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raised a child, given birth to a child, and/or supplied the ovum that grew into a child. (“mother”, Oxford Dictionaries online . http://oxforddictionaries.com). At younger years, our primary care giver is our beloved parents who nurtures us and teaches us the basics of living. Caring for children is universal in manner, the way the child is taught to crawl first before walking, then running, from breastfeeding to mast food then to solid foods, these systematic learning of a child is required to be with accordance to his age but in some instances not all live born child is normal. Humans are capable of living and sustaining the productivity of our lives in accordance to what our environment we are part of. And as citizens of the society the first and foremost right that we must gain as individuals is the right to be born. Because we are born in this world it only signifies that we are special being with unique characteristics, features, and flaws. How the concept of normal is created and perceived can be carried over into all aspects of life; for example, a normal marriage, a normal job, and a normal child. What happens when something is not normal? In this society this process of normalization leads to a notion of deviance. What is not normal, or those
who do not subscribe to and practice normal social forms, may be considered abnormal or deviant (Aston, p.284). The term autism comes from Greek auto, meaning “self,” and refers to an abnormal withdrawal from the world outside oneself. The American psychiatrist Leo Kanner first described the disorder in 1943. Autism was originally thought to be a form of schizophrenia, but it has been recognized since the 1960s as a distinct developmental disorder that is not a psychosis. Modern researchers now identify a wide “spectrum” of autism symptoms that may occur in different combinations or with different severities in children. (Autism, Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008) Autism is a disorder that affects the social, emotional, and behavioral
development of children. Autism is marked by serious difficulties in interacting and communicating with other people. Other symptoms may include constantly repeating certain actions or behaviors, or having intense interests restricted to only particular things or topics. Symptoms of autism usually appear before the age of three and can last the rest of a person’s lifetime. Autism is at least four times more common in boys than in girls. The Autism Society of America reports the autism incidence rates of the estimated number of individuals with autism in 2007: Philippines- 500,000 cases. (Autism in Children, > http://www.earlysignsofautism.com/is-autism-increasing-in-theusa). Eighty percent of cases of autism are early-onset with developmental delays starting in infancy. The other 20% of children with autism have seemingly normal growth and development until 2 or 3 years of age when developmental regression or loss of abilities begin. They stop talking and relating to parents and peers and begin to demonstrate the behaviors described above (National Institute of Child and Human
Development [NICHD], 2002). Autism was once thought to be rare and was estimated to occur in 4 to 5 children per 1000 in the 1960s. Current estimates suggest that 1 in 1000 to 1 in 500 U.S. children from 1 to 15 years of age have autism. (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, >http://ww.nichd.nih/
gov/publications/pub/autism/facts) The causes of autism remain a major area of research and of controversy. Studies indicate that autism is often associated with abnormalities in the functioning of the brain and that the disorder may have a genetic basis in most cases. Raising a child with autism can present special challenges for a family. There is no cure for autism but some treatments and therapies can lessen the symptoms. Some persons with autism may need special care throughout their lives while others may learn to function independently in society. The abnormality is sometimes a lifetime burden for the child and for the one caring for the child. Caring for these special children is a perceived to be a blessing or ought to be a sense of consequence for an immortal action in the past. Having this unique individuals in the family requires additional support, additional effort, and additional understanding as to what these children behaves. This is not an easy task to imagine much more to the one who primarily nurtures these individuals, who is their mother. Of all the variety of issues present in today’s society especially current health issues, the proponents chooses to undertake is to explain the phenomena existing in a mother and challenged child relationship. So basically, this study deals with the lived experiences of mothers caring an Autistic child. care. And by understanding their experiences we can explain better the observed phenomena residing in a mother and challenged child relationship in which this study is trying to convey.
