmopfukefonfrsm; rSm
aiG&if;rvkHavmufonfhjyif NAdwdoQtpdk;&uvnf; jrefrmukefonfrsm;
vdkufemzdkU cJ,Of;avmufatmif pnf;urf;Oya'rsm; jyKvkyfxm;jcif;aMumifh
rvkyfEdkifyJ&SdMu&onf[k jrefrmukefonfrsm;u ajymMu\/ udk0ifharmfurl
jrefrmukefonfrsm;\ ruRrf;usifrIvnf; ygonf[k ajymbl;\/
rnfodkUyifjzpfap jrefrmukefonfrsm;rSm ]atmfvJ ewfowf}[k ac:aom
uRef;opftydeftajcmufrsm;rSwyg; vkyfEdkifol r&SdMuacs/ EdkifiHjcm;ukrÜPDBuD;
wcku uRef;awmwckudk avvHqGJNyD;aemuf ¤if;awmrSuRef;opfrsm;udk
ckwfcsif&mckwfvSJí ,l&onfr[kwf? opfoif;aom opfawmt&m&Sdu
oifhawmfonfxifaom uRef;yifrsm;udk a&G;cs,fowfrSwfí ]owf}ay;&\/
rnfonfhuRef;yifudk owfay;oifhonf qkd&müvnf; opfawm
Oya't& twdtus owfrSwfxm;onfjzpf&m opfawmt&m&Sdu
¤if;pnf;urf; Oya'twdkif; owday;&jcif;jzpf\/ ukrÜPDrsm;\tvdkrSm
rdrdwdkU avvHqGJxm;onfh uRef;awmxJrS tacsmqkH;? tvSqkH;aom
uRef;yifBuD;rsm;udk vSJ,l&efjzpfav&m tpdk;&url tBuD;qkH;? tacsmqkH;
rsm;udkcsnf; owfay;onfr[kwf? wyifESifhwyif yl;uyfvGef;ojzifh rBuD;yGm;
Edkifaom uRef;yifrsm;udkvnf; nSyfíxnfhcsifao;onf/
opfoif;t&m&Sdonf ukrÜPDrsm;\ tBudKufcsnf; vkyfay;ygu
txuf tpdk;&t&m&Sd\ Budrf;armif;jcif;cH&í tpdk;&\ tBudKufcsnf;
vkyfjyefyguvnf; ukrÜPDrsm;\ twkdiftawm cH&avonf/ ,if;uJUodkU
twkdifcH&aom tcgüvnf; txuft&m&Sdu tpdk;&\ tusKd;udkMunfhwwf

371 
aom opfoif;t&m&Sdqdkí csD;usL;onr[kwf? rQwatmifrvkyfwwfaom
t&m&Sdwa,muf[lí armif;rJjcif;cH&wwfao;onf/ tpdk;&uvnf; NAdwdoQ?
ukrÜPDBuD;rsm;uvnf; t*FvdyfjzpfonfhtwGufaMumifh jrefrmt&m&Sdrsm;rSm
]tuif;yg;}zdkU tvGefta&;BuD;avonf/ þudpörsKd;ü opfoif;t&m&Sdonf
rdr\
d 0wÅ&m;twdkif; wduspGm aqmif&Gufwwfaom vlwa,mufayavm
[lonfudk rSefuefatmif tuJcwfwwfzkdU ta&;BuD;\/ txuft&m&SdBuD;
udk,fwdkifrSmvnf; (opfaumif;? opfacsmrsm;rsm;&vdkonfhtwGuf) ukrÜPD
BuD;rsm;u vmbfxkd;onf[lí jzpfEdkifayao;onf/ ukrÜPDBuD;rsm;onf
opfoif;t&m&Sdtm; opfoif;ckduftwGif; pnfoGwfAl; ponfh pm;aumif;
aomufzG,frsm; ydkUwwfMuonfqdk&m udk0ifharmfrSmrl vmbfrpm;[lí
emrnf&aom t&m&Sdwa,mufjzpfaomaMumifh ,kwfpGmhtqkH; ig;aowÅmwAl;
rQyif ydkUMujci;fudk rjrifcJU&ay/

tawmf]zm;}aomtvkyf

uREkfyfwdkUa&mufoGm;aom uRef;awmBuD;rSm tvGefus,f0ef;vSí


awmifxdyfa&m? awmifurf;yg;,Ha&m? awmifMum;wavQmufa&m uRef;yifrsm;
tESUHtjym; aygufa&mufvsuf&Sd&m ¤if;uRef;awmBuD;xJrS Oya'pnf;urf;ESifh
nDnGwfaom uRef;yifrsm;udk awmifwyif? ajrmufwyif? awmifxdyfüwyif?
awmifMum;xJüwyif? awmifurf;yg;,Hüwyif ponfjzifh a&G;c,fum
]oif;}ay;&rnfjzpfavonf/ awmtkyfuav;rsm;ESifh awmacgif;rsm;?
opfckwform;rsm;onf vlpkcJGí pnf;urf;ESifh nDnGwfaom uRef;yifrsm;udk
vdkufvH&SmazGMu\/ tkyfpkwpkwGif acgif;aqmifjzpfaom awmtkyfuav;
onf a&G;cs,f&rnfh pnf;urf;udk tMurf;tm;jzifh em;vnfxm;onf/

372 
tkyfpkokH;pkcJGí xGufoGm;MupOf udk0ifharmfESifh uREkfyfonf wae&müxdkifum
aq;vdyfaomufvsuf apmifhaeMu&m uRekfyfu awmawmif\om,mykHudk
vSrf;Munfh,if; ]]awmfawmfZdrf&Sdom;yJAsKdU}}[k ajymvkdufojzifh udk0ifharmfu
]]Munfhao;wmayghAsm}}[k jyefajymavonf/ pD;u&ufwvdyf rukefrD
awmifatmufqDrS ]0l;}[k atmfoHMum;&í uREkfyfwdkUonf toHMum;&modkU
qif;oGm;Muav&m ¤if;wkdUa&G;cs,fxm;aom uRef;yifwyifudk awGU&av\/
udk0ifharmfonf pnf;urf;ESifh nDnGwfonf[k tqkH;tjzwfay;í
¤if;uRef;yifü udk,fwdkifvufrSwfa&;xdk;&avonf/ þwGif opfckwform;
onf uRef;yif\cg;udk cGefjzifhvSnfhywfum wywfjynfhatmif
ayguf&avonf/ cGef&mcsif;qufrdNyD; wywfjynfhvQif uRef;yifaoonf[k
qdkavonf/ okdU&mwGif csufcsif;um; r[kwf? twefMumrSaoNyD;
ajcmufonfwdkfifatmifxm;í aumif;aumif;aoGUajcmuf csdefwGifrS
vSJ,l&avonf/
rsm;rMumrD awmifurf;yg;,HqDrS ]0l;}oHMum;í udk0ifharmfESifh uREkfyfwdkU
wufoGm;Mu&m a&S;enf;twdkif; a&G;cs,fxm;onfh uRef;yifwGif
vufrSwfxkd;í opfckwform;ESifh vTJxm;cJUavonf/ þodkUjzifh awmtkyf
uav;rsm; a&G;cs,fxm;onfh uRef;yif&Sd&mrS ]0l;}oHMum;wdkif;
awmifurf;yg;,HwGif qif;csnfwufcsnf acgufwkHUacgufjyef oGm;vmMu&
ay&m awmifrSmvnf; vrf;xGifxm;jcif;r&SdyJ t&dkif;oufouf jzpfaom
aMumifh okH;av;em&DrQ MumaomtcgwGif uREkfyfzm;vdkufykHrSm vQmxGufrwwf
&Sdygawmhonf/ okdU&mwGif aeUpOfrdkif 20 cefUvrf;avQmufzdkU tavhtusifh
jyKvkyfxm;Muonfh udk0ifharmfESifhopfawmtrIxrf;rsm;rlum; waeUtzdkU&mü
udpö&SdMuykHr&acs/ 11 em&DcefU tcsdefwGif uREkfyfwdkUonf eHeufpm
pm;&eftwGuf AdkvfwJodkU jyefvmMuav\/

373 
arT;vkdufonfh0ufacgif;

uREkfyfrSm opfawm trIxrf;wa,mufr[kwfaomfvnf; omref


t&yfom;rsm; teufwGif vIyf&Sm;rI tavhtusifh&Sdolwa,muf jzpfonfh
tavsmuf yifyef;jcif;xuf qmavmifrGwfodyfjcif;uuJvGefvsuf &Sd\/
jyefMuawmhrnf[k AdkvfwJbufokdU ajcOD;vSnfhuwnf;u uRekfyfrSm usif;BuD;
xJrS 0ufacgif;udkowd&í jrifvdkaZmESifh pm;vdkaom tmomqE´wdkU
onftNydKiftqdkif jzpfvsuf&Sd\/ 0efcHxm;onfhtwdkif; tpm;orm;
wa,mufjzpfí qmqmESifhudkufzJUum 0g;csifvSNyD jzpfaomfvnf; usif;udk
azmfvkdufaomtcgü rnfodkUaom tqif;&Sdonf[k Munfhvdkonfh
aZmrSmvnf; rao;vSacs/ opfyifBuD;atmufü&Sdaom ,refnOfhu rD;ykHrSm
jymylrsm;ESifh aEG;vsuf&Sdao;&m udk0ifharmf\ xrif;csuf armifbdk;uGef;onf
jymrsm;udk a&S;OD;pGm z,f&Sm;í aemufwGifajrBuD;udkwl;,uf\/
zufrsm;ay:vmaomtcg ajrBuD;rsm;udk qufvufí jznf;nSif;pGm
z,f&Sm;NyD;aemuf 0ufacgif;xkyfudk tay:odkUowdBuD;pGmESifh rwif&\/
aemufqkH;ü ywfcsufxm;aom ESD;rsm;udkajzí zufrsm;udkzGifhvdkufonfESifh
tNydKifeuf arT;BudKifaom teHUonfESmacgif;okdU wkd;0ifvmjcif;ESifhtwl
eDndKndKtqif;&Sdaom MumndKUa&mif 0ufacgif;vnf; ay:vmygawmhonf/
þzkwfenf;\xl;jcm;csufrSm teHUt&omESifh jynfhpkHonfh "mwfaiGUrsm; 
(Volatile  Gases)  wkd;xGuf aysmufjy,fjcif;r&Sdap&yJ txkyftwGif;ü
ydwfavSmifae&onfh twGufaMumifh tvGefarT;í tvGef]av;}aom
t&omESifh jynfhpkHjcif;yifjzpfavonf/ uREkfyfwdkUonf xrif;udk wdkU&kHwkdUí
0ufacgif;zkwfESifh 0rf;wGif;om;[if;udkcsnf; t0BuD; pm;vdkufMu&m uREkfyfrSm
naecif;twGuf opfoif;&modkU rvkdufEdkifawmhyJ tdyf&mxJütcsdefukef&yg

374 
awmhonf/ uREkfyfonfA[kokwtwGuf opfoif;vdkufcJUaomfvnf; weHeuf
ESifhyifvkHavmufNyD;jzpfí aemufaeUrsm;wGif erf;aygif;&GmESifh ywf0ef;usif
wkdUudk vSnfhvnf Munfh&Ijcif;jzifhtcsdefukefapygonf/

qifaumufjcif;\tEÅ&m,f

wnaeü uREkfyfonf erf;aygif;&Gm teD;w0dkufwGif vrf;avQmuf


vsuf&SdpOf qifOD;pD;udkjronf cRef;uav;udkudkifvsuf vrf;avQmufvmjcif;
udkawGU&í ar;Munfh&m ]qifaumuf}oGm;rnf[kajymonfESifh uREkfyfvnf;
vdkufoGm;\/ qifrsm;rSm tjcm;wd&pämefrsm;uJUodkU tpmauR;zdkU rvkdyJ
eHeufapmapmvTwfvdkufNyD; naecif;wGif ]aumuf},l&avonf/ vTwfcgeD;ü
vufESpfbufudk oHBudK;&Snfwacsmif;jzifh xl;cwfí BudK;wef;vef;ESifh
vTwfvdkufjcif;jzpf\/ a&SUvufrsm;udk xl;cwfxm;onfhtwGufaMumifh
qifonfajcvSrf;usJusJ rvSrf;Edkifojzifh waeUtwGif; c&D;a0;pGm roGm;
EdkifyJ&Sd&m wef;vef;usvsuf&Sdaom oHBudK;&Snfuvnf; qifoGm;aom
vrf;udknTefjyvsuf &Sdavonf/ odkUjzpfíqifaumufaom naecif;
tcsdefwGif qifOD;pD;onf oHBudK;aMumif;BuD;twdkif; vdkufjcif;tm;jzifh
qif&Sdaomae&mokdU a&mufEdkifavonf/ uREkfyfESifh qifOD;pD;onf &GmrS
xGufuwnf;u xif&Sm;pGm ay:vsuf&Sdaom oHBudK;aMumif;BuD;twdkif;
pum;wajymajymESifh vkdufoGm;Mu\/ ajymMuaomtaMumif;t&mrSm
tjcm;r[kwf? qifOD;pD;tvkyfESifh qifrsm;\ obm0taMumif;yif
jzpfavonf/ wrdkifausmfausmf ESpfrdkifcefU a&mufMuaomtcg qifOD;pD;\
pdk;&drfruif;&Sdaom trlt&mudk uREkfyfjrif&onfESifhar;Munfh&m ol\qifr
onf tcgwdkif;qdkygu þrQavmuf tuGmta0;wGif awGUwwfí ,aeU

375 
rawGU&onfrSm xl;jcm;aMumif;ajymjy\/ uREkfyfrSm ol\pum;aMumifh
tenf;i,f pdwfroufomaomfvnf; c&D;a0;a0; vrf;avQmuf&&kHjyif
r&Sdqdkum ajzqnfEdkifygonf/ qufvufí avQmufMuaomtcg qifOD;onf
rMumcP &yfum&yfumem;pGifh\/ ]]bmvkyfwmvJ}}[k uREkfyfu ar;&m
]]cavmufoHudkem;axmif&onf}}[kajym\/
rdkif0ufcefUrQqufvufavQmufvmMuonfwGifrS cavmufoHwcsufwcsuf
oJUoJUuav; Mum;&í uREkfyftm;wufvm\/ cavmufoHonf
wjznf;jznf; us,fonfxufus,fvmí uREkfyfwkdUvnf; cyfokwfokwf
avQmufvmMupOf awmfawmfeD;uyfvmonfxifumrS jAKef;ueJ toHwdwf
oGm;\/ þwGif qifOD;pD;onf uREkfyftm; vufjyum tcsufay;í
wefU&yfckdif;onfESifh pdk;&drfpGmjzifh &yfvdkuf&\/ cavmufoHonf
ig;puúefUavmufwGif wcsufwcsuf Mum;vmcJU&mrS ,ckrlwrdepfcefU
wdwfqdwfvsuf&SdavNyD/
]]bmjzpfwmvJAs udkjr}}
]]cavmufoH wdwfoGm;wmu bmaMumifhvJAsm}}
]]qif&dkif;eJUawGUvQif qifru cavmufoHrMum;&atmif vnfyif;eJU
nSyfxm;wwfw,fq&m}}
]]olUudk vlrawGUap&atmifvdkUvm;}}
]][kwfwmaygh olwkdUbmombm0 aysmfjrL;csifwmaygh q&m}}
]]'gjzifh usKyfwkdUb,fhES,fvkyfyghr,f}}
]]qif&dkif;eJUawGU&dk;rSefvQif vdkufwwfw,fq&m? opfyifay: wufay
awmh}}
]]olwkdUcsif;]vdkuf}wmudk wufMunfhzdkUvm;Asm}}
]]olwdkUcsif;vJ vkdufw,f? vludkvJ vkdufwwfwmyJ}}

376 
uREkfyfum; tawmfvefUoGm;avNyD/ odkUaomf vGefNyD;tjzpfudk awG;ylNyD;
igvdkufcJUrdjcif;um;rSm;avNyD[k rdrdudk,fudk tjypfqdkwwfaom 0goemr&Sd
onftavsmuf &Gufzsifzdeyfuav;udk uysmu,mcRwfí twuf&vG,faom
opfyifwyifay:odkU wufav\/
]]EdkU cifAsm;aumAs}}
]]uRefawmfuawmh qifrudk oGm;Munfh&tkH;r,fq&m? 'Dxufjrifhjrifh
rwufEdkifbl;vm; q&m}}
]]'Davmufqdk rvGwfao;bl;vm;}}
]]vGwfawmhvGwfygw,f? cyfjrifhjrifhwufNyD; qifrudk arQmfMunfhvQif
jrifEdkifrvm;vkdUyg}}
uREkfyfrSm bkef;BuD;ausmif;om;b0uwnf;u opfyifwufjcif;tvkyfü
tawmftavhtusifh&SdcJUonfjzpfí (i,fpOfu wufcJUjcif;rsm;onf tcsufxJ
wGif tokH;0ifwwfvSonf/) opfyifBuD;ay:odkU wufEdkiforQ jrifhatmifwuf
NyD; ,cifu cavmufoH Mum;&mbufodkU arQmfMunfhvkduf&mwGif udkif;awm
BuD;wckxJü rnf;rnf;BuD;&Sdaom t&m0w¦KBuD;ESpfckudk jrif&av\/
]]rnf;rnf;BuD;awGjrifw,fAsKdU? qifESpfaumifeJUwlw,f}}
]][kwfvdrfhr,fq&ma&U? q&m 'Duae&pftkH;aemf}}
]]cifAsm;u b,foGm;rSmvJ}}
]]uRefawmfqifaemufudk vkdufacsOD;r,f}}
uREkfyfrSm qif&dkif;rsm;ESifhra0;aom awmeufBuD;xJwGif wa,muf
wnf;ae&pf&rnfh tpDtpOfudkrBudKufaomfvnf; tjcm;enf;vrf; rjrifonf
ESifh oabmwlvkduf&av\/ qifOD;pD;xGufoGm;aom tcguREkfyfrSm wpf
a,mufwnf;ae&pfcJU&í tm;i,f&onfhtxJwGifawmxJü vlESifhqif&dkif;
awGUíopfyifay:okdU wufajy;aomvltm; qif&dkif;u yifpnfudk OD;acgif;jzifh

377 
wdkufcswwfonfqdkaom tjzpftysufudk owd&ojzifh tm;wufzG,f
jzpfrvmacs/ odkUaomf qm&dkuf'g[*¾wf\ pGefUpm;cef;0w¦Kaygif;
ajrmufjrm;pGmwkdUudk zwfxm;cJUaom uREkfyfrSm tvifuGmwmrdef;onf
þtajctaersKd;ü b,fuJUodkU jyKvkyfacsrnfenf;[k qifjcifum
twkcdk;vsuf aq;wHudkxkwfNyD; aq;wqkH aomufvkdufygao;onf/
(&,fp&ma&;jcif;r[kwf? wu,fvkyfjcif;jzpf\/ rdrdudk,fwdkif r&Jaomfvnf;
owÅd&Sdaomvlrsm; jyKrlykHudk owd&jcif;tm;jzifh tm;jznfhEdkifjcif;onf
pGefUpm;cef;0w¦Krsm; zwf&Ijcif;\ tusKd;aus;Zl;aywnf;/)
aq;wqkHukefaomtcg qifESpfaumif&SdaombufqDrS ]0l;?0g;?0l;?0g;}
[kukef;ínpfatmfaom toHrsm;Mum;&ojzifh arQmfMunfhvkduf&mwGif
udkif;awmxJrS rnf;rnf;BuD;ESpfckteuf wckonfwckudkcGJcGmí cyfokwfokwf
a&GUoGm;onfudk jrifvdkuf&avonf/ twefBuD;Mumaomtcg cavmufoH
]*avmif *avmif}ESifh qifOD;pD;u qifrtm; armif;vmjcif;udk jrif&ygonf/
þwGifrS uREkfyfonf opfyifay:rS qif;vmcJUav\/ atmufodkU
a&mufaomtcg qifOD;pD;u-
]]qifpD;rvm;q&m}}
]]uwDrSrygyJeJU b,fvdkvkyf pD;&vJAs}}
]]OD;acgif;ay: xdkifpD;ayghq&m? uRefawmfwdkU 'DvdkpD;wmyJ}}
]]rjzpfygbl;As? vdrfhusrSmaygh}}
]]'gjzifh vnfyif;cGpD;q&m}}
rvkyfbl;aom tvkyfudkvkyfjcif;tm;jzifh ]pkH}csifaom 0goem&Sdonfh
uREkfyfonf pD;&efoabmwlojzifh qifOD;pD;u qifrudk 0yfcdkif;NyD;
qif\vufay:rS vnfyif;ay:odkU cJ,Of;pGm wuf&av\/ vnfyif;üum;
BuD;pGmaom oHB udK;BuD; ywfcsnfxm;av&m uREkfyfonf oHBudK;aemufücGxdkif

378 
umoHBudK;udkudkifxm;&avonf/ xdkUaemufqifOD;pD;u xdkcdkif;NyD;aemufrS
armif;vsufvdkufvm&m qifronfa&SUrS cyfokwfokwf vSrf;vmav\/
xl;jcm;aom tjcif;t&mwck owdjyKrdonfrSm qifronfaemufrSvkdufygvm
aomqifOD;pD;tm; wcPuav;rQ rsufjcnfjywfrcHyJ vuf0JbufrSjzpfap?
vuf,mbufrSjzpfap qifOD;pD;udk jrif&avmufatmif OD;acgif;udk
wajymif;wnf;ajymif;? wapmif;wnf; apmif;iJUum jyKjyifoGm;ygavawmh
onf/

owÅdjyjcif;

qifudkrlum; wa,mufwnf;pD;bl;ygNyD/ odkU&mwGifvnfyif;udk


um;,m;cGí xdkif&jcif;jzpfaomaMumifh qif\Murf;wrf;aom *kwfarG;rsm;
onf aygifrsm;ESifh wifyg;wkdUudk pl;vSygonf/ twefi,foGm;rdí qif\
ajcvSrf;ESifh vIyf&Sm;ykH tjcif;t&mudk &dyfpm;rdvmaomtcg rdrdrwwfao;
aomtjcif;t&mwckudk oifcGifhBuKHu wwfatmifoifcsif wwfaom
uREkfyf\0goemtwdkif; vnfyif;udkcGírpD;rlí qifOD;pD;rsm;uJUodkU OD;uif;
xdyfrS ajcwJGavmif;csí pD;zdkUBudK;pm;awmh\/ uREkfyfonfcGxm;aom
ajcaxmufrsm;udk wjznf;jznf;&kyfodrf;í (oHBudK;udkvufrvTwfyJ)
OD;acgif;xdyfodkU wa&GU a&GU a&GUvm\/ qif\OD;acgif;EGJUykHudk
Mumavoabmaygufav&SdvmonfwGif aemufqkH;ü oHBudK;udkaemufjyef
udkifvsuf OD;uif;ay:wGifwifyg;vTJxkdifum ajcwJavmif;csvsuf pD;Edkifyg
awmYonf/ AkdvfwJokdUa&mufvmaomtcg udk0ifharmfwkdUvlpk a&mufESifhMuNyD
jzpf&m oli,fcsif;udk0ifharmftm; qifOD;uif;xufrSEIwfqufvdkuf&jcif;onf
uREkfyftzdkU&mwGif atmifjrifrIBuD;wck jzpfygawmhonf/ þwGif udk0ifharmfu

379 
]]cifAsm;[muoHB udK;udk udkifxm;wmudk;As? vufvTwfpD;rSaygh}}[k ajymvkduf
onf uREkfyfonfcsufcsif;yif vufvTwfípD;vdkufonf/ tjcm;vlwa,muf
u xkduJUodkUajymvkdufvQif uREkfyfjyKvkyfvdrhfrnfr[kwf? udk0ifharmfrlum;
ol\usDpm;jcifudk woufvkH;cHcJU&ojzifh owdÅdaMumifonf[k xifrnfpdk;
aomaMumifh (vdrfhusNyD; usKd;awmhrSusKd;ap)pGefUí vkyfjyvdkufjcif;
jzpfavonf/ udk0ifharmfESifh uREkfyfonf a&SUwGifvnf; þtjzpftysuf
uav;rsKd;awG &Sdygao;onf/

qifpdwfaumufjcif;

jrawmifqdyfurf;wGif aps;oabFmrsm;onf &ufowÅwywfvQif


wBudrfrQ qdkufuyfav&m oabFmrqdkufrD w&ufwGif udk0ifharmfu ]]cifAsm;
pm;csifwmawG MunfhNyD; 0,f&atmifudk,fwdkifvkdufoGm;acsAsm}} [kuREkfyftm;
cdkif;\/ &du©m0,f&efrSm uREkfyfwdkUtwGufom r[kwf? opfckwform;rsm;
twGufvnf; qDqefrSpí 0,f&rnfjzpfaomaMumifh qifESpfpD;ESifhoGm;Mu&ef
jzpfavonf/ nDawmfarmifuvnf; qifpD;bl;csifonf qdkí twlvdkufyg
vmav&m weHeufapmapmü uREkfyfwkdUnDtpfudkonf qifESpfpD;ESifh
erf;aygif;AdkfvfwJrS xGufvmcJUMuav\/ uREkfyfonf qifOD;pD; udkjrESifhtwl
pD;í nDawmfarmifrSm tjcm;qifay:ü vkdufygvmavonf/ qifay:wGif
uwDcif;xm;í pdwfcsvufcspD;&aomfvnf; vrf;oGm;aomtcgwGif
qif\udk,fonf OD;acgif;xufvIyfaomaMumifh OD;acgif;xufüxkdifí
pD;bl;pOfuxuf tvdkufcwfonfudk awGU&\/ qifpD;vQif tvGef
Nidrfhvdrfhrnfxifaom nDawmfarmifrSm wrdkifcefUavmuf a&mufMuaom
tcgü xifoavmuf Zdrfr&SdonfESifh nnf;nLpjyKavNyD/ rnfonfhowÅ0gudk

380 
pD;onfjzpfap ¤if;\udk,fEGJUykHudk oabmraygufao;orQ umvywfvkH;
owdESifhvkduf&í usawmhrvdkvdk jzpfwwf\/ owÅ0g\ udk,fEGJUykHudk
em;vnfí ][ef}ay; wwfaomtcgrS pdwfacsmifcsdpGmESifh pD;ívdkufEdkif\/
uREkfyfrSmi,fuwnf;u EGm;? uRJ? jrif; ponfwkdUudk pD;wwfatmif
oifxm;oljzpfonfhtwGuf aMumifh rnfonfhowÅ0gudk pD;onfjzpfap?
olwyg;xuf oabmaygufvG,f avonf/ okdUESifhvnf; uREkfyfrSm
vrf;c&D;wGif tusnftwnf;wckESifh BuKH&ao;\/ udkjr\qifonf
vrf;ajzmifhajzmifhroGm;yJ eHab;wbufwcsufodkUa&GUajymif;um [dkuyf
onfuyfvkyf\/ xdktcsdefwGif 16 rdkifc&D;teuf 13rdkifcefU
aygufvmcJUNyDjzpfí 3rdkifcefUrQom vdkawmh&m aeuvnf;tawmfuav;
yljyif;pjyKvmavNyD/
]]cifAsmhqif bmjzpfwmvJAs}}
]]pdwfaumufcsifwm q&ma&U}}
]]bmjyKvdkUvJAsm}}
]]olwkdUu erf;aygif;eJUjrawmifc&D;qdkvQif aygufe,frSm waxmufem;
aeusAs? 'DwacgufawmufavQmufarmif;vmavawmh uyfoD;uyfoyf
vkyfcsifw,fq&m? [JU aumifr...}}ajym,if;qdk,if; qifronf
vrf;ab;ü&Sdaom csKHyifrsm;xJodkU qufueJwkd;0ifvkduf&m qifOD;pD;\
OD;acgi;fudk opfudkif;rsm; &dkufoGm;ojzifh uHaumif;íom rusyJ&Sd\/
uREkfyfrlum; ol\ausmaemufrS jym;ueJ0iftdyfvkduf&\/ tdyfrnfhom
tdyf&onf/ qifOD;pD;vdrfhusvQifvnf; uREkfyfudkyg yGwfwkdufcsoGm;rnf
jzpfavonf/ þwGifvufjrefaom qifOD;pD;onf qifr\OD;acgif;BuD;udk
cRef;ESifh ESpfcsufokH;csufqufí ayguf,if; yg;pyfuvnf; ukef;í
atmfaigufonfwGifrS qifronf csKHrScGmí vrf;ay:odkU wufvmavonf/

381 
]]uHaumif;vkdUAsm? cifAsm;us,if usKyfygusrSmyJ}}
]]'Davmuf rjzpfaybl;vm;vdkU uRefawmfu owdvdkoGm;w,fq&m}}
]]'Dqifru 'Dvdkvkyfaeusvm;Asm}}
]]vkyfcJygw,f q&m? aeu eJeJylvmvdkUyg? olwkdUu reufwpcef;
newpcef; oGm;aeusrSm wqufwnf;armif;vkdufawmh pdwfaumufwmyg
q&m? vlvdkaygh}}
nDawmfarmifvkdufygaom qifrSmrl a&SUüawmfawmfjywfuGmoGm;NyDjzpf
&m qifOD;pD;onf qifrudkpdwfqdk;qdk;ESifh cRef;jzifhESifíarmif;onfwGif
qifronf ykueJ ykueJjzpfatmifajcvSrf;usJBuD;ESifh vSrf;aomaMumifh
uREkfyfrSm ajrBud;ESifheD;uyfvmonf[k xifrdonf/ rMumrD a&SUrSqifrudk
rSDvmMu\/
jrawmif&GmodkUa&mufí okH;xyfausmif;BuD;xJrS jzwfvmMuaomtcg
wefaqmifrkef; vjynfhaeUjzpfí Oykofonfrsm;onf ausmif;BuD;ay:rS
uREkfyfwkdUtm; xGufMunfhaeMu&m ¤if;wkdUteufwGif uREkfyf\c,fravmif;
udkvnf; jrifcJU&onf/ xdknaeü tpkefaps;oabFma&m tqefaps;oabFmyg
jrawmif&Gmü qkdufuyfí tdyfrnfjzpf&m þtwGufaMumifhwaMumif;?
wefaqmifwkdifyGJaMumifhwaMumif; &Gmuav;rSm ododomomvIyfvIyf&G&G
&Sdae\/ þtxJwGif &efukefrSvmMuonfh uREkfyfwkdUnDtpfudkESpfa,mufu
qifESpfpD;ESifh awmrSqif;vmMujcif;onfvnf; tysKdacsmrsm;\ ESvkH;aoG;udk
wkd;í vIyfckefjcif; jzpfapavoavm[k awG;awmrdonf/

382 
rpdk;wkdUnDtpfrwawG

uREkfyfwdkUonf udk0ifharmf\ opfawm&kH;ü pcef;csí qifOD;pD;


ESpfa,muf wkdUu csufjyKwf&ef wm0ef,lMuonf/ odkU&mwGif uREkfyfwdkU
nDtpfudktwGufrl jrawmiftaumufpma&;BuD;u uREkfyfwdkU&SdaeorQ wm0ef
,lygayonf/ xdk&ufwGif uREkfyfwdkUrSm jrawmif&Gmü todtuRrf;
tawmfaygrsm;vsuf&SdNyD jzpf&m cyfwnfwnfvnfywf&rnfh tdrfrsm;odkU
aeUcif;tcsdefwGif EIwfqufí uREkfyfESifh rsufrSef;wrf;rdonf &GmOD;&Sd tysKdacsm
nDtpfrrsm;tdrfodkUrl ae0ifNyD;aemufrS a&mufygonf/ xdknae ukefoabFm
rsm; qdkufuyfcsdefwGif uREkfyfonf 0,f&ef&Sdaom pm;p&mypönf;rsm;udk
pm&if;jyKvkyfí rpdk;vufodkU ay;tyfxm;vdkuf\/ rpdk;rSm azmfjycJUbl;aom
nDtpfrrsm;teuf tBuD;qkH;jzpfav&m uREkfyf\ZeD;avmif;jzpfaomfvnf;
trSefudkazmfjy&vQif xdktcsdefurl uREkfyf\pdwfxJüyif wdwdusus qkH;jzwf
csufcsr&ao;yJ pdwful;xm;onfh okH;av;a,mufteufwGif wa,muf
tygt0ifrQom jzpfygao;onf/
okdU&mwGif tjcm; ]cefUrSef;csuf}rsm;xuf tuRrf;w0if &SdonfhtwGuf
aMumifh aps;0,fay;zdkUapcdkif;rdjcif;jzpfygonf/ ¤if;nOfü rpdk;oabFmrSjyefvm
NyD;aemuf rdcifESifhwuG nDruav; armifuav;rsm;yg tawmfnOfheufonf
wdkifatmif aqmif;rD;zdkteD;ü 0dkif;zGJUum pum;ajymMu\/ rpdk;\zcifrSm
rdcifESifh uGJoGm;ojzifh rdom;wpk ykHawmfovkd vkyfudkifpm;aomufvsuf&SdMu
&m ¤if;wkdU\tdrfBuD;onfomvQif ,cifu pD;yGm;a&;tajctae zGHUNzdK;cJU
bl;jcif;\ txdrf;trSwftjzpfESifh usef&Sdygawmhonf/ uREkfyf\
toufwmwavQmufvkH; 0goemwckrSm rdef;uav;wa,muf\ pD;yGm;a&;
tajctaeudk tvsif;*&krpdkufyJ &kyf&nfoufoufudkom tav;*&kjyKavh

383 
&Sd\/ (okdU&mwGif &kyf0g'orm;wa,mufum; r[kwf&yg/) pHa'0DrSm
olUt&yfxJwGif 0wfEdkifpm;EdkifqkH;aom rdef;uav;wa,mufjzpfaomfvnf;
ol\pdefwvkH;em;uyfESifh a&Tajcusif;wdkUonf olU&kyf&nfESifh vdkufavsmí
Munfhaumif;vSjcif;udkom uREkfyf*&kpdkufrdygonf/ pD;yGm;a&;tajctae[lírl
um; rpOf;pm;rdyg/ &kyf&nfrSwyg; tdrfaxmifa&;ESifh ywfoufí tBuHtpnf
wpkHwck r&cJUao;yg/ odkUjzpfí aemufwaeUnaewGif uREkfyfwdkUonf
erf;aygif;odkU jyefwufMuí aygufeufAdkvfwJwGif wnOfhtdyfMu&jyefav\/

rarhEdkifaomxrif;weyf

uREkfyfonf tpm;ESifhywfoufí pdwfxm;ykH tawmfqef;onf[k


qdkMuvdrfhrnfxif\/ rnfrQavmuf aps;BuD;aom pm;p&mjzpfap
pm;csifonfqdkvQif ydkufqHudk rajrmfjrifyJ (wBudrfwcgjzpfap) 0,fpm;&rS
auseyf\/ aeUpOftzdkUrSmvnf; vufvSrf;rSDoavmuf wwfEdkiforQ
taumif;qkH;udk0,fpm;avh&Sd\/ odkU&mwGif wcgw&Hürlum; aumif;aom
tpmwckudk tvG,fwulESifh r&yJcJcJ,Of;,Of; &Sm&rnfqdkvQifvnf;
'ku©rcHrlí tnHUqkH;aom tpmudkyif ausauseyfeyfBuD; pm;Edkifygonf/
jrawmifrS qifESpfpD;ESifh xGufvmMuí aygufeufAdkfvfwJuav;ü ntdyfMu
rnfjyK&mwGif npmtwGufudkqifOD;pD; ESpfa,mufu wm0ef,lí csufjyKwf
Mu\/ xrif;pm;csdef eD;aomtcg uREkfyfwdkUnDtpfudkrSm tvGefqmavmif
vsuf &SdavNyD/ (qifpD;jcif;onf vrf;avQmufjcif;wrQ vIyf&Sm;jcif;
aMumifhtvGefqmwwfonf[k qiform;rsm;u ajymMuonf/) uREkfyfonf
rD;zdkacsmiftvkyfrsKd;ü0goemygonfESifh rnfonfh[if;rsm; csufMuavoenf;
[k [if;tdk;rsm;udkzGifhMunfhvdkfuf&m usufNyD;í rD;zdkteD;ü uyfxm;aom

384 
[if;tdk;uav;xJü &Srf;yJykyfESifh c&rf;csOfoD;[if;udk vnf;aumif;? rD;zdkay:ü
wnfxm;aom [if;tdk;uav;xJüa&wGif ig;ydcwfNyD; wnfxm;í
yGufyGufqlaejcif;udk vnf;aumif; awGU&\/ tjcm;[if;rawGU&acs/ rMumrD
&GmxJodkUoGm;aom qifOD;pD; jyefvmívufxJ wGifAl;&Guf tenf;i,f
ygvm\/ cGifay:&Sd [if;tdk;xJodkU Al;&GufcwfNyD;aemuf xrif;yGJ jyifMu\/
¤if;wkdUwGif yef;uefjym;ESpfcsyfwnf;&Sdí uREkfyfwdkUnDtpfudk twGuf
jyifauR;&m uREkfyfu tm;vkH; twl0dkif;í pm;&rnfajymaomaMumifh
pavmif;zkH;rsm;ESifh jzpfovdk 0ifpm;Muonf/ qifOD;pD; wa,mufu
]]qiform;[if;yJ q&ma&U? q&muvJ rckdif;? uRefawmfwkdUuvJ txkyfawG
ajz&rSm ysif;avawmh 0efaxmufrif;&UJom;Al; ig;Al;awGudk rxkwfawmhbl;?
pm;ompm;yg? Nrdefygw,fq&m? qifpD;wm odyfNyD; AdkufacsmifwmyJ}}[k
ajym\/ om;Al;? ig;Al;taMumif; ajymaomtcg uREkfyfu xkwf,lzdkU
ajymrnfjyKNyD;rS ]qiform;awGeJU oGm;wJUtcg olwkdUpm;ovdk jzpfatmif
pm;r,f}[k qkH;jzwfvkdufav\/ [if;rsm;rSm &Srf;yJykyfESifh c&rf;csOfoD;udk
i&kwfoD;pyfpyf csufxm;í ykZGefajcmufrygyJ ig;ydESifh csufxm;onfh
Al;&Guf[if;csKdom jzpfavonf/ odkU&mwGifqmavmifaom "mwfcHaMumifh
i&kwfoD;eDeD&J&J csufxm;onfh yJykyf[if;onfyif uREkfyfwdkUtm;
oGm;a&usapcJUavNyD/ wvkyfEIdufí pm;vdkufygawmhvnf; xifonfxufyif
ydkí t&omawGUaeao;\/
uREkfyfwdkUnDtpfudkonf xrif;tdk;xJrS ]'g&dkuf}EIdufíEIdufí xnfhay;
aom xrif;rsm;udk ukef;íukef;í BudwfvdkufMu&m qefwcGuf csufxm;onfh
xrif;tdk;xJrS uREkfyfwkdUuyif ydkvdrfhrnfxifonf/ þwBudrfwGif uREkfyf
twGuf EdkUqDAl;wvkH;csuf ukefvdrfhrnfxif&m woufvkH;wGif þwBudrfygrS
ESpfESyfwnf;üom ]wvkH;csuf} ukefbl;ygonf/ þtaMumif;udk tus,fw0ifh

385 
a&;om; azmfjyjcif;rSm tpm; aumif;aumif;udkomru raumif;wa&mif;
ESifhvnf; trSwfw& Nrdefatmif pm;wwfaom 0goemudk wifjyvdkaom
aMumifh jzpfygonf/ qdkvdkjcif;rSm taumif;BudKufwwfaomfvnf; raumif;
vQif rpm;Edkifonfr[kwf? raumif;wa&mif;ESifhvnf; tvkduftxdkuf
Nrdefatmif pm;wwfygonf/ [if;raumif;vQif rsKdírusqdkaom vlpm;rsKd;
r[kwfyg/

t"dyÜm,f&Sdaom c&D;wacguf

aemufwaeUwGif erf;aygif;odkU a&mufMuí okH;av;&ufcefUMumaom


tcg udk0ifharmfu uREkfyftm; xD;csKdifhaiGwdkufodkU olUtwGufESifhwuG
tvkyform;rsm;ESifh awmtkyf awmacgif;rsm; twGufyg vcxkwfckdif;\/
udk0ifharmfonf jrawmifodkU uREkfyfoGm;vdkjcif;udk &dyfrd[efwlonf/ vcrSm
Edk0ifbmvtwGufjzpfí 'DZifbmv 4 &ufaeUwGif uREkfyfxGufvmcJU\/
þwBudrfwGif jrif;ESifhxGufcJUí nDawmfarmifrygacs/ jrif;twGufrSm
tqifoifhvSonf/ a&TvDjrpfbufrS jrif;rsm;ESifh vmMuaom opfukefonf
ESpfa,mufonf jrawmifodkU toGm;wGiferf;aygif;odkU 0ifvmí udk0ifharmfESifh
awGUMu\/ udk0ifharmfu jrif;ESifhxnfhvdkufcsifonf[k ajym&mwGif
opfukefonfwOD;u ol\jrif;udk uREkfyftm;ay;NyD; oludk,fwdkif vSnf;BuKHESifh
vkdufrnfhtaMumif;? vSnf;BuKHvnf;tqifoifh&SdaeaMumif; ajymav\/
okdUjzpfíeHeufapmapmwGif opfukefonfwOD;ESifh uREkfyfonf jrif;wpD;pDESifh
jrawmifodkU xGufvmMuav\/ xdkolrSmjrawmif&Gmom; vlvwft&G,f
wa,mufjzpfí uREkfyftay:üpdwf0ifpm;ykH&onfh tavsmufuREkfyftaMumif;
udkar;\/ uREkfyfu tdrfaxmifr&SdaMumif; ajym&mwGif vl&dk;wa,muf[k

386 
emrnfBuD;aom0efaxmufrif; OD;0ifharmf\ oli,fcsif;acwfynmwwf
wa,mufjzpfí jrawmif&GmwGif vkdcsifaomtysKdudk &EdkifaMumif;? opf
ukefonfvkyfzdkU 0goemygvQif t&if;tESD;tjynfhtpkH&Sdaom rdef;rudkvnf;
&EdkifaMumif;? jrawmifwGif a,musfm;aumif; awmfawmf&Sm;aeí
rdef;uav;rsm;onf ]we,fom;}udk apmifharQmfaeMu[efwlaMumif;? &GmcH
a,mufsm;ESifh we,fom;wdkU ,SOfNydKifí vlysKdvSnfhvQif we,fom;u
pGHzdkUvrf;rsm;aMumif; ponfjzifh ajymjyav\/ uREkfyfu ]]jrawmifolawG[m
olwkdU&GmrSm olwkdUraysmfMuvdkU &yfa0;vdkufcsifMuovm;}}[k ar;&m xdkvlu
]]'Dvkdawmh r[kwfaygifq&m? jrawmifom;uav;awGu aoao0yf0yf
vkyfudkif auR;csifwJUvl eJw,f? vlabmfausmhuav;awG jzpfukefMuNyD
cifAs}}[k ajymjyav\/ þvludk,fwdkifrSm vlysKdyif&Sdao;aMumif; uREkfyf
od&í-
]]cifAsm;vJ vlysKdqdk? ckajymwJU vlUabmfausmhxJrSm rygbl;r[kwfvm;}}
]][m.... uRefawmf omqkd;ao;? bmrS rvkyfcsifbl;q&m}}
]]opfukefonfqdk}}
]]a,mifokH;q,fygcifAsm? rdbrsm;u cdkif;vdkUrdkU rvTJomvdkU vkyf&wm
yg? vlysif;cifAs? w&GmvkH;vlysif;csnf;yJ}}
]]tpOftqufu 'DvdkyJvm;}}
]]a&S;u uRefawmfwdkU OD;av;rsm; vufxufu 'Davmufrqdk;ygbl;
cifAs? 'DacwfrSmjrpf&dk;wavQmufvkH; vli,fuav;awG odyfysufpD;w,fcifAs}}
]]jrawmifolawG awmfawmfacsmw,fqdk}}
]]'guawmh q&mvJjrifom;yJ? bk&ifcHvmwkef;u jrpf&dk;wavQmufrS
&GmawGu ,drf;tueJU BudKqdkMuawmh uRefawmfwkdUjrawmif,drf;tu
eHywfwpfpGJw,fq&m}}

387 
]]'D&GmrSm b,ftysKdtacsmqkH;vJ}}
emrnf okH;av;ck ajymygonf/ uREkfyfu-
]]rpdk;aum rygbl;vm;}}
]]olu eJeJBuD;oGm;NyDq&m? olUnDruomoGm;NyD? tazBuD;u ypfoGm;
awmh tarBuD;uvJ bmrSrwwf&Smbl;? nDruav;awG? armifuav;awGudk
oluyJ OD;pD;tkyfcsKyfNyD; vkyfudkifpm;aomufae&Sm Muw,f}}
jrawmif&GmokdU a&mufMuaomtcg uREkfyfonf ,cifwacgufuuJUokdU
opfawm&kH;okdU roGm;yJtaumufpma&;BuD;\ aetdrfodkU wdkuf&dkuf0ifav\/
xrif;pm;NyD;aomtcg uREkfyfonf xD;csKdifhbufodkUul;í udk0ifharmfay;tyf
vkdufonfh vcpm&if;twdkif; aiGwdkfufrS aiGrsm;xkwfí jyefvmNyD;vQif aiGrsm;
udk taumufpma&;BuD;vufodkU tyfxm;vdkufav\/ uREkfyf\c&D;pOfrSm
eufjzefeHeufwGif ,refaeUu opfukefonfESifhtwl erf;aygif;okdU jyefMu&ef
jzpfavonf/

wjznf;jznf;,drf;nGwfjcif;

xdkaeUnaewGif uREkfyfonf rpdk;wkdU\tdrfokdUoGm;í ig;z,faMumfESifh


cJvHacsmif;rsm; (olwkdUt&yfwGif ]aygif;wif;}[kac:onf/) jyKvkyfjyifqifxm;
&eftwGuf ydkufqHay;í rSmxm;cJU\/ xdknOfhwGifig;z,faMumfESifh aygif;wif;
udk t0pm;rnftBuHESifh taumufpma&;BuD;\ npmxrif;udk toifhtwifh
om pm;cJU\/ pma&;BuD;uawmfu ]]b,ftdrfursm; tpm;aumif;auR;zkdU
zdwfxm;w,f rqdkEdkifbl;? uRefrwkdUtdrfu xrif;udkawmif 0atmif
rpm;awmhygyJvm;}}[kceJUpum; ajymvkduf&m uREkfyfrSm rpdk;wkdUtdrfü pDrHxm;
cJUaom aygif;wif;taMumif;udk owif;oefUoefUMum;í ajymvkdufjcif;

388 
jzpfonf[k rouFmonfESifh rsufESm&Sdef;ueJjzpfoGm;rdygonf/ uREkfyf\
pdwfudk EIdufEIdufcRwfcRwf ppfaq;vdkufaomtcg vrf;c&D;wGif opfukefonf
u rpdk;onf nDruav; armifuav;rsm;udk OD;pD;tkyfcsKyfum
]0dkif;vkyf0dkif;pm;} tjzpfESifh xdef;odrf; apmifha&Smufvsuf &Sd&Smonf[k
ajymvkdufuwnf;u uREkfyfpdwful;xm; onfhrdef;uav;ESpfa,muf?
okH;a,mufteuf rpdk;bufodkU u&kPmoufoGm;jcif; jzpfwef&macsonf/
uREkfyfvdkcsifonfrSm &kyf&nf oem;urm;&Sdwmcsif;wlvQif Muifemwwfaom
pdwf&Sdoludk a&G;cs,frnfjzpf&m tdrfoltdrfom;rsm;tay:ü tBuD;tuJ
tjzpfESifh MuifemwwfvQif vifom; tay:üvnf; Muifemwwfvdrfhrnf[k
wGufudef;&onf/ ]cspf}zdkUqdkonfrSm pHa'0DESifh vJGuwnf;u uRekfyftzdkU&mü
(tjyeftvSef) arQmfvifhcsuf uif;cJUNyD;jzpf&m wa,mufESifh wa,muf
MuifemwwfvQif yxrwef; tdrfaxmifbufjzpfzkdU vkHavmufonf[k
uREkfyf,kHMunfonf/ (rsufESmudkjrif&onfjzpfap? toHudkMum;vkduf&onf
jzpfap &ifxJü 'dwfueJ vIyfckefoGm;aom tjzpfrsKd;rlum; pHa'0DrSvGJí
rnfonfh rdef;uav; twGufrQ woufvkH; BuHKcJU&bl;jcif; r&Sday/)
tjcm;aom tjcif;t&mrsm; rnfrQavmuf jynfhpkHa[? &ufpufaom
pdwfoabm&Sdonfh rdef;rwa,mufonf uREkfyftzdkU taumif;qkH;r,m;
r[kwfEdkif[k (rSefcsif&ifrSef rSm;csif&ifrSm;) uRekfyfwGufrdonf/ uREkfyfonf
xdkpOfu þtaMumif;t&mrsm;udk a&;a&;rQom &dyfrday&m taumufpma&;
BuD;uawmfu uREkfyftm; ]ceJU}vdkufí uREkfyf\rsufESm&Sdef;oGm;jcif;udk
udk,fh[mudk,f odvdkufaomtcgürlum; igonf rpdk;bufodkU ,drf;vsuf
&Sdacsonfwum;[k odvdkuf&ygonf/ odkU&mwGif pHa'0DuJUokdU tcspf
oufoufr[kwf? u&kPmzufjcif;udkvnf; uREkfyfem;vnfygonf/ odkUESifhyif
uREkfyfonf twdtus qkH;jzwfcsuf csjcif;um; r[kwfao;ay/ qdkvdk&if;rSm

389 
igonf ,aeUn rpdk;tm; cspfBudKufaMumif;udk zGifh[í ajymygawmhrnf[kyif
qkH;jzwf&ao;onf r[kwfacs/ twnf,lrnf rBuHyJESifh vlysKdvSnfhjcif;
tvkyfrSm uREkfyf\tavhtusifhr[kwfacs/

aygif;wif;ESifhig;z,faMumf

xdknOhfü uREkfyfonf taumufpma&;BuD;tdrfrS npmpm;NyD;aemuf


rpdk;wkdU\tdrfodkU cyfapmapmoGm;a&muf\/ apmapmoGm;jcif;rSm aygif;wif;
zkwfjcif;udk tptqkH; jrifvdkaomaMumifh jzpf\/ uREkfyf\0goemwckrSm
aumif;aomtpmudk pm;&&kHESifhrNyD;yJ udk,fwdkif vkyfwwfonftxd
apmifhMunhfvdkjcif;yifjzpfavonf/ uREkfyfa&mufoGm;aomtcg ig;z,faMumf
t&SufBuD;rsm;rSm aMumfNyD;jzpfí eHeHyifESifh MuufoGefNrdwfrsm;u wyef;uef
jym;? ig;z,faMumft&SufBuD;rsm;u wyef;uefjym; tjynfhaMumfNyD;í
aygif;wif;zkwf&kHrQom usefavawmhonf/ ig;z,faMumfrsm;rSm rD;zdkacsmifü
aMumf&í aygif;wif;rlum; {nfhcef;ü aqmif;rD;zdkwGif zkwfEdkifavonf/
¤if;a'owavQmufü aqmif;rD;zdk[lonfrSm Murf;ysOfwGif taygufazmufí
Murf;ysOfESifhtnD jyKvkyfxm;aom av;axmifh rD;zdkjzpf\/
rD;zdkonf Murf;jyifxufjrifhcJUvQif rD;&Sdefonf rD;vIHol\ ajcaxmuf
rsm;odkUra&mufyJ ajcovkH;avmufom a&mufEdkifrnfjzpfaom aMumifh
Murf;udkazmufNyD; wjyifwnf;jzpfatmif vkyfxm;&jcif;jzpfavonf/
uREkfyfa&mufoGm;NyD;aemuf rMumrD a&pdrfNyD;aom aumufnSif;qef
oGwfxm;onfh aygif;wif;0g; okH;av;acsmif;,lvmí rD;zdkwGifzkwfav\/
aygif;wif;0g;rSm wbufzGifhjzpfí iSufaysmzufjzifh qdkUxm;av&m ¤if;buf
udk a&S;OD;pGmzkwfí tqpfydwfaombufudk aemufrS zkwf&\/ wbufü

390 
usufavmufaomtcgrS tjcm;wbufokdU vSnfhray;rD tqpfydwfaombuf
udk"m;ESifhxpfí zGifhay;&\/ zGifhvdkufaomtaygufrS taiGUacsmif;acsmif;
yef;xGufav&m xdkuJUodkUrjyKvkyfygu aygif;wif;0g;xJrS aumufnSif;rsm;
onf &kwfw&uf yef;xGufwwfojzifh aygif;wif;wacsmif;vkH; qkH;&wwfav
onf/ uREkfyfrSmrlrD;zdkteD;ü {nfhonfjzpfaom uREkfyftwGufcif;xm;onfh
aumfaZmay:wGif aq;wHcJvsuf xdkifum aygif;wif;rsm;udkvnf;aumif;?
tdrfoltdrfom; nDtpfr om;csif;wpkwkdUudk vnf;aumif; wvSnfhpDMunfhum
tuJcwfvsuf &Sdav\/

ZeD;avmif;udk tuJcwfjcif;

xdknOfhü uREkfyfonfaygif;wif;zkwfjcif;xuf nDtpfrokH;a,mufwkdUudk


txl;*&kjyKí tuJcwfvsuf&Sd\/ erf;aygif;rS yxrwBudrf qifESifhqif;cJU
aom tacgufwGif awm0ufom;uif tenf;i,fygvmcJUí tBuD;qkH;
jzpfaom rpdk;vufodkU ]tm;vkH;pm;MuzdkU}qdkum ay;tyfvdkuf\/ rpdk;onf
0ufom;uifrsm;udk nDrrsm;ESifh armifuav;rsm;okdU cJGa0ay;&m armif
ti,fqkH;tm; trsm;qkH;ay;\/ oludk,fwdkifum; rpm;acs? uREkfyftm;
]ynmwwfonf}xifí jyKpm;rnfpdk;aomaMumifhayavm rajymwwfay/
tm;vkH;cJGa0pm;apcsifí ,lcJUaom pm;p&mudk oludk,fwdkif rjrnf;yJ
ay;a0vkdufjcif;twGuf wbufütenf;i,f rausreyfjzpf&jcif;ESifhtwl
tjcm;wbufüvnf; armifnDruav;rsm;tay:ünSmwm [efwlonf[k
csD;usL;zdkU owd&cJUygonf/ uREkfyfonf þtaMumif;udk rpdk;tm;ajymbl;
onfr&Sd/ (þpmudk oludk,fwkdifzwfrSyif od&ayawmhrnf/ uREkfyftm;

391 
]yD,aq;} orm;wa,muf[k rxifrSwfwefpaumif;[lívnf; arQmfvifh
onf/)
xkdnOfhü aygif;wif;rsm;usufí ig;z,faMumfESifh pm;MuaomtcgwGif
vnf; rpdk;onfuREkfyftwGuf trsm;qkH;jyifay;NyD; rdcifESifharmifnDruav;
rsm;twGuf xnfhay;av&m olUtzkdUrl tenf;i,frQom pm;onfudkawGU&\/
uREkfyfudkjrif&í 0rf;omaeaomaMumifhum; r[kwfwef&m/ uREkfyfubmrQ
rajym&ao;acs/ rnfokdUyifjzpfap tpm;taomufESifhywfouf í
armifnDruav;rsm; tay:oufnSmjcif;onf uREkfyfvifjzpfvmaomtcgü
oufnSmwef&monfh vu©Pmwckjzpfvdrhfrnf [laomuREkfyf\tawG;tac:
rlum; wu,frSefygayonf/
]vifESifhr,m;? vQmESifhoGm;} [lbdodkU wOD;ESifhwOD; rauseyfaom
tcsufuav;rsm;&Sd&onfh "r®wmjzpfaomfjim;vnf; tpm;ESifhywfoufí
uREkfyftay:ü *&kpdkufykH? 'ku©cHykH? BudK;pm;tm;xkwfykHrsm;rSm &SmrS&Sm;aom
ZeD;wa,mufjzpfonf[k þae&mü 0efcHvkduf&ayOD;rnf/ vifu&Smay;vQif
csufwwfygonf[k rdef;rtrsm; ajympum;&Sdaomfvnf; BudK;pm;tm;xkwfykH
csif;rlum; jcm;em;jcif;&SdMuayvdrfhrnf/ nDtpfrokH;a,muf (tdrfaxmifuJG
wa,mufyg av;a,muf) &SdMuonfhteuf wa,muftay:ü wa,muf
MuifemrI&Sd&mwGif rpdk;onf (tBuD;qkH;jzpfaomaMumifhayavmrod/) tMuif
emwwfqkH;jzpfonf[k xdkpOfuwnf;u tuJcwfrd&m aemifwGifvn;f
þtwkdif;rSefuefjcif;udk awGU&avonf/ tjcm;aom a,mufsm;rsm;onf
rnfodkU oabmxm;Muonfrajymwwf/ uREkfyftzdkU&mwGifrlum; þtjcif;
t&monf rpdk;ESifhuREkfyftdrfaxmifbufjzpfMuzdkU zefwD;ay;jcif;ü ol\
&kyf&nfxufyif ta&;BuD;onf[k xifrdygonf/

392 
a0hvnfvnfajymaejcif;

apmapmcdkufü aygif;wif;ESifh ig;z,faMumfudk eHeHyif MuufoGefNrdwfESifh


pm;vdkuf? vufzuf&nfMurf;aomufvkduf? aq;wHzGmvkdufjzifh 0dkif;zGJUpum;
ajymMuNyD;aemuf twefnOfheufvmaomtcg armifnDruav;rsm;onf
olwkdU\tdyfcef;odkU toD;oD;0ifMuav&m rdcifwa,mufomvQif
]aq;Aef;}udkxkwfí ¤if;\tcef;0üxdkifum uGrf;oD;zufaq;vdyfrsm;
vdyfvsuf&Sdav\/ uREkfyfrSmESpftdrfaxmifysufcJUNyD jzpfí vlysKdpum;ajymzdkU
(pHa'0DESifh wkef;uuJUodkU) &GHUjcif; wGefUjcif;r&Sdaomfvnf; tcsdeftrsm;BuD;
&Sdonfqdkum axG&mav;yg; pum;udkajymvsuf&Sd\/
tarBuD;\tcef;rSm (tdyfcef;okH;cef;&Sdí tawmfus,faom tdrfBuD;
jzpf aomaMumifh) tawmfuav;a0;í ajymcsifaompum;udk olrMum;atmif
ajymEdkifaomfvnf; ]ajz;ajz;aygh}[k oabmxm;\/ ,aeUn ajymawmhrnf
[líyif wxpfcsqkH;jzwfjcif; rjyKao;acs/ rpkd; pdwf0ifpm;ykH&onfrSm
&efukefNrdKUBuD;taMumif;jzpfí a&Twd*kH? odrfBuD;aps;? wd&pämef&kHponfh
a&mufoifha&mufxdkufaomae&mrsm;taMumif;udk wGifwGifBuD;ajymjy,if;
]]rpdk;wkdU wacgufavmufawmh a&mufatmifvmzdkU aumif;w,f}}[laom
pum;rsKd;xuf eD;uyfatmifrajymyJ a0hvnfvnfjzifh omtcsdefukefap\/
oef;acgifwdkifvwfaomf Murf;jyifrS trIdufo&dkuf vSnf;cs&eftwGuf
azmufxm;onfh Murf;aygufrS ]zkwfueJ}toHMum;í Munfhvkduf&m
aq;jyif;vdyfwdkwckonf Murf;aygufteD;wGif rD;cdk;wtltlESifh avmifvsuf
&Sdjcif;udk awGU&\/ vu©PmrSm Murf;aygufrS ypfwifvdkufonfh
aq;vdyfwdkjzpf[ef&Sdonf/ okdUqdkvQif tdrfatmufü umvom;wa,muf
jzpfap? wa,mufrujzpfap a&mufaeavNyD/

393 
]]bmvJ rpdk;}}
]]tvum;yg? aumifuav;awG aemufwm *&krpdkufygeJU}}
]]jyefzdkU&mvJ awmfawmfnOfheufNyD? b,fhES,fvkyfygr,f}}
]]'DrD;zdkem;rSm tdyfaygh? nOfheufvSNyDyJ? tareJU uRefreJU [dkbufcef;rSm
tdyfMur,f}}

tajctaeuwGef;ydkUjcif;

rpdk;onf apmifwxnfESifh acgif;tkH;wvkH;,lvmcJUí rD;zdkteD;&Sd


aumfaZmay:wGif uREkfyftwGufwifxm;\/ xdkcPü tdrfa&SU0&efwmrS
ajcoHMum;í uREkfyfem;pGifhvdkuf&m avSum;rS wjznf;jznf;qif;oGm;aom
ajcoHrsm;udkMum;&\/ vu©PmrSm uREkfyfwdkUtm; tdrfjyif0&efwmrS
acsmif;MunfhNyD; jyefqif;oGm;aomajcoHjzpf[efwl\/ jrawmif&GmwGif
]vltmus,f}uav; wa,mufwav&Sdaomfvnf; uREkfyfwdkU a&Tbdke,fuJUodkU
&dkufrI? owfrI jzpfbl;onfh r&SdaomaMumifh uREkfyfrwkefvIyfvS? rpdk;vnf;
£ajE´rysuf&Sdaeonf/ aemufwcPü ]0kef;?'kef;?jAKef;?'dkif;} jrnfaomtoHrsm;
Mum;&av&m tdrfx&HESifh trdk;rsm;rSm cJrsm;? xif;acsmif;rsm;? 0g;vkH;rsm;
xdrSefaomtoHrsm;jzifh qlnHvsuf&Sdawmh\/ armif?nDruav;rsm;ESifh
tarBuD;vnf; rD;zdkteD;odkU pk&kH;a&muf&SdvmMu\/ uREkfyfonf aq;wqkHudk
nSdaomufípOf;pm;&m ab;tEÅ&m,f&Sdonf[k rpdk;&drfaomfvnf;
rBuKHbl;aomtjzpfaMumifh rnfokdUjyK&rnfrodyJjzpfae\/ xif;acsmif;
xif;prsm;onfvnf; qufvufí rdk;&GmqJyifjzpfae\/ xdkcPü
toHcyfpmpmESifh rdef;rwa,muf\ Budrf;armif;oHudk tdrfa&SUrSMum;&av&m
tarBuD;u ]]rdrkd;vm;[JU}[k atmfar;umwHcg;udkzGifhvdkuf\/ rdrdk;rSm

394 
rpdk;\tdrfaxmifuJGnDrwa,mufjzpf av&m teD;tyg;&Sd tdrfwGifae&mrS
cJoHMum;NyD; Budrf;armif;um xvmcJUjcif; jzpfavonf/ ol\cifyGef;rSm
a&TvDokdU oGm;ckdufjzpfí tdfrfwGif wa,mufwnf;ae&aomfvnf; tdrfaxmif
uJGjzpfaomaMumifh wBudrfESpfBudrfrQomjrifbl;\/ ]][JUaumifawG eifwkdUowÅd
'gyJvm;? wqdwf&Sd tdrfudkraygufMueJU? ighudkaygufvSnfhMu? vmMuav}}[k
atmf[pfum uREkfyfwkdUtdrfa&SUokdU vmí&yfav&m cJoHrsm;vnf;
csufcsif;&yfpJoGm;av\/ xdkUaemuf rrdk;onf tdrfa&SU0&efwmokdUwufvmí
avSum;xdyfü&yfum ]]eifwdkUumvom;awG owÅdu 'gyJvm;? vlaumif;rSef;
rod vlqdk;rSef;rod? wqdwf&Sd remvdk&rSmavmuf olwkdUwwfwmyJ?
eifwkdU&nf;pm;udk vkvdkUvm;? eifwkdUr,m;udk ckd;vdkUvm;}} ponfrsm;jzifh
a&&GwfBudrf;armif;av&m w&GmvkH; wdwfqdwfvsuf&SdonfudkawGU&\/
]tm*rdef;uav;aywum;}[k pdwfxJu uREkfyfcsD;usL;rdavonf/ tm;vkH;
wdwfqdwfoGm;í wHcg;udkydwfNyD; rD;zdkteD;ü 0dkif;zJGUum xdkifrdMu&mwGif
uREkfyfonf(tcsufxJwGif) rpdk;\tuJudk tawmfcwfrdNyDjzpfí uREkfyfu-
]]rif;wkdU&Gmu ae&muswJU &Gmr[kwfygbl; rpdk;&,f? b,fhES,fvJ
vkdufrvm;}}[k tm;vkH;a&SUwGif ar;vkduf\/
rpdk;uvnf; nDrrsm;ESifh rdcifa&SUüyif vdkufrnf[kajym\/ uREkfyf
u,aeU oabFmr&Sdaomfvnf; orÁefiSm;NyD; waumif;odkUpkefrnf? waumif;
urS oabFmESifh rEÅav;odkU oGm;rnf[kajym&m rpdk;uoabm wlaomfvnf;
rrdk;u uefUuGufavonf/ rdciftkyfcsKyfí BuD;Mu&aom orD;rsm;jzpfMu
onfhtavsmuf Muufuav; iSufuav;uJUodkU ac:ajy;vQif rdcifa&m
nDruav;rsm;yg *kPfi,fzdkU&SdaMumif;ajymí vlBuD;rsm;a&SUarSmufü txdkuf
tavsmuf awmif;&rf;,lzdkU ajymavonf/ uREkfyf\rsufpdü þnOfhtzkdUwGif
rrdk;onf ([D;&kd;0if;) vlpGrf;aumif;rwa,mufjzpfae&um; olUpum;udk

395 
uREkfyfrypfy,fEdkifyJ eufjzef 'DZifbmv 5&ufaeUwGif &GmvlBuD;okH;av;
a,mufa&SUü awmif;&rf;,lvdkufygawmhonf/

xl;jcm;aomtcsufrsm;

uREkfyfrdef;r,ljcif;ESifh ywfoufí xl;jcm;aomtcsuftaejzifh


tdrfaxmifwckysufwdkif; t0wfwxnf udk,fwckESifh qif;vmcJU&ykHudk
azmfjycJUNyDjzpf&m rdef;r&aom tcsdef&moDESifhywfoufíxl;jcm;csufudkvnf;
azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/ uREkfyfonf wwd, tdrfaxmifjzpfaom rpdk;udk 1920
jynfhESpf? 'DZifbmv 5 &ufaeUwGif vufxyf\/ yxrtdrfaxmifudk 1910
jynfhESpf? 'DZifbmv 10 &ufaeUwGifvufxyf\/ 'kwd,tdrfaxmifESifh 1914
ckESpf? 'DZifbmv15&ufaeUwGif xGufajy;Muonf/ okH;a,mufvkH;rSm
'DZifbmvcsnf;jzpfí 5 *Pef;ESifhpm;íjywfaom&ufrsm;csnf; jzpfonf/
þrQomruao;? pHa'0D\rdcifu ay;pm;ygrnfqdkí uRekfyf\zcifu
a&TbdkokdUvmNyD; uREkfyftm; ac:oGm;aom&moDrSmvnf; 'DZifbmvyif
jzpfavonf/ (okdUjzpfí 'DZifbmva&mufwdkif; bmrsm;jzpfacsOD;rvJ[k
vnfyif;wqefUqefU arQmf&OD;rnfuJUokdU jzpfrdygonf/) rpdk;ESifh
vufxyfaom aeUESifh ywfoufí xl;jcm;csufwck&Sdao;onfrSm uREkfyfwdkU
vufxyfaom aeUonf c&pfouú&mZf 1920jynfhESpf 'DZifbmv 5
&ufaeUvnf;aumif;? jrefrmouú&mZf 1282ckESpf wefaqmifrkef;vqkwf 10
&ufaeUvnf;aumif;? jzpfí ,leDbmpDwDbGdKufaumhaeUjzpfav&m ¤if;aeUudk
yif ]trsKd;om;aeU}[lí a&G;cs,fowfrSwfxm;Mujyef&mwGif trsKd;om;aeU
usa&mufwdkif; uREkfyfwkdU\ vufxyfaeU jzpf&jyefaomaMumifh (,ckþpmudk
a&;om;aomtcsdefrS &ufowÅESpfywfcefU MumaomtcgwGif) tESpf40ajrmuf

396 
trsKd;om;aeU usif;yjcif;ESifhtwl uREkfyfwdkU\ vufxyfonfrSmvnf; tESpf
40 jynfhygawmhrnf/ tcsdefumvESifh aeU&ufrsm;ofn t"dyÜm,f&Sdonf[k
qdkygvQif uREkfyfESifhywfoufaom aeU&ufrsm;onfvnf; r*Fvm&Sdaomteuf
t"dyÜm,frsKd;om &Sdygap[lí qkawmif;vkduf&ygawmhonf/

pHa'0ESihfrpdk;

uREkfyfonf udk0ifharmf\aiGxJrS aiGw&mEIwf,lxm;í usefaomaiGrsm;


udk taumufpma&;BuD;rSwqifh ,cifopfukefonf\vufodkU yg;vkduf&m
udk0ifharmfxH aumif;rGefpGma&mufaMumif; jyefpm&&S\
d / (¤if;aiGw&mudk
urf;eD&GmwGif uREkfyfausmif;axmifaomtcgü jyefqyf&m udk0ifharmfu
aiGudkr,lyJ olUemrnfESifh ausmif;om;wa,mufxm;ay;zdkU ajymojzifh
olUqE´twdkif; uREkfyfvufcHvdkufygonf/) udk0ifharmfonf uREkfyfESifh
pHa'0DtaMumif;udk tvkH;pkHodí pHa'0Dudkvnf; jrifbl;oljzpfav&m
ol\jyefpmxJü rpdk;onf pHa'0DxufvSoljzpfí uREkfyfauseyfxdkufaMumif;
0rf;yef;wom a&;&Smygayonf/ udk0ifharmfrSm rpdk;udkvnf; MuifemykH&onf/
pHa'0DESifh rpdk;udk EIdif;,SOfa&;jcif; twGufaMumifh uREkfyf0rf;omzdkUrSwyg;
tjcm; bmrQr&Sday/ odkU&mwGif pHa'0Dudk uREkfyfoabmuscJUrjdcif;rSm ¤if;\
&kyftqif;oufoufr[kwf? 0wfpm;qifjyifykHaMumifhcsnf;r[kwf? uREkfyftm;
&ifckefvIyfaponfh (razmfjyEdkifpaumif;aom) obm0wck jzpfaomaMumifh
tawmftwefvlrsm; em;vnfMuygrnfavm[k ,kHrSm;oHo, jzpfrdygonf/
pHa'0DtaMumif;udk jzwfxm;cJUonfrSm twefMumNyDjzpfí uG,fvGef
onfrSm MumvSNyD xif&avmufaomfvnf; 1919 ckESpfurS uG,fvGefjcif;
jzpfaomaMumifh rpdk;ESifh taMumif;ygaomtcsdefwGif uG,fvGefonfrSm

397 
wESpfrQom &Sdygao;onf/ uREkfyf\rdcifurl rpdk;ESifhpHa'0DwdkU cyfqifqif
wlonf[k ajymbl;jcif;udk apmapmydkif;u azmfjycJUbl;ygNyD/ rdcifonf
pHa'0Dudkcifrifí ¤if;ESifhwlaom rpdk;udkvnf; cspfcifaMumif;ajymbl;ygonf/
rdcif\pum;t&rSm ]]ndKacsmeJU0gacsm wrsKd;pDxm;ygawmh? pHa'0Du
tqiftjyifomw,f? rpdk;u udk,fvkH;udk,faygufydkvSw,f? rpdk;&JU
udk,fvkH;udk,faygufrsKd;u rdef;rxJrSm &Sm;ayw,fuG,f? wifeJU &ifeJU
odyftcsKd;usw,f? eef;awmfxJu tysKdawmfawGxJrSm wa,mufjrifbl;w,f}}
[k ajymbl;&Smonf/ uREkfyf\rdcifü txl;ojzifh cspfcifzG,faumif;aom
tcsufwckonfum; uREkfyfrdef;r,lcJUaomtcgwdkif; rdbudkrwdkifyifyJ
uREkfyf\oabmtwdkif; ,lcJUonfcsnf;jzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyf,laom rdef;r
rsm;ESifh ywfoufí jypfwif&Iwfcsjcif;jyKonf[k r&Sdbl;jcif;yif jzpfavonf/
rdcifqdkvQif vlwdkif;yifcspfonf[k ajymMurnfjzpf&m txufyg taMumif;
w&yf twGufaMumifhyif tjcm;aom om;rsm;cspfMujcif;xuf uREkfyf\
rdcifudk uREkfyfcspfjcif;onf ydkvdrhfrnf[k xifrdygonf/ om;ucspfBudKuf
aomrdef;rudk rdbu oabmrwlEdkifqdkjcif;onf a,mufsm;uav;twGufa&m
rdef;uav;twGufyg tBuD;tus,f pddwfqif;&JMu&rnfjzpf&m uREkfyftzdkU&mü
¤if;qif;&JrIrsKd; r&SdcJUbl;jcif;onf tvGefuHaumif;onf[k 0rf;omcJU&yg
awmh onf/

ezl;pmygrS nm;Edkifjcif;

udk0ifharmfwkdUvlpkonf qufvufí ]opfoif;}tvkyfudk aqmif&Guf


vsuf &SdMuaomfvnf; nDawmfarmifrSmrl rMumrDtwGif; opfawmrSjyefvmí
uREkfyfwdkUESifhtwl aexdkifvsuf&Sd\/ rpdk;\nDrwa,muf acsmvSaMumif;udk

398 
txufwGif t>rufrQazmfjycJUbl;&m trnfrSm rvkH;jzpf\/ rpdk;\udk,fvuf
t*FgESifh udk,fvkH;udk,faygufrsKd;r[kwfyJ vkH;BuD;aygufvSESifh cspfp&maumif;
aom rsufESmxm;&Sdí olUacwfwGif jrawmif&Gmü ydk;yef;ol tawmfrsm;aom
rdef;uav;wa,mufjzpf\/ nDawmfarmifonf rpdk;wkdU\tdrfokdU uREkfyfESifh
twl roGm;bl;aomfvnf; pma&;armifjrESifhtwl vnfywfMubl;í rvkH;ESifh
rsufrSef;wrf;rdMu[ef&Sd\/ tdrfodkUa&mufvmonfESifh wNydKifeuf nDawmf
armifonf rvkH;tm; wrf;wrf;pGJ pkHrufvsuf&Sd\/ þwGif jrawmifodkU
oabFmESifh nDtpfudkESpfa,muf vkdufvmMupOfu azmifBudKorm;BuD;
ajymbl;aom pum;udkowd&í ol\aA'ifrSm tvkH;pkH rSefacsawmhrnf[k
uREkfyfxifrdonf/ xdkvlBuD;u uREkfyfwdkUrSm vlysKdtjzpfESifh ]jyefpdwfr&Sd}
onfhjyif nDtpfudk nDtpfryif jzpfwwfao;onf[k ajymbl;jcif;udk
rSwfrdaumif; rSwfrdMuayvdrhfrnf/ uREkfyftzdkUum; rSefaeNyDjzpf&m
nDawmfarmiftwGufyg rSefcJUvQif wtHUwMojzpf&vdrfhrnf[k xifrdonf/
wtdrfwnf;vnf; twlaeMu&í tysKdvlysKdvnf; jzpfaeonfhjyif
wa,mufESifhwa,muf oabmrusp&mvnf; bmrQr&Sdacs/ a,mufsm;
uav;ESifh rdef;ruav;wkdUonf rnfrQyif taMumif;nDnGwfí tqifajy
vsuf&Sdaomf vnf; ]ezl;pm}rygvQif rnm;Mujcif;udk pHa'0DESifh uREkfyf\
tjzpfomru nDawmfarmifESifh rvkH;wkdU\tjzpfwGifvnf; xyfqifhí
BuKH&bl;jyefygonf/ tppt&m&m tqifajyvsuf&SdMuí awmxJokdU
uREkfyfwdkUwtdrfvkH; (¤if;a'oxkH;pHtwdkif;) xif;acGoGm;MupOf xif;&Smolrsm;
u&SmMuí nDawmfarmifESifh rvkH;wdkUu xif;wkH;BuD;wwkH;udk vTjzifh wbufpD
wdkufjzwfaeMujcif;rsm;udk uREkfyfwdkUawGUjrif&í tm;vkH;oabmwl wNyKH;NyKH;
jzpfcJUMu&bl;ygonf/ uREkfyfESifhrpdk;wkdUu ]vJGzdkUr&SdNyD}}[k xifrdMu&m
tarBuD;uvnf; oabmwl&Smonf/ þtjzpfrsKd;okdU a&mufumrS rvkH;onf

399 
(uREkfyfwkdUudk remvdkMuonfh &GmoltcsKdUwdkU\ uwkH;uwdkfufvkyfrIaMumifh)
csufcsif; trlt&m ajymif;vJoGm;NyD; axmfavmfuefUvefU vkyfavawmhonf/
þrdef;uav;um; acgif;rmaom rdef;uav;wa,muf[lí uREkfyftuJcwf
EdkifcJUonf/ uREkfyfwkdUtBuHtdkufvsuf&SdpOf rdbrsm;xHrS pmwapmifa&mufvm
&m ¤if;pmwGif *srm;oaX;\ udk,fpm;vS,fvkyfaeaom uREkfyf\OD;av;
ajrpm&if; tifpydwfawmf wa,mufu nDawmfarmiftm; ol\pma&;
tjzpfESifh cefUvdkí csufcsif;vmzdkU rSmxm;vdkufonf/ nDawmfarmifrSm
roGm;csif&Smaomfvnf; uREkfyfurdef;raygí tvkyf&Sm;aMumif;? rvkH;udpö
twGuf qufvufaqmif&Gufay;rnfh taMumif;ESifh acsmharmhwdkufwGef;
vkduf&mwGif nDawmfarmifonf OD;av;&Sdaom jrpfom;NrdKUodkU vkdufoGm;
&Smav\/ ezl;pmrygMuaomaMumifh ayavm rqdkEdkif/ nDawmfarmifrSm
cGJcGmoGm;NyD;aemuf cyfat;at; jzpfoGm;í olwkdU\jyóemrSm wdkwdkESifh
NyD;qkH;oGm;ygawmhonf/

]rif;pdwf}&Sdaom udk0ifharmf

1921 ckESpfrSm uREkfyftzdkU&mü cyfayghaygh cyfacsmifacsmifaecJUaom


ESpfwESpfjzpf\/ xdkESpfwGif uREkfyfESifhrpdk;wkdUonf jrpfom;okdU nDawmfarmif
ESifh twl vdkufíaejcif;? ref;usnf;wkH&Gm&Sd rdbrsm;xHodkU tvnfoGm;jcif;?
ppfudkif;awmif&kd;üaejcif;? jrawmifwGif udk0ifharmfESifhtwlaejcif; ponfjzifh 
(Honeymoon)  tcsdefukefvGefcJUonf/ xdktcsdeftawmtwGif;
t*Fvdyf0w¦Krsm;rS rSD;ía&;onfh0w¦KBuD;ESpfyk'fNyD;yg\/ ¤if;0w¦KESpfyk'frSm 
(Sign  of  the  Cross  and  Gullivers  Travel's)  OD;bazu 0,f,lovdkvdk?
ol&d,wdkufu 0,fovdkvdk aiGw0ufwysufay;acsxm;í uREkfyf\vufxJü

400 
twefMumatmif;aecJU&m yJcl;NrdKUivsifBuD;wGif aumfyDrsm; aysmufqkH;í
r&dkufESdyfvkduf&yJ ajrBuD;MoZm jzpfoGm;cJUygavNyD/ jrawmifüaeMupOf
udk,fhtdrfüudk,f armifnDruav;rsm;ESifh twlaeMuaomfvnf; udk0ifharmfu
olU&kH;okdUZGwftwif; ajymif;a&GUcdkif;onfESifh ajymif;Mu&ygonf/ okdUaomf
udk0ifharmf awmwufaomtcg r&ru uREkfyfac:oGm;onfcsnf; jzpfaom
aMumifh rpdk;udk olUtarrsm;ESifhxm;cJUí uREkfyfrSmolESifh awmwufae&
onfom rsm;ygonf/
udk0ifharmfonf uREkfyftm; nDtpfudk&if;wrQ cspfjcif;udk uREkfyfodyg\/
ydkvQifomydkrnf? avQmhonfrxifyg/ þpum;rSm omrefajymwwfMuonfh
cifrifwwfol&SdcJUvQif xkdolonf udk0ifharmfjzpf\/ ol\nDrsm;? ESrrsm;
twGuf vspfvsL&Ixm;rnfh udpörsKd;wGif uREkfyftwGufaqmif&Guf ay;jcif;
udkBuKH&bl;ygonf/ odkUaomf þvlwa,mufum; wcgw&HwGif ]rif;pdwf}
&Sdolwa,mufjzpf\/ waeUoüawmwufrnfjyK&mwGif &uf&Snfrnf[k
odaomaMumifh rpdk;u uREkfyfrvkdufapcsifonfESifh rvdkufyJjiif;vdkufbl;\/
awmrSjyefa&mufvmuwnf;u udk0ifharmfonf uREkfyftm; rMumcP
pum;emajymvkduf? avSmifvdkuf vkyfavawmh&m uREkfyfrSm aemufaemifwGif
olac:vQif rjiif;0HUawmhyJ vdkuf&ygawmhonf/ olUrSm vlysKdBuD;jzpfí
tdrfaxmifonftaMumif;udk em;rvnf? *&krpdkuf/ olac:vQifvdkufrS
BudKufwwfol jzpfavonf/

ausmif;q&mjzpf&jyefjcif;

1922 ckESpfOD;wGif uREkfyfonf &efukefodkUqif;NyD; pma&;q&mtjzpfESifh


toufarG;zdkU rpdk;ESifhwdkifyif&m oabmwlMuavNyD/ þwGif udk0ifharmfu

401 
jrawmifü ol&SdaeorQumvywfvkH; rcGJ&? 0rf;a&;twGuf olMunfhNyD;
pDrHay;rnf[kajym\/ udk0ifharmf ajymonfqdkvQif jiif;zkdUcufaom
vlwa,mufjzpfjcif;udk uREkfyfodNyD;jzpf\/ aemufqkH;üjrawmiftxuf
18rdkifcefUa0;onfh urf;eD&GmwGif t*Fvdyfausmif;axmifzdkU pDpOfav\/
urf;eD&Gmü opfukefonf av;ig;OD;&Sdí ¤if;wkdUwGifausmif;om;t&G,f
om;rsm;vnf;&SdMu\/ rdbrsm;onf om;rsm;udk t*Fvdyfpmoifvdkí
NrdKUBuD;rsm;odkU ydkUcsifMuaomfvnf; (jrefrmrdbrsm;\ xkH;pHtwdkif;)
om;uav;rsm;udk pdwfrcsjcif;? tpm;taomuf qif;&Jrnfudkpdk;&drfjcif;?
rcGJekdifjcif;paom tcuftcJrsm;aMumifh &Gmausmif;üomxm;Mu&m udk0ifharmf
u uREkfyftaMumif;ajymí t*FvdyfpmoifzkdU wdkufwGef;vkduf&mwGif
0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om oabmwlMuavonf/ opfukefonfokH;OD;onf
tdrfwvkH;udk0,fí ausmif;wnfNyD;vQif ausmif;om;rsm; pkaqmif;vdkuf&m
15a,mufESifh ausmif;vc w&mausmfcefU &&Sdav\/ xdkpOfurl xif;?a&?
aetdrf ponfwkdU&aom vifr,m;ESpfa,muftwGufrSm ¤if;aiGrQonf
aumif;pGmvkHavmufonfjzpfí uREkfyfonf ¤if;tvkyfudk vufcHvdkuf
avonf/ odkUjzpfí azazmf0g&Dvqef;wGif uREkfyfwdkUvifr,m;onf
a,mufzuav;wa,mufESifhtwl urf;eD&GmodkU ajymif;a&TUoGm;Muav\/

auseyfzG,faomESpf

uREkfyfonf Ak'¨bmomausmif;üwBudrf? tar&duefausmif;üwBudrf?


nDawmfarmif\ausmif;üwBudrf vydkif;rQavmufpD ausmif;q&mvkyfcJUbl;í
uREkfyftzdkU tqef;topfr[kwf? taMumif;odNyD;jzpfaom tvkyfwckjzpfyg
onf/ uREkfyfem;vnfonfum; þtvkyfonf cPwjzKwftwGuf

402 
pdwf0ifpm;zG,faumif;í aysmfp&mBuD;wckyif xif&aomfvnf; tvGefNiD;aiGU
vG,faomtvkyfrsKd;jzpfavonf/ q&myg&rDygaom yk*¾dKvfrsm; twGufrSm
rwwfaomvl? odkUr[kwf uav;rsm;tm; wwfatmif oifjyay;&jcif;onf
0rf;omp&m aysmfp&maumif;onf[k ,lqMuayvdrhfrnf/ uREkfyfrSm
pum;ajymcsifaom vlwa,mufr[kwf? uavmiform;oufoufjzpfonf[k
udk,fh[mudk,fodNyD;jzpfaomaMumifh ESpf&Snfwm0efrcHyJ okH;ESpftwGufrQom
y#dnmOfay;cJUygonf/ oifjy&rnfh ynm&yfrSm t*Fvdyfbmom wckwnf;
qdkaomaMumifh uREkfyfoabmusvSonf/ yxrESpfü awmxJodkUausmif;om;
rsm;ESifh A[kokwtzkdU aysmfyJGpm;xGufjcif;? jrpfxJüorÁefavSmfjcif;?
&Gufwdkufjcif;? [dk&Gmonf&Gmrsm;odkU oGm;vnfjcif; ponfrsm;jzifh
awmfawmfaysmfrdygonf/ oli,fuav;rsm; wwfvG,fapjcif;iSm ausmif;BuD;
rsm;uJUodkU wywfvQif ESpf&ufrydwfyJ w&ufwnf;ydwfjcif;? aEG&moDwGif
vnf; ausmif;zGifhjcif;? nOfhtcsdefrsm;üvnf; oli,frsm; pmusufMuonfudk
apmifhMunfhí ar;Muonfrsm;udk ajzjcif;ponfjzifh pdwfygvufyg
oifjy&mwGif ausmif;axmifay;aom opfukefonfrsm; vGefpGmauseyf
tm;&Muonf/ ¤if;&GmodkU e,fvSnfh&ef a&mufvmMuonfh ynmtkyf?
awmtkyf? ykvdyf? tifpywfawmf? taumuf0efaxmuf? taumufpma&;
ponfrsm;onfvnf; tjcm;ae&mü rwnf;cdkMuyJ uREkfyf\ausmif;uav;rSm
csnf; wnf;cdkMuonfwGif pm;Mu? aomufMu? &,fMu? armMuESifh
aysmfp&mBuD;jzpfcJUygonf/ 1922 ckESpfrSmrl auseyfzG,faom ESpf[lí
rSwfwrf;wifEdkifygonf/

403 
]vyfuD;}

1923 ckESpfOD;ü uREkfyfonf jrif;waumif0,fí jrif;pD;tavhtusifhjyK


vkyf\/ jrif;rSmt&dkif;r[kwf? ]tom;us}oifNyD;jzpf&m uREkfyfrSmvnf;
tawmftwef jrif;pD;wwfNyD;jzpfí tvGef[efusvsuf&Sd\/ uREkfyfonf
a&S;acwft*Fvdyf0w¦Krsm;udk zwf&uwnf;u jrif;pD;jcif;tvkyfudk ]&l;}rwwf
oifcsifí a&Tbdke,fwGif OD;ab;? baxG; paom aqGrsKd;rsm;\jrif;rsm;udk
tcGifhBuKHwdkif;iSm;í pD;jcif;tm;jzifh omref&Gmom;wa,mufrQavmufawmh
wwfajrmufvsuf&Sdyg\/ jrif;pD;0goemygaom uREkfyftzdkU&mü omí
usifvnfpGm pD;wwfatmif yg&rDjznfhay;&ma&mufonfh tjcif;t&mwckudk
azmfjy&ygOD;rnf/ (pGefUpm;&jcif;ü 0goemygaom uREkfyftzdkUrSm jrif;pD;jcif;
onf tEÅ&m,f&Sdwwfjcif;udk rqGuwnf;u em;vnfNyD;jzpfygonf/)
uREkfyf0,f,l vkdufaomjrif;rSm jrif;aumif; jrif;qwfwaumifjzpfay&m
jrif;&Sif(tif;wkdif)ü pD;yGm;a&;tajcr[efaomfvnf; olUjrif;udkcspfonfESifh
ra&mif;yJzufwG,fxm; onfwGif ausmif;om;wa,muf\zcifu ZGwfwG,f
uyfí 0,fay;aomaMumifh uREkfyf&vdkufjcif;jzpfavonf/ jrif;ay:okdUwufí
wacgufavmufarmif;Munfhvdkfufuwnf;u þjrif;um; igESifhawmfonf[k
wcgwnf; oabmusvkdufrd\/ jrif;ykuav;rsm;omaygaom xdke,fü
av;ay av;vufr [laom]a'guf}onf t&yfjrifhaom uREkfyftzdkU&mü
&cJvSí oifhawmfvSayNyD/ tarG;rSm pdkifndKjzpfí cyfoG,foG,f&Sdaom
ajcwHvufwH&Sd\/ xdkjrif;\xl;jcm;csufwckrSmum; tvGefuRwfqwfaom
pdwf&Sdonfjzpfí (uREkfyftm;vnf; ]uRwfqwfqwf}&Sdaom vlBuD;[k
ajymMurnfxifonf/) BudrfvkH;udkifzdkUrvdk? ]pkwf}woyfoyfESifh
acsmhípD;&aom jrif;rsKd;jzpf\/ tcuftcJwck&SdonfrSm jrefrmwkdUpD;enf;jzpf

404 
aom ]tom;us}ajy;enf;rSm pdwfxefvGef;vQif ]'kef;}ajy;wwfay&m
odkUqdkvQif ]azmuf}onfqdkí wefzdk;r&SdyJ jzpfoGm;\/ ]tom;us}[lonfrSm
ajcav;buf&Sdonfhteuf ajrBuD;ay:wGif wbufpDcsumajy;&jcif; jzpfav
&m ajcESpfbufpD ]pkH}csí ckefjay;jcif;? ]okH;acsmif;axmuf} ajy;jcif; ponf
wkdUrSm jrefrmoufoufjrif;yGJrsm;ü tokH;r0if? ]azmuf}onf[kqdkavonf/
jrif;waumifonf wwfEdkiforQ tjrefqkH;vnf;ajy;&rnf/ ajcESpfbuf
yl;ckefNyD; ]uqkef}ajy;jcif;rsKd;vnf; rjzpfap&/ þonfum; jrefrmjrif;
ajy;enf;\ ta&;BuD;aom tcsufaywnf;/ uREkfyf\jrif;rSm uREkfyf
vufodkUa&mufvmrS *&kwpdkufauR;í 00vifvifjzpfvmonfESifh ]vyfuD;}
(uHaumif;)[lí rSnfhac:xm;avonf/

jrif;pD;aumif;jzpfcsifonf

vyfuD;0,fuwnf;u ]azmuf}vnf; razmuf? tpGrf;&SdorQ


ajcukefvnf; ajy;atmifpD;Edkif&efrSm uREkfyftzdkU&mü jyóemBuD;wck
jzpfaecJUavNyD/ jrif;uav;um; vSvnf;vSonf/ ajy;vnf;ajy;onf/
okdUaomf pdwfxefvGef;aomaMumifh razmufatmif Edkifeif;pGm pD;zdkUcufonf[k
we,fvkH;uajymMuí uREkfyfavhusifhjcif;udk vlwdkif;u pdwf0ifpm;vsuf&SdMu
\/ jrif;pD;jcif;ü e*dkuwnf;u 0goemygaom uREkfyftzdkUrSm
tcuftcJuav;ESifh awGU&onfwGif tvGefpdwf0ifpm;vsuf&Sd\/ þjrif;udk
Edkifeif;atmif pD;jyEdkifvQif jrif;0goemygolaygaom ¤if;t&yfü emrnfwvkH;
xGufvm&rnf[k uREkfyfarQmfvifh\/ ]jrif;pD;aumif;} wa,muftjzpfESifh
&aom emrnfonf ]b,favmufwefzkd;&Sdrnfenf;}[k ar;MuvQif (a&Tbdkjrif;
e,fom; tqufjzpfaomaMumifhayavmrqdkEdkif/) jrif;pD;orm;rsm; tay:ü

405 
vlarmfvkyfEdkifvQif emrnfausmf 0w¦Kaumif;wyk'f a&;xkwfjcif;tm; jzifh
&&Sdaom*kPfxuf ravsmhatmif uREkfyfjrwfEdk;rdygonf/ uREkfyfonf
ig;&ufwywf avhusifhNyD;aomtcgrsm;ü þjrif;udk pdwfwkdif;usEdkifeif;atmif
b,fuJUokdU pD;&ygrnfenf;[k tBuHxkwfjcif;aMumifh tdyfraysmfEdkifaom
naygif;vnf; tawmfrsm;vSygNyD/ ratmifjrifao;acs/

avsmfvkduf&jcif;

uREkfyfaexkdifaom urf;eD&GmwGif wbufwcsufü tdrfrsm;&Hvsuf&Sd


aom &Gmv,fvrf;&Sd&muREkfyfrSm tjcm;vrf;r&SdaomaMumifh xdk&Gmv,fvrf;
udkyif jrif;vrf;tjzpfESifh avhusifh&\/ uREkfyfavhusihfjcif;udk jrifMu&aom
tcg jrif;&Sdaom urf;eD&Gmom;rsm;onf (vlBuD;?vlvwfrusef) ¤if;wkdU\
jrif;rsm;udk xkwfípD;MuonfESifh jrif;acwfjzpfvmawmh\/ uREkfyfjrif;pD;aom
naersm;wGif jrif;awGw>ywfNyD; avhusihfMuonfESifh &Gmv,fvrf;uav;rSm
&Iyf&Sufcwfjzpfae\/ urf;eD&Gm&Sd jrif;rsm;teufwGifrl vyfuD;udkrSDaom
jrif;r&SdaomaMumifh uREkfyfuyif a&SUqkH;rSqkdif;&\/ uREkfyfNydKifcsifaom
jrif;rSm NydKifyGJ0ifbl;onfh a&TvD&Dk;rS jrif;wpD;jzpfav&m vyfuD;u
]ajcom}onf[k uREkfyfodaomfvnf; razmufatmif Edkifeif;pGmpD;zdkU
tcuftcJawGUaejcif; jzpfavonf/ wnaeü uREkfyfonf &Gmv,fvrf;
wavQmuf a&SUqkH;rS pdkif;vmpOf em;xdkif;aom qiform; wa,muftm;
wdkufrdav&m emusifavmufatmif rxdcdkufaomfvnf; aiG5usyfay;NyD;
auseyfatmif vkyfvdkuf&avonf/ þwGifuRekfyfonf &Gmv,fvrf;\
tEÅ&m,frsm;jcif;udkjrifí &Gmhjyifü jrif;avhusifh&eftwGuf jrif;vrf;
oufouf azmufvkyf&ef pDrHavonf/ jrif;ydkif&Sifrsm;xHrS o'¨gaMu;

406 
aumufcHí vkdorQaiGudk uREkfyfuxnfhNyD; rdkif;om ulvDrsm;iSm;&rf;um
jrif;vrf;BuD;azmufvkyfavonf/

jrif;pD;0goem

uREkfyfonf vyfuD;udk pdwfwkdif;us Edkifeif;atmif rpD;EdkifyJ&Sd&mwGif


jrpfwbufurf;rS jrif;pD;orm;emrnfausmfwa,mufudkac:í avhusifhap\/
xdkolrSm ]tom;us}NydKifyGJrsm;wGif avmif;aMu;ESifhpD;cJUbl;onfh aMu;wef;pm;
jrif;pD;orm;wa,mufjzpf\/ uREkfyf\BuH&G,fcsufum; vyfuD;udkolEdkifeif;
atmif pD;íjzpfvQif olUxHrS pepf,lNyD; a&TvD&Dk;rSjrif;ESifh Opöm&Sifcsif;
NydKifpD;&ef jzpfavonf/ avmif;aMu;rSm tajrmuftjrm;r[kwf? aiGav;ig;
q,frQom jzpfaomfvnf; Edkif&onfqdkvQifjrif;twGufa&m vltwGufyg
<um;csifaomaMumifhjzpfavonf/ xdkaiG 50drQudk Edkif&eftwGuf uREkfyfonf
aiGw&mausmf ESpf&mtukefcHzdkUvnf; OD;av;rnfr[kwfacs/ þtawmtwGif;
ü a&TvD&dk;jrif;&SifxHrSvnf; rcHcsifpzG,f qGay;onfh pum;oHrsm;
Mum;vsuf&Sd\/ vyfuD;udk jrif;pD;orm;wpfOD;apvQif qwlavmif;rnf/
uREkfyf (ausmif;q&m)pD;vQif ESpfav;ay;rnf ponfjzifh toHay;vsuf&Sd\/
(trSefrSmtawmfoduRrf;olrsm;jzpfí uREkfyfxHrS aiG50dudk &vdkír[kwf?
rcHcsifatmif ceJUjcif;rQomjzpfonf/ þtaMumif;udkvnf; uREkfyf&dyfrd\/
okdU&mwGif jrif;csif;vnf;aumif;? vlcsif;vnf;aumif; EdkifudkEdkifvkduf
csifonf/) aMu;wef;pm; jrif;pD;orm;onf 5 &ufwywfwkdif;
vyfuD;udkavhusifhay;aomfvnf; NydKifyGJoGif;avmufatmif Ekdifeif;aom
tajcodkU ra&mufacs/ av;ywfMumvwfaomf a*smfuDvufavQmh oGm;&