Review of Related Literature and Study
Review of related Literature
The mother ‘Mother’ is defined as the person in whom life receives a form suitable for living in this world. The responsibilities of a loving mother never end. Whether the aim is looking out for their child’s best interests or simply being there for support, a mother’s love is unconditional. The most important role as a mother is being a provider, provider of a good home, proper nutrition, and physical and emotional support. It may seem like a never-ending chore, but most woman take motherhood like second nature the minute they are declared mother. One of the most important thing a mother wants to ensure is the safety of her child. A safe environment is something a responsible mother must ensure to her child, whatever the age group her child may belong. As mothers they must allow their children to enjoy the rest of their lives, regardless the numbers their children is expected to live, as equal individuals. A special concern of many contemporary mother is whether working full time in a career will harm their children’s development. ( Parkey and Buriel, p.231). Becoming evolution of a woman’s persona (Mercer, p. 226). It can be seen as a difficult, multifactoral process that, as with any major developmental transition, requires a mother involves an enormous transformation and
restructuring goals, behaviours, and responsibilities to achieve a new conception of self (Harvey-Vallender, p. 27). A new mother commonly finds that she has changed in ways that she had never imagined; she has moved
from a known current reality to an unknown new reality (Mercer, 226). New mothers go through profound change and with it may experience a sense of loss, isolation, and fatigue (Rogan et al., 887). Barclay, Everitt, Rogan, Schmied, and Wyllie p.719) separated the process of becoming a mother into six categories: (a) realization: facing the overwhelming process of becoming a mother and the consequences on her life; (b) unreadiness: feeling unready for the reality of motherhood; (c) drained: a sense of having given everything and of being emptied out that results from the physical, mental, and emotional demands associated with this new role; (d) alone: a feeling that many mothers described that is typically associated with feeling
unsupported; (e) loss: an experience that occurs in a variety of areas and in a variety of ways: loss of time, of control over one’s life, of sense of self; and working it out: the development of skills and increasing confidence in being a mother and caring for her baby. Dominant ideologies ultimately influence how we see ourselves. In considering what it means to be a mother, we take cues from the people around us, from our culture, and from society. Social norms define proper and improper behaviors and thus create a prescribed maternal role (Rogan et al., p.719). The normalization of motherhood is heavily influenced by medical discourse as well as personal, historical, social, and institutional practices (Aston, p.284). Hartrick p. 316) contends “the Western perspective of what a healthy, mature self [is], one that is differentiated and independent, is in direct opposition to the Western perspective of a good mother”. According to Oakley (p.265), a major expectation of a good mother
Parent’s refocus on midlife marital and career issues and begin to a shift toward concern for older generation. As the role of the women changes. Marital roles are more segregated in the lower classes. Parent’s adjust to their children’s peer and school influences. adolescent develop increasing autonomy. Oakley. (p. It is therefore normal and expected that women will self-sacrifice for their children.316. In the stages of growth and development. With teenagers. And parents have always wondered what is the best way to rear their children. parents. p. the trend is toward deemphasizing malefemale characteristics of aggression. In school children. the way that women become mothers in industrialized society today (Hartrick. p. During childhood. Parental Role According to Hockenberry. Even though many children spend a great deal of time in child. parent develop this stages . accommodate new parenting and maintain family bond.in Western society is abnegation of self. p. 6 . parents are still the main caregivers for the vast majority of the world’s children. dependence. Cultural lag of the persisting role definition creates role conflict in many of this families.423). particularly in the upper and middle class. Mercer. In younger years. Marilyn J. This notion has been described as the institution of motherhood. 265).226. for family with infants.care situations away from home. children develop peer relations. and achievement. in the family groups the socially recognized status of father and mother exist with socially sanctioned roles that appropriate sexual behaviors and childrearing responsibilities. parents socialize their children and they adjust to separation. there must be necessary changes in the complementary role of the man.