407 
avNyD/ ESpfaumifNydKifpD;zdkU rqdkxm;bd? waumifwnf;yif ydyd&d&d EdkifEdkif
eif;eif;rpD;EdkifyJ jzpfaeawmhonf/

tywfwukwf avhusifhykH

jrif;pD;orm; vufavQmhaomfvnf; uREkfyfum; vufravQmhao;acs/


uREkfyf pOf;pm;rdonfrSmum; vyfuD;onf (jrif;pD;orm;vnf; odNyD;jzpfonfh
twdkif;) wkd;íajy;zdkUrvdk? &Sd&if;ajctwdkif;razmufapyJ wnfwnfBuD;ajy;zdkU
omvdkonf/ wnfwnfBuD;ajy;,if; azmufí oGm;jcif;rSm a'goBuD;jcif;
aMumifh? okdUr[kwf pdwfxefvGef;aomaMumifh jzpfonf/ pdwfxefaomjrif;udk
tvGeftrif;rxefatmif xdef;csKyf&efrSm jrif;pD;orm;onf Zufudkom
tokH;jyKEdkifonf/ igonf Zufudkifjcif; tvkyfü aMu;wef;pm;
jrif;pD;orm;xuf usifvnf&ef wwfEdkifzdkUr&SdNyD/ okdUjzpfvQif igonf
vyfuD;udk rnfonfhenf;ESifh xdef;odrf;tkyfcsKyf&ef jzpfEdkifygrnfenf;/
þwGiftBuHwckay:vm\/ vlESifhjrif;onf ]Zuf}jzifhomqufoG,fEdkifonf
r[kwf? pdwfjzifhvnf; qufoG,fEdkif&rnf/ odkUaomf pdwfjzifh b,fuJUodkU
qufoG,facsrnfenf;/ okdUESifhtBuHwck xyfíay:vmonfrSm ighudkcspfcif
atmifvkyfNyD; ighpdwfudkjrif;odatmifvkyfay;ygu ightvkdtwkdif; vkdufem
wef&monf[k pOf;pm;rdonf/ xdkaeUrSpí uREkfyfonf vyfuD;ESifhtxl;
]vufyGef;wwD;}ae\/ Adkufoyfausmoyfvkyfay;\/ Muifemaom toHESifh
jznf;nSif;pGmpum;ajym\/ iSufaysmfcGHpaom jrif;BudKufwwfonfh
tpmuav;rsm;udk uREkfyfudk,fwdkifauR;\/ jrufudkyif tcgwdkif;uJUodkU
ausmif;om;uav;rsm; rauR;apyJ udkifwdkifauR;\/ ]pD;vSJUcs}
aomtcgüvnf; jrefjrefajy;zdkU? odkUr[kwf jznf;jznf;ajy;zdkU ponfudk

408 
EIwfjzifh trdefUay;\/ þjrif;\OmOfwckrSmodyfajy;zdkU wdkufwGef;&efrvdk?
ajy;onfxufajy;NyD; ajcrEdkifyJ ]azmuf}oGm;rnfudkom pdk;&onf/
þuJUokdUwpwp avhusifh,l&mwGif vyfuD;onf uREkfyf\ tvdktwdkif;
tawmfBuD; vdkufvmonfudk awGU&\/ ajzmifhjzL;vsuf&Sdaom jrif;vrf;r
BuD;ay:ü wnfhwnfhBuD; ajy;vsuf&SdpOf ol\0goemtwdkif; wkd;í wkd;í
ajy;csif\/ uREkfyfonf ol\ajc&yfajcuJudk ausmay:rS tuJcwfvsuf
vdkufvm&m tvGefajy;aeaom tajcokdU a&mufygvsuf wkd;NyD; ajy;csifao;
aom ol\pdwfudk uREkfyf&dyfrd&mwGif ]]ighom;ajz;ajz;uG,fh}}[k jznf;nSif;pGm
owday;vkdufonfESifh wNydKifeuf NidrfhueJ NidrfhueJ jzpfoGm;jcif;udkawGU&\/
odkUr[kwfvQif a'goawG0ifvmNyD; [wfxkd;vJrwwfajy;&mrS wowfBuD;
]azmuf}oGm;NyD; xdef;r&atmif jzpf&ayawmhrnf/ þenf;jzifh uREkfyfonf
tjcm;vlrsm; r&dyfrdapyJ rdrd\jrif;udk wjznf;jznf;avhusifh,lygawmhonf/
wcgw&HwGif tu,fvTwfí prf;csifaomtcg &GmteD;&Sd jrif;vrf;ay:wGif
rarmif;yJ awmvrf;odkUxGufum ]vTwf}prf;av&m vyfuD;onf uREkfyf\
pum;udk em;axmifaMumif; awGU&av\/ þtwdkif;qdkvQif a&TvD&dk;rS
jrif;udkEdkifzdkU aocsmavNyD/ uREkfyfþrQavmuf tywfwukwfBudK;pm;
tm;xkwfjcif;rSm aiGudkEdkifvdkaomaMumifhcsnf; r[kwfvS? (opfukefonf
vl&nfwwfrsm;qDrS &zdkUjzpfaomaMumifh vdkawmhvdkcsifygonf/) jrif;a&m
vla&mtwGuf *kPfvkdcsifonfhjyif uREkfyfudk,fwdkifpD;vQif ESpfav;ay;í
avmif;rnf qdkojzifh rcHcsifvSaomaMumifh jzpfygonf/

409 
awmtkyfudkodef;az

þae&mü udkodef;aztaMumif;udk azmfxkwf&ayOD;rnf/ udkodef;az


onf udk0ifharmf\ vufatmufcHtif;&Gm taumufpma&; jzpfav&m
(xdkUaemufrS awmtkyfBuD;jzpfonf/) rpdk;ESifhuREkfyftaMumif; ygonf[k
Mum;uwnf;u jrawmifokdUvmNyD; wrifMunfhcsifavmufatmif uREkfyf
tay:ü pdwf0ifpm;vsuf&Sdonf[k ajymbl;\/ okdUaomf urf;eDokdUa&mufrS
vmíMunfhjzpfonf/ olESifhuRekfyfawGUaomtcg uREkfyf\tdrfwGifjzpfí
udk0ifharmfvnf; &Sdonf/ udkodef;azESifh uREkfyfawGUMuí rsufESmcsif;
qdkifvdkufMuonfESifh wNydKifeuf (toufcsif; &G,fwljzpfonf/) wa,muf
ESifhwa,mufcifrifMurnfh vlESpfa,mufjzpfjcif;udk ESpfa,mufvkH;yif
odMuaomfvnf; cyfNydKifNydKif oabmxm;Mujcif;udkvnf;&dyf rdMu\/
NydKifcsifonf qdk&mü tjcm;r[kwf? rnfolu ]pkH}onf qdkjcif;udk
NydKifvdkMujcif;yif jzpfonf/ trSefrSm olonf þw0dkufwGif ]vlvnf}BuD;
wa,muftaejzifh emrnf&xm;oljzpfí uREkfyfudktxifBuD;NyD;vQif uREkfyfESifh
prf;vdkjcif; jzpfavonf/ ol\pdwfudk uREkfyftuJcwfrdaomfvnf;
pGefUpm;jcif;paom tvkyfrsKd;rSwyg; olESifh uREkfyfr,SOfNydKifEdkifjcif;udk
uREkfyfodí tapmBuD;u vufajrmufNyD;jzpfygonf/ Oyrm 0DpuD
b,fESpfcGuf? bD,m b,fESpfykvif; ukefatmif aomufEdkifjcif;paom
tvkyfrsKd;udk uREkfyfonf rnfolESifhrQ rNydKifvdkyg/ odkUaomf tzJGUESifh
aomufMuvQif udk,fhwm0efausNyD; £ajE´rysuf xdef;odrf;EdkifzdkUum;
BudK;pm;ygonf/ yxrpí awGUaomaeUüyif uREkfyfonf udkodef;aztm;
rnfonfhudpörsKd;ü NydKif0HUonf? rnfonfhudpöü rNydKif0HU? rNydKifcsif ponfjzifh
tMurf;tm;jzifh &Sif;vif;jyvdkuf&m tuif;yg;aom vlwa,mufjzpfí

410 
olUe,f udk,fhe,f ydkif;jcm;NyD; AdkvfvkyfMu&ef em;vnfoGm;Muygawmhonf/
odkU&mwGif vlESpfa,mufNydKifí AdkvfvkcsifaomtcsufrSm jrif;pD;twwfyif
jzpfavonf/

udkodef;azESifhvyfuD;

udkodef;azü NydKifyJG0ifbl;onfh 'kef;jrif;ESpfaumif&Sd\/ a&TvDjrpf&dk;&Sd


rbdef;&GmwGif ESpfpOfusif;yaom bk&m;yGJwyJGü jrif;yGJrsm; xnfhavh&Sd&m
]'kef;yJG}? ]tom;usyJG}[lí ESpfrsKd;vkH;yg0if\/ ¤if;bk&m;yJGodkU a&TvD&Dk;
wavQmufrS jrif;rsm; vma&mufMuí ]'kef;}jrif;tcsif;csif;? ]tom;us}
jrif;tcsif;csif; ajcjyNyD; oabmwl pyf[yfum waumifcsif;avmif;aMu;ESifh
NydKifMu\/ udkodef;az\'kef;jrif;ESpfaumif rSm¤if;yJGwGif wBudrfESpfBudrf
tEdkif&bl;í oludk,fwdkifvnf; pD;cJUonf/ vyfuD;ESifhcsdef;xm;onfhjrif;tm;
vyfuD;taMumif;ajymjyí tke;fcGH&Sifu csJUvifhcsf vkyfbl;aMumif;? uREkfyf
udk,fwdkif pD;vQif ESpfav;ay;rnf[k ajymaMumif; ajymjy\/ okdU&mwGif
vyfuD;udk uREkfyfudk,fwdkifavhusifhxm;í tawmftwefatmifjrifonf
xifaMumif;udkrlum; rajymyJ csefxm;\/ udkodef;azonfwbufu
csJUvifhcsfvkyfxm;onf qdkaomaMumifh pdwf0ifpm;vmonfESifh vyfuD;udk
olpD;csifonf? atmifjrifvQif oludk,fwdkifNydKifyJG0ifonfjzpfap? uREkfyftm;
oifjyay;onfjzpfap uREkfyfoabmusovkd vkyfygrnf[k ajym\/
uREkfyfonf (NydKifbufcsif;[k oabmxm;onfh rdwfaqGjzpfonfhtavsmuf
0rf;xJü Budwfí NyKH;um) wnaewGif &Gmhjyif jrif;vrf;ü vyfuD;udk
udkodef;azpD;ap\/ ESpfacguf okH;acguf pD;MunfhvdkufvQifyifudkodef;az
vufavQmhvdkufavNyD/ okdU&mwGif udkodef;aztwGuf ajym&ef&SdayonfrSm

411 
jrpfwbufuaMu;pm; a*smfuDxufrnHUygay/ þwGif uREkfyftBuHwck
ay:vmonf/

udkodef;az0efcHjcif;

udkodef;az\'kef;jrif;ESpfaumifteuf waumifrSm ]tom;us}vnf;


ajy;wwfonf/ odkUaomfvyfuD;\ajcudk rrSDwwfacs/ uREkfyfonf ¤if;jrif;udk
(avmufpm[k ac:onf/) jyifapí udkodef;aztm; wufcdkif;NyD;vQif uREkfyfu
vyfuD;ay:odkUwuf\/ xdkUaemuf jrif;vrf;ay:wGif wbufwaumifpD,OfpD;
Mu&m uREkfyfonf vyfuD;udk ydyd&d&DpD;Edkifonfhjyif avmufpmudkvnf;
awmfawmfjzwfxm;Edkif\/ udkodef;azrsufvkH;jyL;oGm;avNyD/ olUtzkdUrSm
waumifwnf;udkyif ydyd&d&drpD;EdkifyJ &Sdygvsufu uRekfyfuESpfaumif,SOfNyD;
]razmufatmif} pD;Edkfifonf qdkjcif;rSm r,kHMunfEdkifatmif jzpfaeawmh\/
þrQESifhyif uREkfyfonf NydKifbufwa,muf[k oabmxm;aom
udkodef;aztay:ütawmf tom;,lEdkifcJUavNyD/ þwGif udkodef;azu
]]acsmifacsmifuav;eJU jzwfxm;cJUEdkfifwJU avmufpmeJUawmhcifAsm; [m
[efaeNyDAsKdU? EdkUayr,fh tkef;cGH&JUajcu avmufpmajcavmuf rubl;As?
jrif;qdkwm waumifeJUwaumifuyfvkdufNyD; tBudwfte,fajy;&awmhrS
txdef;&cufwmAs? bmyJajymajym cifAsm; 'DavmufpD;EdkifwmudkyJ uRefawmf
auseyfvSygNyD? okdUaomfvJ tkef;cGHUeJUawmh pdwfrcs&ao;bl;As}}
]]tkef;cGHUajcu b,favmuf&SdovJAsm}}
]]cifAsmh vyfuD;u tckajy;wJUtwdkif; ajy;vQifawmh EdkifEdkifygw,f?
EdkUayr,fh avmufpmudkjzwfxm;cJUovdkawmh rjzwfEdkifaybl;? [dku
uyfvdkufNyDqdkawmh cifAsmhaumifu azmufrSmpdk;&w,f}}

412 
]]usKyfaumifu 'D[m ajcukefr[kwfao;ygbl;}}
]][kwfyghrvm;Asm}}
]]vm vkdufcJU? usKyfjyr,f}}
uREkfyfonf udkodef;azudk awmvrf;odkU ac:oGm;í vrf;c&D;ü uREkfyfu
þ&Gmvrf;wGifajcukefpD;jyvdkufygu tkef;cGHU&SifodoGm;vQif aMu;wGefUoGm;
rnfudk pdk;&drf&aMumif;ajymjy&m udkodef;azvnf; oabmwlavonf/
vrf;ajzmifhaom wae&mokdU a&mufMuaomtcg uREkfyfonf vyfuD;udk
wacgufpD;jyvdkuf&m ZufowfvdkufaomtcgwGif udkodef;azcsOf;uyfí
uREkfyf\vufudk qJGvIyf,if; ]]tom;usawmh cifAsm; usKyfxufomayw,f
Asm}}[k vIdufvSJpGm 0efcHayonf/ (uREkfyftzkdUatmifyGJwckaywnf;/)

vyfuD;ESifhtkef;cGH

udkodef;azjyefoGm;onfhaemuf uREkfyfonf vyfuD;udk xkH;pHtwdkif;


ig;&ufwywf ]pD;vSJU}csNrJwdkif; csaomfvnf; ajcwdk;atmif usifhzkdUrvdk?
ocifESifhjrif; &if;ESD;rIrysufap&kHrQ avmufomavhusifhay;awmh\/ þtawm
twGif; tkef;cGH&Sif xHodkUvnf; pum;qufrjywfap&atmif wdkUíwkdUí
ay;xm;\/ rbdef;bk&m;yJGrSm waygif;vwGif usif;yrnfjzpf&m ,ckrS
wydkUwGJvjzpfí wvrQvdkayao;onf/ wydkUwGJv ukefcgeD;avmufü
urf;eD&GmESifh ajcmufrdkifcefU a0;onfMuufwaumif&GmwGif tvIwck&Sdí
uREkfyftm;zdwfxm;ojzifh jrif;ESifhoGm;&\/ uHtm;avsmfpGm a&TvD&dk;rS
tkef;cGHonf urf;eDodkU acwÅ a&mufvmonfwGif uREkfyf\ausmif;om;wynfh
jzpfaom bapmonf ¤if;jrif;udkiSm;pD;NyD; uREkfyfESifhtwlvdkufvm\/
tvSLwGif udkodef;azESifhvnf; qkHrdMuonf/ xdknaetvSLtNyD;wGif [dk&Gm

413 
onf&GmrS jrif;aumif;rsm;onf &Gmvrf;ay:ü jrif; ]ovm;}Mu&m uREkfyfESifh
udkodef;azwkdUrSm tBuHwck&Sdí 0rf;omaeMu\/ tjcm;jrif;rsm; acgufwkHU
acgufjyef ]ovm;}vsuf&SdpOf wynfhbapmonf tkef;cGHudkpD;vsuf 0ifí
ovm;av&m uREkfyfuvyfuD;ESifh aemufrSvdkufí prf;&mwGifacsmifacsmif
ESifhEdkifEdkifonf[k tuJcwfEdkifavNyD/ bapmum; jrif;pD;orm; r[kwf
onfrSef\/ okdU&mwGifvyfuD;onf tkef;cGHudk aemufuvdkufNyD; a&SUodkU
ausmfwufoGm;Edkifaom ]ajc}&Sdonf[k uRekfyfaumif;aumif;BuD;odcJU&avNyD/
(tvSLodkUtoGm;tjyefc&D;wGif Murf;wrf;vSa omaMumifh ajcrprf;cJUacs/)
udkodef;azESifh uREkfyfwdkUrSm aocsmayguf awGUNyDqdkum MunfEl;vsuf
&SdMuav\/

rdwfaqGokH;a,muf

rbdef;bk&m;yJGrSm waygif;vjynfhavmufwGif usif;yrnfjzpf&m


¤if;vqef;avmufwGif udk0ifharmfESifh udkodef;azwkdUonf urf;eD&GmodkU
jrif;rsm;ESifh a&mufvmMu\/ udkodef;azü ol\jrif;ESpfaumifygvmonfhjyif
udk0ifharmfüvnf; jrif;om;trdESpfaumif ygvm\/ udk0ifharmfonf
xD;csKdifhNrdKUtkyfBuD; (rrav;\cifyGef;) ajymif;a&TUoGm;&mwGif jrif;rom;trdudk
0,f,lxm;vdkufNyD;vQif uREkfyfxHodkUydkUxm;&ef,lvmcJUjcif;jzpfavonf/
ol\jrif;rBuD;rSm tkef;oif[kac:í ]wmywf}yGJrsm;wGif oGif;bl;NyD;
EdkifcJUbl;aom jrif;rBuD;jzpfavonf/ xdknOfhü udk0ifharmfESifh udkodef;azwkdU
onf uREkfyf\ausmif;ü wnf;cdkMuav&m taumuf0efaxmufESifh
taumufpma&;[lonfrSm &mxl;tm;jzifh tqifhtwef;uGmvSrf;aomfvnf;
udk0ifharmf\e*dk0goemt& vufaxmuf trIxrf;rsm;ESifh ta&mw0if

414 
aewwfonfhtjyif uREkfyftm; ESpfa,mufvkH;u cifrifaom oli,fcsif;
wa,muf[lí oabmxm;MuonfESifhtm;vkH; *kPf&nfwlrsm; ozG,f
aysmfaysmfyg;yg; pm;pm;aomufaomuf qufqHMuavonf/ (xdktjyK
trlrsKd;aMumifhvnf; NrdKUtkyfuawmf rrav;u uREkfyfa&SUwGif udk0ifharmftm;
Budrf;armif;bl;jcif;jzpf\/) odkU&mwGif udkodef;azrlum; tuif;yg;aom
vl&nfvnf wa,mufjzpfí ]ta&m0ifvQif t&dkaowefwwfonf}qdkaom
jrefrmpum;ykHtwdkif; tjypfwifavmufp&m trSm;rsKd;ryg&Sdatmif owdxm;
wwfoljzpfavonf/ vlokH;a,muf þwn pum;ajymvdkufMu& onfrSm
okH;ESpfa,mufaygif;oif;qufqHvdkuf&ouJUokdU ydkrdk&if;ESD;jcif; &SdoGm;Mu
avonf/
wcsdefü uREkfyfu vyfuD;ESifha&TvDrS ktef;cGHwkdU wbufESifhwbuf
csdefvsuf&Sdjcif; taMumif;? [dkbufu uREkfyfudk,fwdkifpD;vQif ESpfav;ay;rnf
[k pum;oHypfaeaMumif;? vyfuD;udkuREkfyfavhusifh xm;ojzifh EdkifEdkif;pGm
pD;EdkifNyDjzpfaMumif;ajymjyí udkodef;azuvnf; [kwfrSefaMumif;axmufcH
ajymjyav&m udk0ifharmfvnf; tvGefpdwf0ifpm;í tm;ay;avonf/
udk0ifharmfwa,mufcspfp&maumif;vdkufykHrSm aiGudkEdkifvdkaomaMumifhr[kwf?
ol\oli,fcsif;wa,muf emrnfwvkH; &rnfhtwGuf 0rf;omaomaMumifh
tm;ay;tm;ajrSmufjyKjcif;jzpfavonf/

rcHcsifaomowÅdjyrI

aemufwaeUnaeü uREkfyfwdkUonf jrif;rsm;udk ajcprf;Munfh&ef &Gmhjyif


jrif;vrf;odkU xkwfMu\/ ajcprf;vkdufjcif;rSm udkodef;az\ avmufpmESifh
udk0ifharmf\azmif;0wfrBuD; tkef;oifwdkUjzpfavonf/ udk0ifharmfu ol\

415 
jrif;rBuD;udk udkodef;az\emrnfBuD;aom avmufpmESifh ,SOfM unfhvdkí
udkodef;azuvnf; ol\avmufpmudk wmywfyGJrsm; Edkifbl;onfh tkef;oifESifh
ajcprf;csifvSonf/ avmufpmudk udkodef;azpD;rnfjzpf&m tkef;oifudk
rnfoltm; wif&rnfrod jzpfae\/ &Gmom;rsm;teufrS 'kef;jrif;pD;bl;ol
r&Sd/ uREkfyfrSmvnf; ]tom;us}avmufom pD;bl;oljzpfí a&Smifawmifawmif
vkyfae\/ þwGifudk0ifharmfu ]]b,fhES,fvJAs udkazodef;? cifAsm;u
awmufwufajy;&wJU tom;usavmufom pD;0HUwmvm;? 'kef;ajy;awmh
cifAsm;aMumufovm;}}[k ar;vkduf&m uREkfyfonf vkHcsnfudkcRwfí
vdkvdkr,fr,f cH0wfcJUaom abmif;bDwdkudk jyifygawmhonf/ ,cifuwBudrf
qifOD;uif;ay:ü vufvTwfpD;zdkUajympOfu azmfjycJUbl;onfhtwdkif; uREkfyf
onf tjcm;rnfolajrSmufay;írQ vkyfrnfr[kwfaomfvnf; udk0ifharmf
wa,muftay:üum; owdÅdESifhywfoufí a<u;a[mif;qyfzkdU&Sd\/ þtxJ
wGif udkodef;az&SdaeaomaMumifhvnf; omí owÅdjycsifao;\/ okdUjzpfí
uREkfyfonfjrif;rBuD;ay:okdU vTm;wufí jrif;vrf;ay:wGif udkodef;azESifhtwl
]wmpl}ygavawmhonf/

avmufpmESifhtkef;oif

jrif;pD;orm;wkdUrnfonfrSm ]jrif;pdrf;}udkcsufcsif;wcgwnf; pD;&dk;xkH;pH


r&Sd/ pD;&rnfhjrif;taMumif;udk od&atmif tenf;qkH;wacguf wavjzpfap
armif;Munfh&pNrJjzpf\/ uREkfyfum; tkef;oiftaMumif;udk bmrQrod?
csufcsif;wufNyD; wmplrdvdkufavNyD/ uREkfyfonf rnfonfh jrif;ay:üjzpfap
]zifNidrf}aomaMumifh vdrfhusrnfudkum; raMumuf? rawmfwq ],l}ajy;rnf
udkompdk;&drfrdonf/ odkUaomfjrif;rBuD;rSm touftwef&ifhNyDjzpfí xdkavmuf

416 
r]jrL;}wef&m[k tuJcwf&onf/ jrif;vrf;ay:ü[dkbuf onfbuf,SOfum
udkodef;azESifhuREkfyfwdkU &yfvsuf&SdpOf wa,mufa,mufu a&SUrS vufudkif
y0gjyvdkufojzifh uREkfyfonf vTwfvdkuf\/ udkodef;azrlum; avmufpmudk
&kwfw&ufrvTwfyJ uREkfyfuvSnfhM unfhvdkufumrS vdkufvm\/ uREkfyfrSm
avhusifhNyD;aom 'kef;jrif;udk wcgrQrpD;bl;aomaMumifh yxrü tvdkuf
cufrnf xifrdaomfvnf; xdkuJUokdUr[kwfyJ ykcufvTJouJUodkU ndwfueJ
ndwfueJ&Sd atmiftvGefnifompGm ajy;wwfaom jrif;rBuD;jzpfonfESifh
ZdrfESifhvkdufum udkodef;azudk vSnfhMunfhvdkuf\/ udkodef;azrlum;
avmufpm\ausmay:wGif ukef;vsuf atmfívdkufvm\/ avmufpmonf
wcPxufwcP eD;íeD;íuyfvm\/ odkU&mwGif yef;wdkifrSm ayw&mcefU
avmufom uGmavawmh&um; avmufpm\OD;acgif;onf tkef;oif\tNrD;
em;odkUra&mufrD uREkfyfyef;0ifoGm;avNyD/
jrif;rBuD; ]Zufao}vdkufykHrSm yef;wdkifudkvGefí Zufowfawmhrnf[k
uREkfyfupdwful;vdkuf&kH&Sdao;? jrif;rBuD;onf ajcav;bufvkH;udk a&SUokdU
ypfum awmifhxm;vkdufojzifh a&SmueJjzpfícsufcsif;vkdyif &yfoGm;av&m
taMumif;udkrdoí [efjyifrxm;ESifhrdaom uREkfyfrSm uHaumif;í
jrif;vnfyif;ay:rS *Rrf;jyefNyD; a&SUodkUxdk;rusyJ &Sdygawmhonf/ ESpfaumifvkH;
ZufowfNyD;í jyefvSnfhvmMuaomtcg-
]]bmhaMumifh csefae&pfwmvJAs udkodef;az? y0gjzLjywm rjrifvdkUvm;}}
]]jrifygw,fAsm? usKyftwGufrSm;vdkUyg}}
]]b,fvdkrSm;wmvJAs}}
]]usKyfu jrif;rBuD;[m tusihfvJr&Sdbl;? tdkvJtdkNyDqdkNyD; txifao;
rdw,f? 'gaMumifhMunfhvdkUaumif;atmifcifAsm;udk a&SUuvTwfNyD; usKyfu

417 
rSDatmifvdkufjyzdkU pdwful;wmyJ? ckawmh tkef;oifu tawmfajy;Edkifao;
wmudk;As? vdkufvdkUudk rrSDawmhbl;}}
wmplaomae&modkU jyefa&mufMuí udk0ifharmfESifh awGUMuaomtcg
udkodef;azu ol\trSm;udk&Sif;jy&mwGif udk0ifharmfu-
]]cifAsm;*GuswJUvlyJAsm? usKyfuajcukefatmifMunfhcsifwm rMunfh
vdkuf&bl;? 'DvdkqdkwacgufxyfpD;jytkH;Asm}}
]]avmufpmuawmh ajy;Edkifygao;w,f? EdkUayr,fh tkef;oifu
BuD;&SmygNyD 0efaxmufrif;}}
]]'DvdkqdkvyfuD;eJUpD;Muprf;Asm}}
þwGif uREkfyfuuefUuGufaomtcg udk0ifharmfu-
]]bmjzpfovJAs? wcgwav 'kef;pD;wmeJUawmh ysufpD;roGm;Edkif
ygbl;Asm}}
]]b,fhES,fvJ udkodfef;az}}
]][dkudpöuvJ &Sdao;w,f 0efaxmufrif;}}[k ulíajymaomfvnf;
]]atmifr,fbmjzpfwwfovJAs? &ufta0;BuD;vdkao;wmyJ}}
uREkfyfonf udk0ifharmftaMumif;udk odNyD;jzpfí pdwfqdk;rcHcsifonfESifh
ausmif;om;wa,muftm; vyfuD;udk,lcJUap\/ a&mufvmaomtcg
tkef;oifü wyfqifxm;onfh om;a&ukef;ESD;udkjzKwfívyfuD;odkU ajymif;qif
ay;\/ tkef;oif\om;a&ukef;ESD;rSm Zufa&mukef;yg topfjzpfavonf/

418 
aoavmufaomjrif;yGJ

þwcsDwGif uREkfyfu vyfuD;udkpD;í udkodef;azu ol\avmufpmESifh


wmplMujyefavonf/ uREkfyfonf tkef;oifudkpD;&pOfu rprf;bl;aom
]jrif;pdrf;}vnf;jzpfonf? yxrOD;qkH; 'kef;pD;&jcif;vnf; jzpfonfqdkum
awmfawmfwkefvIyfrdygonf/ udk0ifharmfudk rcHcsifíom pD;&onf/
aiG50davmuf&zdkUtwGufrQqdkvQif pD;rdvdrfhrnfrxifyg/ vyfuD;udkpD;zkdUrlum;
'kwd,'kef;yGJjzpfvmonfhjyif udk,fhjrif;udkudk,fpD;&jcif; jzpfonfqdkum
(ajcysufoGm;rnfpdk;jcif;rSwyg;) pdk;&drfwkefvIyfjcif; tvQif;r&SdcJUacs/
þum;uREkfyf\ trSm;wckaywnf;/
vufudkify0gjyvdkufonfESifh wNydKifeuf udkodef;azonf 'kef;roif&
bl;onfh vyfuD;tm;vnf; toufBuD;aom tkef;oifenf;wlyif txifrBuD;
apumrl ol\avmufpmrSm wacgufajy;NyD;NyDjzpfí aemufcsefrae&pfawmhyJ
vyfuD;ESifh twlwlyif vTwfav\/ odkUaomf pdwfxJurl cyfayghaygh
oabmxm;onfqdk\/ vyfuD;onfyxrü ]'kef;}ajy;&rnf rxifaomaMumifh
ajctef;wef;wef;jzpfaeao;\/ okdU&mwGif a&SUodkUwufajy;aom avmufpm
udkjrifí uREkfyfuvnf; ZufudkwGef;ay;vdkuf &mwGif olajy;csifwdkif;
ajy;cGifh&ojzifh pdwfwkdif;usawGU&onfhvu©PmESifh tm;ukefnSpfxkwfNyD;
ajy;avawmhonf/ udkodef;azonf cyfat;at;vkyfae&mrS avmufpmudk
rSDvmaom vyfuD;udkjrif&í tHUtm;oifhNyD; ESifípD;av\/ xdktcg
jrif;ESpfpD;wdkUonf &ifabmifwef;ajy; vsuf&Sd&m 'kef;ajy;aeusjzpfaom
avmufpmonf vyfuD;xuf tvsm;wkdaomfvnf; wckefwckefwGif vyfuD;
xuf tvSrf;us,f\/ vyfuD;rSmrl 'kef;oifxm;jcif; r&SdaomaMumifh
um;aeatmif rckefwwfaomfvnf; tvGefajcoGufatmifajy;&Sm\/ okdUjzpfí

419 
avmufpmu okH;ckefrQESifha&mufaom c&D;wmudk vyfuD;u av;ckefckefum
rSDatmifvdkuf&\/
þwGif waumifum;ajcusJusJ waumifum; ajcoGufoGufjzifh
udk,fhenf;ESifhudk,fwwfovdk ajy;vsuf&SdMu&m OD;acgif;csif; nDvsuf&Sdí
y&dowftzdkU tvGefMunfhíaumif;Muonfqdk\/ xdktcsdefwGifw&GmvkH;yif
jrif;vrf;odkU xGufíMunfhaeMuavNyD/ 'kef;ajy;wwfaom avmufpmESifh
'kef;roifbl;onfhvyfuD;wkdU xdkuJUodkU ]ajcNrdKif}vsuf&SdMujcif;rSm vyfuD;
onf vwfvwfqwfqwfjzpfí avmufpmrlum; tkef;oifESifh wyGJajy;xm;&kH
omru (udkodef;azuwrifayghawmhawmh pD;rIaMumifh) tm;oGefNyD;rSDatmif
vdkuf&Sm&ojzifh ]zm;}vSaomaMumifh jzpfayvdrfhrnf/ avmufpm\
ausmay:rSvdkufaom udkodef;azurl þtaMumif;udkodaomfvnf; 'kef;jrif;
tjzpfESifh emrnfBuD;vsuf&Sdaom ol\avmufpmudk ]ajc&dkif;} oufouf
jzpfaom vyfuD;u &ifabmifwef;vdkufvsuf&Sdjcif;aMumifh yGJMunfhy&dowf
tay:ü &SufonfESifh avmufpmudk ajcukefatmifESifí pD;av\/ ESifykHum;
avmufpm\vnfyif;ay:rS a&SUokdUukef;um jrif;\ em;&GufteD;odkUuyfvsuf
toHukefaigufatmfvdkufav\/ þwGiftpGrf;ukef ajy;vsuf&Sdaom
avmufpmonf olUocif\toHudkvefUonfESifh eif;uvef ajy;vkduf&um;
vyfuD;\a&SUodkUvnfwudkif;rQ wufoGm;av\/ xdktcg uREkfyfonfvnf;
olUenf;udk,lí vyfuD;\ vnfyif;ay:rSaU&SUodkUudkif;nGwf umem;&GufodkU
yg;pyfESifhuyfvsuf ]]Budwfvdkufprf;uG ighom;BuD;vyfuD;}}[k oHukef[pfí
atmfvkdufav\/ vyfuD;onf wudkf,fvkH;wkefoGm;onf[k uREkfyfxifvdkuf
rdonf/ aemufwcPü ol\udk,fwGif&SdorQaomcGeftm;udk wa&G;om;
rusefatmif nSpfxkwfum ckefíxkd;vdkuf&m okH;ckefavmuftwGif;wGif
avmufpmESifh OD;acgif;csif; nDvsuf&SDjyefavawmh\/ þwGif udkodef;az

420 
uvnf;atmf? uREkfyfuvnf; ]]vyfuD;uG? om;BuD;uG}} ponfjzifh
tqufrjywf r&yfrem; ukef;íukef;í atmfav&m vyfuD;\ajcaxmuf
rsm;rSm (ydkíus,fpGm rvSrf;wwf&Smaomf vnf;) ajcEIwfoGufvdkufykHrSm
ajrBuD;ay:ü csíem;awmhonfyif rxif&awmhyJ w0Jwnf; 0Jaeonfhjyif
cGmoHrsm;rSmvnf; tyfcsKyfpufuJUodkU tMum;rvyfoavmuf w&pyfjrnf
vsuf&Sdav\/
avmufpmonfolUocifudkodef;azudk aMumuf&Smjcif;um; [kwfygvdrhf
rnf/ odkU&mwGiftxl;wvnf avhusifhxm;onfh vyfuD;u uREkfyfudk
aMumuf&SmvdkufykHESifh rEIdif;,SOfEdkifacs/ ajy;vdkufykHrSmwu,fyif 0Dac:vsuf
&Sd\/ vyfuD;\tajy;onf ,cifpD;cJUonfh tkef;oif\tajy;xuf jrefvS
onfum;rxif/ odkU&mwGif tm;pdkufvdkufykHrSmum; xif&Sm;pGmodEdkif\/
uREkfyfonfvyfuD;\ausmay:ü ukef;vsufvdkufygvmpOf ol\
tm;pdkuf vGefjcif;udkod&í [wfxkd;vJoGm;acsrnf avm[líyif pdk;&drfrd\/
aiGavmif;wef;oufouf NydKifjcif;jzpfcJUvQif xdktcsdefwGifuREkfyfonf
vyfuD;udkrESifyJ xm;vdkufawmhrnfjzpf\/ ,ckrSm (aiGxufta&;BuD;onf)
rdwfaqGcsif; NydKifqdkifrIjzpfav&um; (What Vanity;) ]]Budwfvkdufprf;
om;BuD;a&U? vyfuD;uGaemf? Budwfvdkufprf;uG}}[k nmoHay;ívdkufav\/
uREkfyf\yg;pyfrS jznf;nSif;aom toHrsKd;udkom Mum;aeusjzpfaom
vyfuD;rSm ol\em;odkUuyfí uREkfyf\atmfoHudk Mum;&jcif;aMumifh vefUNyD;
&l;oGm;avoavm[k aemifwGif uREkfyfpOf;pm;rd\/
avmufpmvnf; ajcvSrf;usJBuD;ESifh vkduf&Smyg\/ odkU&mwGif ajrBuD;ü
ajcrcs0HUouJUodkU aoG;&l;aoG;wef;ajy;vsuf&Sdaom vyfuD;udkrl rrSDEdkif&Sm
awmhyJ udk,fwydkif;avmufjywfNyD; yef;0ifoGm;Muavonf/ yef;wdkifodkU
a&mufMuaomtcg avmufpmrlum; jAwfqdk&yfae&pfcJUavNyD/

421 
uREkfyfonf ukef;vsufvdkufcJU&mrS rwfrwfxdkifvdkufí vyfuD;udk
Zufowfvdkufaomtcg OD;acgif;vIyfoGm;&kHrSwyg; tenf;i,frQ t&Sdef
ravQmhyJ ajy;NrJwdkif; ajy;vsuf&Sd\/ jrif;vrf;qkH;NyD;onfhaemuf vrf;onf
jrpfbufodkU csKd;auGUoGm;av&m vyfuD;onf ¤if;vrf;twdkif; pGyfí
ajy;vsuf&Sd\/ cufacsNyD/ uREkfyfum; wu,faMumufvmcJUavNyD/ þwGif
uREkfyfonf eif;uGif;udk ajcuefvsufZufudk tm;ukefqGJvkduf\/ OD;acgif;om
tenf;i,fvIyfoGm;í t&Sdefum; vkH;0ravQmhacs/
rnfodkUjyK&rnfenf;/ a&SUodkUarQmfMunfhvdkufaomf vrf;onf
jrpfurf;yg;odkU wnfhwnfhBuD; OD;wdkufoGm;í xdkrSwzef vuf,mbufodkU
csKd;NyD;vQif urf;yg;udkarQmum azmufvkyfxm;jcif;udk jrif&\/ ¤if;vrf;ay:ü
opfwdkufaomuRJvSnf;rsm; armif;ESifvmwwfjcif;udkvnf; owd&í
uRJvSnf;ESifh0ifwdkufNyD; uRJOD;csKday:wGif uREkfyftlaygufNyD; wef;vef;BuD;jzpf
aernfudkvnf; jrifrd\/ þwGifuREkfyftBuHwck&vmonf/ jrpfurf;yg;onf
xdkae&mü a&pm;xm;onfjzpfí ay70cefU rwfapmufvsuf&Sd&m jrif;onf
urf;yg;okdUa&mufcgeD;wGif vuf,mbufodkU vrf;twdkif; csKdUauGUajy;&ef
[efjyifjcif;udk uREkfyfodvdkufonfESifhwNydKufeuf vuf0JbufZufBudK;udk
qJGum ol\OD;acgif;udk jrpfurf;yg;ESifhwnfhwnfhBuD; wkdufay;xm;vdkuf\/
uREkfyf\tBuHum; &yfvQif&yf? r&yfvQif jrpfxJodkU vla&mjrif;yg xdk;usap[l
onfyifjzpfonf/

]erdwf}xifvmjcif;ayavm

(þae&mü uREkfyf\rsufpdxJü zswfueJay:vmonfhudk,fawGU


tjcif;t&mwckudk azmfjy&ygOD;rnf/ uREkfyfi,fpOfu rdcifESifhtwl rwÅ&modkU

422 
avSESifhoGm;Muí &Gmw&Gm teD;odkUa&mufaomtcg vlwa,mufonf
a&Twacsmif; ajrmif;abmifwGif jrif;pdkif;vsuf &Sdonfudkjrif&\/ jrif;onf
tom;usajy;&mrS ],l}oGm;í 'kef;ajy;NyD;vQif wHwm;wckodkU a&mufonfwGif
acsmif;udk ¤if;wHwm;rSjzwful;ajy;\/ wHwm;tv,fodkU a&mufaomtcg
wGif jrif;onfrnfodkUrQ 0rfeifray;yJ cg;avmufjrifhaom wHwm;
vuf,rf;udk ckefausmfum acsmif;xJodkU ckefcsvdkufojzifh jrif;a&mvlyg
xdk;usoGm;jcif;udk jrif&bl;avonf/ tawmfrdkufaomjrif;aywum;/
wHwm;atmufü tjcm;avSvnf;r&Sd? uREkfyfwkdU\avSrSmvnf; tawmf
uGma0;í awmfygao;\/ jrif;a&mvlyg bmrSrjzpf wuGJpDjzpfíukef;ay:odkU
wufoGm;Muonf/

]oHacsmif;wkdUzat}

vyfuD;onf jrpfurf;yg;ESifhjrif; ESpfjyefavmuf tuGmwGif uREkfyfu


wnfhwnfhBuD; OD;wnfay;vkdufaomtcgwGif uREkfyf\pdwfxJü &yfrvm;?
ckefcsrvm; [laomar;cGef;onf ay:vsuf&Sd\/ vyfuD;onf txufyg
jrif;uJUodkU rdkufonfr[kwfacs/ vuf,mbufodkU csKd;ajy;zkdU tcGifhr&
rSef;udkodonfESifhwNydKif euf jrpfurf;yg;apmufrS xdk;usrnfh tEÅ&m,fudk
tvGefaMumuf&Smonfh vu©PmESifh wudk,fvkH;qwfueJ wkefoGm;í
jrif;rBuD; tkef;oifvkyfonfhtwdkif; ajcav;acsmif;udk a&SUodkUypfum
ajrBuD;udktaotvJ uefxm;NyD; atmufodkU zifxdkifcsvdkufav\/
aemufwcPü uREkfyf\ajcaxmufrsm;onf ajrBuD;ESifh xdvsuf&Sdonfjzpfí
uREkfyfonf eif;uGif;rS ajcaxmufrsm;udk xkwfum jrif;ay:rS
qif;NyD;jzpfaeawmh\/

423 
tajctaeudk uREkfyfMunfhvdkfufaomtcg jrpfurf;yg;apmufBuD;
xdyfwGif uREkfyfonfvyfuD;\ZufBudK;udkudkifum jrpfbufodkUrsufESmrlvsuf
&yfaeavawmh onf/ vyfuD;um; wudk,fvkH;wqwfqwfwkefvsuf&Sd&m
uREkfyfrlum; txl;ojzifh &ifxJu wkefvSonf/ xdkcPü udkodef;azonf
avmufpmESifh a&mufvmav&m uREkfyfwkdU\tajctaeudk jrifojzifh
jrif;ay:rSqif;í uREkfyf\vufudk vIyf,rf;av onf/ (udkodef;azrSm
c&pf,ef wa,mufjzpfí ol\trlt&mrsm;rSm wcgw&H AdkvfqefvSonf/)
]]uHaumif;vdkUygvm;Asm? cifAsm;...}}
]]rajymeJUawmh q&ma&? ckawmif &ifckefwkef; &Sdao;w,fAsKdU? 'gxuf
udkodef;az [dk'if;ygao;vm;AsKdU}}
]]b&ef'Dvm;? ygygw,f? usKyfvJ owd&ygw,f}}
(þrQavmuf tuif;yg;aom rdwfaqGwOD;udk uREkfyfonf tb,frSm
rcifrifyJ aeEdkifygrnfenf;/)

þum; udk0ifharmfwnf;

uREkfyfonf wkefvsufyif&Sd&Smao;onfhvyfuD;tm; yGwfoyfacsmharmh


umjzifh jznf;nSif;pGmpum;ajymNyD;rS wufpD;í udk0ifharmfxHodkU wjznf;jznf;
vmcJUMuav \/ tdrfodkUa&mufvQif a&mufcsif;tvkdufodaom udkodef;az
onf b&ef'DwcGufudkiJUí a&ra&myJ uREkfyftm;ay;ojzifh armfhcsvdkufNyD;rS
uREkfyf ajzmifhwef;pGm pum;ajymEdkifygawmhonf/
wu,fowÅdaumif;aom vlrsm;onf þodkUaom tawGUtBuKHrsm;
wGif b,fuJUodkU &SdMurnfrqdkEdkif? wu,fhowÅdr[kwfyJ pGefUNyD;&J&aom
uREkfyftzdkUrSm tjzpftysufudk jyefawG;rdwdkif; tlwkefonf;wkef &SdvSyg

424 
awmhonf/ okdUaomfvkyfrd wmrSm;avjcif;[k udk,fhudk,fudktjypfwifaom
0goemr&Sd/ raoraysmuf (tenf;qkH;rusKd;ryJU) vGwfajrmuf vmcJU&NyD
jzpfaomaMumifh BuKHawGUcJU&orQonf ]tjrwf}[lí oabmydkufrdygonf/
uREkfyfutptqkH; tao;pdwfjyefajymí jrpfurf;yg;apmufteD;ü uREkfyf\
ab;tEÅ&m,f taMumif;udkMum;&onfwGif udk0ifharmfonf wqdwfuav;rQ
omrsufESmxm; ajymif;oGm;vdkufNyD;aemuf ][m; [m; [m; [m;}ESifh
0rf;omvSonfhES,f &,farmav\/ udkodef;azESifh uREkfyfwdkUrlum; wa,muf
\rsufESmudk wa,mufMunfhum ]þum;udk0ifharmfay wnf;}[k pdwfxJu
rSwfcsufcsrdMuav\/ xdkUaemuf udkodef;azESifh uREkfyfrSm avmufpmESifh
vyfuD;udk pD;Muonfhjrif;yGJtaMumif;udk tjyeftvSefajymí pum;rukef
Edkifatmif &Sdygawmhonf/ udkodef;azuolpD;bl;cJUorQaom 'kef;yGJrsm;
teufwGif pdwft0ifpm;qkH; jzpfaMumif; tm;&yg;& 0efcHav&m uREkfyftzdkU
rlum; ajymzG,f&m r&Sdawmhacs/ xdkcPüjrif;rsm;udk ukef;jzKwfNyD;Muaom
wynfhrsm;onf vyfuD;wGif wyfxm;onfh (udk0ifharmf\) om;a&ZufBudK;
opfudk,lvmí uREkfyfwdkUtm;jyav\/ oa&ZufBudK;opfrSm jrif;\yg;pyf
teD;&Sd ESpfae&mwGif tjcm;ae&mrsm;rSmuJUokdU r[kwfawmhyJ t&G,fw0uf
cefUwdkifatmif ao;odrfvsuf&Sd jcif;udk awGUMu&av\/ udkodef;azu-
]]atmifr,fav; vl[JU? qJGvJ qGJEdkifygayhAsm? cifAsm;udkusKyfu
Avawmh rNydKif0HUbl;AsKdU}}? om;a&ZufBudK; topfBuD;udk odrf0ifoGm;
wmygyJvm;? 'gavmuf qGJwmawmif r&yfbl;qdkawmhcifAsmhaumifu
ZufudkoGm;eJUudkufNyD; ],l}ajy;awmh wmudk;As? cifAsm;uHaumif;vdkUAsKdU?
jrpfurf;yg;eJUrawGUvQif b,fxdatmif ,lajy;NyD; cifAsm;bmeJU wdkufusr,f
rodbl;}}[k ajymav\/

425 
uREkfyfjyefíawG;vdkufaomtcg jrif;vrf;qkH;NyD; vSnf;vrf;ay:odkU
ta&mufwGif aMumuftm;vefUtm;ESifh eif;uGif;udk ajcuefNyD; (eif;uef)
qGJvdkufpOfu jzpf&ayrnf/ uHaumif;íomrao&aomfvnf; udk0ifharmfESifh
udkodef;azwkdUu uREkfyf\um,Av (vufarmif;tm;)udk csD;usL;Mujcif;onf
*kPf,lp&m wck[k oabmxm;cJUrdygao;onf/

vyfuD;ysufavNyD

xdknOfhü uREkfyfodkUokH;a,mufonf naeydkif;u jrif;pD;jcif;


taMumif;udk qufvufíajymMupOf udkodef;azonf vyfuD;\ajcpGrf;udk
csD;rGrf;,if; ]]aeprf;ygOD;As? cifAsm;u olUem;em;uyfNyD; ukef;atmfwm
b,fu&wJU enf;vJAs}}
]]cifAsm;vkyfwmjrifvdkU usKyfvdkufvkyfwmyJ? vyfuD;u usKyfudk
odyfem;axmifw,fAs? usKyfuwrif avhusifhxm;wm}}
¤if;aemuf uREkfyfonf vyfuD;tm; wdwfwqdwfavhusifhxm;ykH
taMumif;udk olwkdUESpfa,muftm; tao;pdwfzGifh[ajymjy&mwGif udkodef;az
u-
]]armifrif;BuD;om;u 'ghaMumifh olUjrif;udk 'gavmufEdkifaewmudk;As?
usKyfujrif;pD;aumif;vSacsuvm;vdkU atmufarhaewm? vufpowfawmh
pdwfynmeJU Budwfoifxm;wmudk;}}
]]oifxm;wmawmif ,lajy;wmudkawmh rwwfEdkifbl; q&ma&U}}
]]aMomf-[kwfw,f 'Dvdkqdk usKyfwck pdk;&drfw,fAsKdU}}
]]b,fvdk pdk;&drfwmvJAs}}
]]cifAsm;jrif; ysufoGm;NyDxifw,f}}

426 
]]usKyfvJ pdk;&drfwmyJ? acsmhoifxm;&mu acsmufNyD; pD;vdkufvdkUvefUNyD;
ajy;csifwdkif;ajy;vdkuf&w,f qdkuwnf;u usKyfMoZmawmh ysufoGm;NyD
xifw,f}}
]]jzpfEdkifw,fAs? 'Dvdkqdk tkef;cGHUeJUpD;zdkU cyfMuyfMuyfyJAsKdU}}
þwGif udk0ifharmfrSm olcdkif;ípD;&jcif;jzpfonfESifh olUwm0efruif;[k
qdkum vyfuD;udk prf;Munfhcsifjyefonf/ odkUjzpfí ¤if;wkdUESpfa,mufonf
eufjzefwGif urf;eDrS xGufM uzdkU jzpfaomfvnf; w&ufydkíaeNyD; vyfuD;udk
prf;MunfhzdkU qkH;jzwfMuav\/
aemufwaeU naeü uREkfyfwdkUonf vyfuD;ESifh jrif;rBuD;
tkef;oifwkdUudk &Gmhjyifjrif;vrf;odkUxkwfí tom;usprf;MunfhMu\/ tkef;oif
rSm tom;usvnf; aumif;aumif;ajy;wwfí wmywfwGif 'kef;yGJoGif;onf
wGifrS tom;usudk jzwfxm;vdkufjcif;jzpfonf/ udkodef;azu
tkef;oifudkpD;í uREkfyfu vyfuD;ESifh jrif;vrf;wGif wmplMunfhMu&m
cyfjznf;jznf; (vrf;'dk;) prf;Munfh&müyif vyfuD;onf uREkfyf\pum;udk
em;raxmifawmhaMumif; od&avNyD/ udk0ifharmfu wdkufwGef;í
]zGifh}pD;vdkuf&mwGif vyfuD;onf jrif;rBuD; csOf;uyfjcif;udkyif rcHcsifawmhyJ
w]ql}wnf; qlvsuf&Sd\/ ]]jznf;jznf;uG,fh ighom;&JU? vluav;
vyfuD;}}ponfjzifh uREkfyf\acsmharmhpum;rsm;onf tcsnf;ESD;yif
&Sdawmhonf/ xdkUaemufudkodef;az wufpD;&m xl;rjcm;em;yifjzpfae\/
uREkfyfxufvnf; raumif;? uREkfyfxufvnf;rnHUacs/ vaygif;twefMum
atmif tyifyef;cHí vyfuD;tay:ü xlaxmifcJUonfhMoZm tmPmwkdUonf
wcgwnf; usqkH;oGm;cJUav NyD/ uREkfyfpdwfrcsrf;omvdkufykHrSm [efraqmif
EdkifyJ rsufESmnId;i,fvsuf&Sdawmh\/ udk0ifharmfonf xdktjcif;t&mudk jrifí
tm;emykH&onf/ tkef;oif\tom;us ajconf usJusJBuD;&Sdí avmufpm\

427 
ajcxuf omrnfudkcefUrSef;EdkfifMu\/ vyfuD;udk uREkfyfEdkifeif;atmif
pD;EdkifpOfu tkef;oifESifh tom;us ajccsif; prf;rMunfhvkduf& jcif;twGuf
0rf;enf;pGmESifhyif jrif;rsm;udk odrf;vdkufMu&av\/

udk0ifharmf0rf;enf;jcif;

xdknOfhü udk0ifharmfu rbdef;bk&m;yJG &ufowÅwywfausmfvdkao;í


tcsdef&SdaomaMumifh vyfuD;ESifh tkef;cGHwkdUpD;zdkU udpöudk pum;rjzwf
vdkufao;zkdU taMumif;? oluyif aiG50d&IH;csif&IH; pdkufxkwfí avmif;rnf
jzpfaMumif; ajymygonf/ xdktcg uREkfyfu þjrif;ESpfaumifNydKifyJGü
avmif;aMu;onf y"mer[kwf? jrif;\*kPfESifh jrif;&Sif\*kPfom y"me
jzpfaMumif;? avmif;aMu; qwlESifh pD;Muaom jrif;yGJjzpfcJUvQif &IH;onfjzpfap?
Ekdifonfjzpfap ta&;rBuD;vSaMumif;? ,ckrSm [dkbufu avmif;aMu;ESpfav;
ay;NyD; pD;MurnfhyJGjzpfaomaMumifh þbufrS Edkifvdkuf&vQif tvGefw&m
vla&;omoGm;oavmuf þbufrS &IH;vdkuf&vQif ]]'Dausmif;q&mu
bmem;rvnf nmem;rvnfeJU olwyg; ESyfcswdkif;cH&wJU vlwa,mufyJ?
'Djrif;eJU'Djrif;udkESpfav;rubl; q,fav;awmif ay;0HUao;&JU? olUjrif;rSol
EdkifEdkifeif;eif;rpD;wwfyJeJU NydKifyGJxJ0ifcsifygayhAsm? tHUMoyg&JU? bm&JU
nm&JU}}ESifh &IHUrJUuJU&JUMurnfhtaMumif; ajymjyav\/ udk0ifharmfonf
ol\0goem twkdif; ZGwfvkyfcsifao;aomfvnf; udkodef;azu0ifí
]]udkazodef;ajymwmrSefw,f 0efaxmufrif;}}[k axmufcHawmhrS vufavQmh
vdkufavonf/ odkUESifhvyfuD;tm;tyef;cHNyD; arQmfvifhcsufBuD; wcGJom;ESifh
avhusifhay;cJU&jcif;rsm;rSm eD;uyfumrS ]cJavorQoJa&us} jzpf&ygawmh
onf/ bk&m;yJGeD;í [dkwbufu toHypfaom pum;rsm;udk uREkfyfem;rMum;

428 
csifjyKí aevdkuf&ygawmhonf/ (uRekfyf\woufwmü pHa'0DESifh vGJ&jcif;?
ol&d,wdkufrS txkwfcH&jcif;ESifh vyfuD;\ udpöwdkUrSm tcH&cuf&mü
ydefrom vdefrom &Sdygawmh onf/)

udk0ifhfarmfESifhcJG&jcif;

vyfuD;udkwzefavhusifh&ef rjzpfEdkifaMumif; awGU&aomtcg uREkfyfrSm


urf;eD&GmwGif ausmif;q&mvkyf&jcif;udk NiD;aiGUpjyKvmcJUavNyD/ þtawm
twGif; udk0ifharmfrSmvnf; jrawmifrS awmifwGif;BuD;odkUajymif;a&TU&ef
trdefUa&mufvmcJUavNyD/ oGm;cgeD;ü udk0ifharmfonf uREkfyfxHodkU
EIwfquf&efvmí rnfonfhenf;ESifh rqdk þ&Gmü okH;ESpfaphatmifaezdkU
wdkufwGef;av&m uREkfyfuvnf; oabmwlvkduf ygonf/ xdktcsdefü
uREkfyfuurf;eD&GmokdUa&mufonfrSm ESpfESpfjynfhcJUavNyD/ a&S;a[mif;aESmif;jzpf
rsm;taMumif;udk ajymvsuf&SdMupOf udk0ifharmfonf rpdk;tm; ajcovkH;udk
vSefjyí 7 wef;ü&SdMupOfuREkfyfucJwHESifhxkd;bl;onfh trm&Gwfwckjzpf
onf[k ajymjyav\/ uREkfyfonfxdktaMumif;udkvkH;0arhaeojzifh olajym
awmhrS owd&vmygonf/ jzpfysufykHrSm waeUoü uRekfyfonf
*syefydk;tusFDtopfuav;ESifh ausmif;wufí twef;xJü olUa&SUrS
xkdif&onfwGif uREkfyf\tusDFvnfukyfay:odkU rifpufuav;rsm;cs\/ uREkfyf
onf udk0ifharmfwkdU\ tzGJUawmifhjcif;udk rodao;onfh ausmif;om;opfjzpfí
olUudkraMumufao;yJ aemufodkU zswfueJvSnfhum ol\ajcovkH;udk cJwHESifh
pGyfueJxkd;vdkufrdonf/ þtwGufaMumifh udk0ifharmfwkdUom;csif; av;a,muf
wkdUonf uREkfyfudk 0dkif;í ESdrfMuav&m waumif<uufjzpfaom uREkfyfrSm
wavQmufvkH; tnHUcHcJU&avonf/ rpdk;a&SUwGif udk0ifharmfutrm&Gwf&ykHudk

429 
ajymjyaomfvnf; uRekfyfurl Zmwfa[mif;udk rvSefawmhyg/ qifOD;uif;xuf
üvnf;aumif;? 'kef;jrif;pD;jcif;ü vnf;aumif; udk0ifharmftm; uREkfyfowÅdjycJU
jcif;rsm;rSm xdktaMumif;rsm;aMumifh jzpfygonf/ cGJcgeD;ü 0rf;enf;jcif;udk
jycJvSí tjcm;vlrsm;\'ku©wGif w[m;[m; &,farmwwfaom udk0ifharmf
onf nId;i,faomrsufESmxm; azmfjyjcif;udk þwBudrf jrifvdkuf&bl;yg
onf/

cPcPawGUMujcif;

uREkfyfonf tvkyfwckü NiD;aiGUvmonfqdkvQif ¤if;tvkyfudk


pGefUvTwfcsifaom qE´onf waeUwjcm; jyif;xefvmwwfonfh 0goem&S\
d /
udk0ifharmfajymif;a&TUoGm;aomtcg udkodef;azonf uREkfyf\pdwfudk&dyfrdí
(q,frdkifcefUa0;onfh) ol\tif;&GmokdU rMumcP aysmfyGJpm;zdwfonfESifh
uREkfyfvnf; jrif;ESifh aeUcsif;jyefoGm;avh&Sd\/ opfukefonfrsm;onf
taumufpma&;BuD;jzpfaom udkodef;aztm; w&kwf[dkw,f (acgufqGJzdk)wGif
cPcP 0wfjyKavh&SdMu&m uREkfyftm; naeapmif;rS zdwfac:aomfvnf;
jrif;aumif;&Sdoljzpfí aeUcsif;jyefoGm;jzpfatmif oGm;vdkufao;\/ uREkfyf\
0goemwckrSm &if;ESD;aom rdwfaqGjzpfvmolwa,muftm; pmzwfcsifatmif
zsm;a,mif;jcif;wkdufwGef;jcif;jyKvkyfavh&Sd\/
udkodef;azrSm (c&pf,efwa,mufjzpfonfhtavsmuf) t*Fvdyf0w¦K
uav;rsm; tenf;i,fzwfavh&Sd&m uREkfyfESifh qkHrdwkdif; pmtkyfrsm;rsm;
zwfatmif wkdufwGef;jcif; aMumifh pmzwf0goemwkd;wufvsuf&SdavNyD/
tif;&Gm&Sd w&kwf[dkw,fxJü aysmfyGJpm;Muonfhtcgwkdif; udkodef;azESifh ol\
]wum} opfukefonfrsm;tm; t*FvdyfykHjyif 0w¦Krsm;jzifh azsmfajzavh&Sd&m

430 
udkodef;azonf zwfoifhzwfxkdufaom t*Fvdyfpmtkyfpm&if;udk uREkfyfxHrS
awmif;,lírSmvnf;rSm zwfvnf;zwfavonf/ odkUESifholonf pma&;
tqifhtwef; trIxrf;rsm;teufwGif t*Fvdyfvdk tawmfuav;a&wwf
cRwfwwfolwa,mufjzpfvm\/ uREkfyfrSmvnf; olUxHrS pmtkyftawmf
rsm;rsm; iSm;zwf&onfESifh ESpfOD;ESpf0 tusKd;&SdMuygonf/ udkodef;aztzdkUrSm
opfawm0efxH tpD&ifcHpmrsm;wGif ta&;tom; wkd;wufvmonfjzpfí
aemifü awmtkyfBuD;tjzpfodkU wkd;wufcefUxm;cH&jcif;wGif taMumif;w&yf
jzpfonf[k 0efcHajymqdkayonf/

vlowf onf[k pGyfpJGcH&jcif;

udkodef;azwa,muf &Sdaejcif;aMumifh uREkfyftzdkU azsmfajzrIwck


jzpfaomfvnf; urf;eD&GmüuREkfyfNiD;aiGUjcif;um; wjznf;jznf; wkd;wufvsuf&Sd
\/ þwGif tysif;ajzzdkU tcGifhtvrf;wck jzpfay:vm\/ waeUoü
qifacgif;(bDbDwDpD ukrÜPDrSqifrsm;ESifh qifOD;pD;rsm;udk tkyfcsKyf&ol)
udk&Srf;jzLESifh pum;pyfrdMu&mwGif uREkfyftvGef0goemygonfh ]okH;ykHzJ}
taMumif;ajymjyí tpDtpOfjyKvkyfMu\/ ¤if;&Gm&Sd vuform;q&mwa,muf
ESifh udk&Srf;jzLwdkUonf 0goemtkd;rsm; jzpfMuav&m uREkfyf\tdrfwGifokH;ykH&dkfuf
zdkUoabmxlMu\/ uREkfyf\ausmif;rSm OykofaeUwGif ydwfonfjzpfí
tzdwfaeUnwGif pwifupm;Mu\/ aMu;rSrrsm;vS? ]wzl}rSwyJjzpf\/
upm;rdMuonf qdkvQifyif okH;a,mufvkH;onf 0goemtdk;rsm;jzpfMuí
tvGefzifNrJNyD; tvGef]ay}aom vlrsm;jzpfaMumif; odMu&avNyD/ tzdwfaeUn
8 em&DavmufrS píxdkifMu&m eufjzef OykofaeUwaeUvkH;ESifh ¤if;n
oef;acgifausmfxdatmif xkdifMuavonf/ 'kwd,nodkU a&mufaomtcg

431 
tvGeftdyfcsifMuNyDjzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyfu oHy&moD;oeyf? o&ufoD;
ukvm;w,f? vufzuf&nfMurf; ponfwkdUjzifh {nfhcH\/ eHeufpmESifh
npmxrif;[if;twGufvnf; uREkfyfu wm0ef,l\/ uREkfyfwkdUupm;csdefrSm
em&Daygif;okH;q,fcefU&dSí xrif;pm;aom tcdkuftwefUrSwyg; tem;r&Sdacs/
xdktcsdeftwGif; t&IH;tEdkifrSm okH;av;usyfxufrydkacs/ vufcsif;
cyfnDnD &Sd&mwGif (okH;ykH okH;vSnfhqdkaom pum;t&) zJaumif;jcif;
raumif;jcif;rSm wvSnhfpD jzpfwwfaomaMumifh rnfolrQepfemavmufatmif
r&IH;acs/ þwywf&IH;vQifvnf; aemufwywfwGifjyefí Edkifonfu
rsm;avonf/ þvlokH;a,muf wlnDMuaom tcsufwckonfum; OykofaeU
noef;acgifrwdkifrcsif; wOD;wa,mufurQ awmfygpdkUrajym? anmif;vSonf
rNiD;? wnDwnGwfwnf; ]ay}Mujcif;yif jzpfavonf/ qifacgif;udk&Srf;jzLrSm
'lvma&m*g&Sdonf[k ajymMu\/ þenf;tm;jzifh Oykofywfwkdif; em&D 30cefU
wavQmufwnf;xdkifMuí q,fywfcefU&Sdaomtcg udk&Srf;jzLrusef;rrmjzpf&m
rS emvefrxl&SmawmhyJ uG,fvGef&Smavawmhonf/ urf;eD&Gmom;rsm;url
qifacgif;udk&Srf;jzLudk ausmif;q&m(uREkfyf)owfoGm;onf[k ajymprSwfjyK&pf
Muavawmhonf/

qifESifhawmvnfjcif;

wnaewGif udkodef;aza&mufvmí olBuD;udknSif;ESifh ]awmvnf}zkdU


wdkifyifMu\/ urf;eD&GmolBuD; udknSif;rSm uREkfyf\ausmif;wnfaxmifonfh
opfukefonfokH;OD;teufwGif wOD;jzpfí uREkfyfwkdUvlpkESifh pm;abmf
aomufbufwa,mufvnf; jzpfavonf/ xkd&ufü bDbDwDpDukrÜPDrS
qifrsm;onfurf;eD&GmokdU a&mufvsuf&SdMu&m olBuD;onf qifOD;pD;rsm;ESifh

432 
awmvnfzdkU tpDtpOfvkyfí udkodef;azuvnf; oabmwlavonf/
olwkdU\tpDtpOfrSm aemufwaeUnaewGif qifESpfpD;ESifh ]awmeif;}Muí
udkodef;azESifh olB uD;wkdUu aoewfwvufpDESifh qifay:rS vdkufygMu&ef
jzpfavonf/ uRekfyftm;vnf; vkdufOD;rnfavm[k ar;Mu&m tqef;topf
qdkvQif vufrvTwfcsifonfh uREkfyfuvnf; vdkufzdkU oabmwlav\/
okdU&mwGif aemufwaeUnaeürl qifESpfpD;ajymxm;onfhteuf
wpD;rtm;vyfí wpD;om&awmhonf/ qifOD;pD;u a&SUrSxdkifí olBuD;ESifh
udkodef;azwkdUu uwDay:ü aoewfudk,fpDESifh xdkifvdkufMuaomtcg
uREkfyftzdkU ae&mtcuftcJjzpfae\/ uwDay:wGif okH;a,mufxdkifzdkU
xdkifavmufonf/ okdUaomfaoewfypfzdkU uwfoD;uwfoyf jzpfaevdrfhrnf/
aemufqkH;pDrHudef;rSm uwDay:wGif okH;a,muftwlxdkifoGm;Muí awmxJü
aoewfypf&rnfhae&modkU a&mufaomtcg uREkfyfuuwDay:rSqif;NyD;
qifaemufNrD;ü xdkifwwfvQifum; jzpfEdkifonf/ qifaemufNrD;ü xdkif&efrSm
vG,fulvSonf r[kwfjcif;udk uREkfyfodaomfvnf; topftqef;BuKHawGUcsif
vSaom uRekfyftzkdU&mü vdkuf&rnfqdkNyD;rS csefrae&pfcsifonfESifh jzpfatmif
vkdufrnfqdkum vkdufvmcJU\/ &GmrSxGufMuaomtcg uwDay:wGif
okH;a,mufxdkif&\/ (qifpD;bl;aom uREkfyftzkdUü) tpGef;tzsm;usaomfvnf;
udpör&SdvS/ okdU&mwGifom;aumif&Sm&rnfh ae&modkUa&mufMuí uwDay:rS
qif;NyD; aemufNrD;pGef;wGif xdkif&aom tcgürludpö&SdawmhrnfrSm enf;enf;om
vdkawmhonf/
uREkfyfwdkUonf udkif;awmBuD;wckodkU a&mufMuaomtcg ¤if;udkif;awm
xJwGif om;aumif&SmMu&rnfjzpfí udkodef;azESifh olBuD;udknSif;wkdUtm;
aoewfudk,fpDESifh acsmifcsdpGm tvkyfvkyfEdkfifapjcif;iSm (rlvtpDtpOftwdkif;)
uwDay:rSqif;NyD; aemufNrD;pGef;rS xdkif&av\/ uREkfyfxdkif&onfrSm

433 
nDnmaom rsufESmjyifr[kwf/ qif\wifyg;pGef;jzpfí wbufapmif;BuD;
&Sdaeojzifh tawmfcJ,Of;vSay&m\ qif\aemufNrD;ü tkef;qHBudK;wacsmif;
odkif;xm;ojzifh ¤if;udktm;jyKum cufcJpGm vkdfuf&avonf/ ae&m
ajymif;a&TUpOf Nidrfvsuf&SdonfhtxJüyif tawmfxdkif&cufay&m qifoGm;aom
tcgüwifyg;BuD;onf tawmfvIyfaomaMumifh omíqdk;jyefonf/ okdUaomf
cJ,Of;rSBudKufwwf aomuREkfyfonfrnnf;rnL vkdufygoGm;\/ uREkfyf
wkdUonf udkif;awmBuD; wavQmuf jzwfoGm;Muaomtcg qif\ausmukef;
ESifh uREkfyfwdkU\ udk,fvkH;rsm;onf udkif;yifrsm;txufrS vGwfvGwf
uRwfuRwfBuD; ay:xGufvsuf&Sdaomfvnf; om;aumifrsm;onf uREkfyfwdkUudk
rjrifMu[kqdk\/ [kwfykHvnf;&onf/ udkif;yifrsm;rxlxyfyJ cyfusJusJ&Sdaom
tuGufwckodkU a&mufaomtcg acswaumifonf udkif;yifrsm; tMum;rS
uREkfyfwdkUtm; ai;Munfhvsuf&Sdonfudk jrif&\/ acswkdUrnfonfrSm
vl&dyfjrifvQif ajy;NrJjzpfygvsuf ,ckrSm aMumifawmifai;vsuf Munfhae\/
taetxm;rSm udkodef;azESifh vufvSnfhoifhonf jzpfí udkodef;az\
aoewfoH 'dkif;ueJjrnfoGm;jcif;ESifhtwl acsuav;vnf; vdrfhoGm;&Smonf/
qiform;onf qifay:rSqif;í acsudkxrf;vmNyD;vQif qifay:wGif
olUaemufrSxm;vdkuf\/ acsonfqifaumifBuD;udkomjrifí qif\ausmukef;
ay:ü&Sdaom uREkfyfwdkUudk rjrifqdkjcif;rSm [kwf[efwlonf/ xdkUaMumifhvnf;
qifESifhawmvnfjcif;onf awmypfzdkU tcGifhaumif;&ojzifh rkqdk;rsm;
oabmusjcif;jzpfavonf/

434 
uHaumif;vdkU qifeif;rcH&

xdkUaemuf qufvufí udkif;awmBuD;xJü vSnfhywfMujyefav&m


tpGef;tzsm;üvdkuf&aomuREkfyfrSm acswaumif 0efwufvmonfhtwGuf
omí tvkduf&cufvm\/ acswaumiftwGufae&may;&í uREkfyftzdkUü
wvufravmufom a&GUay;&onfqdkapOD;? e*dkuwnf;u cJ,Of;pGmvdkuf
&aom uREkfyftzdkUrSm omícJ,Of;oGm;avNyD/ wcgw&HwGif uREkfyfonf
tkef;qHBudK;udk qJGudkifxm;onfhtxJrSyif vGwfíusawmhrwwf qif\
wifyg;BuD; vIyf&Sm;oGm;\? odkUaomf uREkfyfpdwful;rdonfrSm tu,fí
rawmfwqvGwfusoGm;apOD;? ausmukef;xufrS wnfhwnfhBuD;usjcif;r[kwf
yJ wifyg;BuD;wavQmuf qifajcavQm usoGm;rnfjzpfaomaMumifh
temw&rjzpfEdkif? udpör&Sd[k atmufarhumpdwfrylvSyJ&Sd\/ wae&mü
qifronf udkif;yifrsm;xJrS (bmaumifrSef;rod) xckefajy;jcif;udk
vefUoGm;onfESifh &kwfw&uf ajcvSrf;jyifvkdufonfwGif uREkfyfrSm
tkef;qHBudK;udk wG,fxm;&mrS [efysufNyD;uHaumif;í rusyJ&Sdawmh\/
xdktcg qifOD;pD;u-
]][dk aemufu q&mb,fhES,fvJ}}
]]uHaumif;vdkU vdrfhrusw,fAsKdU? EdkUayr,fh udpör&Sdaygifav?
qifaemufNrD;u vdrfhusvdkUawmhodyfremEdkifygbl;}}
]]rvkyfeJU q&ma&U? 'Dqifru odyf,kwfw,fq&m? olUausmay:u
vlvdrfhus,if vSnfhNyD;eif;wwfw,f q&ma&U}}
þwGifrS uREkfyfrSm tBuD;tus,f wkefvIyfoGm;ygawmhonf/ ckeifu
vddrfhuscJUvQif ,ckavmuf&Sdqifeif;í jym;NyD;om;jzpfaeawmhrnf[k pOf;pm;
rd&kHomru xkwfazmfívnf; ajymvdkuf&onf/ þwGifudkodef;azESifh

435 
olBuD;wkdUu acswaumifvnf; &NyD;jzpfí jyefMuzkdUajymonfESifh
qifOD;pD;vnf; vSnfhíjyefcJUav\/ aemufwaeUtwGufrl qifESpfaumifESifh
acsmifcsdpGm vnfMuzdkUpDrHMuao;onf/

vlaorIjzpfOD;rvdkU

aemufwaeUnaeü qifESpfaumif&av&m udkodef;azESifh uREkfyfonf


qifwpD;ay:üxkdifí olBuD;udknSif;onf 'kwd,qifay:wGifxdkifum ,cif
udkif;awmodkU oGm;Mujyef\/ þwacgufürl uREkfyfrSmacsmifcsdpGmxdkif&
aomaMumifh pdwfat;vufat; vnfMu&ayawmhrnf[k xifpm;rd\/
odkU&mwGif vlom;\wGufudfef;rsm;rSm rnfonfhtcgrS pdwfcs&onf r[kwf
vSacs/ þwBudrfürl xGufuwnf;uwem&DeD;yg;rQ aemufusaom aMumifh
vnfcsdefenf;rnf pdk;MuonfESifh uwdkufu&dkuf pDrHMuonf/ tb,fh
aMumifhqdkaomf ae0ifíarSmifoGm;onfqdkvQif (udkodef;aza&m olBuD;yg
rsufpdrIefolrsm;jzpfaomaMumifh) om;aumifudkjrifzdkU cJ,Of;rnfjzpfaom
aMumifhwnf;/ udkif;awmodkU a&mufMuaomtcg olBuD;ygaomqifonf
vuf0JbufodkUvnf;aumif;? udkodef;azESifh uREkfyfygaomqifonf vuf,m
bufodkUvnf;aumif; ESpfpkcGJum jzefUívnfhMuav\/ taMumif;rlum;
qifESpfpD; twlvSnfhMuvQifwaumif wnf;aomtrJudk ESpfaumifvkH; ypfcsif
Muí e,fusOf;rnfjzpfayaomaMumifh wnf;/ qifwpD;wnf; xGufcJUpOfurl
acswaumifawGUao;? qifESpfpD;xGufvmumrS uREkfyfwkdUvnf;rawGU? olBuD;
wkdUbufuvnf; bmoHrQ rMum;&acs/ udkif;awmBuD;rSm wrdkifxufri,f?
us,f0ef;onfjzpfí olwkdUbufrSajcoHudk uREkfyfwkdUrMum;? uREkfyfwkdUbufrS

436 
ajcoHudkvnf; olwkdUrMum;Edkif/ om;aumifawGUí aoewfESifhypfrSom
Mum;EdkifMurnfjzpfav onf/
ae0ifoGm;avNyD/ vjynfhausmf&ufjzpfaomaMumifh va&mifudkvnf;
tm;rudk;Edkif? usef&Sdaeao;aom ]qnf;qm}a&mifuav; aysmufoGm;vQif
jyefMu&awmhrnf/ qnf;qma&mifonf rSdefonfxuf rSdefvsuf&Sdvm&m
jrif&onfqdk&kH arS;rSdefpGm a&;a&;uav;rQom jrifMu&aomtcsdefü
qifOD;pD;u ]]q&m q&m a&SUu awmqifq&ma&U}}[k wD;wdk;ajymvdkuf\/
awmqif&dkif;ESifhawGUvQif qifaygufomjzpfwwfí ausmay:rSvludk *&krpdkuf
yJ qif,Ofrudk vkdufwwf\/ udkodef;az\rsufpdrSm þodkUaomtcsdef
rsKd;wGif tokH;r0ifonfESifh ]]udkazodef;? Munfhprf;AsKdU}}[k uREkfyftm;
wD;wkd;ajymvkduf\/ uREkfyfonf qifOD;pD;jyonfh vuf0JbufqDodkU
cyfapmif;apmif; Munfhvdkufaomtcg uREkfyfwkdU\qifxuf tenf;qkH;
wawmifcefUjrifhrnfxif&aom qifaumifBuD;\ OD;uif;BuD;udkjrif&ojzifh
]][kwfw,fAsKdU? {&mrqifBuD;ygwum;}}[k jyefajymvdkuf\/ þwGif
qifOD;pD;u ]]oluvdkuf,ifk cufw,f? ypfawmhq&m}}[k ajymí
pum;rqkH;rDyif udkodef;az\aoewfrS 'dkif;ueJ toHxGufoGm;\/
aemufwcPü ]]bmvkyfMuwmvJ usKyfwdkUyg}}[k wkef,ifpGmESifh atmfajym
vkdufaom olB uD;\toHudkMum;&av\/ ]][m apmufusKd;eJNyDAsKdU}}[k
udkodef;azESifh qifOD;pD;wkdUu wNydKifeufwnf; ajymvdkufMu\/

vufajzmifhjcif;

xdkUaemuf udkodef;azu ]]xdoGm;ovm;AsKdU udknSif;}}[k ar;vkdufojzifh


olBuD;u ]]xdawmhrxdygbl;? uHaumif;vdkUygvm;Asm? usKyfwkdUESpfa,muf

437 
tMum;u usnfqHjzwfoGm;wmyJ}}[k ajym,if;olwkdU\qifonf uREkfyfwkdU
qDokdU csOf;uyfvm\/ wjznf;jznf;eD;vm aomtcgwGifrS uREkfyfESifh
qifOD;pD;wkdU\trSm;onf bGm;ueJay:vmawmhonf/ olBuD;ESifh qifOD;pD;
wkdUonf olwkdU\qifay:wGif a&SUESifhaemufxdkifvsuf &SdMuaomfvnf;
olwkdU\qifonf uREkfyfwdkUESifhcyfapmif;apmif;&Sdaeaomtcgü qifay:wGif
xdkifvsuf&Sdaom olBuD;ESifhqifOD;pD;wdkUESpfa,mufonf uREkfyfwdkU\ae&mrS
MunfhaomtcgwGif qif\OD;uif;BuD;ozG,f (rxif&Sm;aomtvif;a&mifü)
jrifMu&jcif; jzpfavonf/ udkodef;azonf (ol\txif) qif&dkif;\
OD;uif;BuD; tv,fwnfhwnfhokdU rSef;í &dkifz,fESifhypfvkduf&m usnfqefonf
olBuD;ESifh qifOD;pD;wkdUtMum;rS jzwfoGm;jcif;jzpfavonf/ olBuD;\em;&Guf
wbufudkyif umywfxdrSefoGm;ao;onf[k ajym\/ uHaumif;íay
wum;/ tu,fí usnfqefonf vuf0JbufodkUjzpfap? vuf,mbuf
odkUjzpfap wvufrcefUrQuav; wdrf;apmif;oGm;jim;tHU olBuD;tm;jzpfap?
qifOD;pD;tm;jzpfap wa,mufa,mufudk xdrSefacsawmhrnf/ ,ckrl
qifOD;uif;\ tv,fqdkí ypfxnfhvdkuf&mwGif tv,fwnfhwnfh A[dk
csufodkU0ifoGm;onfESifh vlESpfa,muftMum;rS uRwfuRwfvGwfvGwf
jzwfoGm;jcif;jzpfavonf/ þtaMumif;udkod&aomtcg uREkfyfwdkUwkefvIyf
Mu&onfrSm ajymbG,f&m r&Sdacs/ þtxJwGiftwkefvIyfqkH;aom vlrSmum;
em;&GufwGif umywfrSefcH& onfholBuD;udknSif;yif jzpfavonf/ olBuD;u
udkodef;aztm; ]]cifAsm;vufajzmifhykHuawmh tHUMoavmufw,fAsKdU? wbuf
udkeJeJuav; wdrf;oGm;vQif uREkfyfwdkUwa,mufa,mufaoNyD;yJ}}[k
wkefvsuf&Sdao;aom toHESifhajymavonf/ udkodef;azvufajzmifhjcif;
ESifhywfoufí uREkfyfudk,fawGUwckudkazmfjy&ayOD;rnf/

438 
awmacsmufMujcif;

udk0ifharmfajymif;a&TUoGm;NyD;aemuf waeUoü urf;eD&GmodkU udkodef;az


a&mufaecdkufwGif (wvwacgufavmufa&mufwwfonf/) &GmESifh rdkifw0uf
cefUa0;aomae&mü ]tcif;}vkyfpm;aomvlwa,mufonf uRekfyf\ ausmif;
odkUvmí ol\tcif;ESifhuyfvsuf&Sdaom awmuav;xJwGif acs? '&,f?
awm0uf? usm;opfpaom awmwd&pämeftrsKd;rsKd; ckdatmif;jcif;udk jrif&bl;í
]awmacsmuf}&ef tvGefaumif;aMumif; ajymjy\/ xdktcsdefwGif
aoewfypf0goemygaom awmtkyfuav;wa,mufESifh ykvdyft&m&Sd
wa,mufonfvnf; &GmodkU a&mufaeMuí tjcm;wtdrfüwnf;cdkvsuf&SdMu
\/ uREkfyf\ausmif;ürl udkodef;az&SdaeaomaMumifh ae&mr&EdkifMuay/
udkodef;azonfolBuD;udknSif;udkac:í wdkifyifNyD;aemuf awmtkyfuav;ESifh
ykvdyft&m&SdwkdUtm;vnf; ac:,laqG;aEG;\/ (awmacsmufaomtvkyfrSm
aoewform;rsm;av aumif;avjzpfonf/) aemufqkH;üxdkaeUnaeapmif;
wGif awmacsmufMu&ef oabmwlMuí &Gmom;rsm;pkaqmif;&ef
pDpOfMuavonf/
]awmacsmuf}jcif;[lonfrSm rnfokdUjyKvkyf&jcif;jzpfonfudk rMum;bl;
onfh tcsKdUNrdKUom;rsm;em;vnfapjcif;iSm azmfjy&ygOD;rnf/ awmwd&pämef
wkdUrnfonfrSm ntcsdefrsm;wGifrS tpm&SmxGufwwfMuí aeUtcsdefwGif
csKHxlxyfonfhawmtkyfaumif;aumif;ü tdyfMuonfu rsm;avonf/ orif?
'&,f? acsi,fpaom (trJ)wd&pämefrsm;rSm aeUtcsdefrsm;wGif &Hzef&Hcg
awGUwwfao;aomfvnf; usm;? usm;opfpaom (rkqkd;)wd&pämefrsm;rSmrl
waeUvkH; tdyfwwfí aeUtcsdefwGif awGU&cJvS\/ awmacsmufjcif;[lonfrSm
awmwd&pämefrsm; tdyfwwfjcif;udk awGUjrif&bl;onfh udkif;awm?

439 
odkUr[kwfcsKHwef;rsm;udk &Gmom;tajrmuftjrm;wdkUu obufowf 0dkif;xm;
Muí tjcm;wbufrS apmifhaeMuonfh aoewform;rsm;xHokdU acsmufay;
Mu&jcif; jzpfavonf/ ,if;odkUacsmufay;&mwGif rdrdwdkUae&mrS&yfNyD;
acsmufay;&kHr[kwf? udkif;awm? odkUr[kwf csKHrsm;udkjzwfoef;um wbufodkU
azmufxGufvmonfhwdkifatmif vlrsm;udk,fwdkifvdkufNyD; acsmufay;Mu&\/
awmacsmufolrsm;onf udkif;awm\wbufwGif pk&kH;Muí wa,mufESifh
wa,muf vufwurf;om omrScGJum pDwef;MuNyD;vQif udkif;awmxJodkU
wnDwnmwnf; 0ifMu&\/ 0ifonfESifhwNydKifeuf vufwGifygaom vSH?
cuf&if;? wkwfponfwkdUjzifh udkif;yifrsm;udk wAkH;AkH;&dkuf,if; yg;pyfrSvnf;
]]a[;? [m;? 0l;? 0g;}}ponf jzifh toHrpJatmifatmfum
a&SUodkUwjznf;jznf;wkd;vmMu&\/ þwGifudkif;awmxJü tdyfaysmfaeaom
wd&pämefrsm;onfvefUEdk;Muí toHrsm;vmaombufudk uGif;a&Smifum toH
a0;aombufodkU ajy;Mu&\/ wcgw&HwGifrl ttdyfBuD;onfh usm;paom
wd&pämefrsKd;ESifh &ifqdkifawGU&onf jzpfap? wcgw&HwGif wufíeif;vkrwwf
uyfíawGU&onfjzpfap BuKH&wwfonf[k Mum;&bl;avonf/ awmwd&pämef
rsm;onf tvefUwMum; xajy;Muí udkif;awmbufodkU azmufxGuf&mwGif
toifhapmifhaeaom aoewform;rsm;\ ajymif;0okdUa&mufMu\/ wcgw&H
ürl aoewform;rsm;\ tvkyfonf ajymoavmufracsmifvS/ udkif;awm
xJrS tvefUwMum; xGufajy;vmonfh wd&pämefrSm trJr[kwfyJ usm;(rkqdk;)
jzpfae ojzifh rkqkd;csif; &ifqdkif&jcif;rsKd;vnf; BuKH&wwfonf[kqdkavonf/
þtvkyfrsKd;rSm aoewfESifhjzpfaeojzifh rkqdk;csif; &ifqdkif&jcif;rsKd;vnf;
BuKH&wwfonf[k qdkavonf/ þtvkyfrsKd;rSm aoewfESifhxdkifapmifh&aom
rkqdk;xuf awmacsmufay;&aom &Gmom;rsm;tzdkUomí tEÅ&m,frsm;aomf

440 
vnf;0goemygaom &Gmom;rsm;onf rdrdwdkUtwGuf arQmfvifh&ef&Sdonfh
trJom;]a0pk}aMumifh vdkufvdkolr&Sm;vSay/

usm;opfawGU&jcif;

uREkfyfonf awmacsmufjcif;udk rjrifbl;í vdkufMunfvdkonfESifh


udkodef;aztm; pkHprf;Munfh&m udkodef;azu txufygtwdkif; ajymjyonfwGif
þrQavmuf qdkygu tEÅ&m,f rrsm;vS[k oabmxm;um twlvdkuf&ef
qkH;jzwfvkdufav\/ xdkaeUnae okH;em&DtcsdefcefUwGif aoewform;
av;a,mufESifh uREkfyfonf awmacsmuf&rnfhae&mokdU a&mufMuaomtcg
&Gmom; 30cefUESifh acG;ajcmufaumifcefUa&mufaeMuavNyD/ þtvkyfrsKd;wGif
q&mBuD;jzpfaom udkodef;azonf tjcm;aoewform; okH;a,mufwkdUtm;
ae&mcsxm;í olUtwGufvnf; ae&mwck,lav&m uREkfyfonf olESifhtwl
aeavonf/ xdkUaemufrS awmacsmufrnfh &Gmom;rsm;tm; csKHawm\
tjcm;bufodkU vTwfvdkuf\/ csKHyifrsm;rSm ]ukef;aA'g}ac:onfh tyifrsm;
jzpfí vufckyfwazmifcefUjrifhav&m jrefrmjynf\ a&rsufESmjyifwGif
aA'gyifrsm; wkd;yGm;aygrsm;vsuf &SdMuonfhenf;wl ¤if;tyifrsm;onfvnf;
tnma'owvTm;wGif wkd;yGm;vsuf&Sdjcif;aMumifh ]ukef;aA'g}[k trnfay;
Mujcif; jzpfonfqdk\/ uREkfyfESifh udkodef;azwdkU onf ukef;aA'g awmtpGef;ü
opfyifwyifatmufwGif xdkifvsuf&SdMupOf uREkfyfu-
]]tEÅ&m,fawmh &SdEdkif rxifaygifaemf udkodef;az}}
]]jzpfawmh jzpfcJygw,f? odkUaomf jzpfawmhjzpfbl;w,fAsKdU? cifAsm;tzdkU
pdwfcs&atmif 'Dopfyifay:u wufMunfhygvm;Asm}}

441 
udkodef;azESifh udk0ifharmfwkdU\ jcm;em;csufrSm udk0ifharmfonf
þtajctaersKd;wGif uREkfyftm;opfyifay:okdUwufzdkU pum;pyfvdrfhrnf
r[kwf/ olESifh twlaeaprnf jzpfavonf/
]]'Dvdkqdk usKyfopfyifay:u wufMunfhr,fAsm}}
]]wufyg? usKyfu0efaxmufrif; OD;0ifharmfr[kwfygbl;}}
uREkfyfonf udkodef;aztm; aus;Zl;wifaomfvnf; zGifhírajymyJ
opfyifay:odkU wufav\/ opfyifxufrSrl ukef;aA'gyifrsm;ay:rSausmfí
&Gmom;rsm;udkyif jrif&onfESifh &Icif;aumif;vSonf/ udkodef;azu-
]][dkvlawG a&mufukefMuNyDvm;AsKdU}}
]]a&mufukefMuNyDAsKdU? ayokH;av;&mavmuf a0;vdrfhr,fxifw,f}}
]]pDwef;ukefMuNyDvm;}}
]]pDwef;Muwkef;yJAsKdU? a[m NyD;MuNyDAsKdU}}
xdkcPü ]]a[;? [m;? 0l;? 0g;}}[laom toHrsm;udkvnf;aumif;?
]]jzKef;? 0kef;? *sKH;}}[laom&dkufoHESufoHrsm;udkvnf;aumif;? ]]0kef;? a0g? *def?
*if}}jrnfaom acG;oHrsm;udkvnf;aumif; Mum;Mu&av&m uREkfyfonf
olUae&mESifhol apmifhaeMuaom aoewform;rsm;udkvnf; jrif&í
toifhjyifqifMujcif;udkvnf; awGU&onf/ toHrsm;onf wjznf;jznf;
eD;vmí us,fonfxuf us,fvmMu&m tawmfeD;uyfvmaomtcgwGif
wvIyfvIyfjzpfaeaom ukef;aA'gyifrsm;\ xdyfzsm;rsm;udkyif opfyifay:rS
uREkfyfjrif&\/ w0ufcefUa&mufvmMuí uREkfyfwdkUESifh ayw&mausmfcefU
ta0;wGif acG;waumifonf ]]*def *def}} jrnfvsuf aemufokdUjyef
qkwfajy;aom toHudkMum;&\/
]]bmvJAsKdU udkodef;az}}

442 
udkodef;azonf vufjyvsuf ]]usm;vm;? usm;opfvm;yJ wdwfwdwf
As}}[k wD;wdk;ajym\/ vu©PmrSm acG;onf usm;? okdUr[kwf
usm;opfESifhawGUojzifh vefUíjzpfap? ykwfrdaomaMumifh jzpfap
jyefqkwfajy;Mujcif;jzpf[efwlonf/ opfyifxdyfü vkHNcKHpGm&Sdaeaom uREkfyfu
rlpdk;&drfp&m r&SdonfESifh usm;jzpfap? usm;opfjzpfap raMumuf/
jzpfcsif;jzpfvQif usm;taumifBuD; jzpfapcsifonf/ aemufwcPü uREkfyfwdkU
&Sdaeaomae&mESifh wnfhwnfhBuD;wGif ukef;aA'gyifrsm;onf wvIyfvIyf&Sd&mrS
vIyf&Sm;rIonf wjznf;jznf; a&GUvmí aA'gawmuav; ecrf;tpGef;odkU
a&mufcJUavNyD/ taumifwrsKd;rsKd;vmaejcif;jzpf&rnf[líum; uREkfyfawG;q
Edkifonf/ udkodef;azvnf; xdkae&modkUyif pl;pdkufumMunfhaejcif;udk
uREkfyfjrif&\/ aemufwcPü vIyf&Sm;vsuf&Sdaom aA'gyifrsm;tMum;rS
OD;acgif;wjcrf;ay:vm&m usm;opfwaumif\ OD;acgif;jzpfonf[k uREkfyf
od&\/ udkodef;azvnf; jrifykH&\/ uREkfyfurl udkodef;az ypfvdkuf
awmhrnf[k arQmfvifhvsuf&Sd\/ udkodef;azrlum; rypfyJ aoewfESifhom
csdefxm;\/ aemufwcPü usm;opfonf udkodef;azudk jrifvdkufonfh
vu©PmESifh jAKwfueJwGefUqkwfum OD;acgif;jyef0ifoGm;NyD;aemuf aA'gyif
rsm;\tzsm;onf usm;opfoGm;aom vrf;aMumif;twdkif;vIyfoGm;Mu jcif;udk
opfyifay:rSuREkfyfjrifvdkuf&\/ yxrü udkodef;az rypfvdkufjcif;udk
pdwfxJutjypfwifcsifaomfvnf; usm;opfaemufrS &Gmom;rsm;&Sdaejcif;udk
csufcsif;owd&í udkodef;azrypfvkdufjcif;taMumif;udk em;vnfygonf/
uREkfyfonf aA'gyifxdyfzsm;rsm;vIyfoGm;aom usm;opfvrf;aMumif;udk
rsufpdESifhvdkufí Munhfvsuf&SdpOf ¤if;t&yfqDrS uGdefueJacG;atmfoHMum;&jcif;
ESifhtwlvlrsm; tvefUwMum; atmf[pfMuaom toHrsm;udkvnf; Mum;&\/
aemufwcPüaA'gcsKHawmudkazmufxGufí vsm;ueJ vsm;ueJ ajy;oGm;aom

443 
owÅ0gwaumifudkjrif&í aocsmpGmMunfhvdkuf&mwGif usm;opfwaumif
jzpfaMumif; odvdkuf&onf/ ckeifu usm;opfonf udkodef;azudkjrifonfESifh
vSnfhjyefNyD; tjcm;bufrS azmufxGufoGm;jcif;jzpf [kuREkfyfawG;qEdkifonf/

awm0ufxGufajy;ykH

usm;opfazmufxGufoGm;jcif;aMumifh vlrsm;ESifhacG;rsm; tawmfz&dkz&J


jzpfoGm;onfhvu©PmESifhtvefUwMum; atmfvdkufMuNyD;aemuf &Gmom;rsm;
onfwzef wmplMujyefíuREkfyfwdkU&Sd&mbufodkU,ciftwdkif; qufvuf
acsmufxkwfvmMujyef\/ uREkfyfonf aA'gyifxdyfzsm;uav;rsm; vIyf,drf;
jcif;udk opfyifxufrS arQmfMunfhaepOf taumifwaumif ajy;vmonfh
vu©PmESifh uREkfyfwdkUbufodkUaA'gyifxdyfzsm;uav;rsm; vIyfvmonfh
vrf;aMumif;udkjrif&\/ taumifonf &yfcsnfajy;csnf vkyfvmjcif;\
txdrf;trSwfrSm aA'gyifxdyfzsm;uav;rsm;u jyvsuf&Sd\/
vIyf&Sm;jcif;onf awmuav;\tpGef;tzsm;okdU a&mufvmavNyD/
aemufqkH;ü aA'gawmtpGef;rS jyL;Munfh[efESifh awm0ufwaumif\
ESmoD;zsm;uav;ay:xGufjcif;udk uREkfyfjrif&\/ awm0ufonf udkodef;az
&Sdaeaomae&mESifh wnfhwnfhr[kwf? ayw&mavmuf uGmvSrf;vdrfh rnf/
udkodef;azvnf; ¤if;udkjrif\/ odkUaomfrypfao;yJ aoewfESifhcsdefxm;\/
10puúefUrQ awGvsuf&yfaeNyD;aemuf awm0ufonf aA'gawmuav;xJrS
&kwfw&ufw[kefxdk; ckefxGufNyD;vQif awmuav;udk aemufcdkif;um
wnfhwnfhBuD; avQmufajy;av\/ udkodef;azonf awm0ufudkaoewfESifh
csdefívdkufpOf (vlvdkufjcif;r[kwf? aoewfvdkufjcif; jzpfonf/) awm0ufESifh
&Gmom;rsm;wwef;wnf;r[kwfaomae&modkU a&mufonfESifhwNydKifeuf ]'dkif;}

444 
ueJ wcsufypfvdkuf&m awm0ufonf ajrBuD;ay:ü vdrfhoGm;jcif;udk
jrifvdkuf&\/ uREkfyf0rf;omrnfjyKqJwGif awm0ufonfajrBuD;ay:rSxí
,ciftwdkif;ajy;jyef\/ udkodef;azonf ESpfvkH;jyL;aoewfwGif xdk;xm;onfh
vufusef,rf;awmifhjzifh wcsufqifhíypfvdkufojzifh awm0ufonfvdrfhoGm;
jyef\/ þwBudrfürl awm0ufonf rxEdkifawmh&kHomru vIyfyifrvIyfEdkif
&Smawmhacs/ (&Sm[laomu&kPmpum; a&;om;jcif;rSm ,aeUtjrifESifh
a&;jcif;jzpf&m xdkpOfutjrifrlum; rsm;rsm;aoao yDwdjzpfav&SdcJUygonf/)
xdktawmtwGif; tjcm;aoewform;rsm;&Sd&mrSvnf; aoewfoHrsm;
w'dkif;'dkif;Mum;vsuf&Sd\/ pkpkaygif; 6csufxufenf;rnfrxif/ okdUaomf
aemufqkH;ü pkpkaygif; awm0uf 3 aumif&&Sdavonf/

udkodef;az\vufpGrf;

aoewform;wkdUrnfonfrSm rdrdwdkUypfvdkufaom om;aumifudk&&SdNyD;


onfhaemuf ypfvdkufpOfucsdefvTwfaomae&mudk wnfhwnfhBuD;xdrxd?
xdcJUvQif b,frQavmuf A[dkusonfh ponfrsm;udk Munfhavh&SdMu\/
tjcm;aoewform;rsm; ypfí&aom om;aumifrsm;udk MunfhMuNyD;aemuf
a&S;OD;pGmypfoljzpfí ESpfypf,l&aom udkodef;aztm; tjcm;aoewform;rsm;
urnfonfhae&mokdU csdefypfí rnfonfhusnfqefrsKd;ESifh ypfvdkufaMumif;ar;
Mu\/ udkodef;azu rdrd\ESpfvkH;jyL;aoewfwGif t,fvf*sD (usnfqef
ig;vkH;yg aom,rf;awmifh) um;wbuf? usnfrBuD;um;wbuf
(usnfqefwckwnf; ygaom,rf;awmifhudkqdkvdkonf/) xdk;xm;aMumif;?
csdefaomtcgwGif a&S;OD;pGm t,fvf*sDESifhypfí a&SUvufarmif;&if;odkUcsnf;
csdefíypfvdkufaMumif; ajymjy\/ aoewform;rsm;onf udkodef;az