116). Children raised in authoritarian families lack practice in negotiating for their desires and exercising responsibility. Children whose parents are authoritative tend to be socially competent.423).’’ There was a time when parents took those adages seriously. Authoritative Parenting This encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their behavior. fail to initiate activity.and parenting techniques have changed.‘’Spare the rod and spoil the child’’. (Diana Baumrind p. They tend to resent all authority and to rebel without cost. Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed and parents are warm and nurturant towards the child. Children raised in permissive families tend to feel unwanted and to doubt their own self. and socially responsible. The authoritarian parent firmly limits and controls the child with little verbal exchanged. ‘’Children are to be seen and not heard. (Diana Baumrind p. Authoritarian parenting is associated with children’s social incompetence. Parenting Styles Authoritarian Parenting The authoritarian is a restrictive. In a difference of opinion about how to do something. It seems clear that authoritative 7 . and have poor communication skills. Marilyn J. p. (Hockenberry. They often do not trust themselves or others ( Conger. punitive style in which the parent exhorts the child to follow the parent’s directions and to respect work and effort. p. self-reliant.116).237). Authoritative parenting is associated with children’s social competence. But our attitudes toward children.worth. An authoritative parent might put his arm around the child in a comforting way. Children with authoritarian parents often are anxious about social comparison.
but when punishing a child.. and age-appropriate behavior of children. independent. not harsh or arbitrary. D. This is the most recommended style of parenting by child-rearing experts. (White. & Livesey. This is supposed to result in children having a higher self esteem and independence because of the democratic give-take nature of the authoritative parenting style. and also allow children to develop autonomy.133). Children resulting from this type of parenting may have less social competence because the parent generally tells the child what to do instead of allowing the child to choose by him or herself. the parent will explain his or her motive for their punishment. & Livesey. p. "Their punishments are measured and consistent in discipline.. 8 . They also expect mature.128). In some cases.. Authoritative parents set limits and demand maturity." They are attentive to their children’s needs and concerns. monitor limits that they set. these practices have been described as authoritarian. B. the child will break down. D. and will typically forgive and teach instead of punishing if a child falls short. B. p. ( White. Hayes. researchers have found that in some cultures and ethnic groups. "Aspects of traditional Asian child-rearing practices are often continued by Asian American families. Nonetheless. This seems to come from 2 feature – the establishment of limits on the child and responding to the child with warmth and support ( Bukatko and Daehler." If the demands are pushed too forcefully upon the child. Parents will set clear standards for their children. or run away. F.parenting yields the best result. Hayes.133). F. rebel. aspects of authoritarian style may be associated with more positive child outcomes than Baumrind expects. p.
Children whose parents are neglectful develop the sense that other aspects of the parents’ lives are more important than they are. Children whose parents are neglectful tend to show poor self-control and do not handle independence well. ( White. and thus their children. B. This type of parent cannot give an affirmative answer to the question. Parents. (Diana Baumrind p.. they may show patterns of truancy and delinquency. Many children of this parenting style often attempt to provide for themselves or halt depending on the parent to get a feeling of being independent and mature beyond their years. often display contradictory behavior. especially a lack of self-control. Children become emotionally withdrawn from social situations.Neglectful Parenting This is a style in which parents are uninvolved in their child’s life. p.116). This style is associated with the child’s social incompetence. Indulgent Parenting This is a style in which parents are involved with their children but place few demands on them. This disturbed attachment also impacts relationships later on in life.133). Children have a strong need for their parents to care about them. In adolescence. Such parents let their children do what 9 . & Livesey. especially a lack of self-control. Hayes. F.. Indulgent parenting is associated with children’s social incompetence. Children whose parents are neglectful might developed a sense that other aspects of the parents’ lives are more important than they are. D.
Other Parenting Styles What may be right for one family or one child may not be suitable for another. independent and are willing to learn and accept defeat.133). But as previously noted. what they consider good parenting. the usefulness of these data are limited. (Diana Baumrind p. ( White. the child's temperament. and local shared cultural values (that may not emphasize achievement). Hayes.." But in the better cases they are emotionally secure. They mature quickly and are able to live life without the help of someone else. confident child.they want. Some parents deliberately rear their children in this way because they believe the combination of warm involvement with few restraints will produce a creative. most conventional and modern models of parenting fall somewhere in between.. may engage more in misconduct. 10 . B. child-to-parent effects (unfocused and unmanageable children might discourage their parents from trying too hard). as they are only correlational and can not rule out effects such as heredity (permissive parents and their children share hands-off personalities and are likely to be less driven as their authoritarian counterparts). D.). p. and in drug use.116). and the result is the children never learn to control their own behavior and always expect to get their way. The model or style that parents employ depends partly on how they themselves were reared. Children of permissive parents may tend to be more impulsive. "Children never learn to control their own behavior and always expect to get their way. & Livesey. F. With authoritarian and permissive (indulgent) parenting on opposite sides of the spectrum. Children whose parents are indulgent never learn respect for others and have difficulty controlling their behavior. and as adolescents.