445 
ypfaom0ufaumifudk vSefavSmMunfhMu&mwGif aoewform;tm;vkH;
(udkodef;azrusef) tBuD;tus,ftHUMovsuf&SdMu av\/ jzpfaeykHum;
udkodef;azcsdefypfvdkufonfh 0uf\ vuf,mbufvufarmif;&if;ü ig;yGifhqdkif
'Pf&muav; ig;csuftjyif tv,fA[dkü 'Pf&mBuD;wcsuf
awGUMu&aomaMumifhaywnf;/ t"dyÜm,frSm yxrypfvdkufaom t,fvf*sD
usnfqefig;ckonf csdefonfhtwdkif; yckH;odkUxdrSefxm;onfhjyif wzefxajy;
aomtcgü xdkae&mqDokdU csdefypfvdkufjyefygawmhvnf; wckwnf;aom
usnfronf ,cifxdrSefxm; onfh'Pfcsufig;csuf\ tv,fA[dkodkU
jzpfayaomaMumifhwnf;/ (A[dkqdkaomfvnf;vuf,mbuf txufaxmifhokdU
rqdkpavmufuav; csOf;uyfoGm;jcif;udkuREkfyfawGU&onf/) aoewform;
rsm;onf tvGeftHUMoonf/ rsufESmxm;rsm;ESifh udkodef;aztm; csD;usL;Mu
avonf/ uREkfyfonfvnf; a,mifaygifa&maESmNyD; ]uGef*&ufusL;av;&Sif;}
vkyfcJU&ygao;onf/ (rdwfaqGudkodef;azonf þtjcif;t&mudk tvGef
*kPf,lonfh vu©Pm&Sday&m þtaMumif;udk wae&m&mwGif waeUaeUü
uRekfyfa&;xnfh ay;rnf[k uwdjyKbl;onfhtwdkif; þae&mwGif a&;xnfhay;
vdkufavNyD/ ol\ ]0dnmOf}onf wae&m&mrS ESpfodrfhMunfEl;jcif;jzpfvdku
jzpfEdkifygapaomf) aoewform;av;a,mufwkdUonf 0ufaumifrsm;teufrS
waygifpDvnf;aumif;? uREkfyftwGuf waygifvnf;aumif; vSD;jzwf,lMuí
usefaom0ufom;rsm;udk &Gmom;rsm;tm; ay;vdkufMu\/ (þawmacsmuf
jcif;ü acG;waumifrSmusm;opfykwfí tawmfemoGm;onf[k od&onf/)

446 
udkodef;azESifhuREkfyf

aEG&moDwnaewGif udkodef;aza&mufvmí (udk0ifharmf ajymif;a&TUoGm;


onfhaemuf udkodef;azESifh uREkfyfonf udk0ifharmf\rSmxm;csuftwdkif;
udkufnDum wa,mufESifhwa,muf wkd;ícifrifvmMuonfrSm olu
rSmcJUaomaMumifh [kwfonfrxif/ rdwfaqGwa,muf avsmhoGm;jcif;aMumifh
usef&pfoltcsif;csif; wkd;ícifrifMujcif; jzpf[efwlonf/) xkH;pHtwdkif;
uREkfyfwkdU\ausmif;ü wnf;cdkav&m tpm;taomufrSm tdrf&SifESifh
{nfhonfwdkU wm0efcJGí,lMu\/ udkodef;az\tvkyfrSm ]atmufqdkuf}
&TifaomtvkyfrsKd;jzpfí ukefusp&m&SdvQif olucsnf; wm0ef,lygayonf/
q&muawmfa':pdk;\ 0wÅ&m;rSm aumif;aumif;csufjyKwf&kHom&Sdavonf/
uREkfyfwdkU\ausmif;ü udkodef;azjzpfap? udk0ifharmfjzpfap wnf;cdkMuaomtcg
wkdif; tapmqkH;tdyf&m0ifMuaomtcsdefrSm oef;acgifausmfjzpfí ESpfESpfcefU
aygif;oif;qufqHrdMu&mwGif udkodef;azESifh uREkfyfrSm obm0csif;
twlrsm;onfESifh ajymp&mpum; tawmfrsm;aeMuavNyD/ wlnDaom
obm0[lonfum; cspfcifaom oli,fcsif;vkyfaomtvkyfrsKd;qdkvQif
(olwyg;tm; xdcdkufaponfh &mZ0wfrIrsKd; r[kwforQ umvywfvkH;)
bmrqdk vdkufívkyfcsifwwfjcif;udk qdkvdkonf/ Oyrm ok&mar&,
tvkyfrsKd;bufü olaomufvQifaomufrnf? ol]&I}pr;fvQif &Iprf;rnf?
olyGJoGm;vQif vdkufrnf? ol&efjzpfvQif olUbufulrnf [lonfwkdUjzpfonf/
okdU&mwGif tqdk;bufcsnf;oufouf[lí rqdkvdk? taumif;bufwGifvnf;
taomuftpm;udk oljzwfvQif jzwfrnf? olpmzwfvQif zwfrnf? tbd"r®m
udk olavhvmvQif avhvmrnf [lonfhoabmxm;rsKd;&SdMuonf/ (udkodef;az
onf c&pf,efwa,mufjzpfaomfvnf; a*gwrAk'¨taMumif;udk qmtuf'0if

447 
tmEdk; a&;om;onfh tm&Swdkuf\tvif;a&mif  (Light  of  Asia)  ac:
Ak'¨0ifpmtkyfBuD;udk uREkfyf\wkdufwGef;csuft&zwfonfESifh Ak'¨tm;
tvGefMunfndKaompdwfjzpfay:onftxd tusKd;&SdoGm;onf/ uREkfyfuvnf;
olnTefMum;onfh OyepfoQ'fESifh b*0g*Dwwnf;[laom [dE´Lusr;fpmrsm;
udkzwfygonf/ uREkfyfyifwcgu tawmfESpfoufoGm;bl;ao; \/ okdU&mwGif
aemufydkif;ü uREkfyfw&m;tm;xkwfaomtcg c&pf,efor®musrf;? [dE´Lusrf;
ESifh Ak'¨tbd"r®mwdkUudk EIdif;,SOfcsufxkwfum &Sif;jyjcif;aMumifh udkodef;az
tawmfBuD;vdkufygvmonf/) þonfwdkUrSm pum;pyfrQomazmfjyjcif;jzpf&m
uRekfyf\&if;ESD;aom rdwfaqGrsm;taMumif; a&;om;aomtcgwGifrS udkodef;
az\xl;jcm;csufrsm;udk azmfjyygOD;rnf/ xdknOfhwGifvnf; udkodef;azESifh
uREkfyfonf wa,mufESifhwa,mufrawGUrDu tjzpftysufrsm;udk tjyef
tvSef zGifh[um ]ajzmifhcsuf}ay;Mujcif;tm;jzifh oef;acgifausmfvif;tm;BuD;
tcsdefwdkifcJUygonf/ uREkfyftxl;oabmusonf rSm ESpfa,mufvkH;onf
]awmf}aomtcsufrsm;xuf ]a&Smf}cJUbl;aom tjcif;t&mrsm;udk azmfxkwf
ajymjyjcif;tm;jzifh tom;,lMuonf/ *kPfwk *kPfNydKif oabmxm;ol
tcsif;csif;jzpfygvsuf ]*kPFazmf}rIenf;yg;í &dk;om;pGm 0efcHcsufrsm;udk
azmfxkwfajymjyMujcif;aMumifh tHUvnf;tHUMoí oabmvnf; usvSonf/
xdkUaMumifhvnf; udkodef;azESifh uREkfyfrSm i,foli,fcsif;rsm; r[kwfygyJvsuf
ESD;&if;aom rdwfaqGrsm;teufwGif tESD;&if;qkH;aom rdwfaqGjzpfvmjcif;
jzpfwef&monf/ xdkaeUrSpí olESifhuREkfyfonf wa,mufESifhwa,muf
][efvkyf}jcif; tvQif;r&SdawmhyJ ]t&if;wdkif;} qufqHMuavawmhonf/
þonfrSmvnf; t&omwrsKd;aywnf;/

448 
usm;udkufaomjrif;

aemufwaeUeHeuf apmapmü tdrfeD;csif;? &Gmom;wa,mufonf


udkodef;azxHokdUvmí ol\jrif;uav;udk ,refnOfhu usm;udkufaMumif;?
jrif;aoaumifudk a&TUxm;aMumif;ajymjy&m aoewf0goemtdk;jzpfaom
udkodef;azonf þnwGif ]vifhapmifh}&ef qkH;jzwfav\/ xdkUaemufolBuD;
udknSif;udkac:í uREkfyfwdkUonf jrif;&Sif&Gmom;ESifhtwl jrif;aoaumif&Sd&modkU
vdkufoGm;Mu\/ urf;eD&Gm\ taemufbufwGif oif;csKdif;&Sd&m ¤if;oif;csKdif;
ESifh wzmvkHcefUwGif jrif;aoaumifudk awGUMuav\/ ,refaeU naeurl
om;trdESpfaumifvkH; jyefrvmyJ oef;acgifausmfrS jrif;rBuD;waumif
wnf;jyefvmonfqdk\/ eHeufvif;í jrif;&Sifu vdkuf&Sm&mwGif þae&mü
awGU&jcif;jzpfavonf/ udkodef;azESifh udknSif;wdkU onf tajctaeudkMunfhí
wdkifyifMu&m jrif;aoaumifrSm opfyifESifhtawmfuGmvSr;fojzifh þtwdkif;
]vifhapmifh}&ef rjzpfEdkifqdk\/ okdUjzpfíoifhawmfaom opfyifwyifudk
a&G;cs,fMuNyD;vQif ¤if;wGif ]vifhpif}xkd;í jrif;aoaumifudk vifhpifESifh
ay20uGmavmufodkU qJGxm;&ef jrif;&Siftm;ajymjyav\/ jrif;&Sif\oabm
xm;rSm vifhapmifhí usm;udkypfjcif; tm;jzifh ol\jrif;uav; jyef&Sifvmrnf
r[kwfaomfvnf; rdrd\jrif;udk udkufowfonfh usm;udkaoatmifypfMuvQif
olUtzdkU&mü t&omwrsKd;&Sdonf[k ,lqavonf/ þum; vltrsm;wkdU\
obm0aywnf;/ udkodef;azu rnfonfhopfudkif;wGif vifhpifxdk;&rnfh
taMumif;udk jrif;&Siftm; nTefMum;í uREkfyfwdkUjyefvmMu&m jrif;&Sifonf
&Gmom;vli,frsm;udkac:í nTefMum;csuftwdkif; aqmif&Guf&pfMuavonf/

449 
olrwlaom rdcif

azmfjy&ef wcsufusef&pfonfrSm uRekfyf\rdcifonf urf;eD&GmodkU


tvnfvmcdkufjzpfí uREkfyfESifh udkodef;azwkdUcifrifMuykHudk awGU&jcif;aMumifh
0rf;omvsuf&Sdonf/ rdcif\xl;jcm;csufwckrSm om;ESifhcifrifonfqdkvQif
rnfolrnf0gra&G; cifrifwwf&Smonf/ zcifuJUodkU þvlESifhaygif;oifhonf?
xdkvlESifhraygif;oifh ponfjzifh oGefoifnTefMum;&ef 0goemr&Sd? uREkfyf
,lcJUaom r,m;rsm;tm; cifrifouJUodkU uREkfyf\rdwfaqG oli,fcsif;rsm;
tm;vnf; cifrifonfcsnf;jzpf\/ rdcif\tjyKtrlonf rSefonfjzpfap?
rSm;onfjzpfap uREkfyfurlum; uREkfyf\rdciftm; (olrwlaom rdcif)[lí
þtwGufaMumifhyif ydkícspfcifygonf/ uREkfyfESifh txl;cifrifaom
rdwfaqGrsm;rSmvnf; olUae&mESifhol awmfMuonfjzpfí rdcif\tjyKtrlonf
tvkH;pkH NcKHíMunfhvdkufaomtcg rSm;onf[krxifyg/ uREkfyf\r,m;rsm;
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450 
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451 
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rsm; ponfwkdUonf em;xJodkU vkH;í0ifvmMu\/ þtoHrsm;onf

452 
Mum;aeustoHrsm;jzpfaomfvnf; tcgwdkif;rl *&kpdkufrdonfr&Sd/ vQHíom
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ponfrsm;rSmrl ae0ifpuwnf;u vkH;0 wdwfqdwfvsuf&SdavNyD/ vifhay:odkU
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qD;awmifhaom'ku©

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uREkfyfteD;olBuD;bufrS ]*GwfueJ *GwfueJ}jrnfaomtoH wcsufwcsuf

453 
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&ufva&mifwGif xif;xif;BuD;ay:vsuf&Sd&m Munfh,if;Munfh,if;ESifhyif
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wwfjcif;qdkonfrSm wu,facsmufao;onf r[kwfyJ pdwful;jzifh
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atmifhxm;Asm}}[k ajym\/ uREkfyfrSmtvGef w&m tcH&cufaomtajcodkU
a&mufcgrS zGifhajymjcif;jzpfaomaMumifh atmifhxm;&ef rjzpfEdkifawmhyJ
&SdonfwGif udkodef;azu ]]wwfEdkifbl;Asm? aygufomcsvdkufawmh}}[k
cGifhjyKonfESifh Asif;Asif;jrnfaomtoHonf wawmvkH;yJUwifxyfoGm;onf

454 
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nnf;wGm;avonf/

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vnf;raMumuf? usm;udkvnf;rvefU? tcH&cufaom a0'emudkom
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vqef;9&ufvonf tawmfapmif;oGm;NyDjzpfí jrif;aoaumifay:okdU
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jcif;udk uREkfyfjrifvdkuf&\/ vu©PmrSm xdktaumifonf (usm;opf[k

455 
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vrf;aMumif;twdkif; ajrBuD;udk w&SL;&SL;jrnfatmif teHUcHvdkufvmjcif;
jzpfayvdrfhrnf/ aemufqkH;ü jrif;aoaumifudk awGU&aomfvnf;
ae&majymif;aeonfhtwGuf rouFmonfESifh csif;csif;xdkifírpm;yJ vpfueJ
wzefjyefíxGufoGm;jyef\/ xdkUaMumifhpm;awmhrnftxifESifh aoewfjyif
vsuf&SdMuaom udkodef;azESifh olBuD;wkdUonf aoewfrsm;udk &kyfodrf;
xm;Mu&\/ olwkdU\tBuHrSm rypfrlí ususee xdkifpm;aomtcgrSypfMu&ef
jzpfavonf/

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jrnfaom toHESpfcsufMum;&av&m olBuD;uatmufodkU vufnId;xdk;jy\/
usm;opfonf uREkfyfwdkUatmufodkUa&mufaeí opfudkif;ajcmufwckudk
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MumMumr&yfyJ [dkul;vdkuf onful;vdkuf ponfjzifh jrif;aoaumifteD;odkU
csOf;uyfvdkuf cGmoGm;vdkuf ponfjzifh *emrNidrfyJ vl;vm;cwf
jzpfaeawmhonf/ þenf;jzifh em&D0ufcefU Mumvwfaomf udkodef;azu
udknSif;tm; rkqdk;wdkU bmomjzifh tcsufay;vdkuf\/ (uREkfyfum; em;rvnf/

456 
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]vifh}atmuf0ifNyD;í txGufwGif ypfMupdkU}[lonfyifjzpf\/ usm;opfonf
usifi,feHUudk rouFmaomaMumifh vifhatmufodkU cPcP0ifav&m
aemufwBudrft0ifwGif rkqdk;ESpfa,muf wkdUonf aoewfrsm;ESifh
csdefxm;Mu\/ vifhpifatmufrS taumifudkrlum; rnfolrQjrifEdkif
onfr[kwfacs/ uRekfyfrSm olwkdU\tBuHudk&dyfrdí &ifckefvsuf&Sd\/
aMumufaomaMumifhr[kwf/ odkUavmokdUavm[laom pdwfaZmaMumifh jzpf\/
wcPü 0g;vifhpifonf olwkdUESpfa,muf\ udk,f[efjyrIaMumifh odrfhueJ
jzpfoGm;onfESifh wNydKifeuf 'dkif;'dkif;[laom toHESpfcsufonf wNydKifeuf
uJUokdUjrnfoGm;\/ uREkfyfonfvnf; olwkdU\ aoewfcsdefxm;aom
ae&mqDodkU ikHUMunhfvsuf&Sd&m taumifwaumifonf vifhpifatmufrS
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awmxJodkU0ifajy;av\/
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'grsKd;wcgrS rBuKHzl;bl;}}

457 
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iwfvsuf&Sdaom aq;vdyfudk tm;&yg;& &SL&IdufMu&av\/ rsm;rMumrD
&GmbufrS ]0l;0g;}[k tlum tcsufay;aom toHrsm;Mum;&í olBuD;u
jyef]tl}&mwGif &Gmom; av;ig;a,mufwkdUonfvufESdyf"mwfrD;rsm;? vufqGJ
rSeftdrfrsm;ESifh a&mufvmMuav\/ ¤if;wdkUteufwGif jrif;&SifvlBuD;vnf;
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xdvQifxdcsif;k rckefvdkufEdkifrD usqif;aom aoG;jzpfaomaMumifhrsm;rsm;BuD;
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vdkufíxkd;MunfhMuao;\/ okdU&mwGif aoG;pufrsm;rSm wae&mESifhwae&m
cyfusJusJ awGUMu&aomaMumifh aoavmufaom 'Pf&m r[kwfEdkifqdkum
ypfxm;cJUMuav\/

458 
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b,ftcsdefvmovJ}}[k ar;ojzifh oef;acgifeD;rS ay:vmaMumif;ajym&mwGif
rdcifNyKH;onfudk uREkfyfjrifvdkuf\/ uREkfyfu ]]b,fvkdvJtar}}[k ar;aom
tcg rpdk;u atmufygtwdkif;jyefajymavonf/ ae0ifonfESifhwNydKifeuf
rdcifonf usm;aornf pdk;aomaMumifh uREkfyfwdkU&Sd&modkU rvmap&ef
y&dwf&Gwfjcif;? arwÅmydkUjcif;? t"dXmefjyKjcif; ponfjzifhawmufavQmuf
&Gwfzwfo&Zösm,fvsuf&SdaMumif;? oef;acgifeD;aomtcgrS rdciftdyfcsifvm
onfESifh om;trdESpfa,muf twltdyfMuaMumif; ajymjyavonf/

,kHcsifrS,kHyg

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í BuD;jyif;vmaomtcgwGif (Nrdwfq&mawmf\ Mo0g'twdkif;)
tBudwfte,fw&m;tm;xkwfjcif;? pdwfudkxdef;odrf;jcif;? npOf&Gwfzwf
o&Zösm,fjcif; ponfwkdUaMumifh wefckd;tmedoif tenf;ESifhtrsm; &&Sdonf[k
vltrsm;u ,kHMunfMuonf/ (uREkfyfrlum; ,kHvG,fwwfol r[kwfjcif;
aMumifh  (Scientific  Minded)  ,kHMunfavmufvQif aemufqkH;rS
,kHwwfoljzpfonf/) om;rzGm;Edkifaom rdef;ronfrdcif\ ]y&dwfa&}aMumifh
tvG,fwul zGm;jrifEdkifonf[k ,kHMunfMuonf/ udkfufwwfaom acG;onf
rdciftm; rudkufjcif;udk uREkfyfudk,fwdkif tBudrfBudrfBuKH&bl;onf/ rdcifonf

459 
rnfonfhacG;udkrS raMumufwwf? tdrfxJodkU &J&J0if0HUonf/ txl;ojzifh
qef;Mu,fonfrSm rdcif\ tdyfrufrsm;onf t"dyÜm,f&Sdaom tdyfruf
rsKd;jzpfwwfí wpkHw&m jzpfrnfqdkvQif BudKwifí tdyfrufwwfaomaMumifh
aqGrsKd;om;csif;rsm;onf rdcif\ owday;jcif;udk tvGefav;pm;Muonf/
þtjcif;t&mudkrl uREkfyfudk,fwdkif r,kHw,kH&Sdygonf/ uREkfyfudk
y#doaE¨&Sdonfhtcsdefü rdcifjrifrufaom tdyfrufrSm aumif;vGef;tm;BuD;
aomaMumifh uREkfyfudk,fwdkifvnf; r,kHonfhjyif yvTm;&musrnfpdk;aom
aMumifh þae&mürazmfjyvdkawmhyg/ qdkvdkjcif;rSm uREkfyfudk,fwdkif [kwÅdywÅd
xl;xl;jcm;jcm;rjzpfao;aomaMumifh ¤if;tdyfrufESifh rxdkufwef[k ,lqvsuf
&Sdygao;onf/ rnfodkUyifjzpfapusm;? usm;opfwkdU rnfonf rdrdwdkU
udkufowfxm;aom taoaumif&Sd&modkU rvmcsifvnf;aeap? vmvQif
cyfapmapm vmwwfjcif;ESifh xdknOfhu rdcif y&dwf&Gwfjcif; &yfpJcsdefESifh
usm;opfa&mufcsdefudk wdkufqdkifjcif;rlum; trSefyifjzpfygonf/

raysmfydkufp&m zefwD;csufrsm;

waeUoü uREkfyf\ausmif;wGif udkodef;az wnf;cdkvsuf&SdpOf


rdk;ukwfNrdKUrS ynmtkyf udkzdk;aomfwmonf urf;eD&GmodkU e,fvSnfha&mufvmí
jrefrmpmoifausmif;ü wnf;cdkavonf/ udkzdk;aomfwmrSm*syfqifaumvdyf
abmoif;xifay:bl;pOfu tvGefemrnfBuD;cJUbl;onfh *dk;orm;wa,muf
jzpf&m ol\abmzrf;jcif;rSm abmvkH;udk rd&kHru vuf[efajc[efESifh
ckefykHzrf;ykHwdkU oyf&yfvSy pwdkfifusjcif;wkdUaMumifh omí emrnfBuD;jcif;
jzpfavonf/

460 
uREkfyfonf *sLAvDa[modkU vufrIynm jyyJGtwGuf oGm;&pOfu
oli,fcsif; armif&D&Sdaom *syfqifaumvdyfü wntdyfcJUbl;&mwGif
olESifhoduRrf;cJUavonf/ udkodef;azrSmvnf; c&pf,efcsif;jzpfí olESifh
tawmfuav; t&if;ESD;\/ odkUjzpfí udkodef;az\tBuHay;csuft&
uREkfyfonf udkzdk;aomfwmtm; npmpm;zdkUzdwf\/ olBuD; udknSif;tm;vnf;
(acwfynmwwf r[kwfapumrl) rdwfjzpfaqGjzpfoabmESifh zdwfMum;
avonf/ uREkfyfwkdUonf xkH;pHtwdkif; q&muawmf csufaom
pm;p&mrsm;ESifh udkodef;az0,f,lcJUaom aomufp&mrsm;jzifh aysmfjrL;Mu&m
¤if;]'if;em;ygwD}wGif ,cifu ygwDrsm;xuf tenf;i,f ]rsm;}oGm;Muonf
xif\/ okdU&mwGif qlnHjcif;? jiif;ckefjcif;um;r&Sd? cspfMunfpGmESifhyif
vlpkcGJum 10 em&DcefUwGif tdrfodkUjyefMuygonf/ uREkfyfwdkUtxJwGif
olBuD;onf tenf;i,f,dkifoGm;onf[k xifvdkfufrdMuonf/ odkUaomf
ol\tdrfESifh uREkfyf\ausmif;rSm eD;uyfaomaMumifh vdkufykdU&efrvdk?
ol\&Gmvnf; jzpfaomaMumifh pdwfcsvufcsae&pfMuonf/
aemufwaeUeHeuf cyfapmapmyif udkzkd;aomfwmonf vrf;avQmuf&mrS
jyefvmí uREkfyfwdkUudkjrifonfESifh ausmif;ay:odkU wufvm\/ xdkaeUrSm
OykoaeUjzpfí ausmif;ydwfonfESifh at;at;aq;aq; pum;ajymvsuf
&SdMu\/ em&Dw0ufcefU Mumvwfaom ausmif;wnfaxmif aom
opfukefonfokH;OD;wGif wOD;tygt0ifjzpfaom OD;av;armif wufvmí
wdkifwef;onfrSm ,refnOfhu olBuD;udknSif;onf ausmif;rS (t&ufrl;NyD;)
qif;vmí &Gmv,fwGif ol\vkyfom;wa,mufESifhawGUaMumif;? vkyfom;tm;
ar;jref;ppfaq;&mwGif OD;armif\wynfh[k ajymaomfvnf; r,kHMunfEdkif
qdkum olBud;utdrfodkUac:oGm;NyD; wnvkH;csKyfxm;aMumif; ajymav\/
{nfhonfESpfa,mufESifh uREkfyfrSm þausmif;rSt&uftwl aomufNyD;

461 
qif;oGm;onfh olBuD;jzpfonfudkodMuí tm;emyg;em jzpfaeMupOf
OD;av;armifu aot&ufaomufpm;jcif;\ tjypfrsm; taMumif;udk
uREkfyfwkdUokH;a,muftm; &Snfvsm;pGm vufcsmay;avawmhonf/
uREkfyfwdkUonf yxrü OD;av;armiftm; tm;emMuaomfvnf; tpdk;&
trIxrf;rsm;jzpfMuaom udkzdk;aomfwmESifh udkodef;azwdkUonf wjznf;jznf;
rsufESmxm; wif;vmMujcif;udk uREkfyfjrif&onf/ uREkfyfurl olwkdUESpfa,muf
tay:ü tm;emvsuf &SdavNyD? þvlBuD;onf uREkfyfwkdUvifr,m;tay:ü
wlom;aemifr,fuJUodkU oabmxm;um t&m&müapmifha&SmufcJUayaom
aus;Zl;udkaxmufxm;aomtm;jzifh uREkfyfwa,mufwnf;&SdpOf jrnfwGef
awmufwD;jcif; jzpfygrlum; BudK;pm;íonf;cHEdkifzG,f&m&Sdygao;\/ (trSefrSm
uREkfyf\rdbrSwyg; rnfolu rnfrQavmuf apwemaumif;onfjzpfap
jrnfwGefawmufwD;jcif;udk cHcsifol r[kwfyg) ,ckrSmrl rdwfaqGrsm;a&SUü
uREkfyfwa,mufwnf;udk ]jrnf}&kHru tzGJUyg jrnfjcif;jzpfaomaMumifh
olwkdUtay:ü tm;emNyD; uRekfyftwGuf &Sufvnf;&Sufygonf/ odkUjzpfí
þvlBuD;qif;oGm;onfESifh wNydKifeuf (ausmif;om;rsm;\ ynma&;twGuf
&uftm;r,lyJ uREkfyf\BudK;pm;csufrsm;udkrS raxmufxm;avjcif;[k atmuf
arhum) ZeD;tm;jrawmifodkUjyefapí {nfhonfrsm;tm;vnf;jyefMuzdkU
ajymNyD;vQif csufcsif;jrif;jyifum tif;&GmodkU xGufvmcJUav\/ odkUaomf
&ufowÅwywftwGif; tjcm;vlBuD;rsm;\ awmif;yefjcif;? OD;armif\
0efcHjcif;ESifh udk0ifharmf tay:üxm;cJUaom uwdwkdUaMumifh urf;eDokdU
wzefjyefvmNyD; qufvuf tvkyfvkyfygao; onf/
waeUoü udkodef;azESifh uREkfyfonf "r®obm0taMumif;udk
aqG;aEG;vsuf&SdpOf zcif\w&m;a[maumif;jcif; taMumif;udkuREkfyfu
ajymrdonfESifh zcifudkyifhac:&ef udkodef;azu pm;&dwfcHrnf[k ajymojzifh

462 
olUqE´twdkif; yifhac:vkduf\/ uREkfyf\zcifrSm w&m;a[majymjcif; tvkyfü
tvGefarGUavsmfoljzpfí csufcsif;vdkyif 0rf;ajrmuf0r;fom a&mufvm\/
zcifonf okH;nrQqufí a[m&mudkodef;azESifholBuD;tjyif urf;eD&GmrS
oufBuD;&G,ftdkrsm;vnf; vma&mufemMu\/ ausmif;wnfaxmifaom
vlBuD;wOD;jzpfonfh OD;av;armiftm; zdwfac:aomfvnf; (uREkfyfwdkU
vlpktay:ü t,kHtMunfr&SdaomaMumifhayavm rqdkEdkif) rvma&mufacs/
tjcm;y&dowfrsm;jyefoGm;MuNyD;aemuf udkodef;azESifh udknSif;wdkUonf
oef;acgifausmfwdkifatmif okH;nwdkifwdkif Mum;emMu\/ uREkfyf\zcifrSm
o'¨gw&m;wuf< uatmif a[majymjcif;ü tvGefpGrf;aom "r®uxdu
jzpfay&um; wwd,nwGif udkodef;azESifh uREkfyfu t&ufudk vnf;aumif;?
olBuD;udknSif;u t&ufa&m aoewfyg vnf;aumif; vSLvdkufMuavonf/
udkodef;azESifh uREkfyfonf wESpfcefUtMumwGif t"dXmefysufMuaomfvnf;
udknSif;rlum; toufxufqkH; xdef;odrf;oGm;ay onf[k odvdkuf&ayonf/
uREkfyf\zciftay:wGif o'¨gw&m;jzpfjcif;onfvnf; udkodef;az
tay:ü uREkfyfu wkd;ícifrif&ef (okdUr[kwf wa,mufESifhwa,muf tjyef
tvSef wkd;ícifrif&ef) taMumif;w&yfjzpfvmawmhonf/ OD;armifESifh
uREkfyfrlum; cifrifav;pm;rIonf wzefxyfí usqif;oGm;ygawmhonf/
vlUobm0onf tawmfqef;Mu,f\/ vlrdkufwa,mufvdr®moGm;jcif;xuf
xdkvlrdkuftay:ü q&mvkyfNyD; txufpD;ESifhMo0g'ay;jcif;udk ydkrdkESpfouf
wwfavonf/ uREkfyfwkdUtaMumif;udk OD;armifMum;od&aomtcg om"k
rac:csifyJ cyfNyKH;NyKH; vkyfaewwfavonf/
]acG;NrD;aumuf usnfawmufpGyf}[k ajymcsif\/ rnfokdUyifjzpfap
BudK;pm;jcif;udk todtrSwfjyKxdkufonf[k uREkfyfwkdUoabm&Muonf/ zcif
jyefoGm;NyD;aemuf OD;av;armifESifh uREkfyfwdkUvlpkonf cyfwef;wef;

463 
jzpfoGm;MuavNyD/ xdktcsdefrSpí urf;eD&Gmü uREkfyfraecsifp&m taMumif;
uav;rsm;onf (topfa&mta[mif;yg) uREkfyf\pdwfxJwGif rMumcP
ay:aygufvsuf &Sdygawmhonf/

aus;pGyfaomvl

rauseyfcJUaom tjzpfa[mif;rsm;um; þokdUaywnf;/ uREkfyf\


ausmif;ESifhrsufapmif;xdk;&Sdaom tdrfuav;wGif iSuform;wa,muf
aexdkif\/ xdkolonf pufcsKyfaom tvkyfudkvnf;wbufuvkyf\/
(urf;eD&GmwGif iSuform;tvkyfoufoufjzifh xrif;r0Edkif) uREkfyfwdkUü
udpöBuD;i,fjzifh c&D;oGm;&ef&Sdonfjzpfap? t0wftxnfrsm; csKyfvkyf&ef
&Sdonfjzpfap xdkvltm;tokH;csavh&Sd\/ wcgw&HolUü ydkufqHjywfvyf
vQifvnf; uREkfyfwdkUuxkwfacs;avh&Sd\/ oluvnf;pum; acsmhajymwwf
onfhtavsmuf uREkfyfwdkUtm; w&dkwaoqufqHonfESifh tawmfcifrif&if;ESD;
onf[k xifrdygonf/ uREkfyfonf &Gmv,fvrf;wGif jrif;pdkif;pOfu qif
orm;wa,mufudk wdkufrdbl;jcif;taMumif;azmfjycJUjcif;udk rSwfrdMuayvdrfh
rnf/ xdkuJUokdU wdkufrdNyD;onfh aemufwaeUnaewGif uRekfyfonf &GmjyifodkU
vrf;avQmuf xGufvmcJU&m qiform;rsm;onf &Gmhjyif&SdZ&yfwaqmifwGif
wnf;cdkvsuf&Sd Mu\/
uREkfyfonf rdrdwdkufrdxm;aom qiform;udkowd&í 0ifMunfhrnf[k
Z&yfodkUavQmufvm&mazmfjycJUaom iSuform;onf uREkfyfbufodkU ausmcdkif;
um&yfvsuf Z&yfayay:&Sdqiform;tm; vSrf;ípum;ajymvsuf &Sd\/
qiform;u ]]cifAsm;wdkUqiform;qdkNyD; 'DwcsDtnHUcHvdkufavAsm}}[kajym
vsuf&Sd\/ (qiform;[lonfrSm vlawvlayrsm;jzpfonf[k emrnf&ol

464 
rsm;jzpfonf/) uREkfyfonftxufygpum;udkMum;vkduf&í qiform;rsufESm
ysufoGm;jcif;udk jrifvdkufonfESifh wNydKifeuf jrif;ESifhwdkufrd aomtjzpfudk
ajymjcif;jzpfonf[k &dyfrdavNyD/ iSuform;onf wpkHw&m jyefrajymyJ
rsufESmysufvsuf&Sdaom qiform;udkjrifonfESifh ¤if;aemufodkU vSnhfMunhf
vdkuf&mwGif uREkfyfESifhrsufESmcsif;qdkifvsuf&SdMuav\/ uREkfyfu rsufESmxm;
wrsKd;ESifhNyKH;jcif;udk olrMunfhEdkifyJ awmifajymrvdk ajrmufajymrvdk ESifh
bmrQrajymyJ xGufoGm;avawmhonf/ þwGifqiform;udkausmif;odkU ac:í
olauseyfap&ef aiG5usyf ay;vdkufjcif;jzpfygonf/ uREkfyfonf
iSuform;tm; a&S;enf;twl tokH;csygao;\/ okdU&mwGif olUudk,füu
rsufESmcsif;rqdkif0HUawmhacs/ awmfawmfqdk;aom t&yfom;aywum;[k
rSwfcsufcs&bl;onf/

jrpf&dk;om;wkdU\OmOfqdk;

urf;eD&GmokdU uREkfyfa&mufcgp tcsdefuvnf; uRekfyf\c,frysKduav;


ESpfa,muf tvnftywfvmMu&m &Gmom;vli,frsm;onfw&pfoDoDvkyfMu
\/ tysKd&SdaomtdrfokdU vlysKdrsm; ]&pf}Mujcif;rSm zdkrwdkU\ "r®wmjzpfonf[k
uREkfyfem;vnfonfhtavsmuf rsufESmxm;wif;wif;rxm;yJ a&mufcgpvnf;
jzpfonfESifh azmfa&Gvkrwwf trlt&mrsKd;jycJUonf/ w&ufESpf&ufMumaom
tcg vlysKdrsm;onf c,frysKdrsm;tm; NyKH;pdpdESifhrsufESmcsKdaoG;jcif;rQavmufESifh
tm;r&MuawmhyJ uREkfyftm;yif aemufajymifcsifvmMuonf/ uRekfyf\ausmif;
a&SUokdU a&mufMuaomtcgrsm;wGif ]]zJxD;ckd; &dkufppf}}? ]]irf;w&Gwf&Gwf
ykZGefawmif}}? ]]bJ'D;*Gwf}}? ]]bJr*Gwf}}? 0rf;prdk; tif;acG;}}paom pum;vkH;
rsm;udk uREkfyf\ausmif;budokdUMunfhum wa,mufwvSnfh &GwfqdkMuav

465 
onf/ pum;vkH;rsm;onf &dkif;pdkif;aom pum;vkH;rsm; r[kwfjcif;um;
rSefonf/ okdU&mwGif uREkfyf\ t*Fvdyfpmoifausmif;udk aemufajymifjcif;
jzpfonfhjyif c,frysKdrsm;vnf;&Sdí olwkdU&GwfwGwfwGwf rsufESmxm;uvnf;
xif&Sm;pGmazmfjyvsuf&Sd\/ uREkfyfonfolwkdU\rcefUnm; aom &nf&G,fcsuf
udk em;vnfaomfvnf; rnfokdUrQrwwfEdkifyJ olBuD;udknSif;tm; wdkifvdkuf
&onf/
olBuD;udk,fwdkifrSmvnf; uREkfyf\ausmif;udk wnfaxmifaom vlBuD;
okH;a,muf teufwGifwa,muftygt0ifjzpfí vlaemufuav;rsm; tm;
armif;rJvkdufonfESifh aemufxyfrjyK0HUMuonfum; rSefygonf/ okdU&mwGif
uREkfyfrSwfcsufcsvdkufonfrSmum; jrpf&dk;wavQmuf&Sd &Gmom;rsm;onf
(jrawmifvnf;ygonf/) tjcm;e,frSvlrsm; vma&mufaexdkifonfhtcg
tpdk;& trIxrf;jzpfvQif jym;jym;0yfcsifMuaomfvnf; rif;rIxrf;r[kwfcJUvQif
wenf;enf;jzifh tuJprf;csifwwfMuonf/ ¤if;e,fwavQmufü ]rjzpf
npfus,f} ac:onfh &Gmom;uav;rsm;onf tjcm;e,frsm;rSmxuf
aygrsm;vSonf[k uREkfyfqkH;jzwfcsufcsvdkufonf/ a&Tbdke,fbufürl
pGmwmwmvkyfcsifaom we,fom;udk tuJprf;csifwwfMuaomfvnf;
jrpf&dk;om;\ owÅdrSmrl &dk;&dk;rSefrSefaeaom (rif;rIxrf;r[kwfonfh)
we,fom;udkvnf; csrf;omray;wwf? us,fuyfuyf vkyfcsifwwfMuonf/
a&mufpuwnf;uyif uREkfyfonf þ&Gmü okH;ESpfjynfhatmifrS aeEdkif
ygrnfavm[k oHo,jzpfcJUrdonf/

466 
urf;eD&GmrSxGufcGmjcif;

1924ckESpf ZlvdkifvwGif {&m0wDjrpfa&onf tvGeftrif;BuD;í


ESpfaygif;rsm;pGm a&rwufcJUbl;onfh urf;eD&Gmay:okdU cg;avmufxdatmif
a&vTrf;rdk;\/ uREkfyfü vyfuD;tjyif udk0ifharmf\jrif;om;trduvnf;
&Sdae&um; ¤if;wdkUtwGuf tpmESifha&vGwfatmif aZmif;vkyfay;zdkUrSm
jyóemBuD;wck jzpfaeawmh\/ tjcm;aom jrif;&SifEGm;&Sifrsm;onf
]]wwfEdkifygbl;}}qdkum a&xJüypfxm;Muaomfvnf; wd&pämefudkcspfwwfaom
uREkfyftzdkUrSm vyfuD;twGufomr[kwf? jrif;rom;trdtwGufyg pdwf'ku©
a&mufvsuf&Sd\/ þrQavmuf a&BuD;vdrhfrnf[k rnfolrQ rxifaomaMumifh
jrif;pmodkavSmifjcif;vnf;r&Sd? tdyfzdkUae&mvnf; ray;Edkifacs/ þwGifuREkfyf
onf xif;wkH;rsm;&SmíazmifzGJUNyD;vQif jrif;okH;aumifudk wifxm;&\/
tpmtwGufrl &GmxJü a&epfívJaom oabFmyifrsm;udk&Smí ckwfpif;
auR;&\/ odkUESifhvnf;jrif;okH;aumifjzpfí 0atmifrauR;EdkifyJ&Sd&mwGif
jrif;rsm;onf 0g;0if;x&Hrsm;udk udkufzJUípm;&SmMuonf/
uREkfyfonf vliwfjcif;udkomr[kwf? udk,farG;xm;í udk,fhwm0ef
&Sdaom wd&pämefrsm;iwfrGwfjcif;udkjrif&jcif;aMumifhvnf; &ifxkremjzpfwwf
onfESifh ]vufajrSmuf}&ef qkH;jzwfcsufcsvdkufygawmhonf/ txufwGif
azmfjycJUonfh rauseyfrIrsm;tay:wGif jrif;okH;aumifaMumifh BuKHawGU&aom
'ku©wck xyfqifhvdkuf&mwGifrlum; uREkfyfonf urf;eD&Gmü qufvuf
aexdkifzdkUudk vkH;0pGefUvTwfía&usonfESifh wNydKifeuf 0ufvufodkU
ajymif;&ef oEédXmefcsvdkufygawmhonf/ vyfuD;udk ,loGm;&ef rwwfEdkifaom
aMumifh jrif;cspfwwfaomolBuD;wa,mufodkU a&mif;vdkuf&ay&m uREkfyf\
toufwmwGif tawmfBuD;toJemvSaom cGJcGmrIBuD; wckaywnf;/

467 
udk0ifharmf\jrif;om;trdudkrl OD;av;armif\vufodkU tyfxm;cJU&\/
uREkfyfwdkUZeD;armifESHonf wynfhausmif;om; tcsKdUESifhtwl orÁefwpif;jzifh
udkodef;azaeaom tif;&GmokdU oGm;a&mufEIwfqufMuNyD;vQif 1924ckESpf?
Mo*kwfv 1&ufaeUwGif urf;eD&GmrS tqefoabFmjzifh vdkufygcJUMuav\/

uREkfyf\taetxdkif

0ufvufESifh ESpfrdkifa0;uGmonfh refusnf;wkH&GmokdU a&mufMuaomtcg


uREkfyfwdkUZeD;armifESHESifhtwl uREkfyf\wynfha,mufzuav; atmifjrvnf;
ygvm\/ zcifonf pmoifausmif;axmifí Ak'¨bmomqdkif&m pmayrsm;udk
a,mufsm;uav;ESifh rdef;uav;rsm;tm; ol\0goemtwdkif;(tcrJ)
oifjyvsuf&Sd&m uREkfyf\nDurl om;a&pdrf;udk om;a&e,fjzpfatmif
vkyfaomvkyfief;wckwnfaxmifxm;\/ rdbrsm;onf rMumcP
tvkyftudkifajymif;vJavh&Sdaom uREkfyfa&mufvmjcif;twGuf tHUMojcif;r&Sd/
wvSnfhwywf twlwuG aexdkifcGifh&MurnfhtwGufom 0rf;omykH&Muonf/
rdbrsm;\tdrfrSm cyfi,fi,fjzpfaomfvnf; 0if;NcHrSm us,f0ef;í NcHxJwGif
wJuav; okH;av;wJ&SdaomaMumifh aeavmufxdkifavmuf&Sdyg\/ uREkfyf\
tm;udk;rSm &efukefrSr*¾Zif;ESifh *sme,frsm;twGuf 0w¦Kwdkrsm;a&;jcif;jzifh
rdbrsm;ESifh 0dkif;vkyf0dkif;pm; aexdkifMu&ef jzpfavonf/
xdkpOfu ol&d,r*¾Zif;? u0drsufrSefr*¾Zif;ESifh wdk;wufa&;tjyif yJa&mh
OD;qefeDtwGuf pmrlrsm; a&;om;ay;ydkUjcif;tm;jzifh 0ifaiGrrsm;vSaomfvnf;
awm&Gmtvdkufawmh pm;avmufaomufavmuf&Sdygonf/ uRekfyf\tBudKuf
wckrSmvnf; rBuD;yGm;csifaeap? rdbrsm;ESifh twlae&NyD; pm;avmuf&kH
uav;&SdvQif auseyfEdkifygonf/ xdkpOfurltvkyfudk txdkfuftavsmuf

468 
omvkyfí rdbrsm;ESifhw&m;aqG;aEG;jcif;? pmayA[kokw tawmfjynfhpkHí
udk,fydkifOmPfjzifh qifjcifokH;oyf&Jaom zcifxHrSA[kokw pkaqmif;jcif;
ponfjzifh trsm;qkH; tcsdefjzKef;cJUygonf/ (zcifonf olUacwfESifhol
udk,fydkifOmPf okH;&JolwOD;tjzpf emrnf&cJUaomfvnf; aemufydkif;ürl
udk,fydkifOmPfokH;onfhae&mwGif jywfjywfowfowf &J&J0HU0HU &Sdayonfqdkum
ol\om;jzpfaom uRekfyftm; wjznf;jznf;vufajrSmuf&Smyg ayonf/
okdUqdkaomfvnf; zcifESifh Nrdwfudk,fawmfxHrS qufcH&&Sdaom rsKd;aphjzpfjcif;
udkrlum; uREkfyfauseyfpGm0efcHí tcgcyfodrf; OD;nGwfygonf/)

prf;oyfrI

uREkfyfonf touf25ESpf t&G,favmufu 'kwd,tdrfaxmifESifh


0ufvufwGif rdbrsm;ESifhtwlaeí pma&;q&mjzpfcgeD;ü pmtajrSmuftjrm;
zwf&Ivsuf&SdpOf owdyXmefokwÅefusrf;udk zwf&Ibl;\/ ¤if;usrf;ü Ak'¨u
rnfolrqdk þusrf;wGif iga[monfhtwdkif; ckESpf&ufrQ tm;xkwfjim;tHU?
&[EÅmaomfvnf;aumif;? tem*grfaomfvnf;aumif; jzpfEdkifonf[k
0efcHxm;jcif;udk awGU&\/ þwGif uREkfyftBuHjzpfonfrSm Ak'¨bmom0ifrsm;
onf r*fw&m; zdkvfw&m;wkdU\ rGefjrwfjcif;taMumif;udk ola&migyg
ajymwwfMuaomfvnf; ckESpf&ufrQavmuftwGufyif þenf;twdkif;
prf;oyftm;xkwfol rawGU&onfrSm tHUMozdkUaumif;onf? igrlum;
waeUaeU tcGifhomaom tcgwGif þenf;twdkif;prf;oyf tm;xkwf
Munfhrnf? jzpfcsifjzpf? rjzpfcsifae? raorDtwGif; tenf;qkH; wBudrfjzpfap
prf;jzpfatmif prf;Munfhrnf[lí qkH;jzwfcJUbl;avonf/

469 
1925 ckESpfwGif wnOfhoü uREkfyfonf refusnf;wkH&GmwGif rdbrsm;ESifh
aqG;aEG;vsuf&SdpOf 1914 ckESpfu jzpfcJUbl;aom pdwftBuHudk owd&onfESifh
þnOfhrSmyif tpjyKí ckESpf&uf tm;xkwfawmhrnf[k t"dXmefjyKvdkufygawmh
onf/ [kwfrSefonfhtwdkif; zGifhía&;&vQif uREkfyfonf xdknOfhür*fzdkvfudk
vnf;aumif;? edAÁmefudkvnf;aumif; vdkcsifvSaomaMumifh r[kwf?
(jywfom;pGmpOf;pm;avh&Sdaom uREkfyftzdkU&mü bmrSef;rodaom t&mwckudk
vdkcsifonf qdkjcif;rSm t"dyÜg,fr&Sd) uREkfyf\q&mrdbESifhwuG Ak'¨bmom0if
taygif;wdkU wajymwnf; ajymí wa[mwnf;a[mvsuf&SdMuaom r*fw&m;?
zdkvfw&m;? edAÁmefw&m; wnf;[laom tjcif;t&monf b,fvdk[mrsKd;
jzpfonfudk odprf;csifonf? odatmifvkyfrnf? rsm;rsm; rwwfEdkifvQif
ckESpf&ufawmh vkyfrnfqdkaom &nf&G,fcsufjzifh pwiftm;xkwf
cJUjcif;jzpfygonf/ tm;xkwfykH tm;xkwfenf;rSmrl aqmif;yg;rsm;ü omru
usrf;wapmifwzJGUyif a&;xkwfcJUNyD jzpfaomaMumifh þae&mwGif
tjzpftysuf oufoufrQudkom azmfjyygawmhrnf/

uREkfyf\ajymif;vJcsuf

udk,fhpm&dwÅ taMumif;udk zGifhía&;&vQif uREkfyfonf xdktcsdefu


a&muf&Sdaeonfh touf35- 36 ESpft&G,fodkUwdkifatmif rdrd\
vkHUv0D&d,udkvnf;aumif;? oDvudkvnf;aumif;? taetxdkifudkvnf;
aumif; b,fawmhrQ pdwfwdkif;uscJUbl;onfr&Sd? cRwf,Gif;csufrsm;onf
rIdvdkaygufvsuf&Sd\/ olwyg;wkdUuvnf; jrifMu odMu\/ xdkUaMumifhvnf;
&G,fwlcsif;rsm;uomru udk,fhxuf i,faom uav;oli,f? a,mufsm;?
rdef;uav;rsm;uyif uREkfyftay:wGif q&mvkyfcsifMuonf/ (xdktxJwGif

470 
udkodef;azrygacs/ udkodef;azonf uREkfyf\ nhHzsif;rIrsm;udkod\/ trSefrSm
olwyg;xufod\/ okdUaomf q&mrvkyfacs/ xdkUaMumifhvnf; uREkfyfu
cifrifjcif; jzpfwef&monf/) w&m; tm;xkwfygawmhrnf[k t"dXmefjyKaom
nOfhrSpírlum; uREkfyfudk,fudk uREkfyf tauseyfqkH;aom tydkif;tjcm;
wckk[lí pdwfxJwGif rSwfwrf;wifrd\/ xdkumvürnfrQavmuf
auseyfzG,faumif;aom vlwa,mufjzpfvmygoenf;[lrl uREkfyf\tjypf
rsm;udk nTefjyzdkU OD;rav;aom uREkfyf\arG;ozcifonf uREkfyftm;xkwfykHudk
jrif&aomtcg uREkfyfudkwjznf;jznf; &GHUvmonfESifh ]]tazrdkUvdkUom rif;eJU
igeJU ajymae&w,f? 'Dvdkajym&wmawmif pdwfxJu &GHUvmNyDuG,f}}[k
azmfxkwfajymqdkbl;avonf/
xdk&uftwGif; uREkfyf\&ifhusufaom £ajEéudkjrif&aom zcif\
wynfh wa,mufurl (uREkfyfxuf q,fESpfcefU BuD;aomfvnf;)
]]udkazodef;udkMunfh&wm uRefawmfjzifh 'l;axmufNyD;&Sdcdk;csifwJUpdwf cPcP
jzpfrdw,f q&ma&U}}[k ajymbl;avonf/ rdcifrlum; uREkfyfudkjrif&í
tm;&vSonfESifh wNyKH;NyKH;&Sdae\/ ZeD;rpdk;rlum; vifwa,mufqkH;acsawmh
rnf[laom pdk;&ddrfrIjzifh rsufESmnId;i,fvsuf&Sd\/ þodkUjzpf&jcif;rSm
uREkfyf\ pl;pdkufaom orm"dESifh &ifhusufwnfNidrfaom £ajEéwkdUaMumifh
jzpfayvdrfhrnf/ ig;&ufajrmufaom nOfhwGif uREkfyfonf ]ig}[lí
txifrSm;Mu&atmif vSnfhpm;aomtaMumif;&if;udkawGU&Sdí 0rf;omtm;&jzifh
wkef,ifpGm EId;í ajymjyav\/

471 
yDwdwrsKd;ayavm

rdcifzcifESifhwuG ¤if;wkdU\ wynfh*dkPf;om;taygif;rSm wkefvIyf


acsmufcsm; oGm;MuavNyD/ rdcifESifhzcifwdkUtm;vnf; ¤if;wkdU\ w&m;
tjrifrSm rpifMu,fao;aMumif; ajymjy&m zcifuyif a&S;OD;pGm oabmayguf
í ¤if;nOfhüyif rdcifem;vnfoGm;avonf/ xdk&ufrsm;twGif; ü uREkfyfonf
avmutaMumif;udkvnf; *&krpdkuf? avmuDESifh ywfoufí vnf;
bmrQrajymawmhyJ qdwfqdwfaeawmhonf/ wnOfhü zcifESifh uREkfyfonf
&GmxJu tvSLwckodkU oGm;Mu&m r@myfxJwGif zciftwGuf oD;oefU
ckH&Snfwck cif;xm;\/ zcifrSm "r®uxdu wa,mufjzpfí omrI?
emrIrsm;wGif w&m;a[mavh&Sd&m xdknOfhwGifvnf; qdkif;rwD;rD em&D0ufcefU
w&m;a[mzdkU tpDtpOf&Sd\/ "r®uxdujzpfaom zciftwGuf cif;usif;xm;
onfhckH&Snfay:ü om;tzESpfa,muf xdkifMu&mwGif uREkfyfonf aemufrSDudk
rSDvsuf ykyk&G&G &Sdaeaom y&dowftm; vSrf;Munhf,if; ]]olwkdUum;
oHo&müusifvnfMu& &SmayOD;rnf? ightzdkUum;NyD;ayNyD}}[laom pdwftBuH
jzpfay:vmonfESifh tNydKifeuf uREkfyfwGif xl;jcm;aom cHpm;rIwck
jzpfay:vm\/ Oyrm tvGefjrifhaom awmifBuD;udkwufí txG#fokdU
a&mufaomtcg qdkzmBuD;ay:wGif xdkifí avnSif;cHvdkufonfü cHpm;&onfh
t&omrsKd;ESifh EIdif;,SOf&rnfxifonf/ qdkzmay:wGif Nidrf;csrf;jcif;rSwyg;
bmudkrQ owdr&EdkifouJUodkU uREkfyfrSmvnf; ¤if;tcdkuftwefUwGif
igüoHo&mwm0efBuD; NyD;Nidrf;ayNyDqdkum BuD;pGmaom auseyfNidrfoufrIudk
cHpm;&bl;onf/ (xdkpOfurl udk,fh[mudk,f tvkH;pkHudpö NyD;NyDuJUokdU
xifrSwfvsuf &Sdygonf/)

472 
xl;qef;aom tjzpfrsKd;

aemufwaeUwGifrlum; uREkfyfonf Nidrf;csrf;aom t&omudkcHpm;,if;


uyif wcsufwcsuf vpfívpfíoGm;\/ vpfítwefMumwdkif; zcifu
jzpfap? rpdk;ujzpfap owd&atmif EId;avh&Sd\/ wa,mufa,mufu EId;ojzifh
owd&vmaomtcgwGif uREkfyf\pdwfxJü vGwfvyfpGm avxJwGif ae&mrS
zsmvdyfacgif;xJodkU oGwfoGif;vdkufonfhtvm; usOf;MuKyfusyfwnf;
vSonf[k xifrdonfESifh bmaMumifh EId;csifMuoenf; [líyif ajymrd\/
þwGif zcifESifhZeD;wdkUrSm uREkfyfaoawmhrnfxifí rJUwJUwJU jzpfukefMuav
NyD/ rdcifurlum; ]]raoEdkifygbl;? rylMuygeJU? aovQifaum bmjzpfao;vJ?
aumif;aom aojcif;yJ}}[k qdkum BuHUBuHUcdkifvsuf&Sdayonf/ uREkfyftzdkU&m
wGifrlum; ]vpf}&mrS aoEdkifojzifh wu,faooGm;onfqdkvQif uREkfyfBudKuf
rBudKuf qkH;jzwf&ef rvG,fulyJ jzpfae\/ vpf&jcif;udk vGwfvyfonfxif&
í oabmusrdaomfvnf; jyefí owdr&awmhyJ wcgwnf; 0dnmOf
csKyfoGm;ygrl [kwfrS[kwfygp[laom oHo,0ifvmcJUygonf/ okdUjzpfí
uREkfyfonf zcifESifhZeD;udk owday;aombufodkU rJwif;um rdrdudk,fudk
Edk;Mum;atmifBudK;pm;ay;ygawmhonf/ ywf0ef;usifudkrodyJ vpfíaejcif;
onf Nidrf;csrf;jcif;&Sdonfum;rSefonf/ odkU&mwGifþtjzpfESifh ywfoufí
rauseyfzG,faom tjcif;t&mwckrSm rdrdutvdk&SdaomtcgrS vpfonf
qdkvQifawmfyg\/ ,ckrl rdrd\vkHUvya,m* rpdkufyJ cPcPvpfjcif;
jzpfaomaMumifh rlrSefaom vpfjcif; [kwfygav\avm[k oHo,
jzpfvmonf/ odkUjzpfí uREkfyfonf orm"d vGefuJjcif; jzpfwef&monf[k
pOf;pm;rdonfESifh orm"dudk avsmhcsypfrnfqdkum uREkfyfwD;aeusjzpfaom
apmif;udk aumufí wD;vdkuf\/ apmif;oHonf uREkfyf\em;wGif

473 
tom,mqkH;aom toH[krSwfxifaeus jzpfaomfvnf; xdktcgürl
orHwvif;udk ausmufcJESifhjcpfaom toHuJUokdU Murf;wrf;,kwf rmí
rcHr&yfEdkifatmif &SdonfESifh apmif;udkcsufcsif; csxm;vdkuf&onf/
aemufqkH;ü tBuHwck&í tESdyfonfac:NyD; ]b0if}udk axmufay;aponf
wGifrS oufom&m &ygawmhonf/

ZeD;udk jyefydkUjcif;

tESdyfcHNyD;onfhaemufürl vpfawmhonf r&Sdyg/ okdU&mwGif w&m;ESifh


ywfoufaom pum;rsKd;rSwyg; bmrQrajymcsifawmhyJ wa,mufwnf;
udk,fhtm&kHESifhudk,f aecsifygawmhonf/ rpdk;wkdUarmifESrrlum; rsufESm
romr,m &Sdae&SmMuavNyD/ rdrd\om;r,m; Munf&TifygrS aewwfonfh
0goem&Sdaom uREkfyfonf olwkdU\rsufESmnId;i,fjcif;udk jrif&aomfvnf;
pdwfübmrQrxdcdkuf? udk,fESifhbmrQrqdkifouJUokdU cyfat;at;yif aewwf
vmonf/ þonfwGif rdcifurpdk;wkdUarmifESrudk jrawmifodkU acwÅ
tvnftywf oGm;apvQif aumif;vdrfhrnf[k tBuHay;onfESifh
uREkfyfudk,fwdkif ¤if;wkdUtm;vdkufykdU&efpDpOfMuonf/ tpDtpOfrSm rD;&xm;ESifh
uoma&mufatmif uREkfyfvdkufydkUNyD; ¤if;wkdUtm; tpkefoabFmjzifh
jrawmifodkU wifay;vdkuf&efjzpf\/ okdUjzpfí uREkfyfESifh rpdk;wdkUarmifESronf
0ufvufrSrD;&xm;ESifh vdkufygoGm;Mu&m uREkfyfonf rD;&xm;ay:wGif
c&D;onfawGudk yDDyDoo oJoJuGJuJG rjrifyJtdyfrufxJrSm uJUokdU 0dk;0g;BuD;
jzpfae\/ ¤if;wkdU\ vIyf&Sm;rIrsm;ESifh pum;oHrsm;onf uREkfyftzdkU
bmrQt"dyÜm,fr&Sd? t&dyfrsm;ozG,fxif&í uRufpDuRufpDrQom Mum;&\/
vrf;wavQmufvkH; þtwdkif;yifjzpfae\/ eHeufwGif uomodkUa&mufMuí

474 
naewGif olwkdUarmifESrudk Aef;armfrSvmaom tpkefoabFmjzifh wifay;
vdkuf&ef jzpfavonf/

psmefavQmouJUodkU jzpf&ykH

naewGif uREkfyfwkdU okH;a,mufonf jrpfqdyfodkUvmMu&m tpDtpOfrSm


olwkdUudk oabFmay:okdUwifay;í uREkfyfuvnf; ¤if;naexGufonfh
rD;&xm;ESifh 0ufvufokdUjyef&efjzpf\/ rD;&xm;blwm&kHrSmvnf; (xdkpOfu)
oabFmqdyfüyif wnf&Sd\/ oabFmqdkufvmaomtcg uREkfyfonf armifESr
ESpfa,muftm; oabFmay:okdUwifydkUay;cJUNyD;aemuf uREkfyftwGuf blwm&kHrS
vufrSwf,lNyD;vQif toifhxdk;xm;onfh rD;&xm;wGJay:okdUwuf\/ rD;&xm;
ESifh oabFmrSm eD;uyfpGm &SdMuonfjzpfí olwkdUarmifESrESifh uREkfyfonf
aumif;pGm jrifEdkifMuonfESifh wbufESifhwbuf vSrf;ívufjyum EIwfquf
Muao;\/ twefMumaomf oabFmrSOMorIwfí rD;&xm;vnf; 0DpDrIwfvsuf
tcsufay;um wNydKifeufwnf; xGufMuav\/ olwkdUarmifESrESifh
uREkfyfonfvnf; wbufESifhwbuf vSrf;íMunfhaeMuqJ yif &Sdaecdkuf
uREkfyf\pdwfxJü ]olwkdUarmifESronfightwGufaMumifh jyefoGm; &&Smav
NyDwum;}[laom pdwful;jzpfay:vmonfESifh wNydKifeuf &ifxJü eifhueJ
jzpfoGm;ygawmhonf/ wbufESifhwbuf rsufpdwqkH; MunfhaeMuí
oabFmonf OD;vSnfhvkdufojzifh uG,foGm;onfwGifrS uREkfyfonf
ae&mwusxdkifvdkufygawmhonf/ xdktcgwGif uREkfyfü tBuD;tus,fajymif;
vJoGm;jcif; jzpfoGm;onfudk awGUvdkuf&onf/ 0ufvufrS vmpOfurl
rD;&xm; c&D;onfrsm;udk rxifr&Sm; 0dk;0g;BuD;jrif&onfodkU azmfjycJU&m
,ckrSmrl wae&mü xdkifckHvkaeMuaom c&D;onfESpfa,mufudkvnf;aumi;f?

475 
tjcm;wae&mwGif nm;cgpvifr,m;ESpfa,mufESifh o@mefwlí wa,muf
ESifhwa,muf MuifemMuykH &jcif;udkvnf;aumif; xif&Sm;yDopGm
tao;pdwfjrifwwfvsuf &SdavNyD/ ]igum; psmefavQmaom oluJUodkU&SdacsNyD
wum;}[k pOf;pm;rdonfESifh NyKH;rdygao;onf/ ref;usnf;wkHokdU
a&mufaomtcg uREkfyfjyefvmrnfudktcsdefESifhwuG odNyD;jzpfaom rdcifonf
tdrfwHcg;0rS apmifhBudKvsuf&Sdí uREkfyf\rsufESmxm;udkjrifonfESifh
wNydKifeuf ]]a[h armifazodef;? rifhrSm rygcJUbl;}}[k vSrf;ajymvdkuf&m
uREkfyfu ]][kwfw,ftar}}[k 0efcHvdkuf&avonf/ uREkfyfwdkUom;trdum;
wa,mufESifhwa,muf tawmfBuD;em;vnfrI&SdMuonf/ þwGif uREkfyfu
oabFmqdyfü tjzpftysufudk ajymjy&m rdcifvnf; &,farm&Smonf/

&[ef;jyKzdkUcGifhawmif;jcif;

uREkfyfpOf;pm;ykHrSmum; w&m;tm;xkwfjcif;tm;jzifh rdrdü ]ig}wnf;


[laom ]tvdrf}wckajyí igr&SdouJUodkU usifhBuHjyKrlvsuf&SdcJU&mrS
oabFmqdyfü ]ightwGufaMumifh}[laom pdwftBuHwckjzpfay:vm&mwGif
¤if;tBuHESifh avsmfnDpGm pdwfüxdcdkufrIay:vmjcif; jzpfwef&monf/
okdUqdkvQif rdrdüw&m;udpö NyD;qkH;ao;onfr[kwfao;? tm;xkwf&ef
usefao;onf[k qkH;jzwfcsufcsvdkuf&m rdcifvnf;oabmwlonf/ okdUjzpfí
om;trdESpfa,muf qufvuftm;xkwfMu&m rdcifrSm csufjyKwfrIudk
jyefrMunhfcsifaomtajcokdU a&mufoGm;\/ þwGifcsufjyKwfrItvkyfonf
uREkfyftay:okdUusa&mufvmonfESifh 10 &ufcefUtMumwGif rpdk;udk jyefí
rSm,l &onf/ xdktcg uREkfyfrSm tm;xkwfzdkUtcsdef&jyefonfESifh wzefBudK;pm;
jyef\/ okdU&mwGif A[kudpörsm;aom vlUt0wfjzifh rauseyfEdkifawmhyJ

476 
ouFef;0wfNyD; tm;xkwfcsif\/ rpdk;xHtcGifhawmif;aomfvnf; cGifhr&yJ
jzpfae\/ bkef;awmfBuD;rsm;url rdbxHrS cGifhyef&rnf[k qdkaomaMumifh
r,m;ESifh rqdkifouJUokdU qkH;jzwfMu\/ okdUaomfuREkfyfurl vkyfudkifauR;
ygrnf[k wm0efcHí,lcJUaom r,m;[lí em;vnfaomaMumifh ZeD;oabm
rwlyJ t0wfvJ&ef pdwfraumif;EdkifyJjzpfae\/ twif;&[ef;jyKvQif rw&m;
[k uREkfyf,lqonf/ aemufqkH;ü rpdk;ESifhtwl jrawmifodkUvdkufoGm;NyD;rS
tcGifhawmif;zdkU rdcifu tBuHay;onfESifh vdkufoGm;jyef\/ jrawmifodkU
a&mufí rpdk;tay:ü MoZm&Sdaom t&D;wa,muf (olUtaz\ESr)tm;
uREkfyfu ajymjy&m t&D;u rpdk;tm; ]]aumif;wJUtvkyfvkyfrSmudk nnf;u
wm;qD;,if nnf;awmh t0Dpdusvdrfhr,f}}[k ajymonfwGifrS cGifhjyKygawmh
onf/ cGifh&onfqdkvQifyif uREkfyfvufyef;aygufcwfvdkufcsifygawmhonf/
cGifh&onfESifh wNydKifeuf uREkfyfonf &[ef;'um&Sm&m uRekfyf\
t*Fvdyfpmoifausmif;wnfay;onfh vlBuD;rsm;jzpfaom olBuD;udknSif;ESifh
opfukefonfBuD; OD;pkwdkU u 'umcHMuonf/ (OD;armifrlum; uomokdU
ajymif;a&TUoGm;avNyD/) uREkfyfu jrawmifodkUjyefí ajymacsyg&apOD;[k ajym
aomfvnf; &[ef;'um ESpfa,mufwdkUu ]]cGifh&NyD;r[kwfvm;? jyefajymrae
ygeJUawmh? rsufESmudkjrifawmh wrsKd;jzpfNyD; pdwfajymif;vJoGm;rSmudk
pdk;&ygw,f? eufjzefyJ yOöif;cHvdkufMuygpdkU}}[k ajymMuonfESifh uREkfyf
oabmwlvdkufav\/

&[ef;jyKjcif;

1287 ckESpf? e,kefvqef; 2 &ufaeUwGif uREkfyfonf urf;eD&Gmü


&[ef;jyKygonf/ odrfxJü&[ef;y&dowfESifhwuG ur®0gnSyfí &[ef;jyK&m

477 
wGif þudpöESifhywfoufí a*gwrAk'¨pDpOfxm;awmfrlcJUonfh tcrf;tem;rSm
t[kwfwu,f BuD;us,fcefUnm;vSí tonf;ESvkH; wkefvIyfzG,f
aumif;ay&um; uREkfyfrSm tvGefjzpfcsifvSonfh &[ef;tjzpfodkU a&muf&jcif;
aMumifh 0rf;ajrmuf0rf;om&SdonfhtxJüyif rwkefvIyfyJ raeEdkifatmif&Sdae\/
þrQavmufBuD;us,faom OyorÜ'uHaqmifjcif;udpöBuD;udk 7&uf?
10 &ufponfjzifh ayghayghqq oabmxm;Muonfudk vu©PmESifh
acwÅcP'kv’b&[ef;jyKMuonfh vlrsm;onf b,fuJUokdUrsm; oabmxm;
Muonfudk uREkfyfem;rvnfEdkifatmif&Sdawmhonf/ xdktcsdefrSpí Ak'¨
udk,fawmfjrwfonf ]'kv’b&[ef;}[laom tvkyfrsKd;udk rnfonfhenf;ESifhrQ
cGifhjyKawmfrlvdrfhrnfr[kwf [lípdwfxJü pJGpGJNrJNrJBuD; ,kHMunfvmcJUonf/
xdkUaMumifhvnf; ]Asufu,f Asufu,f}t"dyÜm,fa&muf aom 'kv’b
&[ef;jyKjcif;tvkyfudk rvkyfxdkufaMumif;ESifh tjyif;txefuefU uGufonfh
aqmif;rsm; a&;cJUbl;onf/ xdktcsdefrSpí ]]vkHESrwef;vef;ESifh OKHzGref;ovdk
'kv’b&[ef;}}jyKMuolrsm;tm; uREkfyfudk,fwdkif zl;ajrmfuefawmh jcif;jyK&ef
cJ,Of;aMumif;0efcHygonf/ uREkfyfonf &[ef;jyKjcif;twGuf xdkaeUu
b,frQavmuf 0rf;ajrmufygoenf;[lrl odrfrSxGufvmí &Gmolrsm;
cif;usif;xm;onfh wbufrsm;ay:ü vrf;avQmufvmonfhtcg ajcaxmuf
ESifh xdjcif;udkyif rodyJ &Sdygawmhonf/
&[ef;'um olBuD;udknSif;onf uRekfyf\t0wftpm;rsm;udk jrawmif
&GmokdUoGm;í rpdk;tm;ay;tyf&mwGif rpdk;uouFef;udk qJGcRwfvmrnf
[kajymvdkufonfqdkaomaMumifh b,frsm;xGufajy;&ygrnf enf;[k
xdwfvefUrdonf/ okdUaomfwacgufjyefí rajymaumif;avavm[k a'go
jzpfíajymvdkufjcif;jzpfwefaumif;yg\[k awG;qrd&m xdktwdkif; rSefuef
ojzifh awmfygao;onf/

478 
wapäaMumufao;oavm

&[ef;jyKNyD;onfhaemuf uREkfyfonf &Gmü&Sdaom bkef;BuD;ausmif;ü


oDwif;rokH;yJ &Gmhjyifü&Sdaom tkwfZ&yfBuD;wGif wyg;wnf;ae\/ taMumif;
wckrSm &Gmbkef;BuD;onf w&m;0goemygaom yk*¾dKvfrsKd;r[kwfyJ olvdkigvdk
(A[kudpöü arGUavsmfaom) bkef;BuD;wyg;jzpfí uREkfyfESifh yk*¾voyÜg,
jzpfvdrfhrnf rxifaomaMumifhjzpf\/ (,cktcgürl ¤if;bkef;awmfBuD;rSm
vlxGufNyD;í om;ysKdorD;ysKdBuD;rsm;ESifh jzpfaeavNyD/) udkodef;azwdkUESifh
vifhpifapmifhpOfu uRekfyfwapäaMumufwwfao;onf[k a&;cJUbl;&m
wapäaMumufwwfjcif; aysmufoGm;ykHudk þae&mü azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/
uREkfyfonftkwfZ&yfB uD;ay:wGif wyg;wnf; usdef;vsuf&SdpOf yxrnOfhü
qif;wkawmfteD;wGif pkykHxm;onfh za,mif;wdkifxkyfrsm;onf yv’ay:rS
jzKef;ueJusoGm;í xkH;pHtwdkif; &ifxJü 'dwfueJjzpfoGm;\/ þwGif
za,mif;wdkifxGef;í xMunfh&m &SOfhwaumifqif; ajy;onfudk jrifvdkuf&
ojzifh pdwfat;oGm;\/ okdU&mwGif uREkfyfpOf;pm;rdonf rSmum; igonf
þZ&yfxJü Mum&SnfpGmaernfjzpfí þrQavmufxdwfvefU vG,fonfqdkvQif
tb,frSm jzpfEdkifygrnfenf;/ bmhaMumifh xdwfvefU&oenf;[k rdrdudk,fudk
ar;jref;aomtcg wapäaMumufwwfaom aMumifh [laom tajzxGufvm\/
þwGif rdrdudk,fudk qkH;ronfrSm ]]'DvdkqdkvQif b,fjzpfrvJ Ak'¨aCmo?
(uREkfyf\bJGUjzpfonf/) rifhudk,frif; ]ig} r&Sdbl; vdkUawmif odxm;w,fqdkNyD;
wapäacsmufrSmavmufudk aMumuf&ovm;? wapäS&SdvdkU acsmufygNyDwJU?
rifhudkolu bmwwfEdkifovJ? rawmfwa&mf tqif;oP²mefvkyfNyD;
jy&kHjyEdkifrSmaygh? rif;vdkvludk vnfukwfcsKd;NyD; rpm;Edkifygbl;? aMumufp&m
tqif;oP²mefvkyfajyayr,fh rif;uaMumufrSjzpfwmyJ? tqif;uav;jy&kHeJU

479 
rif;ubmaMumifh aMumuf&rSmvJ? rif;pdwfu 'DavmufyJEkovm;}} ponf
rsm;jzifh ar;cGe;frsm;xkwf&mwGif tqif;oP²mefjy&kHrQavmufudkawmh cHEdkif
ygonf[laom tajzxGufvm\/ xdkUaemuf uRekfyfonf aMumufrufzG,f
aom ykHoP²meftrsKd;rsKd;pdwful;vsuf uRekfyf\a&SUüacsmufaeonfhES,f
zefqif;Munfh&m rwkefvIyfjcif;udkawGU&\/ ,cifurl aMumufp&moP²mef
rsm;udk þokdUaom ae&mrsKd;wGif nOfhtcsdefü pdwfrul;0HUyg/ uREkfyf
txl;wvnf oabmaygufoGm;onfrSm tqif;oP²mef oufoufonf
udk,fhudk emusifatmif vkyfEdkifonfr[kwf? acsmuf&kHom wwfEdkifonf?
emusifatmif rwwfEdkifyJvsufESifh tb,fhaMumifh aMumuf&rnfenf;/
usm;udk aMumufjcif;rsKd;um;t"dyÜm,f&Sdonf/ wapäaMumufonfqdkjcif;
rsKd;um; t"dyÜm,fr&Sdjcif;udk iguJUodkU &ifhusufol wa,mufonf
em;rvnfEdkifoavm ponfjzifh aumif;aumif;BuD; oabmaygufoGm;jcif;
jzpfavonf/ xdkaeUrSpí uRekfyfü wapäaMumufonf [laom trSwfonf
r&Sdawmhacs/

"lwifaqmifvdkaomtBuH

a&SUokdUwqifhwufzdkU pdwful;ao;\/ &[ef;jyKpOfurl udpöNyD;onf


txd tm;xkwf&ef [laomtBuHjzifhjyKcJU\/ 0wfNyD;onfhaemufüum;
rdrdodorQ w&m;udk &Gmom;rsm;tm; a[majymcsifaomqE´jzpfay:vm\/
uREkfyfa[mrnfh w&m;um; tjcm;aom bkef;BuD;rsm;a[monfh w&m;rsKd;
r[kwf? igjyKwfzdkUw&m;jzpfí xl;qef;onf/ xl;qef;aom w&m;udka[mvQif
a[majymoltay:ü ,kHMunfrI(o'¨g)&SdrSjzpfrnf? &Gmom;rsm;u ]]wdkU&Gmu
t*Fvdyfausmif;q&myJ? waeUu ajymif;oGm;NyD; tckjyefvmwmyJ}}[kqdkum

480 
txifao;Murnfjzpfí uREkfyf\w&m; pGHzdkUcJ,Of;vdrfhrnf/ okdUqdkvQif
¤if;wkdUo'¨gxufatmif rnfuJUodkU vkyf&rnfenf; ponfjzifh pOf;pm;\/
tBuHwckaygufonfum; 'um 'umrrsm;onf "lwifaqmifyk*¾dKvfrsm;udk
MunfndKwwfMuonf/ igudk,fwdkif "lwifaw&oudkaqmifvQif o'¨g
wdk;wufMuí ighw&m;udk ,kHMunfpGm emMuvdrfhrnf[k tBuHjzpf\/
þwGifuREkfyfonf &[ef;'um OD;pkESifhudknSif;wkdUtm; wkdifyifí a&S;OD;pGm
okomef"lwifaqmifNyD; oif;csKdif;ü aernfjzpfaomaMumifh wJuav;
i,fi,fwck aqmufay;zdkUajym\/ udknSif;u oabmusykH&aomfvnf;
vlBuD;jzpfaom OD;pku cyfNyKH;NyHK;rsufESm xm;ESifh ]]ppcsif; odyfrvkyfygeJUtkH;
OD;yOöif;? ajz;ajz;vkyfyg}}[kavQmuf\/ ol\rsufESmxm;udk uREkfyft"dyÜm,f
aumufykHrSm ]]aomufaomufpm;pm; aevmcJUNyD; tckrS odyftpGrf;jy
csifoudk;}}[k uRekfyfem;vnfonf/ udk,fhudk,fudk ppfvdkufaomf tpGrf;jy
csifaom&nf&G,fcsufvnf; txdkuftavsmuf yg&SdykH&onf/ þwGifrlum;
uRekfyfonf udk,hf[mudk,f &SufwwfwwfjzpfvmonfESifh "lwifaqmifjcif;
ESifhwuG "r®uxdujzpfzdkU tBuHtpnfudkyg vufavQmhvdkufygawmhonf/

ajymif;a&TUzdkUBudK;pm;jcif;

ausmif;xdkifbkef;BuD;onf uRekfyf\taetxdkif odyfonf;vGef;jcif;


twGuf tae&cufvmykH&\/ udk,fawmfBuD;um; ausmif;om;ESifh orÁefpyf
jcif;paom vuform;tvkyfrsKd;ü 0goemygav&m uREkfyfutultnD
vnf;ray;? cyfat;at;aejcif;twGuf taecuf[ef&Sd\/ aemufqkH;ü
uREkfyfonf urf;eDausmif;wGif raevdkawmhonfESifh 0ufvufNrdKU bke;fBuD;
ausmif;wausmif;üae&ef rdbrsm;&Sdaom refusnf;wkH&GmodkU vmcJUav\/

481 
aqGrsKd;rsm;teuf rdcifESifh¤if;\ wynfhrsm;onf uREkfyf\ouFef;0wfjcif;
twGuf ESpfouf0rf;ajrmufMuí zcifESifh¤if;\wynfh rsm;um; uREkfyf
t&m&Sdwa,muf jzpfvmjcif;rsKd;uJUodkU 0rf;omtm;&&SdMuykHr&acs/ þum;
udpör&Sd/ 0ufvufbkef;BuD;ausmif;ü uREkfyfaecGifh&zdkUtwGuf tcuftcJ
awGUjcif;um; udpö&Sd\/ zcifonf uREkfyftwGuf aecGifh&zdkU bkef;awmfBuD;xH
oGm;a&mufavQmufxm;&m ae&mr&Sd[k ajymvdkuf\/ jzpf[efvu©Pm
&SdonfrSm bkef;awmfBuD;onf uREkfyf\tm;xkwfykHrsm;taMumif;udk owif;
Mum;&í urf;eDbkef;awmfBuD;uJUokdUyif olUtwGuftaecufrnfudk jrifonf
ESifh jiif;y,fvkdufjcif; jzpf[ef&Sd onf/ jzpfwwfaom obm0wckrSm
y#dywÅdbufü tav;ay;aom OD;yOöif;uav;rsm;tm; y&d,wÅdoufouf
bkef;awmfBudD;rsm;u vdkvm;Mu [efr&Sdacs/ tm;vkH;r[kwfaomfvnf;
trsm;tm;jzifh þtwdkif;yif Mum;&BuKH &bl;onf/ aemufqkH;ü uRekfyfonf
refusnf;wkHbkef;BuD;ausmif;udkvnf; rBudKuf/ rEÅav;bkef;BuD;ausmif;rsm;ü
vnf; [efrnfrxifaomaMumifh urf;eDodkUyifjyef&ef qkH;jzwfvdkufavonf/

csD;rGrf;cH&jcif;

tcsKdUvlrsm;u *kPfazmfvdkonf[k xifcsifvnf;xifMuap/ uREkfyf\


&[ef;tjzpf taetxdkifESifhywfoufí auseyfrdaom tjcif;t&mwckudk
azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/ uRekfyfonf urf;eDausmif;odkU rjyefrDrEÅav;NrdKUü&Sdaom
ESrxHokdU zcifESifhtwloGm;í EIwfqufMu\/ &Srf;pkblwmrSqif;í
bk&m;BuD;wdkufausmif;wausmif;wGif zcifESifhtuRrf;0ifonfh q&mawmfBuD;
wyg;&SdonfESifh 0ifa&mufzl;ajrSmfuefawmhMu&m q&mawmfBuD;onf uREkfyfudk
jrifvQifjrifcsif; pdwf0ifpm;aomtrlt&mESifh pdkufíMunfhae\/ zcifonf

482 
rMumao;rDurS 0wfaom &[ef;jzpfí ol\om;jzpfaMumif; avQmufxm;
aomtcg q&mawmfBuD;onf uRekfyftm;Munfhvdkuf? zciftm;MunfhvdkufESifh
tvGeftHUMoaomrsufESmxm;&Sd\/ aemufqkH;ü q&mawmfBuD;u ]]usKyfu
odyfNyD; taetxdkifodyfonf;wJU &[ef;uav;ygwum;vdkU pdwfxJu
csD;usL;rdw,f? ckawmh i,fjzLawmif r[kwfygyJuvm;? awmfayhAsm?
awmfayh}}[k rdefUawmfrlavonf/
,cifu uREkfyf&efukefodkU a&mufNyD;aemuf okH;ESpfcefUMumaomtcg
&efukefom;ppfppfwa,mufu uREkfyfudkMunhfvsuf ]]tckawmhcifAsm;
a&mufpueJU rwlawmhbl;? &efukef*dkufqdkuf jzpfvmNyDAsKdU}}[k ajymojzifh
auseyfcJUbl;&m xdkpOfu auseyfrIxufyif q&mawmfBuD;\ pum;twGuf
uREkfyfydkíauseyfrdygonf/ xdkUaemufwGif tjcm;aom&[ef;rsm;uvnf;
tvm;wlpum;rsKd;ajymjcif;udk tBudrfBudrfBuKH&bl;ygonf/ [kwfvnf;[kwf
oifhonf/ trSefudk0efcH&vQif uREkfyfonf ,aeUtzdkU&mwGif xdkpOfuxuf
toufESpfqrQ BuD;vmNyDjzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyf\pdwfxJü xdkpOfuavmuf
odu©mr&Sdjcif;udk udk,fh[mudk,fod\/ todOmPfum; wkd;wufyg\/
odkU&mwGif &[ef;b0rSmuJUodkU odu©m&Sdonfrxifay/ xdkpOfurl
uREkfyf\pdwfxJü igonf omref&[ef;r[kwf/ waeUwGif tmoa0g
ukefcef;onfh &[EÅmjzpf&rnfh yk*¾dKvfaywnf;[k tNrJvdkyif txif
a&mufvsuf&SdonfESifh &ifhusufaom £ajEéESifhjynfhpkHcJU[ef&Sdonf/
xdktxifonf ,ckvnf; usef&Sdao;aomfvnf; &[ef;b0rSmwkef;uuJUodkU
wxpfcs,lqjcif; r[kwfawmhay/ waeUwGif &[EÅmjzpfrnf[k xifvsuf
&Sdonf qdkaomfvnf; tvum;ae,if; jzpfvdrfhrnf xifjcif;r[kwf?
tm;xkwfjcif;jzifh jzpf&rnfxifjcif; jzpfavonf/

483 
awmausmif;okdUajymif;a&TUjcif;

rEÅav;ü ESpf? xdkUaemuf refusnf;wkHü ESpfnaeNyD;aemuf urf;eD&GmodkU


jyefa&mufaomtcg uREkfyfrSm rlvBuH&G,fonfhtwdkif; udk,fhtzdkU udpö
NyD;jywfatmif tm;xkwf&rnfhtpm; olwyg;tm;a[majymcsifaom pdwful;
rsm;jzpfay:vsuf &SdaomaMumifh xifoavmuf c&D;ra&mufyJ aESmifhaES;
vsuf&Sd\/ xdktcsdefwGif ol&d,owif;pmwdkufodkU ("r®)aqmif;yg;rsm;
a&;ydkUí rEÅav;NrdKUrpdk;&drfwkduf OD;OmPxHodkUvnf; wdkifyifpmrsm;a&;\?
OD;OmPonf uREkfyf\oabmaygufykHudk auseyfaomfvnf; oludk,fwdkifrSm
usef;rma&; rnDnGwfaomaMumifh uREkfyfESifh awGUqkHESD;aESm&ef xdktcdkuf
wGifrjzpfEdkifao;aMumif;ESifh pmjyefvm\/ (okdUaomf aemiftcg umvrsm;ü
OD;OmPq&mawmfu vrf;nTefvkdufygonf qdkaom yk*¾dKvfESpfa,muf okH;
a,mufa&mufvmMuonf/) þtawmtwGif; ü uREkfyft*Fvdyfausmif;
aepOfu tdrfeD;em;csif;jzpfbl;aom vlwa,mufonf uREkfyfxHokdUvmí
xD;csKdifhbufawmausmif;wGif q&mawmfBuD;wyg; (OD;0dok'¨)\ taetxdkif
taMumif;ESifh uREkfyfESifhtqifajy vdrfhrnfxifaMumif; ajym&mwGif uREkfyf
ajymif;a&TUzdkUqkH;jzwfvkdufawmh\/ aemufwaeUwGif uREkfyfonf urf;eD
ausmif;rS xD;csKdifhawmausmif;odkU ajymif;a&TUoGm;um xD;csKdifhNrdKUay:rS
'umBuD;wa,mufu vdkufíydkU\/ uREkfyf&[ef;jyKuwnf;u twlaeaom
a,mufzuav; atmifjrvnf; awmausmif;okdUygvm\/ uREkfyfwkdU
okH;a,mufonf xD;csKdifhNrdKUESifh wpfrdkifcefU a0;aomawmausmif;okdUa&mufí
ausmif;0if;xJodkU0ifoGm;Mu&mwGif uREkfyf\pdwfudkcsufcsif; ESpfodrfhapaom
tjcif;t&monfum; ausmif;\wdwfqdwfjcif;yifjzpf\/ tkwfwHwdkif;av;
bufumí opfyifBuD;rsm; tvGefxlxyfojzifh t&dyftm0go aumif;vSaom

484 
ausmif;0if;BuD;twGif; tkwfausmif;? opfom;ausmif; ponfjzifh &Spfausmif;
cefU&dSay&m tv,füum; tkwfausmif;wausmif;&Sd\/ tv,fü&Sdaom
tkwfausmif;rS wyg; tjcm;ausmif;rsm;rSm &[ef;rsm; oDwif;okH;onfh
vu©Pmr&Sd/ &[ef;wkdU\ tokH;taqmifwckrQyif rjrif&acs/ w0if;vkH;ü
ausmif;om;r&Sd udk&ifr&Sd OD;yOöif;r&Sd/ tjcm;ausmif;rsm;\ xkH;pHtwdkif;
acG;aMumifponfh t&dyfedrdwfvnf;rjrif&acs/ uREkfyfonf ¤if;tajctaeudk
jrifvQifjrifcsif; oabmusvsuf&SdavNyD/

tjyeftvSef tuJcwfjcif;

tv,fü&Sdaom tkwfausmif;xJokdU 0ifoGm;Muaomtcg cef;raqmif


BuD;xJwGif wyg;wnf;pmMunfhvsuf&Sdaom q&mawmfOd;0dok'¨ESifh awGUí
0wfcsMu\/ q&mawmfrSm oufawmf50cefU&Sdí £ajEé&ifhusufjcif;udk
csufcsif;yif uREkfyftuJcwfrdonf/ uREkfyfwdkU0ifvmjcif;udk wa,mufpDMunfh
[efvu©Pmr&Sd? tm;vkH;udkodrf;usLH;íMunhfvdkufykH&onf/ 0wfcsNyD;aemuf
uREkfyfudkvdkufykdUaom'umBuD;onf q&mawmfESifhoduRrf;NyD;jzpfí vma&muf
aomudpöudk avQmufxm;\/ pum;qkH;onfESifhwNydKifeuf q&mawmfonf
rnfolUtm;rQrMunfhyJ OD;acgif;ikHUvsuf rdefUawmfrlonfrSm þw0gtzdkUü
q&mawmfrSm wyg;wnf; ({upm) oDwif;okH;rnf[k pdwful;&SdaomaMumifh
rnfolUudkrQvufcHzdkU tBuHr&SdaMumif;? tcsKdUaom &[ef;rsm;onf
awmausmif;qdkaomfvnf; &GmxJokdUxGufí yJGMunfhjcif;? [dktdrfonf
tdrfvnfywfjcif; ponfwdkUaMumifh raumif;owif; jzpfcJU&aMumif;?
okdUjzpfí tm;yifemaomfvnf; tenf;qkH; þw0gtwGuf wyg;wnf;
aernfBuHpnfaMumif; rdefUawmfrlav\/

485 
uREkfyfrSm þausmif;\tajctaeudk tvGefBudKufvSojzifh ae&acs
awmhrnf[k 0rf;omvsuf&SdpOf þpum;udkMum;&aomtcg vGefpGm
tm;avsmhvsuf&Sd\/ okdU&mwGif uRekfyfudkf,fwdkifrlum; rnfokdUrQavQmufxm;
jcif;rjyKyJ qdwfqdwfxdkifae\/ 'umBuD;url OD;yOöif;rSmtjcm;yk*¾dKvfrsm;ESifh
wlrnfr[kwfaMumif;? avmuBuD;udk wu,fNiD;aiGUí &[ef;abmifodkU
a&mufvmjcif;jzpfaMumif;rsm;ESifh avQmufxm;av\/ q&mawmfonf
rlvuwnf;u jiif;y,frnf[k qkH;jzwfxm;í tm;emonfh vu©PmESifh
uREkfyfudkrMunfhyJ rsufpdcsif; a&SmifvTJxm;jcif;jzpf[ef&Sday&m 'umu
wifavQmufonfwGifrS OD;acgif;armfMunfhí uREkfyfESifh rsufESmcsif;
qdkifrdMuav\/ <um;ía&;onfr[kwf? rsufESmcsif;qdkifvdkufrdMuuwnf;u
q&mawmf pdwfajymif;vJoGm;jcif;udk uREkfyfjrifvdkuf&onf/ q&mawmfonf
rEÅav;bk&m;BuD;wdkufrS q&mawmfBuD;uJUodkU &[ef;yDoaom uREkfyf\
£ajEéudkjrifavoavm? odkUwnf;r[kwfvufoifhrcHEdkifqdkí 0rf;enf;aom
uRekfyf\rsufESmxm;udkjrifaomaMumifhayavm rajymwwf? q&mawmfonf
uREkfyfESifhrsufvkH;csif; qdkifvdkufvQifyif rsufESmxm; ajymif;vJoGm;jcif;udk
xif&Sm;pGmjrifvdkuf&\/ ]awmfygao;&JU}[k uREkfyfatmufarhvdkufonf/
q&mawmfu {upmaernfBuHaomfvnf; þodkUaomyk*¾dKvfrsKd;ESifh twlae&
vQif aeEdkifygonf[kqdkum vufcHvdkufavonf/ xdkUaemuf q&mawmfonf
xdkif&mrSxí ausmif;rsm;udkvdkufjyum BudKufaom ausmif;udkaeEdkif
aMumif;ajymonfESifh uREkfyfvnf; eD;&mausmif;wausmif;udk a&G;vdkufonf/

486 
q&mawmfESifhaqG;aEG;jcif;

xdkUaemuf uREkfyftm;vdkufydkUaom 'umBuD;onf jyefawmhrnfjyK&m


atmifjronf uREkfyftm; jyKpk&ef vdkufvmcJUjcif;jzpfaomfvnf;
ausmif;0if;BuD;wckvkH;wGif bkef;awmfBuD;ESifh uREkfyfrSwyg; ausmif;om;
udk&ifr&Sdojzifh ysif;&d&Smrnfudk uREkfyfjrifonfESifh jrawmifodkUjyef&ef
'umBuD;ESifhtwl xnfhay;vkduf\/ ¤if;wdkUjyefoGm;NyD;aemuf uREkfyfaernfh
ausmif;ay:odkUwufMunfh&m ausmif;tdkBuD;jzpfaejcif;udkawGU&\/ vltjzpfü
qdkygrl þausmif;udkrBudKufvQif tjcm;ausmif;odkU ajymif;a&TUrnfjzpfaomf
vnf;rdrdtvG,fwul a&G;cs,fvdkufrdaom ausmif;yifjzpfapumrl
a&TUajymif;cJUvQif ]csD;xl}onf[k bkef;awmfBuD;u xifrnfpdk;aomaMumifh
rajymif;a&TUyJ aevdkufygonf/ þbkef;awmfBuD;onf t&m&mwGifonf;cHí
taetxdkifaumif;vSonf[k emrnfB uD;vSaomaMumifh ¤if;\txifao;jcif;
rcHvdkonfh&nf&G,fcsufvnf;&Sdygonf/ xdknOfhü uRekfyfonf bkef;awmfBuD;
ESifh aqG;aEG;Mu&m uRekfyfonfw&m;tm;xkwfjcif;tm;jzifh awGU&aomtjrifudk
twdtvif;azmfxkwfavQmufxm;jcif;rjyKaomfvnf; w&m;"r®ESifh ywfoufí
tvGef ]tuif;yg;}aom yk*¾dKvfBuD;jzpfonfESifh tjcm;&[ef;uav;rsm;ESifh
rwlaom uREkfy\
f &nf&G,fcsufudk&dyfrdí csD;rGrf;pum;rdefUawmfrlNyD;vQif
olUtzdkUrlum; þb0ü r*fw&m; zdkvfw&m;udk tvdkr&Sdao;aMumif;?
t&darawÅ,sjrwfpGmbk&m; yGifhawmfrlaomtcgrS ¤if;\om0utjzpfESifh
uRwfwrf;0ifzdkU&nf&G,fcsuf&SdaMumif; rdefUawmfrlavonf/ aemufqkH;ü
r*fw&m; zdkvfw&m;twGuf pdwftm;xufoefpGm tm;xkwfaom yk*¾dKvfrsKd;
awGU&cJaomaMumifh ,ckqkHawGU&&kHrQru twlwuG oDwif;okH;Murnf
jzpfonfhtwGuf 0rf;ajrmufaMumif;? vufoifhcHzdkUjiif;y,frdNyD;rS

487 
rdrdpdwfajymif;vJí tqkH;tjzwfudk jyifqifvdkufrdjcif;twGufvnf; 0rf;om
aMumif; rdefUawmfrlavonf/

oDwif;okH;MuykH

bkef;awmfBuD;\pum;udk Mum;&aomtcg uREkfyfonf ,ckb0ü


r*fzdkvfudk rvdkcsifao;qdkaom tcsufaMumifh 0rf;enf;aomfvnf; uREkfyftm;
em;vnfykH&jcif;twGuf 0rf;omrdonf/ rnfodkUyifjzpfap ,ckrS &[ef;jyKNyD;
r*fzdkvfpum;ajymaom &[ef;uav;[lí uJU&JUvdkaomoabm? ESdyfe,f
vdkaom apwemr&Sdjcif;um; xif&Sm;ayonf/ bkef;awmfBuD;onf uREkfyfESifh
twl oDwif;okH;Muaom&ufrsm;twGif; uREkfyftm;xkwfykHESifh OmPftjrifudk
wD;acgufpkHprf;Munfh&m waeUwjcm; auseyftm;&ykH&onf[k uREkfyftuJcwf
rdonf/ aumif;aumif;aernfh OD;yOöif;uav;rS [kwfygavrnfavm[laom
oHo,rlum; a&mufaomaeUrSmyif uif;&Sif;oGm;ygNyD[lívnf; 0efcHawmf
rlonf/
uREkfyfwdkUonf t&kPfrwufrDxMuí xD;csKdifhNrdKUxJodkU twlwuG
qGrf;cH<uMu&m NrdKUt0ifwGifcJGoGm;Mu\/ bkef;awmfBuD;rSm NrdKUxJü
xdkifudk,fawmftjzpfESifh yifhzdwfxm;onfh tdrftajrmuftjrm;&Sd&m uREkfyf
rlum; tdrfaygufaph&yf&rnfjzpfí twloGm;&ef rjzpfEdkifacs/ xD;csKdifhNrdKU
uav;\ o'¨gw&m;ESifhx<uvkHUv0D&d,&Sdjcif;rSm csD;usL;xdkufygayonf/
uREkfyfwkdUonfNrdKUxJodkU vif;vQifvif;csif; a&mufoGm;Muaomfvnf;
wtdrfjcm; ESpftdrfjcm;ponfjzifh qGrf;? qGrf;[if;wkdUESifh tdrfaygufrsm;ü
toifhapmifhvsuf&SdMuay&m uREkfyfrSmNrdKUqkH;atmif ravQmuf&yJ w0uf
avmufESifhyif pm;avmufatmif&onfESifh vSnfhjyefcJUavonf/ ausmif;ü

488 
ausmif;om;r&Sdojzifhvnf; ¤if;wkdUtwGuf aMumifhMupdkufzdkUrvdk acs/
uREkfyfwdkUonf wxyfwnf;bkOf;ay;olrsm;jzpfí twlwuG qGrf;pm;avh &Sd&m
]xdkifudk,fawmf}tjzpfESifh qGrf;cH&aom bkef;awmfBuD;twGuf rqdkxm;bd?
tdrfaygufaph&yfum ur®oum qGrf;cH&aom uREkfyftzdkUyif [if;aumif;
rsm;vkHavmufpGm &ygayonf/ þbufwGif tvGefawmfayaom xD;csKdifh
NrdKUolNrdKUom;rsm;ygay/

rdbrsm;a&mufvmjcif;

uREkfyfonf a&S;OD;pGm &[ef;jyKpOfu 7 &uft"dXmefjzifh w&m;


tm;xkwfcJUonfhtwdkif; rD;yGwfaom a,mufsm;uJUokdU rem;rae BudK;pm;
rnf[k &nfrSef;cJUygonf/ okdU&mwGif &[ef;tjzpfodkU a&mufaomtcgürl
awmifoGm;ajrmufoGm; vkyfcJU&onfwaMumif;? w&m;a[majymcsifaompdwf
jzpfay:vmonfwaMumif;? xD;csKdifhodkU a&mufvmaomtcgwGifvnf;
bkef;awmfBuD;ESifh aqG;aEG;&jcif;jzifh tcsdeftawmfukefonfwaMumif;?
w&m;tm;xkwfzdkU trsm;BuD; tcsdef&Sdao;onf[k ,lqrdonf waMumif;
aMumifh ]rD;yGwfaoma,mufsm;} yrm[laom ]qufwdkuf}0D&d,rsKd;
r&SdyJjzpfcJU\/ xdkUjyif 27 yg;aom &[ef;usifh0wfrsm;udkvnf; avhvm
&ao;onf/ xdkUaMumifh uRekfyfrSm jzLpifaompdwf&Sdaejcif;ESifh ywfoufí
avQmusjcif;r&Sdapumrl owdyXmeftvkyfü jywfvyfrIrsm;&Sdvmonf/
,if;odkU&SdpOf rdcifESifh zcifwdkUonf 0ufvufrSjrawmifodkU tvnfvmMuí
jrawmifbufwGif rpdk;wkdUtdrfü wnf;cdkMurnfhtaMumif;udk atmifjr
vmíavQmuf\/ okdUjzpfí uRekfyfonf rdbrsm;a&mufrnfhaeUwGif jrawmif
bufokdUul;vmí qGr;fpm;rnfhtaMumif; rSmxm;vdkuf\/ xdkaeUeHeufwGif

489 
uRekfyfonftdyf&mrS xuwnf;u wudk,fvkH;pdrfhwdrfhwdrfh&Sdjcif;udk owdjyKrd
\/ oDv&Sifuav;rsm; uyfvSLNrJjzpfaom ],m*k}udk aomufNyD;aemuf
jrawmifbufodkU iSufjzifhul;oGm;&m rMumrDyif tpkefoabFmjzifhrdbrsm;
qdkufa&mufvmMuonf/ tpm;aumif; 0goemygaom uRekfyfonf
xD;csKdifhNrdKUolNrdKUom;rsm;avmif;onfh qGrf;[if;rsm;rSm rnHUvSaomfvnf;
uREkfyfBudKufwwfaom [if;rsKd;udkodaom rpdk;csufrnfh eHeufqGrf;jzpfaom
aMumifh Nrdef&SufzdkU aocsmonf[laom arQmfvifhcsuf&Sd\/ okdU&mwGif
eHeufqGrf;uyfaomtcgürlum; arQmfvifhaom [if;rsKd;udkpm;&ygvsuf
arQmfvifhoavmuf rNrdefonfomru tcgwdkif;avmufrQ rpm;Edkifjcif;
udkawGU&\/ qGrf;pm;,if;yif ausmxJrS pdrfhí pdrfhí wcsufcsufwufvm\/
okdUjzpfíuREkfyfonf rdbrsm;ESifh aeukefatmif pum;ajymrnf[k BuH&G,fcJU
aomfvnf; aexdkifraumif;onfESifh ausmif;odkUjyef&ef jyifqifav&m
rdbrsm;vnf; eufjzefwGifvmMuzdkU rSmxm;vdkuf\/ ausmif;odkUatmifjr
vdkufydkU&m uREkfyfonf xD;csKdifha&qdyfrS awm&ausmif;okdUrnfuJUodkU
vmcJU&jcif;udkyif rrSwfrdyJ tdyf&mxJokdU a&mufvmcJUavonf/

tBuD;tus,fzsm;avNyD

]]OD;yOöif;? OD;yOöif;}}[k bkef;awmfBuD;\ toHjzifhac:oHMum;í


]]qGrf;cHxGufMupdkU}}[k ajymvkdufonfwGifrS tHUtm;oifhvsuf&Sd\/
uREkfyf\txifrSm ckeifurS jrawmifu jyefvmNyD; tdyf&mxJokdU0ifí
usdef;vkdufonfxif&m ,ckqGr;fcHxGufcsdef a&mufNyDqdkaomaMumifh wnvkH;
vlrSef;rodyJ ]wkH;}jzpfatmif zsm;cJUaMumif; od&awmhonf/ uREkfyfu

490 
rvdkufEdkifaMumif;? zsm;aeaMumif;avQmufxm;&m bkef;awmfBuD;0ifvmí
prf;oyfMunfhNyD; xGufoGm;onfudk odvdkuf&onf/
aemufwBudrfodvdkufomtcgrSm rdbrsm;ESifhrpdk;wkdU a&mufvmMujcif;
yif jzpf\/ olwkdUonfapmapmxí csufjyKwfMuNyD; oHcsKdifhrsm;jzifhxnfhum
aqmif,lvmMujcif;jzpfaMumif; od&\/ uREkfyfum;rxEdkifawmh? bmrQvnf;
rpm;Edkifawmhacs/ xdkaeU waeUvkH;vnf; ]wkH;}jzpfí bmrQrodacs/ bkef;awmf
BuD;vnf; cPcPul;vmí tm;vkH;ylyifaomua&mufvsuf&SdMu\/ rdb
rsm;ESifh rpdk;wkdUvnf;jrawmifbufodkU rjyefMu&awmhyJ ausmif;0if;jyifbuf&Sd
oDv&Sifausmif;ü csufjyKwfpm;Mu&\/
rdcifESifh rpdk;wkdUonf oDv&Sifausmif;ütdyfMuí zcifrlum;
uRekfyf\ausmif;wGif tdyf&\/ uREkfyftm; bmaq;0g;rsm; wdkufMuonf[k
uREkfyfrod&ay/ wwd,aeU eHeufü uREkfyftawmfuav;owd&vsuf
&Sd&mwGif rdcifESifhzcifwkdUu þenf;twdkif; tzsm;wm&SnfcJUvQif
jyKpkapmifha&SmufzdkUESifhwuG tppt&m&mwGif tcuftcJ&SdrnfjzpfaomaMumifh
acwÅvlxGufNyD; aemifwGifrS wzefjyef0wf&ef ajymjy&mwGif uREkfyfonfvnf;
¤if;wkdU\tcuftcJudkjrifonfESifh 0rf;enf;pGmjzifh oabmwlvdkuf&ygawmh
onf/
uREkfyfum; ]aocsifaoayap? vlrxGuf}qdkonf t,lonf;aom
vlwa,muf r[kwfacs/ zcifonf q&mawmfbkef;BuD;tm; tjzpftysufudk
avQmufxm;&mwGif q&mawmfbk&m;BuD;u rdrdysHvGefaomtcg ausmif;ocFrf;
udkpdwfcsvufcs vTJtyfxm;cJUEdkifrnfh &[ef;wyg; &&SdNyD[k 0rf;ajrmuf
0rf;omjzpfvsuf&SdpOf þuJUokdU jzpf&jcif;twGuf tvGefESajrmvSaMumif;ESifY
rdefUawmfrlvdkufonf[k zcifu jyefajymavonf/ odkUjzpfí ¤if;naewGif
uREkfyftm; yufvufukvm;xdkifay:wGifwifí xrf;,loGm;MuNyD;vQif

491 
jrawmifbufodkU a&mufumrSodu©mcsNyD; vl0wfvJvdkuf&ygawmhonf/
uREkfyf\pdwfwGif;üum; igonf&[ef;jyKa&; twGuf cJ,Of;pGmBudK;pm;í
atmifjrifaomtcgrS þuJUodkUjzpf&jcif;rSm &[ef;Zmwmyg[ef r&Sdaom
aMumifh jzpf&monf[k atmufarhí aemufwzef &[ef;jyKzdkUtwGufvkH;0
vufavQmhvdkufygawmhonf/

xl;qef;aom owÅdrsm;

&[ef;b0ü&SdpOf BuH&G,fcsuf r&SdyJvsufESifh uREkfyf&&Sd[efwlonfh


owÅdxl;taMumif;udk A[kokwtvdkUiSm þae&mü xnfhoGif;azmfjy&
ayOD;rnf/
0ufvufblwmrS refusnf;wkH&GmokUd zcifESifh avQmufvmMupOf
tvGefyljyif;í xD;vnf;rygacs/ zcifüxD;ygaomfvnf; xD;rdk;ay;jcif;udk
rcHvdk? ouFef;udk acgif;ay:üwifjyefvQifvnf; &[ef;taejzifh £ajEérJU
onf[k ,lqonfESifh aeylBuD;usJusJü OD;acgif;ajymifajymifBuD;ESifhyif
avQmufvmcJUonf/ wrdkifcefUa&mufvwfaomf rcHr&yfEdkifatmif yljyif;vm
cJUavNyD/ c&D;uvnf; w0ufcefU vdkao;\/ þwGifuREkfyfonf OD;acgif;udk
vuf0g;jzifhoyfvsuf ]]ryleJU}}[k qdkvdkuf&m OD;acgif;a&mudk,fyg
csufcsif;at;csrf;oGm;onfudk cHpm;vdkuf&ojzifh aevkH;udkwdrfzkH;í
oGm;avoavm[k aumif;uifodkUarmfhMunfhvdkufrdonf/ aumif;uifüum;
wdrfwkdufwckrQ r&SdyJ jcpfjcpfvefatmif yljyif;aom aevkH;onfomvQif
MunfvifpGmay:xGufaejcif;udk awGU&onf/ uREkfyfrSm udk,fh[mudk,fvefUNyD;
MuufoD;rsm;xrwwfjzpfoGm;\/ taMumif;rlum; ]]ryleJU}[k trdefUay;vkduf
pOfu þokdUjzpfvdrfhrnf[k rarQmfvifhyJylvGef;vSaomaMumifh vkyfrdvkyf&m

492 
vkyfvdkufjcif;rQomjzpf&m wu,fjzpfaeaomtcgü ]ighrSm b,fvdkowÅd
xl;awGrsm; &aeygvdrfh}[k tvefUwMum; awG;awmrdaomaMumifh aywnf;/
vrf;wavQmufvkH;vnf; t&dyfxJü vrf;avQmuf&onfhES,f vkH;0rylawmhacs/

'kwd,tBudrf

'kwd,tBudrfrSm {&m0wDjrpfudk orÁeform;ESifh ESpfa,mufwnf;


ul;vmMupOfujzpfí xdkpOfujrpfv,fwGif ava&mrkd;yg tBuD;tus,f
usvmawmhonf/ a&ul;wwfaomaMumifh aMumufvefUjcif;r&Sdaomfvnf;
wudk,fvkH;rSm &TJ&TJpdkvsuf &SdavNyD/ wbufurf;okdU vG,fulpGma&mufí
qdkufuyfxm;aom azmifxufokdU csOf;uyfNyD;vQif rdk;cdkMu&onf/ azmifay:ü
&Sdaom vlrsm;onf c&D;OD;BudKMuí azmifwJuav;xJokdU 0if&efyifhzdwf
Muojzifh 0ifíxkdifMuonf/ rkd;uvnf;&Gmwkef;? avuvnf; wdkufwkef;
yif&Sd\/ uREkfyfonfazmifuav;xJü aqmifhaMumifhxdkifvsuf&SdpOf 'um
okH;av;a,mufESifh 'umrESpfa,mufwkdUonf uREkfyftm;0dkif;&Hkum xdkifvsuf
&SdMu\/ pufpufusatmif pdk&TJvsuf&SdMuaom ouFef;udk nSpfívnf;
vTm;cGifhr&? vJvS,f&efvnf; r&SdyJ uREkfyfonf vlrsm;tv,fü
a&pufvufESifhxdkifae&pOf vkHNcKHpGmum&Hxm;onf r[kwfaom azmifwJxJodkU
w0SL;0SL;wkd;0ifwdkufcwfaom avaMumifhouFef;onf a&cJyrmat;jrvm
ojzifh uREkfyfwudkf,fvkH;rSm cdkufcdkufwkefvsuf&SdavNyD/ ]]OD;yOöif;at;&Smw,f}}
[k 'umrrsm;uajym&kHom ajymEdkifí bmrQrwwfEdkif acs/ uREkfyfwudkf,fvkH;
wkefvkdufykHrSm iSufzsm;wufouJUodkU &Sdawmhonf/ 'umrsm;ESifh 'umrrsm;u
u&kPmoufaom rsufESmxm;rsm;ESifh uREkfyftm; MunfhaeMupOf uREkfyfu
wkefíjyae&onfrSm &Sufp&maumif;onf[k atmufarhvmawmhonf/

493 
þwGifrS uRekfyfonf qwfqwfwkefaeaom vufarmif;rsm;udk
aphaphygatmifMunfhvsuf ]]rwkefeJU}}[ktrdefUay;vdkuf\/ aemufwcPü
NrD;anmifh&dk;qDrSpí a&aEG;tdwfwifay;vdkufonfhES,f aEG;ueJ jzpfvmí
ausmwavQmufvkH; wufvmNyD;vQif wudk,fvkH;NidrfoufoGm;av awmhonf/
xdktcgrS apmapmpD;pD;u þtaMumif;udk owdr&aumif;avavm[k
udk,fh[mudk,fNyHK;rdao;onf/

wwd,tBudrf

wwd,tBudrfrSm q&mawmfrsm;tv,fü toa&qnfEdkifcJUjcif;yif


jzpfonf/ wckaomrsufESmBuD;qGrf;auR;wGif &[ef;awmfav;ig;q,fcefU
yifhzdwfxm;&m uREkfyfrSm 0gEkaom&[ef;wyg;rQomjzpfaomfjim;vnf;
acwfynmwwf&[ef;uav;jzpfonfqdkí jrawmifq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;u
¤if;wdkUq&mawmfbk&m;BuD;rsm;\0dkif;okdUac:,lqGrf;pm;aponf/ uREkfyfwdkU\
qGrf;0dkif;ü uREkfyfrSwyg; <uif;usefaom yk*¾dKvfB uD;rsm;ofn þ&Gmxdk&GmwdkUrS
ausmif;xdkifyk*¾dKvf xdyfoD;BuD;rsm; jzpfMuonf/ qGrf;bkOf;ay;MupOf
uRekfyfonf MumZH[if;csKdwZGef;udk vSrf;,lí aomufvdkuf&m i&kwfaumif;
cwfxm;onfhtwGufrTefwufoGm;NyD; vnfacsmif;xJ? ESmacgif;xJrS
,m;usdusdjzpfum ]cGD;}ueJ ]oD;}awmhrnfhqJqJjzpfae\/ tu,fí
oD;vdkufrdacsaomf qGrf;w0dkif;vkH; aya&npfywfoGm;NyD; pm;zdkUaumif;awmh
rnfr[kwfyJ uREkfyfvnf; t&SufuGJ&acsawmhrnf/ þtjcif;t&mudk&dyfueJ
owd&vdkufrdaom uRekfyfonfvnfyif;udk &kwfw&ufudkifvsuf ]]roD;eJU}[k
trdefUay;vkduf&m rTefwufjcif; &kwfw&uf aysmufoGm;íaumif;rGefpGm

494 
qufvufqGrf;pm;Edkifygawmhonf/ þokH;Budrfteuf wwd,tBudrf
atmifjrifjcif;twGuf 0rf;omírqkH; jzpfcJU&ygawmhonf/

jrawmif? 0ufvuf? &efukef

rdbrsm;a&m uREkfyfyg yg;&Sm;aom tcdkufjzpfonfESifh aq;aumif;


0g;aumif;rSD0J&ef rwwfEdkifyJ &Sd&mwGif uREkfyf\tzsm;rSm iSufzsm;jzpfonf[k
odaomfvnf; ESpfvcefUrQ cHvdkuf&onf/ uREkfyftzdkUrSm 'kwd,tBudrf
iSufzsm;jzpfjcif;aMumifh raoEdkif[k t&rf;pdwfcsxm;onfESifh rnfrQavmuf
tzsm;BuD;onfjzpfap rdrdtwGuf pdk;&drfaMumifhMujcif;r&Sd? uGmEdkifaq;rQ
avmufjzifh wjznf;jznf;emvHxlcJU&onf/ zcifonf &ufowÅwywf
cefUavmufwGif jyefoGm;í rdcifrlum; uREkfyfwdkUESifhtwl ae&pfcJUonf/
ESpfvcefUMumí tzsm;vGwfaomtcg uRekfyfrSm tom;r&Sdoavmufjzpfí
t&dk;ESifh ta&rQom usefcJUygonf/ aumif;pGm usef;rmvmaomtcg
uREkfyfwdkUokH;a,mufonf 0ufvufodkUjyefMuí ,ciftwdkif; 0dkif;vkyf0dkif;pm;
aexdkifMujyefavonf/ ,if;okdU&SdpOf nDawmfarmif\ om;a&vkyfief;rSm
aps;rudkufyJ&SdonfESifh uRekfyfonf ol&d,wdkufwGif twlwuG
tvkyfvkyfcJUbl;onfh (vG,ftdwf)udkbvIdifxHodkU tvkyftudkifESifh
ywfoufípkHprf;aom pmwapmif xnfhvkduf\/ udkbvIdifrSm xdktcgü
e,l;bm;rm;&ufjcm; t*Fvdyfowif;pm xkwfa0vsuf&Sd&m uREkfyftm;
¤if;wkdU\wkdufü twGif;a&;rSL;  (Secretary)  vkyfvdkvQif vc100day;Edkifí
a&SUtzdkUvnf; wkd;wuf&ef &SdaMumif;ESifh pmwapmifjyefvkdufayonf/ vc
100donf rrsm;vSaomfvnf; (1926ckESpf) xdkpOfurl NcKd;NcHpGmokH;pGJygu

495 
0rf;0Edkifonfhjyif &efukefokdUa&mufvQif 0w¦Ka&;zkdU twGufvnf; ykHESdyfwdkuf
rsm;ESifh qufoG,fEdkifao;onfqdkum vufcHvkdufygawmhonf/

e,l;bm;rm;wkduf

1926 ckESpf? rwfvwGif uREkfyfwdkUZeD;armifESHESifh nDawmfarmifwkdUonf


rdbrsm;ESifh cGJcGmí &efukefNrdKUodkU qif;vmcJUMuav\/ xdkpOfuyif
&efukefNrdUü aexdkif&ef tdrf&zdkUcJ,Of;aeNyD jzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyfwdkUonf
ukefonfvrf;ü qdkifcif;vsuf&Sdaom rdwfaqGudkcifarmifwifh\ wkdufcef;ü
&uftenf;i,f rQom wnf;cdkNyD;aemuf tvGefuHaumif;pGmESifh prf;acsmif;&yf
prf;acsmif;vrf; wGif tdrfcef;wpfcef;&&Sdygonf/ &efukefNrdKUütvkyf&zdkUESifh
tdrfcef;&zdkUrSm twlwlyif cJ,Of;cJU&m tvkyfa&m aep&myg a&Sma&Sm&SL&SL
&vdkufjcif;twGuf uHaumif;vSonf[k 0rf;omrdygonf/ þum;[kwfygNyD/
odkU&mwGif owif;pmwdkufwwdkufü twGif;a&;rSL;tvkyf[lonfrSm rnfonfh
tvkyfrsKd;ayenf;/
uREkfyfonf uavmifjzifh toufarG;aom tvkyfrsKd;udk oabmus
onfhtavsmuf ¤if;tvkyfESpfrsKd;wwfcJUygonf/ pma&;tvkyfrSm vnf;
wenf;tm;jzifh ]uavmif}tvkyf[lí ac:Edkifygonf/ þESpfrsKd;teuf uRekfyf
onf pma&;tvkyfrsKd;udk rBudKuf/ udk,fydkifOmPfuav;xkwfí a&;&aom
pma&;q&m? odkUr[kwf owif;pmq&m tvkyfrsKd;udkydkí ESpfouf\/
e,l;bm;rm;owif;pmwdkufodkU a&mufoGm;aomtcg uRekfyfpdk;&drfonfh
twdkif; twGif;a&;rSL; tvkyfrSm pma&;wydkif;? tkyfcsKyfa&;wydkif; tvkyfrsKd;
jzpfjcif;udk awGU&í uREkfyftawmfwkefvIyfoGm;\/ refae*sif; t,f'Dwm
jzpfaom udkbvIdifrSm tawmfcifriftm;udk;ykH&í ]vlawmf} wa,muf[k

496 
rSwf,lonfh vu©PmESifh wm0efrsm;vTJay;\/ uREkfyfrlum; pma&;&kH
oma&;csifNyD; pDrHtkyfcsKyfaom tvkyfrsKd;udk tawmf&GHUrkef;oljzpf\/ tvkyf
wdkufokdUa&mufí uREkfyf\wm0efrsm;udk cGJa0ay;vkdufuwnf;u ]igum;þ
tvkyfrsKd;üMum&SnfpGm vkyfEdkifrnfhvlwa,muf r[kwf}[lí qkH;jzwfvkduf
avNyD/ uREkfyf\tvkyfum;pmay;pm,l tenf;i,fyg&Sdonfh tjyif refae*sm
udkbvIdifvufrSwfxkd;apzdkUtwGuf uREkfyfuwm0efcH taejzifhvufrSwf
twdkxdk;&jcif;? ta&mif;t0,f? aiGxkwfaiGoGif;rSpí tvkyform;ESifh
ukrÜPDjzpfap? tjyifvlESifhukrÜPDjzpfap qufqHrI [lorQwGif uREkfyf\
vufrSwfudk yg&onfcsnf;jzpf&m waeUvkH;vufrSwf wkduav;awG a&;xdk;
ae&onfESifhyif tcsdefukef\/ þrQomruao; xGufoGm;aom twGif;
a&;rSL;a[mif;u vufrSwfwdkuav; rxdk;yJxm;cJUaom aAmufcsmrsm;udk
vnf; (b,fhESpfvtwGufrod) uREkfyfu rSefrrSef ppfaq;NyD; vufrSwfxkd;zdkU
udkbvIdifu wm0efay;xm;\/ odkUjzpfí uREkfyfrSmaAmufcsmtopfrsm;
ra&mufvmao;onfh tcsdefrsm;wGif aAmufcsma[mif; zdkifBuD;rsm;udk
vSefívufrSwfwdk xdk;&avonf/

umv0dygwf aemufydk;wufjcif;avm

waeUoü uREkfyfonf ol&d,wdkufwGif wkduftkyfOD;vSaz r&SdawmhyJ


refae*sif;'g&dkufwmae&mwGif vkyfudkifvsuf&SdaMumif; owif;Mum;onfESifh
0w¦Krsm;a&;zdkU tquftoG,fvkyf&efa&mufoGm;\/ OD;bazu a&S;utwdkif;
rSD;aom0w¦Krsm; a&;zdkUajymonfESifh oabmwl vufcHcJUygonf/ xdkUaemuf
uREkfyfESifh tuRrf;0ifbl;onfh pma&;wa,mufxHokdU 0ifíwkdufom;a[mif;
rsm;taMumif; pkHprf;ar;jref;&m tHUMozG,faom owif;rsm;omMum;cJU&\/

497 
ol&d,wdkfufrS uREkfyftvkyfxkwfcHcJU&ykH tjzpftysufudk txufwGif
azmfjycJUbl;&m trSefrSm uREkfyfü tjypf&Sdjcif;r[kwf? tvkyfwckckü Mum&SnfpGm
rvkyf&onfh uREkfyf\Zmwmtwdkif; uRekfyfuxGufonfjzpfap? tvkyf&Sifu
xkwfypfonfjzpfap wenf;enf;jzifh xGuf&ol wa,mufjzpfygonf/
1920jynfhESpfwGif uRekfyftvkyfxkwfcH&pOfu uREkfyftm; 0dkif;í wGef;xkwf
Mujcif;udk txdkuftavsmufrQom &dyfrdcJU&m ,ckrSmrl¤if;pma&;u
tao;pdwf ajymjyjcif;aMumifh tvkH;pkHod&SdcJU&ygonf/ þajcmufESpfrQaom
tcsdefumv tawmtwGif;ü uRekfyfudk0dkif;íwGef;Muonfh t,f'DwmESifh
pma&;rsm;omru vl&dk;BuD;wa,mufjzpfaomwdkuftkyf OD;vSazudkf,fwkdif
taMumif;wrsKd;pDjzifh ol&d,wdkufrS xGufoGm;Mu&í ¤if;wkdUvlpkteufrS
wa,mufrQrusef&SdawmhaMumif; ajymjyavonf/
OD;vSazum; uREkfyftay:ü rw&m;jyKusifhonf[k rpGyfpJGvdkyg/ ]wGef;}
aomvlrsm;\ pum;udk em;0ifojzifh uREkfyftay:ü txifvGJNyD; xkwf
vdkufjcif; jzpfonf[kyif ,kHMunfygonf/ okdUESifhyifolvnf; roufom/
olUtay:ü tjcm;aom 'g&dkufwmrsm;u txifvJGMuonfhvu©Pmjzifh
ol&d,wdkufESifh tqufjzwfjcif;cH&ygonf/ uREkfyfum; þtcsufwGif
tawmfxl;qef;olwa,mufjzpf\/ ol&d,wdkfufudpöwGif omruuREkfyf\
toufwm aemufydkif;wGifvnf; uREkfyfxifay:jcif;udk remvdkaom olrsm;
onf olwkdUudk,fwdkif epfjrKyfoGm;jcif;udkawGU&\/ uREkfyftm;uavmf
xkwfcsifaomvlrsm;onf olwkdUudk,fwdkif vGifhpifoGm;jcif;udkawGU&\/
uREkfyftm; tusKd;,kwfatmif zefwD;aomolrsm;onf ¤if;wdkUtusKd;
ysufpD;jcif;udk awGU&\/ xdkokdUaomvlrsm;onf uREkfy\
f woufwmwGif
renf;vSacs/ uREkfyfudk,füu remvdkcsifpzG,faumif;aom vlwa,muf
jzpfavoavm rajymwwf/ okdU&mwGifuREkfyfepfemonfESifhtrQ olwkdUvnf;

498 
tvm;wlepfemMu&onfcsnf; jzpfavonf/ wdkuftkyfOD;vSazqdkygrl
ol&d,owif;pmwdkufBuD;udk OD;bazESifhtwl wnfaxmifcJUoljzpfygvsuf
ol&d,owif;pmudk0,fí zwf&aomtjzpfodkU a&mufoGm;jcif;udk
(aemufydkif;ü) oludk,fwdkif uREkfyftm; 0rf;enf;pGmESifhajymjybl;ygonf/
1934 ckESpfqDavmufürl OD;vSazonf olUtdrfa&SUrS uREkfyfvrf;avQmuf
oGm;jcif;udkjrifojzifh oludk,fwdkifxGufíac: jcif;? vrf;üolu jrif;&xm;ESifY
qkHrdMu&m jrif;&xm;udk&yfí uREkfyfESifhqif;NyD; pum;ajymjcif;?
uREkfyf\tajctaeudk ar;jref;jcif;? tultnDvdkygu ay;zkdUtoifh&Sdygonf
[k ajymjcif; ponfjzifh aemifw&aom vu©Pmrsm;jyonf/ 1936 ckESpfwGif
ol&d,wdkufodkUuREkfyf 'kwd,tBudrfjyef0ifaomtcgwGifvnf; oludk,fwdkif
tdrfodkUvmí 0rf;omaMumif;ajymygonf/ uREkfyftm;OD;buav;u
jyefac:rnf jyK&mwGif (OD;vSazrSm OD;buav\ oifq&mjzpfonf/)
OD;vSazuxkwfcJUaom vlwa,mufjzpfí jyefac:jcif;udk uefUuGuf&ef
&Sdygoavm[k ar;aMumif;? OD;vSazu uefUuGuf&efr&Sdonfhjyif 0rf;omyg
onf[k jyefajymvkduf&aMumif;ESifh OD;vSazudk,fwdkifu aESmif;jzpfrsm;
taMumif;udkrl oluvnf; pum;rpyf? uREkfyfuvnf; rajymyJ em;vnfrIESifh
a&SmifuGif;Muygonf/ OD;vSazonf (1937ckESpfxifonf/) prf;acsmif;&yfü
uG,fvGefav&m pifppftm;jzifhvlawmf vlaumif;wa,mufjzpfaomfvnf;
BuD;yGm;a&;wGif xifoavmufraygufyJ abm*aA'usrf;wapmifrQESifhyif
b0Zmwfodrf; oGm;&&Smavonf/

499 
twwfrsKd;pkH &jyefjcif;

uREkfyfonf e,l;bm;rm; owif;pmwdkufü tvkyfvkyfvsuf&SdpOf


oli,fcsif;udkcifarmifwifhESifh ]vkH;}rdMujyefonfESifh twwfaygif;pkH &jyef
avNyD/ udkcifarmifwifhrSm bdvyfjyefwa,muf jzpfonfhtavsmuf aysmfrI
yg;rI tvkyfrsKd;wGif ]'dk;uJUodkUarTU}Edkifol wa,muf[lí qdkavmufayonf/
[dkw,füpm;aomufjcif;? bdvd,ufxkd;jcif;? uvyfwufjcif;? jrif;yGJoGm;
jcif;paom taysmfrIESifh avmif;upm;rIrsm;wGif ol0goemrygaom tvkyf
r&Sdacs/
þtxJwGif jrif;yGJwckrSwyg; uREkfyfvnf; tm;vkH;BudKufí olUxHwGif
wynfhcH\/ jrif;yGJrSmrlum;wGufcsufwwfaom uREkfyftzdkUrSm rnfonfhenf;
ESifhrQ 0goemygEdkifp&m r&Sdacs/ þavmif;upm;enf;rsKd;um; aiGaMu;wwf
Edkifaom jrif;&Sifrsm;? 'g&dkufwmrsm;? jrif;yGJESifhqdkif&m x&defem? a*smfuD?
pwl;0yfpaom tvkyform;rsm;twGuf zefwD;xm;aom avmif;upm;enf;
jzpfí t&yfom;rsm; tzdkUrSm ]rdkuf&m}usaom upm;enf; oufoufjzpfonf
[k uREkfyfjrifxm;\/ txufyg vlpkrSwyg; t&yfom;rsm; tzdkUrSm Edkifcsifí
avmif;vQifvnf; rJGzdkUomrsm;\/ aysmfcsifíavmif;vQif vnf; wusyfwef
avmufaysmf&zdkUtwGuf ig;usyfukef&aom aysmfenf;rsKd; jzpfavonf/
odkU&mwGif avmuü ]pkH}rSauseyfaom uREkfyfonf ESpfacguf okH;acgufawmh
a&mufvdkufygao;\/ xdkUuJUodkU a&muf&jcif;aMumifhjzpf&onfh uREkfyf\
xl;qef;aom tdyfrufrsm; taMumif;udk azmfjyygOD;rnf?

500 
xl;qef;aomtdyfrufrsm;

uREkfyf\rdcifonf xl;qef;aom tdyfrufrsm; jrifrufwwfonf[k


wae&mü t>rufrQazmfjycJUbl;&m uREkfyfrSmvnf; rdcifxHrS ygvmavoavm
rod?  (Psychic)  xl;qef;aompdwfobm0wrsKd;qufcH &&SdykH&\/ uREkfyf\
tdyfrufrsm;rSm ]]xef;oD;a<ucdkuf usD;eif;cdkuf}}[lí rqdkEdkifavmufatmif
xl;qef;vSaomaMumifh A[kokwtvdkUiSm azmfjy&ygOD; rnf/ uREkfyfonf
e,l;bm;rm; owif;pmwkdufü twGif;a&;rSL; vkyfvsuf&SdpOf jrif;yGJ0goem
ygaom udkxGef;oef;onf e,l;bm;rm; owif;pmt,f'Dwmvkyfvsuf&Sd\/
xkdESpfu &efukefjrif;yGJrsm;wGif ]][dkw,fvdkufaZ;wm;}}ac: vQyfppf"mwftm;
jzifh *Pef;rsm;ay:xGufonfh pufud&d,mpwiftokH;jyKonf qdkaomaMumifh
uREkfyfonf ¤if;pufud&d,mudkjrifvdkonfESifh udkxGef;oef;ESifhtwl jrif;yGJodkU
vkdufoGm;\/ okdUaomf txufwGifazmfjycJUonfhtwdkif; oabmaygufxm;
onf jzpfaomaMumifh wjym;wcsyfrQ ravmif;yJ Munfh&kHrQom
MunfhNyD;jyefvmcJU avonf/ aemufwaeUeHeuf tdyf&mrSxaomtcg  (Daisy) 
]a'pD}[laom jrif;\trnfudktdyfrufrufonf[k owd&\/ tvkyfwdkufodkU
a&mufaomtcg udkxGef;oef;tm; ]a'pD}[laomjrif;trnf &Sdygoavm[k
ar;Munfh&m &Sdonf[k ajym\/ okdUaomf aemufwywfwGif ajy;rnf?
rajy;rnf rodEdkifao;? Ak'¨[l;aeUrS od&rnf[k ajym\/ Ak'¨[l;aeUwdkifa&muf
í jrif;yGJ[if'Duwf xGufvmaomtcg ]a'pD}ygonf[kajymí udkxGef;oef;u
taMumif;udkar;ojzifh uREkfyfutdyfruftaMumif;udk ajymjy\/ udkxGef;oef;
onf jrif;[if'Duwfudk wGufMunfhNyD;aemuf ]a'pD}rSm þ ]cJ}jzifh rEdkifEdkif[k
ajymaomfvnf; prf;Munfhcsifonf[kqdkum aemufwywf jrif;yGJwGif
uREkfyfvdkufoGm;\/ uRekfyfüaiG 25usyfygcJU&m udkxGe;foef;u þcJjzifh

501 
rEdkifEdkifyg[k ajymí vufOD;yGJrsm;rS jrif;rsm;udkxkd;cdkif;\/ a'pD\yGJrSm
aemufqkH;yGJjzpfaeavonf/ uREkfyfonf ukdxGef;oef;\jzm;a,mif;jcif;rsm;udk
em;raxmifyJ (vufrSwftwGuf 5usyfay;NyD;aemuf) usefaomaiG 20d
udkuspfuspfygatmif xkyfxm;\/ yOöryJGNyD;vwfaomf udkxGef;oef;ü
waumifrS rwkdufaomaMumifh ygaomaiGukefavNyD/ qXryGJwGif
udkxGef;oef;onf uREkfyfxHrSaiGacs;av&m rMunfromESifhyif aiG10d acs;
vdkuf&\/ udkxGef;oef;rSm xdkyGJwGifvnf;rwdkufacs/ upm;orm;wkdU
rnfonfrSm vufxJüaiGukefaomtcg jrifaomvlxHrS acs;csifwwf\/
xdkUaMumifhuREkfyfonf (jrif;q,fyJGajy;rnfhteuf) usefaom jrif;okH;yJGudk
udkxGef;oef;ESifh vGwfatmifa&SmifaeNyD; aemufqkH; 10 yGJwGifrS a'pDtwGuf
0if; ig;usyf? yav; ig;usyf xkd;vdkuf\/ yef;vTwfawmhonf/ okdUaomf
51usyfrQ avsmfaomaMumifh xdkaeUu a'pD\avsmfaMu;rSm tjcm;yJGrsm;rS
]0if;}xufyif ydkao;onf[kajymMuonf/ ]0if;}rwdkufaomfvnf; avsmfaMu;
trsm;qkH;aom jrif;udka&G;NyD; tdyfruf&onf[k ajymp&m&Sdaeavonf/

'kwd,tdyfruf

xdkUaemuf wvcefUMumí uREkfyftdyf&mrS Edk;vmaomtcg  (Larry) 

]vm&D}[laom t*FvdyfpmvkH;BuD; bvufbkwfü a&;xm;jcif;udk tdyfrufxJü


jrifvdkuf&onf[k owday:vm\/ xdkaeUrSm[if'Duwf xGufNyD;jzpfí
udkxGef;oef;udk ar;Munfh&m ¤if;u ]vm&D}[la om jrif;&Sdí þwywfvnf;
ajy;rnfhtaMumif;? okdUaomf ]cJ}av;vGef;aomaMumifh Edkifvdrfhrnf rxif
aMumif;ajym\/ (udkxGef;oef;um; uREkfyfawGUbl;orQaom vlrsm;teufwGif
,kHcJqkH;aom vlwa,mufjzpf\/) uREkfyfrlum; olajymcsif&m ajymap?

502 
]vm&D}udk avmif;rnf[k oEédXmefcsxm;NyD;jzpf\/ jrif;yGJum; okH;&ufvdk
ao;\/ uREkfyfonf xdkpOfu NAdwdoQbm;rm; r*¾Zif;twGuf pkHaxmuf
armifpH&Sm; 0w¦Kwyk'f 50d EIef;ESifhvwdkif; a&;vsuf&Sd\/ okdUjzpfí uRekfyf
onf 0w¦Kwyk'fa&;í r*¾Zif;wkdufodkU oGm;NyD;vQif paeaeUrS aiG50d
vm,lrnfqdkum aumfyDay;xm;cJU\/ paeaeUwdkif; a&mufaomtcg
refae*sm udkqdkifu aiG 50d r&SdaMumif;? 25usyfom &SdaMumif;ajymí
pdwfysufpGmESifh ¤if;udk,lcJU&av\/
xdkUaemuf udkxGef;oef;ESifhtwl xGufvmMu&m udkxGef;oef;onf
uREkfyf\ ]wpf}udk r,lvdkonfhjyif uREkfyftm;yif ]vm&D}udk ravmif;zdkU
wavQmufvkH; zsufygao;\/ jrif;yGJodkU a&mufMuaomtcgvm&DrSm
jrif;yGJq,fyGJteuf aemufqkH;yJG\ tvsifwyGJ (udk;yGJ)wGif ajy;rnf[k
od&\/ wyGJESpfyJGajy;NyD;aomtcg udkxGef;oef;u ]vm&D}udk uREkfyfwu,f
,kHMunfcJUvQif aiGrsm;rsm;Edkifapjcif;iSm wwd,yJGüaocsmayguf Edkifrnfhjrif;
udk (emrnfudkawmh uREkfyfarhoGm;NyD/) avmif;í&aom avsmfaiGjzifhvm&Dudk
avmif;EdkifaMumif; ajym\/ uREkfyfrSmvnf; avmb0ifvmNyDjzpfí aiG50d
ygcJUzdkU pDpOfxm;NyD;rS 25d usyfom ygvmonfESifh rausrcsrf; jzpfaeaom
aMumifh olUpum;udk em;0ifoGm;\/ þwGifaiG10davmif;vdkuf&m ygoGm;
avonf/ olUrSmvnf;ajymifavNyD/ &IH;aom vlrsm;onf 0rf;[mwwfí
Edkifaomvlrsm;rSm bmrQ rpm;yJESifhauseyfNyD; Adkufjynfhaewwfjcif;rSm
upm;orm;rsm;\ "r®wmjzpf\/ tcsdefrSm ESpfem&DausmfNyDjzpf&m uREkfyfwkdU
ESpfa,mufvkH; tlwMuKwfMuKwfESifh tvGefqmvsuf &SdMu\/ ]vm&D}\yGJrSm
wem&DcGJcefU vdkao;\/ rapmifhEdkifawmhacs/ þwGif uREkfyfwdkUonf
vufzuf&nfcef;xJodkU0ifí wusyfzkd;pDrQ vufzuf&nf aomufvkdufMu
ojzifh &Spfusyfom usefawmhí ]vm&D}\yGJwdkif a&mufonfESifh aoG;Nidrfpdrfh

503 
aomiSm t&ufwcGufpD oGm;íaomufvkdufMuonf/ ]vm&D}udk ]yufa'gh}okdU
xkwfvmaomtcg tvGefqkd;ykH&aom jrif;eufBuD;jzpfí BudK;ESpfacsmif;ESifh
qdkufukvm;ESpfa,muf udkif&\/ udkxGef;oef;u ]]cifAsmhaumifBuD;u
qdk;uqdk;oeJU? *dwfrSmusef&pf ygvdrfhrnf}}[k ajymao;\/ odkUaomf
vTwfvdkufaomtcg ]tkyf}xJu vdkufaomfvnf; yef;t0ifwGifxdk;wufvmNyD;
a&SUqkH;rS 0ifoGm;avonf/ avsmfaiGum; vufrSwfwapmiftwGuf 151
usyf&avonf/
uREkfyfrSm tdfrfuygvmcJUaom aiG25 usyfrS 151 usyfjzpfvmí
tjrwfBuD; &aomfvnf; rlvBuH&G,fcsuftwdkif; 50d zdk;avmif;vdkuf&vQif
1510d &rnfqdkum rausrcsrf; jzpfaerdao;\/ þum;avmbom;wkdU\
"r®wmwnf;/

wwd,tdyfruf

wpkHwa,mufaomolu uREkfyftm; tdyfrufay;jcif; jzpfcJUvQif


]]þvlum; xdkufwefaomvlwa,muf r[kwf}}[k qkdum tdyfrufray;yJ
aeavovm; rajymwwf/ xdkUaemufwGif tdyfrufr&awmhyJ udk;ESpfcefUMum
aomtcgrS tvGefxl;qef;aom tdyfrufwck ruf&jyefonf/ tdyfrufxJü
uREkfyfonf w&kwfuvyfwGif av;aumif*sif xdk;vsuf&Sd\/ xdk*sifrSm
av;aumif*sif qdkaomfvnf; av;uGufwnf; r[kwfyJ tuGufaygif; 20
cefU&Sdí tuGufrsm;wGif xkH;pHtwdkif; Muuf? 0uf? ig;&SOfh? zm; wnf;[laom
t&kyfav;aumifr[kwfyJ *Pef;rsm;a&;xm;onfudk jrif&\/ *Pef;rsm;
rSmvnf; t*Fvdyf *Pef;rsm;jzpf\/ uREkfyfonf tjcm;vlrsm;ESifhtwl
ckH&Snfay:wGif xdkifvsuf *sifxdk;ae&m w&kwfu okH;BudrfzGifhjcif;udk jrif&\/

504 
jrif&aom *Pef;rsm;rSm (14-8-6)wdkUjzpfav\/ tdyf&mrSEdk;í *Pef;
ygaom*sif[k r&SdygyJvsuf xl;xl;qef;qef; jrifrufjcif;udk pOf;pm;vsuf&SdpOf
xdkaeUonfum; jrif;yGJaeU jzpfjcif;udk jAKef;ueJ owd&\/ þrQom
ruao;? xdkpOfurl ]]okH;aumifpGyf}}ay:vsuf&Sdjcif;udkvnf; owd&\/
þwGif okH;aumifpGyftwGuf tdyfrufjzpf&rnf[k awG;xifvdkufygawmhonf/
odkUjzpfí tdrfü&SdorQaom aiG30dudk ,lNyD; jrif;yGJokdUoGm;ygawmhonf/
þwBudrfrl udkxGef;oef;r&SdawmhyJ rdrdwa,mufwnf; oabmtwdkif;
vkyfEdkifawmhrnf[k atmufarhrdygao;onf/ jrif;yJGodkUa&mufaomtcg
okH;aumifpGyf yxrwGJyJG ajy;cgeD;wGif tdrfeD;csif;wa,mufESifhawGUí
]]bmxdk;ovJ}} [kar;ojzifh ]14}[kajymvkduf&m olvnf;ajy;í xkd;ao;onf/
uREkfyfrlum; ]14}twGufaiG25usyfzdk; (ig;apmif) qkwfvdkufonf/ ¤if;yGJwGif
]14}eHygwf jrif;yif0ifí avsmfaiG 24usyfpD&aom aMumifh pkpkaygif; 120d
&avonf/ ysOfjym;ay:wGif Edkifaomjrif;eHygwf ]14}udk ajrjzLjzifha&;í
ajrSmufwifvdkufaomtcg ysOfjym;ay:ü a&;xm;aom ]14}rSm tdfyfrufxJwGif
}*sif}ay:ü a&;xm;onfh ]14}ESifh vlwa,mufwnf; a&;xm;onfh vufa&;
uJUodkU tvGefwlonfudk uREkfyfjrif&aomtcg igum; ,aeUaocsmNyD[k
tBuD;tus,f0rf;omrdygawmhonf/
uREkfyfonfi,fpOfuwnf;u tvkyform;ESifh twlaecJU&í avmif;
upm;jcif; tvkyfü 0goemxkHvsuf&Sdaomfvnf; pifppftm;jzifh EdkifzdkU
avmbBuD;ol wa,mufr[kwf/ r&IH;yJESifhaysmfae&vQif auseyfEdkifol
wa,mufjzpf\/ tcsKdUuavmif;upm;yJGrSxvmí ]t&if;}jzpfonfqdkvQif
tvum;anmif;wmygyJ[k ajymwwfMu\/ uREkfyfrlum; ]t&if;}jzpfae
onfqdkvQif avmif;upm;íaysmf&jcif;twGuf jrwfonf[k ,lqEdkifonf/
xdkolwdkUu Edkifcsifí upm;onf[kqdkMu&m uREkfyfrlum; &IH;rnfavm

505 
Edkifrnfavm? odkUavmodkUavm  (Suspense)  jzpfae&jcif;onf t&omwck
jzpfonf[k,lq\/ uREkfyf\&nf&G,fcsufrSmum; rEdkifcsifae? r&IH;vQif
auseyfonf[kqdkEdki\
f / okdUqdkvQifydkufqHravmif;yJ tvum;wrf; upm;
vQifjzpfEdkifonf r[kwfavm[k ar;zG,f&Sd\/ usifvnfrIESifhqdkifaom upm;
enf;rsKd;wGif ydkufqHravmif;yJ aysmfEdkifaomfvnf; ]uHupm;}enf;rsKd;wGif
ydkufqHravmif;yJraysmfEdkif? t"dyÜm,fr&Sdacs/ þtaMumif;rsm;udk &Sif;vif;
azmfjy&jcif;rSm þokH;aumifpGyfyJGü uREkfyfavmif;ykHudk em;vnfMuap&ef
jzpfavonf/ uREkfyfonftdyfruf&aomaMumifh EdkifcsifívmcJUjcif; jzpfaomf
vnf; &IH;oGm;rnfudkwbufu pdk;&drfao;\/ odkUjzpfí yxrwGJyGJrS aiG
120davsmfaiG&aomtcg 'kwd,ESifh wwd,yGJrsm;twGuf tm;vkH;ykHíravmif;
ao;yJ aiG 20dcsefxm;í pGyftwGuf60d (vufrSwf 12apmif)? 'kwd,yJGtwGuf
40d(vufrSwf 8apmif) avmif;vdkuf\/ 'kwd,yGJü jrif;eHygwf(8)wkdufí
avsmfaiGwapmif 10dusyfESifh aiG80d&\/ þwGifvufxJü aiG20d+80djyif
okH;aumifpGyftwGuf vufrSwf 12apmif&Sdao;onf/ okH;aumifpGyf[lí wcg
rSwdkufvnf;rwdkufbl; xdk;vnf;rxkd;bl;aom uREkfyfrSm wwd,wJGajy;cgeD;ü
&ifckefvIdufykHrSm teD;rS vlrsm;yifMum;&avmufonfxif\/ (þrQavmuf
&ifckef&jcif;rSm tEdkift&IH; aMumifh r[kwfyg? av;aumif*sif0dkif;rsm;wGif
wcgw&H þrQavmufru xdk;cJUbl;ygonf/ &ifckef&jcif;rSm ig\tdyfruf
rSefrnfavm? rSm;rnfavm odcsifaZmaMumifh jzpfygonf/) wwd,wJGyGJü jrif;
12 aumifvTwfvdkuf avNyD/ uREkfyf\ eHygwf (6)jrif;rSm
ESmwHtjzLusm;jzpfí azG;azG;azG;azG;ESifh ajy;vmjcif;udk ta0;BuD;rSjrif&\/
okdUaomf &ifckefvGef;tm;BuD;aomaMumifh aoaocsmcsm rMunfh0HUacs/
wcgw&H rMunfh&JaomaMumifh rsufESmvTJí aevkduf&\/ yef;0ifoGm;
MuavNyD/ b,fjrif;ygvdrfh/ uREkfyfem;rMum;yJjzpf ae\/ ]pdefvQH}qdkavvm;?

506 
]wdrfysH}qdkavvm; ruJGjym;acs/ pdefvQHonf uREkfyf\jrif;eHygwf(6)jzpf\/
bvufbkwfokdUMunfhvdkufaomtcg eHygwf(9)jzpfí ]wdrfysH}EdkifoGm;avNyD/
okH;aumifpGyfwGif ESpfaumifwnfNyD;rS aemufqkH;waumif vGJ&jcif;
jzpfavonf/ uREkfyf\vufxJüaiG100d&Sdaeí aiG 70dEdkifonfrSefaomf vnf;
ESpfaumifrSefNyD;rS waumifvJGaom tdyfrufudk uREkfyfem;rvnfEdkif atmif
&Sdawmhonf/ waumifvJG&rnfjzpfvQif tb,faMumifh ESpfaumifrSefaom
tdyfrufrsKd; ruf&oenf;/ pifppfrSm tdyfrufwcktaejzifh ESpfyJGqufNyD;
rSefzkdUvnf; vG,fulonf r[kwfacs/ em;vnfaom jrif;orm; wa,muf
um; ESpfaumifrSefEdkifonf/ ,ckrSm tdyfrufoufoufjzpfygvsuf
tb,fhaMumifh ESpfaumifrSefEdkif &oenf;/ uREkfyfonf usefaom jrif;wyJGü
pdwfr0ifpm;awmhyJ jrif;yJGrS wa,muf wnf;jyefvmcJU\/ aiG 100d
vufudkif&Sd onfum; [kwfyg\/ odkUESifh uREkfyfrSm þjyóemonf
pdwfxJwGif wtkHaEG;aEG;&Sdaeygawmhonf/

jyóem&Sif;oGm;jcif;

xdkUaemuf 7 ESpfcefUMumaomtcg uREkfyfESifh v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;


rif;BuD;&kH;wGif twlwuGtvkyfvkyfcJUbl;í yxrtdrfaxmif rvSrl;ESifhqG,f
ay;aom oli,fcsif; udkrsKd;tHUonf uREkfyf\tdrfodkUa&mufvmí ESpfaygif;
rsm;pGm uJGuGmaecJUaom oli,fcsif;jzpfonfhtavsmuf auR;arG;jyKpk\/ xdkol
rSmt*¾d,orm;wa,mufjzpfí [kwÅdywÅd tvkyfrvkyfyJ acsmifvnfacsmifywf
jzpfae&Sm\/ udkrsKd;tHUu aiGacsmifacsmif &vdkoavm[k ar;í
]upm;arSmf}oGif;ay;rnf[kajym&m uREkfyfu aiGvdkcsif aomfvnf; ]arSmf}udk
r,kHMunfaMumif;ajym\/ þodkUjzifh avmif;upm;jcif; taMumif;udk

507 
qufvuf ajymjyMu,if; uREkfyfutxufyg jrif;yGJtdyfruf rsm;taMumif;
ajymjyav\/ uREkfyfu wwd,tdyfrufonf uREkfyf\OD;aESmufudk ,aeUwdkif
tvkyfay;vsuf&SdaMumif; ajymjyav\/ þvlum; wenf;tm;jzifh
OmPfwrsKd;&Sdaom vlwa,mufjzpfygayonf/ uREkfyf\pum;qkH;onfESifh
wNydKifeuf udkrsKd;tHUu ]]cifAsm;[mu 6 eJU 9 eJU vGJaewmudk;As? 9
aZmufxdk;Munfhrdawmh 6 jzpfoGm;wmaygh? tdyfrufu 9 jyygvsufeJU
cifAsm;uaZmufxkd;MunfhrdNyD; 6 jzpfoGm;awmhwmayghAs}}[k ajymavonf/
[kwfvnf;[kwfayonf/ tdyfrufxJu*sifwGif vufudkif (tnSm)uav;
uyfvsufyg&Sd&m 9 udkajymif;jyef Munhfvsufom;jzpfaeaom aMumifh 6 [k
uREkfyfjrifcJU&jcif; jzpf&ayrnf/ rnfodkUyifjzpfapuREkfyftm; ESpfaygif;twef
Mumatmif 'ku©ay;vmcJUaom jyóemwckum; &Sif;vif;oGm; ygNyD/
armifrif;BuD;om;tm; aus;Zl;wifygonf/ uREkfyf\tdyfrufrsm;rSm
rnfolwOD;wa,mufu ay;vmonfjzpfap? uREkfyfzmom uREkfyfjrifruf
onfjzpfap uREkfyftzdkU&mü woufvkH;twGuf twdwfedrdwfuJUodkU t"dyÜm,f
ay:vGifvSayonf/ tdyfrufokH;ckvkH;ü uREkfyftzdkU tcsnf;ESD;rjzpf?
txdkuftavsmuf tusKd;cHpm;&jcif;udk awGUMu&ayNyD/ okdUaomf
acsmacsmarmarm vSvSyyBuD;um; cHpm;&onfr[kwfacs/ uREkfyf\
toufwm wavQmufvkH;wGifvnf; þtwdkif;yif jzpfcJU\/ uREkfyf\
tusKd;ay;rSm odyfawmhracvS/ odkUaomf uRwfuRwfvGwfvGwf atmifjrifrI
BuD;rsKd;um; r&SdcJUbl;acs/ þonfrSm þpmudk a&;vsuf&Sdaom ,cktcsdef
(72ESpf)ü t"dyÜm,faumufjcif;jzpfav&m a&SUtzdkUwGif jyifqifaumuf,lzdkU
taMumif;jzpfay:OD;rnfavm rajymwwfay/

508 
avmif;upm;ykH pepfwck

e,l;bm;rm; owif;pmwdkufü tvkyfvkyfvsuf&SdpOf uREkfyfwdkU\


aysmfenf;trsKd;rsKd;teuf ,aeUwdkif rarhEkdifonfh uvyfwufjcif;tvkyfudk
azmfjyvdk\/ rarhEdkifqdkjcif;rSm þ[mrsKd;BuKHawGUcsifvSao;aomaMumifh
r[kwf&yg/ þacwf þ[mrsKd; r&SdawmhonfhtwGuf a&S;jzpfa[mif;taejzifh
atmufarhaomaMumifh jzpfygonf/ 1926ckESpfü uREkfyfonf ]teDaxmif}[k
Mum;bl;&kHom&Sdí jrifvnf; rjrifbl;? upm;bl;zkdUum; a0;avNyD/
(þacwfvlrsm;onf ]teDaxmif}avmif;upm;enf;udk jrifbl;ol enf;yg;
ayvdrfhrnf/) avmif;upm;ykHrSm av;aumif*sifESifh vkH;0wlí ]ygxef}ESifh
tawmftwefwl\/ uREkfyfonf þavmif;upm;enf;udk tao;pdwf
azmfjyvdkjcif;r[kwf? xdkacwfuupm;orm;rsm;\ ]ewfjynf}wckudk
a&;jycsifaomaMumifh jzpfygonf/ uREkfyfonf udkcifarmifwifhESifhtwl
vrf;rawmf&Sd w&kwfuvyfrsm;odkU oGm;avh&Sd\/ avmif;upm;olrsm;onf
avmif;upm;enf;wrsKd;rsKd;ü wwfcgpwGif Edkifwwfonf/  (Beginner's Luck) 
qdkaom t*Fvdyfpum;ykHwck&Sd\/ þpum;ykHonf tjcm;olrsm;twGuf
rajymwwf? uREkfyftzdkUrl rSefonfcsnf; awGU&\/ uREkfyfwcgw&H pOf;pm;
rdonfrSm upm;wwfcgpvlrsm; Edkifwwfjcif;rSm taMumif;rnfodkU
&Sdavoenf;/ rwwfwwwfESifh avmif;upm;vQif &IH;zdkUoifhygvsuf tb,fh
aMumifh Edkif&oenf;/ Edkifwwfonfqdkjcif;rSm ]OmPf}ygaom avmif;upm;
jcif;rsKd;twGuf r[kwfEdkif? uHoufouf avmif;upm;enf;rsKd;twGufom
jzpf&ayrnf/ Oyrm bdvd,ufrwwfyJvsufESifh avmif;wef;xdk;vQif
&IH;zdkUaocsmav&m udk;rD;zJupm;vQifrlum; EdkifcsifEdkifEdkifayvdrfhrnf/
]teDaxmif}rlum; udk;rD;zJuJUodkU uHoufouf avmif;pm;jcif;jzpfí

509 
wwfcgpvlrsm;vnf; EdkifzdkUvrf;&Sdavonf/ uREkfyfonf udkcifarmifwifhESifh
twl w&kwfuvyfrsm;odkU oGm;aomtcg ]vufudkif}aiG 20d-25dusyfrQ
ygavh&Sd\/ píupm;vdkufonfqkdvQifyif em&Dw0ufcefUtwGif; aiGav;
ig;q,f EdkifvdkufavNyD/ qufvufupm;í 10d-15dusyf jyef&IH;onfqdkvQif
acwÅ&yfem;NyD; EdkifrSom qufvufíupm;\/ þonfum; uREkfyf\
avmif;upm;pepfaywnf;/

uREkfyfawGU&Sdaompepf

þae&mü avmif;upm;jcif;ESifh ywfoufí (BuD;jyif;vmaomtcgrS)


uREkfyfawGU&Sdxm;aom pepfwckudk azmfjyvd\
k / i,fpOftcgu
v,f,mpdkufysKd;jcif;&kH;ü tvkyfvkyfpOf avmif;upm;rdí&IH;cJUbl;jcif;rsm;
taMumif;udk azmfjycJUbl;&m xdkuJUodkUjzpf&jcif;rSm azmfjyvwÅHUaom ]pepf}udk
em;rvnfao;aomaMumifhjzpf\/ rnfolrqdk avmif;upm;enf;wckü (]uH}
jzpfap? ]OmPf}jzpfap) upm;vdkufonfqdkvQif wxdkifwnf;twGif; &IH;csnf
Edkifcsnf jzpfjcif;udk awGU&wwfayonf/ wavQmufwnf;&IH;jcif;?
wavQmufwnf;Edkifjcif; qdkonfrsKd;rSm tvGefw&m awGU&cJayonf/
rsm;pGmaom upm;orm;wkdU ajymwwfMuonfrSm ]]Edkifaewkef;u
awmfvdkufrdvQif aumif;om;Asm? reJbl;As? aiG 300davmufEdkifvdkuf
ao;w,f? avmbBuD;NyD; qufupm;vdkufwm ajymifygava&mAsm}}[lonf
yifjzpf\/ uREkfyfudk,fwdkif i,fpOfuvnf; þtjzpfrsKd; cPcP
BuKHcJU&bl;\/ ]]Edkifwkef;rSmawmf&rnfqdkvQif qufNyD;rEdkifEdkif[krnfolu
ajymEdkifoenf;}}[k ar;zG,f&m&Sd\/ [kwfawmh [kwfygonf/ odkUaomf
uREkfyfawGUxm;aompepfrSm þokdUjzpf\/ EdkifaeorQ qufíupm;oifh\/

510 
Oyrm aiG100d Edkifae&mrS qufNyD;upm;ojzifh 200d-300d txd qufíEdkif
onfqdktHU/ qufvufíupm;ojzifh 150d cefUjyef&IH;NyD; tEdkif150rQom
usefawmhonfqdktHU/ uREkfyfrlum; b,fenf;ESifhrQ qufíupm;awmhrnf
r[kwfacs/ trsm;tm;jzifhrl 100davmufjyef&IH;onfqdkvQifyif uRekfyfawmfcJUyg
onf/ þpepfudk tokH;jyKjcif;tm;jzifh uREkfyfrSm tcsKdUvlrsm;uJUodkU
yufyufpufpuf rEdkifaomfvnf; yufyufpufpuf &IH;cJvSonf/
uREkfyfavmif;upm;wdkif; 10BudrfvQif 7Budrf 8BudrfcefU Edkifavh&Sd\/
xdkifvdkufuwnf;u awmufavQmuf &IH;aomtcgrsm;üom uREkfyf&IH;&\/
þodkUaomtjzpfrsKd;rSm upm;orm;wdkif;yif BuKH&cJ\/ EdkifNyD;rS
]ajymif}&olwkdUom rsm;avonf/ *syefwacwfvkH;ü uRekfyfrSm pma&;zkdU
tcGifhr&SdaomaMumifh avmif;upm;jcif;jzifh toufarG;cJU&bl;&m
þtaMumif;udk oufqdkifaomtcef;wGifrS azmfjyygOD;rnf/

a&S;acwfa[mif; atmufarhzG,f

vrf;rawmf w&kwfuvyfrsm;ü udkcifarmifwifhESifh uREkfyfonf 1926


ckESpfwGif paeaeUnwdkif; ]teDaxmif} upm;cJUMu\/ uvyfwckudk
wufíupm;ojzifh (Oyrm) uREkfyfü aiG 50d EdkifNyD;&mrS jyef&IH;ojzifh 30d rQ
(tEdkif) usefawmhonfqdkvQif uREkfyfonf xdkif&mrS xvdkufavNyD/
udkcifarmifwifh\ tajctaeudkMunfhí olupm;csifao;vQifvnf; uRekfyf
onf acsmifwckokdUoGm;í bD,maomuf,if;apmifhae\/ (uREkfyfonf
udkodef;az? udknSif;wdkUESifhtwl zcifxH aot&uf vSLMuNyD;onfhaemuf
ouFef;0wfaomtcsdefESifh qufNyD; ok&mar&,tvkyfrsKd; ESpfESpfcefUjzwf
vsuf&SdcJU&m udkcifarmifwifhESifh w&kwfuvyfrsm;okdUa&mufcgrS t"dXmefysuf

511 
&ygawmhonf/ okdUaomf olUaMumifh[líum; rqdkvdkyg/) udkcifarmifwifhrSm
uvyfjyKwfatmif Edkif&rS awmfrnf[k ajymbl;ol jzpfonfhtwdkif;
pdwfauseyfaomtcgrS xvmawmh&m uvyfrjyKwfyJ oljyKwfíom
vmcJUonf/ odkUaomfuREkfyfütEdkifuav;&Sdxm;aomaMumifh awmfygao;\/
wnwavürl olEdkifaecdkufwGif uRekfyfu (w&kwfrsm;trkef; cHNyD;)
twif;qGJaomaMumifh tEdkifuav; ygvmjcif;rsm;vnf; &Sdyg\/ xdkodkUaom
nrsKd;wGif uREkfyfwdkUESpfa,mufonf uvyfay:rS bD,mwykvif;pDaomuf
cJUNyD; atmufodkUqif;vmMuí acgufqGJqdkifrsm;wGif taumif;qkH;aom
pm;p&mrsm;udk pm;aomufMu\/ xdkUaemufvrf;rawmf vrf;rBuD;wavQmuf
avQmufMuí rnfonfhuvyfodkU jyefíwufMu&ygrnf enf;[ka&G;cs,f
Mu\/ xdkpOfu vrf;rawmfwavQmuf&Sd wkdufrsm;rSm tm;vkH;vdkyif
uvyfrsm;jzpfMuí "mwfrD;wxdefxdefav,yfrsm;w0D0Djzifh avmif;upm;ol
rsm;rSmvnf; ysm;yef;cwfodkU qif;MuwufMu? pm;MuaomufMu? avmif;
upm;Mujzifh bk&m;yJGwrQ pnfum;vS\/
uREkfyfonf upm;orm;rsm;\ trlt&mudk Munfhjcif;tm;jzifh
xdkol\tEdkift&IH;udk tuJcwfaom tavhtusifhjyKvkyfxm;\/ acgufqGJ
qdkifü &Tef;&Tef;a0aomrsufESmESifh a[mifzGma[mifzGm pum;ajymaom vlum;
EdkifcJUoljzpf&rnf/ xdkolESifh w0dkif;wnf;xdkifvsuf rsufESmcyfnId;nId;ESifh
olajymorQudk axmufcHvsuf&Sdaom vlonfum; udk,fwdkif&IH;vmcJUojzifh
uyfíaomufaomvljzpfonf[k odEdkifavonf/ rsm;aomtm;jzifhrl
yxrvlpm;rsKd; wa,mufawGU&wdkif; 'kwd,vlpm;rsKd; av;ig;a,mufrQ
awGU&onfcsnf;jzpf\/ 0dkif;wckwGif zifayghayghESifh cdkif;orQ xvkyfNyD;
oGm;wNzJNzJ&SdaeolrsKd;vnf; yg&Sdwwfay&m xdkolrlum; upm;orm; r[kwf?
]uvyf*sydk;}jzpfavonf/ vlwa,mufEdkifí qif;oGm;vQif *sydk;

512 
waumifESpfaumif uyfüygoGm;onfcsnf; jzpfavonf/ rnfodkUqdkap
av;ig;a,muf&IH;wdkif; Edkifolwa,mufwav yg&SdwwfonfjzpfaomaMumifh
xdkwa,mufudkMunfhNyD; oGm;&nfusMu&jcif;tm;jzifh vrf;rawmf&yfuGuf
onf upm;orm;rsm;\ ewfjynfwrQ wrf;wol aygrsm;ygbdonf/
tol&um,fü cHcsnfwcg pHcsnfwvSnfh[k qdk&m uREkfyftzdkU&mü
paeaeUrsm;onf cHpm;aomtydkif;[k owfrSwfxm; xdkw&uftwGuf 6
&ufvkH;vkH; vufcsKd;um a&wGufarQmfvifhcJU&\/ ESpfa,mufvkH;&IH;í
ajymifaomnrsm;rSwyg; uREkfyfwdkUonf uvyfwckrSwckokdU ul;vdkuf?
aomufvkduf? pm;vdkuf b,frSmrS r&SdawmhonfhtwGuf wcgw&H
vGrf;&OD;rnfuJUodkU jzpfrdygao;onf/ rdkwmum;onf vSnf;Murf;xuf
aumif;aomfvnf; a&Tpm&Hpaom bk&m;yJGrsKd;odkU vSnf;Murf;jzifhoGm;í
aysmf&bl;jcif;udk rarhEdkifouJUodkUyif/

wm0efBuD;aomtvkyfwck

e,l;bm;rm;wdkuf twGif;a&;rSL; tvkyfonf ]Am[D&} tvkyfrsKd;jzpf


aomaMumifh uREkfyfrESpfoufaMumif; azmfjycJUNyDjzpf&m xdkrQru OD;aESmuf
ajcmuf&ykHudk azmfjy&ygOD;rnf/ waeUoü 0wfvkHawmf&wa,mufonf
wdkufodkUvmí ykHESdyfvkyfief;wcktaMumif; pkHprf;\/ tvkyfrSm þodkUwnf;/
ol\w&m;cHwa,muftm; [dkufukwfvTwfawmfu vlowfrIxif&Sm;onf
qdkum aopm;aoap[k BudK;rdefUcsxm;&m w&m;cHu t*Fvefjynf
y&DADaumifpDodkU t,lcH0ifcsif\/ y&DADaumifpD\xkH;rSm ¤if;odkUt,lcH0if
aomtrIrsm;wGif trIwGJudk jrefrmjynf vTwfawmfrsm;rSmuJUodkU
vufESdyfpufjzifh &dkuful;wifquf&kHjzifh rNyD;yJ trIwJG wckvkH;udkykHESdyfí

513 
pmtkyftjzpfESifh wifydkU&avonf/ pmtkyfrsm;udk (8 tkyfxifonf/) wifydkU
&mwGif ,ckuJUodkU av,mOfysHray:ao;ojzifh oabFmESifh ydkU&rnfjzpf\/
w&m;cHonfvTwfawmfrS BudK;rdefUusNyD;onfhaemuf t,lcH&uf (&ufaygif;
40qdkvm;) &&Sd&m xdktcsdeftwGif; y&DADaumifpDtzGJU\ vufodkU a&muf&
rnfjzpf\/ oabFmwpif;onf xdkpOfu jrefrmjynfrS t*FvefodkU &ufowÅ
okH;ywf tenf;qkH;oGm;&\/ twdkcsKH;vdkufaomf t*FvefjynfodkU t,lcH&uf
rSDatmif a&mufrnfhoabFmonf xdktcgü jrefrmjynfrSxGufzdkU &&ufcefUrQ
omvdkawmh\/ t"dyÜm,frSm 0wfvkHawmf&onf trIwGJpmtkyfrsm;udk &&uf
twGif; ykHESdyfNyD;pD;apvdkonf/ 7 &uftwGif; rNyD;ojzifh oabFmrrSDvdkufyJ
&SdcJUaomfxdktvkyfonf tcsnf;ESD; tv[ó jzpf&vdrfhrnf[k qdkvdkonf/
0wfvkHawmf&onfvufESdyfpufjzifh &dkufESdyfxm;onfh trIwGJudkxkwfjyí
udkbvIdifESifh uREkfyfwdkUonf zdkrif\tultnDjzifh wGufcsufMu\/
uREkfyfwkdU\wGufudef;t&rSm ¤if;tvkyfonf 10&ufcefUMumrnfh tvkyfwck
jzpfí vlydkrsm;ac:NyD; wGef;xdk;vkyfudkifrnfqdkygu 7 &ufrQESifh NyD;Edkifavmuf
onf/ 0wfvkHawmf&url tjcm;ykHESdyfwdkufrsm;rS jiif;y,fvdkufonfh
vu©PmESifh udkbvIdiftm; twif;tyluyfaeonfhjyif ykHESdyfcudkvnf;
wef&mwefzkd;xuf ESpfqay;\/ udkbvIdifum; aps;aumif;&onfqdkum
vufcHcsifvSNyDjzpf&m zdkrifuvnf; udkbvIdiftm;rsufESmvkyfcsifonfESifh
vufcHzdkU wdkufwGef;vsuf&Sd\/ udkbvIdifonfbmrQrajymyJ qdwfqdfwfae
aom uREkfyftm; ]]b,fhES,fAs udkazodef;}}[kar;&m uREkfyfrlum; pdwfav;
vsuf&Sd\/ uREkfyfonf xkdtvkyf\taMumif;jcif;&mudk 0wfvkHawmf&
ajymjyí od&onfhjyif tvkyfudkvufcHí vkyfaomtcgwGifvnf;
zdkrifESifhwuG pmpDorm;rsm;tm; aqmfEId;&rnfhwm0efrSm uREkfyftvkyfjzpfaom

514 
aMumifh EIwfroGufEdkifyJjzpfae\/ udk,fwdkifvkyfíjzpfaom tvkyfrsKd;qdkygu
(aps;aumif;&aomaMumifh) aESmifhaES;rnfr[kwfyg/
,ckrSm ukvm;pmpDorm;rsm;ESifh 8-9vrQ qufqHvkyfudkifcJU&bl;NyDjzpf
aomaMumifh ¤if;wdkUtaMumif;udk odNyD;jzpfí tcsdefESifhwuG wm0ef,l&rnfudk
tvGefpdwfav;vsuf&Sdygonf/ okdU&mwGifaemufqkH;ü udkbvIdif\qE´jynfh0
ygapawmhqdkum acgif;ndwfvdkufygawmhonf/

rBudK;pm;pbl; BudK;pm;jcif;

trIwGJudk ykHESdyfaomtvkyfpavNyD/ yxrwGif okH;&ufrQESifh tvkyf


xuf0ufcefUNyD;pD;oGm;onfjzpfí udkbvIdifonf wNyKH;NyKH;&Sdum uRekfyfvnf;
auseyfvSygonf/ uREkfyfonf þtvkyfwGif udk,fwdkifulnD vkyfudkifay;
Edkifaom tuGufr&Sdaomfvnf; uREkfyfrjrifbl;&onfh BudK;ay;w&m;cH
twGufaMumifh pdwfylonfESifh vkyfaeustvkyfudk csxm;um xyfcdk;uav;ü
tvkyfvkyfMuaom pmpDorm;rsm;qDodkUcPcP wufoGm;NyD; tvkyfNyD;oifh
oavmuf NyD;rNyD;udkMunfh&I\/ tvkyform;rsm;udk wkdufwGef;\/ tm;ay;
\/ olwkdUvnf; BudK;pm;Muyg\/ odkU&mwGif yOöraeUürlum; tvkyform;
ESpfa,muf wkyfauG;auG;ojzifh tvkyfrqif;EdkifyJ&Sd&mwGif OD;acgif;BuD;oGm;
rdygawmhonf/ zdkriftm; vlpm;&atmif &Smapygaomfvnf; &efukefa*Zuf
owif;pmwdkufrS wa,mufwnf;&cUJ\/ ¤if;udkvnf; vkyfcESpfqay;&\/
aiGum;udpör&Sd? vlESpfa,mufjynfhatmif r&jcif;twGuf pdwfylvSonf/
aemufwaeUüvlESpfa,muf xyfízsm;jyef&m uREkfyfwdkU rsufvkH;jyL;ukefMu
&avNyD/ vlpm;&Smjyefawmhvnf; wa,mufwnf;om&í ,refaeUu
qJG,lcJUonfh tvkyform;vnf; rvmEdkifawmhacs/ uRekfyfwdkUonf

515 
ntcsdefrsm;yg ]tdkAmwdkif}vkyfzdkU pDpOfMu\/ uRekfyfonf Munfhjrifwdkif
prf;acsmif;&yfuGufü aexdkifvsuf&Sd&m ntcsdefrsm;wGif wdkufodkUvmí
tvkyform;rsm;udk tm;ay;&ao;\/ tdyfcsifajyatmif umzDrsm;0,fí
wdkuf&ao;\/ olwkdUvnf;tpGrf;ukef BudK;pm;Mu&Smygayonf/ uREkfyfvkyfcJU
avorQaomtvkyf trsKd;rsKd;wkdUwGif þwBudrfuJUodkU vkyfcJUbl;jcif;
r&Sdbl;yg/ rdk;tvif;xkdifNyD; pma&;bl;aom naygif;rsm;pGm&Sdyg\/ odkU&mwGif
rdr\
d avmbtavsmuf a&;jcif;jzpfí pdwfat;vufat;vnf; vkyf&ygonf/
,ckrSmrl udk,fwdkifvnf; rvkyfwwfyJ tvum; ]Asmrsm;}&aomtvkyf
jzpfaomaMumifh pdwfyifyef;vSyg onf/ xdkESpfwGif &efukefNrdKUpmpDorm;
avmuü wkyfauG; tBuD;tus,fzsm; Muav&m pmpDorm;wa,muf
zsm;onfqdkvQif þtvkyftwGuf tcsdefrSDatmif tvkyfqif;Edkifawmhonf
r[kwfaomaMumifh vlpm;xdk;EdkifzdkUom BudK;pm;&ygawmhonf/ tvkyftyf&
rnfhaeUwGif pmtkyfrsm;rSm rNyD;wNyD;&Sdae\/ qdkvdk&if;rSm oabFmrSD
rnfqdkvnf; rSDEdkif\/ rrSDyJjzpfvQifvnf; jzpfEdkif\/ aemufydwfqkH;nü
tvkyform;rsm;vnf; rdk;vif;atmifvkyfMuí uREkfyfvnf; tvkyfwdkufü
pm;yJGay:wGiftdyfcJU&yg onf/ tajy;tvTm; pmpD? uwdkufu&dkuf ykHESdyf?
tjrefqkH;y&kMunhf? aoajy;&Sifajy; csKyfvkyfMuyg\/ odkUaomf oabFmum;
rrSDvdkufawmhacs/ pmtkyfrsm;NyD;aomtcsdefwGif oabFmonf yifv,f0
avmufxuf ydkía&mufOD;rnfr[kwfacs/ 0wfvkH\pma&;onfaemufqkH;
uREkfyfwdkUwdkufodkU vefcsm;ESifh okH;av;acgufrQ vmcsnfjyefcsnf vkyfvsuf
&Sd&m pwkw¦acgufwGif vefjcm;ay:rSyif rqif;EdkifawmhyJ ]xGufoGm;NyDAsKdU}
[kqdkum vufjyoGm;ygavawmhonf/ qufvufítvkyfvkyfMuygrl 15
rdepfcefUavmufwGif NyD;Edkifrnf jzpfaomfvnf; taMumif;rxl;awmhonfESifh

516 
tvkyform;rsm;onf pdwfysuftm;avsmhpGmESifh tvkyfudk ypfcsvdkufMu
ygawmhonf/

tvkyfrSEIwfxGufjcif;

naeydkif;wGif 0wfvkHpma&;onf wdkufodkU wacgufvmjyefí y&DAD


aumifpDodkU aMu;eef;&dkufxm;aMumif;? aemufoabFmESifh wifydkUvdkufygrnf[k
&dkufvdkufaMumif;? okdUjzpfí trIwJGpmtkyfrsm;udk qufvufí NyD;atmif
vkyfMuzdkUtaMumif; ajymav\/ tvkyform;rsm;vnf; ]awmfygao;&JU}qdkum
tvkyfudkjyefí aumufMuav\/ 10 &ufcefUavmuf Mumaomtcg
pma&;onf wdkufodkUwzef a&mufvmíESvkH;romzG,faom owif;w&yfudk
ajymjyygawmhonf/
[dkufukwfvTwfawmfonf vlowfrIw&m;cH\ t,lcHtrIwGJrSm
y&DADaumifpDodkU oabFmjzifhtcsdefrDygroGm;aMumif; od&SdonfESifh w&m;cHtm;
BudK;ay;zdkU trdefUcsvdkufojzifh xdkaeUüyif BudK;ay;vkdufNyDjzpfaMumif;
ajymjyavonf/ tjcm;vlrsm;um; rqdkEdkif/ uREkfyfudk,fwdkifrSmrl y&DAD
aumifpDodkUtrIwGJ a&mufaumif;yg\[k arQmfvifhcJUrdonf/ aumifpDodkU
a&mufí zwf&INyD;umrS y,fvkdufonfqdkvQif uREkfyfESifhrqdkif/ rnfonfhenf;
ESifhrqdk aumifpDvlBuD;rsm; zwf&IMu&aumif;yg\[k arQmfvifhcJUrd\/
,ckrSmrl xdktjzpfodkU ra&muf&yJ w&m;cHudkBudK;ay;vkdufNyD qdkaomaMumifh
uREkfyf\pdwfxJü ]cJavorQ oJa&us}jzpf&avNyDqdkum þtwGif;a&;rSL;
tvkyfESifhywfoufí tBuD;tus,f oHa0*&&SdoGm;cJUav NyD/ uREkfyfonf
þtaMumif;udk ukefpifatmifudkbvIdiftm;ajymrjyyJ þtvkyfrsKd;ESifh
uREkfyfrwef[kajymNyD;vQif 1926 ckESpf? 'DZifbmv 31 &ufaeUrSpí

517 
xGufcGifhjyKzdkU ajymygawmhonf/ udkbvIdifonfvGefcJUaom av;vavmuf
rSpí uRekfyftm; vc 125d txdwdk;ay;vmcJU&m Zefe0g&Dv 1&ufaeUrSpí
aiG150d ay;ygrnfqdkum wm;ygao;onf/ uREkfyfrlum; EIwfrSzGifhí
rajymapumrl 500d &aomfvnf; rvkyf[k qkH;jzwfNyD;jzpfavonf/

qlNzdK;aomESpfwESpf

1927ckESpf? Zefe0g&Dvw&ufaeUonf uREkfyf\woufwmwGif ]vGwfvyfa&;


aeU} [líyif owfrSwfxm;rd\/ uREkfyfonf &efukefESifh tqufjywf
vsuf&SdpOf &efukefodkU qif;vmEdkifatmif vrf;cif;ay;ayaom udkbvIdiftm;
aus;Zl;rwif&m usrnfpdk;aomaMumifh twGif;a&;rSL;tvkyfudk ]rIdcsKd; rQpfcsKd;}
rajymvdkyg/ tvkyfonf edrfhusonfr[kwf/ (udkbvIdifatmufwGif uREkfyf
yif&Sdí t,f'DwmudkxGef;oef;ESifh wef;wljzpfygonf/) uREkfyf\ 0goemESifh
rudkufnDjcif;rQom jzpf\/ okdUjzpfí 'DZifbmv 31&ufaeUnwGif uREkfyf
onf udkcifarmifwifhESifh taysmfBuD;aysmfvdkufrdygao; onf/ uREkfyfaysmfEdkif
onfrSmum; e,l;bm;rm; owif;pmwdkufü tvkyfvkyfvsuf&SdpOfuyif
owif;pm? *sme,f? r*¾Zif;paom wdkufrsm;twGuf 0w¦Krsm;a&;ay;&ef
tquftoG,f jyKvkyfxm;NyD;jzpfí wvvQif 200d? 250drQ&zdkU aocsmNyD;
jzpfaomaMumifhjzpf\/ þrQomruao; bmomjyef tvkyfESifh qdkif&mwGif
vnf; udkbvIdifu tquftoG,fjyKvkyfay;ygao;onf/ xdkpOfu jrefrm
jynfwGif 'dpBwdwfaumifpDrsm; pwifzGJUpnf;vsuf&Sd&m ]bdkifavm}ac: Oya'
pnf;urf; pmtkyfrsm;udk wjynfvkH;&Sd 'dpBwdwfaumifpDrsm;u jrefrm
bmomjzifh &dkufESdyfvsuf&Sd\/ udkbvIdifrSm xdkpOfu rdwfaqGaygrsm;aom
vlwa,mufjzpf&m rsm;pGmaom 'dpBwdwfaumifpDrsm;u puú&Daw&Drsm;onf

518 
olESifhausmif;aebuf oli,fcsif;rsm;jzpfMu\/ ¤if;wkdUonf e,l;bm;rm;
wdkufodkU ]bdkifavm}rsm;udk t*Fvdyfvdk tyfvdkufMuí jrefrmvdkjyefNyD;
pmtkyf&dkufESdyfay;&ef tyfESHMu\/ udkbvIdifonf bmomjyeftvkyfudk
uREkfyftm; iSm;ygayonf/ 'dpBwdfwfaumifpDbdkifavmrsm;rSm wckESifhwck
qifwl&dk;rSm;jzpfMuí trnfae&yfrQavmuf ajymif;vJay;&ef omvdkayonf/
odkUjzpfí 1927 ckESpfonf tjcm;tvkyfrsm;ESifh bmomjyeftvkyfrS 0ifaiG
wdkUaMumifh uREkfyftzdkUrSm tvGefqlNzdK;aom ESpfwESpfjzpf\/ xdkESpftwGuf
0ifaiGpkpkaygif;rSm 4200d&Sdí wvvQif 350drQ wGufudef;us\/ xdkacwfu
aiG350donf þacwfwGif 1500d? 2000d cefUESifh nDrQaomaMumifh pma&;q&m
wa,muftzdkUü ]qlNzdK;aomESpf}[k ac:jcif;rSm rrSm;vSacs/

udk,fhudk,fudkauseyfaom tuGufwck

acRwma&;orm;wa,muf jzpfcJUvQif xdkESpfwGif uREkfyfwdkUvifr,m;


tzdkU txkyftxnfuav;jzpfoifh\/ yxrtdrfaxmifESifh orD;wa,muf?
'kwd,tdrfaxmifESifh om;wa,muf orD;wa,muftjyif uREkfyf\ rdbrsm;
twGufyg pkpkaygif;rS wvvQif 70d-80drQavmufom axmufyHU&onf
jzpfaomaMumifh wv 15usyfwef tdrfcef;uav;wGif aeavmufaom uREkfyf
wdkU vifr,m;rSm tawmftwefpkaqmif;Edkifoifh\/ odkU&mwGif uREkfyfum;
vlwrsKd;jzpfí ajymavmufatmif tzufrwifacs/ vlwrsKd;[k qdkjcif;rSm
w&m;tm;xkwfaom tcsdefydkif;ESifh ouFef;0wfaom tcsdefydkif;wGif uREkfyf
onfaysmfrI?yg;rI? okH;jzKef;rI[lorQudk pGefUvTwfEdkifcJUojzifh a&SUtzdkUwGifvnf;
vkH;0vSnfhrMunfhawmhNyD[líyif rSwfxifcJUrdaomf vnf; &efukefodkUa&mufí
udkcifarmifwifh? udkausmf(yDrdk;eif;)paom rdwfaqGrsm;ESifh ]jyefaygif;xkyf}

519 
rdMu&mwGifrlum; uRekfyf\oEÅmefü &[ef;b0updwfrsKd; vkH;0&Smr&awmhyJ
[dka&S;,cifutwdkif; aysmfaysmfyg;yg; pm;pm;aomufaomuf aecJUrdjyefyg
awmhonf/ odkU&mwGifaumif;aom tuGufuav;wuGuf usef&Sd&pfao;onf
rSmum; rdwfaqGrsm;ESifhtwl taysmfMuL;vsuf&Sdaom tcdkuftwefUrsm;üyif
]]igonf ,ckaysmfvsuf&Sdonf? okdUaomf waeUaeUü þaysmf&TifrIrsm;udk
pGefUvTwfNyD; w&m; qufvuftm;xkwfzdkU tvkyfBuD; &Sdao;onfwum;}}
[laom pdwftBuHonf ay:vmwwfonfcsnf;jzpfavonf/ þonfrSm
pdwftBuHrQ om jzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyftzdkU&mü tvGefw&m wefzdk;&SdvS\/
tawmftwef vlrsm; jzwfzdkUcJ,Of;í ]pJG}wwfvSonfqdkaom ok&mar&,
ESpfrsKd;okH;rsKd;udkyif prf;MunfhzdkU uREkfyfraMumufjcif;rSm txufyg pdwftBuH
tm;udk;aMumifhjzpf\/ prf;&kHomru ]pGJ}vnf;pJGbl;\/ odkUaomf jzwfEdkifcJU
onfcsnf; jzpfygonf/ txufyg ok&mar&, okH;rsKd;teuf wckrSm pGJrdvQif
jzwfEdkifol r&Sdoavmuf ao&mygMu&onfcsnf; jzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyfum;
atmifjrifcJUojzifh udk,fhausmudk,f oyfvdkufcsifygao;onf/ þodkU
atmifjrifcJUjcif;rSm uREfkyfonf pdwftm;aumif;aom vlwa,mufjzpfaom
aMumifhr[kwf/ (trSefrSm pdwfaysmfholwa,muf jzpfygonf/) w&m;
tm;xkwfzdkU tvkyfBuD;usefao;onf[laom pJGvef;rIBuD;aMumifh jzpfygonf/
tu,fí uREkfyfonfxdkatmifjrifrI r&SdcJUvQif þrSwfwrf;udk r&Suf?
,aeUwdkif rdkufrdygonf[k taMumif;rJUazmfjyzdkUum; pdwful;xnfhrnf
r[kwfacs/ taMumif;rJU[laom pum;udk xnfhoGif;&jcif;rSm ]]ajymvQifajym?
rajymvQif owfypfrnf}}[k qdkygrSajym&rnf jzpfygaomaMumifhwnf;/

520 
bdvd,ufxdk;jyefjcif;

uREkfyf\ okH;jzKef;ykH trsKd;rsKd;teuf trsm;qkH; ydkufqHukefcJU&aom aysmfenf;


wckrSm ok&mar&,r[kwf? avmif;upm;jcif;vnf; r[kwf? bdvd,uf
xdk;jcif;yif jzpfonf/ þaysmfenf;um; usef;rma&;twGuf a,mifa,mifESifh
qJGaqmifNyD; ]pJG}wwfaom aysmfenf;jzpfaomaMumifh aMumufp&maumif;vS
aMumif;udk apmapmydkif;u azmfjycJUbl;NyD jzpfaomfvnf; uREkfyf\ udk,fawGU
udk tenf;i,f jznfhpGufazmfjyvdkygao;onf/ bdvd,uf xkd;&mwGif rygvQif
rNyD;aom uREkfyf\tazmfum; udkcifarmifwifhyifjzpf\/ tjcm;vlrsm;ESifh
xkd;&jcif;xuf olESifhxdk;&jcif;udk uREkfyfydkíESpfouf\/ wcgw&HwGif
,cifuawGUbl;onfh udkuGef;ESifhvnf; [dkw,frsm;wGif qkHrdMuí aysmfaysmf
BuD;upm;Edkifyg\/ (udkuGef;rSm xdktcgwGif 0wfvkHawmf& wa,mufjzpfae
avNyD/) udkuGef;ESifh uREkfyfupm;í aysmf&jcif;rSm uREkfyfwdkUESpfa,mufonf
wa,mufudkwa,muf ]trJ}[k xifrSwfMuí oluvnf; uREkfyfudk
tvG,fwul Edkifvdrfhrnf[kxif&m uRekfyfuvnf; olUudk acsmifacsmifESifh
Edkifrnfxif\/ okdUESifhuREkfyfwdkUrMumcPcsdef;í upm;Mu\/ wa,mufESifh
wa,muf rcHcsifatmif ajym&jcif;rSmvnf; t&omBuD;wckjzpf \/
uREkfyfEdkifaomyJGwGif uHaumif;í Edkifonf[k oluxifí olEdkifaom
yJGwGifvnf; uREkfyfuHqdk;aomaMumifh[k uREkfyfuxif\/ þodkUjzifh
olESifhuREkfyfonf ]rD;cdk;rqkH; rdk;rqkH;} qdk&avmufatmif tcJrausyJ &SdMu\/
pifppfrlum; olESifh uREkfyfonf wa,mufwyJGavmuf tEdkift&IH;&Sdí
]vufwl}csif;jzpf[ef&Sd\/ odkU&mwGif þonfudk oluvnf;vufrcH?
uREkfyfuvnf; 0efrcHEdkifacs/ odkUjzpfaomaMumifh udk,fhudk,fudk
txifBuD;aom þrmeonf uRekfyfwdkUESpfa,mufvkH;udk ajrSmufay;ouJUodkU

521 
&Sdaeojzifh wa,mufESifhwa,muf rausEdkifonfh urÇmh&efBuD; jzpfaecJU
ygawmhonf/
uREkfyfonf udk,fhudk,fudk txifBuD;rdonf[k 0efcHaomfvnf; tjcm;aom
bdvd,uform;rsm;ESifh upm;&mwGif txifBuD;jcif;r[kwf? udkuGef;
wa,mufwnf;ESifhom txifBuD;rdjcif; jzpf\/ tjcm;vlrsm;ESifh txif
BuD;NyD; udk,fhxuf wwfolESifh avmif;wrf;upm;rdvQif jyKwfjyKwfjyKef;
onfESifh[dkw,ft&dyfudkyif eif;Edkifrnf r[kwfacs/ udkuGef;ESifh uREkfyfonf
aiGavmif;wrf;r[kwfyJ tvum;wrf;upm;jcif; jzpfaomfvnf; avmif;wrf;
wrQ tBudwfte,f upm;Mu\/ aiGxuf*kPf  (Honour)  udk ta&;wBuD;
xm;aom udpörsKd;&Sdjcif;udk pD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm;u ]&l;onf}[k qdkMurnfavm
rajymwwfay/

uREkfyfpma&;ykH

]&l;}[laom pum;vkH; okH;EIef;rd&mwGif udkcifarmifwifhESifh uREkfyfwdkU


bdvd,uf ]&l;}MuykHudk azmfjy&ayOD;rnf/ uREkfyfonf xdkpOfu pHkaxmuf
armifpH&Sm;ESifh tjcm;0w¦Kwdkrsm; a&;cJU&mwGif wyk'fvQif 50d&aom
r*¾Zif;wdkuf ESpfwdkuf okH;wkduf&Sd\/ xdkpOfu aiG 50drSm þacwfaiG 200d?
300drQESifh wefzkd;nDrQaomaMumifh 0w¦Kwdkwyk'ftwGuf renf;vS[k
qdk&ayrnf/ (r*¾Zif;awG? *sme,fawG ay:vdkuf ysufvdkuf jzpfaomacwf
jzpfonf/) uREkfyf 0w¦Ka&;ykHrSm n&Spfem&DavmufrSpí rNyD;rcsif; xdkifa&;\/
rsm;aomtm;jzifh oef;acgifausmf vif;tm;BuD;wGifNyD;í wcgw&HwGifrl
rdk;vif;aomfvnf; rNyD;ao;onfESifh rD;cGufudkNidrf;NyD; aea&mifjzifh qufí
a&;\/ rdk;vif;atmif xdkifa&;aom aeUwGifvnf; tdyfawmhonfr&SdyJ

522 
aumfzDaomufí a&csKd;NyD;vQif ]aumfyD}vdyfuav;udk udkifí r*¾Zif;wkdufodkU
oGm;\/ ¤if;rS aiG50d awmif;,lcJUí u&dkufwD&D,ef; [dkw,fodkUoGm;&m
udkcifarmifwifhvnf; a&mufaecJUavNyD/ ¤if;[dkw,fwGif bdvd,ufckH
ajcmufckH&Sdonfhteuf uREkfyfwdkUBudKufaom ckHopfudk apmifh,lí &onfESifh
wNydKifeuf upm;Muygawmhonf/

bdvd,uf]&l;}MuykH

udkuGef;ESifh upm;&jcif;ü pdwfygykHudk azmfjycJUNyD;aemuf udkcifarmif


wifhESifh upm;í pdwfygjcif;taMumif;udk azmfjy&ygOD;rnf/ vGefcJUaom
15ESpfavmufu uREkfyftm; bdvd,uf oifay;olrSm udkcifarmifwifh
jzpfav&m uREkfyfwwfcgp tcsdefwGif udkcifarmifwifhu uREkfyftm; ]]cifAsm;
b,fawmhrS usKyfeJUv,fA,f (wef;wl) upm;EdkifwJU ]vufrsKd;} ra&muf
Edkifbl;}}[k ajymbl;\/ udkcifarmifwifhrSm bdvd,uform; q,fa,mufwGifrS
wa,mufavmufom awGU&aom ]vuf}rsKd;jzpfí vef'efrSmwkef;u 89
b&dwf &bl;olwa,mufjzpfavonf/ þodkUajympOfu uREkfyfrSm tawmf
uav;wkd;wwf&kHrQ &Sdao;aomfvnf; xdkuJUokdU ]tnGefUwkH;} pum;rsKd;
ajymjcif;udk rcHcsifonfESifh waeUwGif olU]vuf}rsKd;a&mufap&rnf[k
pdwfxJü oEédXmefcsrdygonf/ a&S;,cifurl olESifhuREkfyfrSm yGdKifh 150-100
upm;cJUMu&m 1927ckESpfürlum; 225-200 rQom tausmay;Edkif
avawmhonf/ olu 225 yGdKifhupm;í uREkfyfu 200ydGKifh upm;jcif;
[lonfrSm vufcsif;tawmfeD;uyfvmjcif;udk azmfjyonf/ 12 em&D
avmufwGif uREkfyfwdkUonf acwÅem;í eHeufpm pm;NyD;aemuf
wcsufavmufwGif jyefíupm;Mu\/ trsm;tm;jzifh olwjyef igwjyef

523 
EdkifMuay&m avmif;aMu;ryg? &IH;oluckHcay;&kHrQ wm0ef,l&\/ nae
apmif;vwfaomf bD,mwvkH; avmif;wrf;upm;Muí &Spfem&DavmufwGif
npmtwGuf avmif;Mujyef\/ npm pm;NyD;aemufvnf; oJoJrJrJ upm;Mu
ao;\/ ajcanmif;onf vufyef;usonf[k r&Sdacs/
u&dwfwD&D,ef[dkw,f\xkH;pHrSm ([dkw,frsm;\ pnf;urf;twdkif;)
n11em&Dü ydwfaomfvnf; upm;vufpjzpfaom yGJNyD;atmif vufpodrf;
EdkifcGifh&S\
d / t"dyÜm,frSm 11em&DwGif ydwfonfqdkaomfvnf; xdk;vufpyJG
rNyD;qkH;vQif tcsdefvGefcsifvGefap? vufpoyfEdkifcGifh&S\
d / udkcifarmifwifhESifh
uREkfyfwdkUonf rnfokdUjyKvkyfonf xifMuoenf;/ 11 em&Dxkd;cgeD; 10rdepf
avmufwGif xkd;vufpyJGudk zsufodrf;NyD; yJGopfwck tpjyKMujyefav\/
rmumukvm;onf uREkfyfwdkU\tBuHudk&dyfrdí xkd;vufpyJGudk zsufodrf;aom
tcgü ]qyf..qyf...qyf}[lí uefUuGufaomfvnf; uREkfyfwdkUu bD,muav;
cyfxdkif;xdkif;ESifh ],l*dk;wl[Jvf}[k oHNydKif&GwfvdkufMuavonf/ þenf;jzifh
11em&DcJGcgeD;avmufwGifrS yJGNyD;í [dkw,frSxGufvmMuaomtcg uREkfyf\
tdwfxJü xnfhcJUaom aiG50dteufrS 20d-25drQom usefawmhay&m
udkcifarmifwifh\ tdwfrSvnf; tvm;wlavmufyif avsmhoGm;cJUavNyD/
udkcifarmifwifhrSm ukefonfvrf;wGif aeoljzpfí awmfygao;\/ uREkfyf
rlum; aemufqkH; (12)em&D &xm;udkrSDatmif vefcsm;uav;ESifhajy;&\/
wcgw&H rD;&xm;rrSDvkdufyJ&Sd&mwGif prf;acsmif;odkU vefcsm;ESifhyifjyef&\/
aemufusrnf[k twwfodaomtcgrsm;wGif udkcifarmifwifh udk,fwdkifvnf;
vdkufvmí uREkfyftdrfü tdyfoGm;\/ av;rdkifa0;aom c&D;jzpfaomfvnf;
oef;acgifausmftcsdfefüyif xdkpOfuvefcsm;c 12yJrQom ay;&onf/
wcgw&HwGif vefcsm;ukvm;vnf; rjyef0HUqdkaomaMumifh tdyfzdkUae&may;&

524 
ygao;onf/ þtjzpfrsKd;rSm wvav;Budrfavmufjzpfwwfí nOD;avmuf
om upm;aomaeUrsm;vnf; wvvQif 10 &ufrenf; &Sdygao;onf/

bdvd,ufaMumifhukefaiG

þrQavmuf bdvd,uf&l;MuaomvlESpfa,muftzdkU&mü vpOf0ifaiG


okH;av;&mrQonf tb,frSm pkaqmif;p&m&SdygtHUenf;/ bdvd,uf\
zsufqD;jcif;udk uREkfyfonf udk,fwkdifvnf; cH&\/ olwyg; zsufpD;jcif;
udkvnf; jrif&bl;vSavNyD/ vcawmfawmfaumif;onfh pma&;rsm;vnf;
a<u;0dkif;0dkif;vnfvsuf&Sdjcif;udkawGU&\/ aumvdyfausmif; om;uav;rsm;
vnf; bdvd,ufckHodkU vmwwfMu&m (rsm;awmhrrsm;vS) pmrusufEdkifojzifh
pmar;yJGü w&IH;wnf; &IH;vsuf&Sdjcif;udk jrif&\/ uREkfyfonf 1912ckESpfrQpí
bdvd,ufxkd;wwfcJU&m jywfawmif;jywfawmif; ESifh aomif;ausmfrnfjzpfí
a&S;aiGjzifh bdvd,ufckHESpfckHokH;ckH 0,fEdkifavmufayNyD/ 1948 ckESpfavmufurS
bdvd,ufjywfoGm;ygawmhonf/ þonfrSmvnf; tjcm; taMumif;aMumifh
r[kwf w&m;tm;xkwfonfhbufodkU pdwfvSnfhvmjyefaomaMumifhjzpfonf/

tnmwcGifodkU

1928 ckESpfü uREkfyfonf udkcifarmifwifhESifh aysmfaysmfaeaom


taetxdkifrsKd;udk ]tD}vmonfwaMumif;? rdbrsm;udk cPcP owd&í
olwkdUraorD twlwuG aexdkifcsifaompdwf jzpfay:vmonfwaMumif;?
aernfqdku aeEdkifavmufaom tajctae&Sdvmonf waMumif;aMumifh
&efukefrS pGefUcGmzdkUtBuH jzpfay:vmav\/ tajctae&Sdonfqdkjcif;rSm

525 
]txkyftxnf} &SdvmaomaMumifhr[kwf/ r*¾Zif;? *sme,frsm;ESifh tquf
toG,fjyKvkyfxm;NyD;í ta0;rS a&;ydkUvQifvnf; jzpfEdkifaomaMumifh jzpfav
onf/
(xdkpOfurl 0w¦Kpmtkyfa&;jcif;oufoufjzifh pm;avmufonfr[kwf?
yDrdk;eif;vnf; *sme,fESifhr*¾Zif;zufygrS pm;avmufygonf/)
uREkfyfonf tquftoG,fvkyfxm;onfh r*¾Zif;rsm;ESifh *sme,frsm;rS
vpOf 0ifaiGudk wGufMunfh&