198) According to Santrock. and whether they place more importance on their own needs or whether they are striving to further their child's future success. Christian parenting – The application of biblical principles on parenting. John W. Emotion coaching – This style of parenting lays out a loving. It’s called emotion coaching and it feels good to parents and kids alike.341-343) other parenting styles includes the following: Attachment parenting – Seeks to create strong emotional bonds. well-adjusted. while parents who are more concerned with intellectual development may push their children into a number of organized extra-curricular activities such as music and language lessons.W. p. While some Christian parents follow a stricter and more authoritarian interpretation of the Bible. well-behaved children. Particularly influential on opposite sides have been James Dobson and his book Dare to Discipline. 11 . Emotion coaching helps teach your child how to recognize and express the way he is feeling in an appropriate way. avoiding physical punishment and accomplishing discipline through interactions recognizing a child's emotional needs all while focusing on holistic understanding of the child. others are "grace-based" and share methods advocated in the attachment parenting and positive parenting theories. nurturing path for raising happy. mainly in the United States. J. (Santrock. Parents who place greater importance on the child's physical security may be more authoritarian.their current environmental situation. (pp. and William Sears who has written several parenting books including The Complete Book of Christian Parenting & Child Care and The Discipline Book.
Slow parenting – Encourages parents to plan and organise less for their children. and attempts to sweep all obstacles out of their paths. places a strong value on discipline and following inflexible rules as a means to survive and thrive in a harsh world. Nurturant parenting – A family model where children are expected to explore their surroundings with protection from their parents. particularly at educational institutions. Parenting For Everyone – A parenting book and one individual's philosophy that discusses parenting from an ethical point of view. often attempting to solve all their problems. Taking Children Seriously – The central idea of this movement is that it is possible and desirable to raise and educate children without doing anything to them against their will. or making them do anything against their will. Strict parenting – An authoritarian approach. instead allowing them to enjoy their childhood and explore the world at their own pace. It is a form of overparenting. they hover closely overhead. early 21st-century term for a parent who pays extremely close attention to his or her children's experiences and problems. This parenting style is commonly exhibited in middle and upper class American families. The Normal Child 12 . Helicopter parents are so named because. like helicopters. Overparenting – Parents who try to involve themselves in every aspect of their child's life. Concerted cultivation – A style of parenting that is marked by the parents' attempts to foster their child's talents through organized leisure activities. A helicopter parent is a colloquial.
religion. In these instances. ethnicity. and you will see that they sometimes wrestle. we’re only playing”. in turn. older children are differ from younger ones in the way they go about helping agemates. and run after one another while smiling and laughing. children often respond. hit. School-age 13 . roll. Kindergartners move right in and give assistance.W. In contrast. Sharing and helping and other prosocial acts increase in middle childhood.336). their ability to understand the complementary roles of several players permits the transition to rule-oriented games in middle childhood. (pp. Laura E. School-age children offer to help and wait for peer to accept it before behaving prosocially. Peer communication. profits from improved perspective taking. another from peer interaction becomes increasingly common. As children enter middle childhood.. In addition. regarding of whether it is desired or not. “its all right. p.Berk.604-605) discussed that when formal schooling begins. Children in many cultures engage in it with peers whom they like especially well. sociable activity that is quite distinct from aggressive fighting. Research indicates that is a good-natured. This friendly chasing and play fighting is called rough-and-rumble play. children are exposed to agemates who differ in many ways. Watch children at play in a public park or schoolyard. and they do at the end of an aggressive encounter. interest and personality. In addition. Children of this age are better accurately interpreting emotions and intentions of others and taking them into account in peer dialogues. (Hartup. Sometimes parents and teachers mistakes rough and tumble for real fighting and try to intervene. W. School-age children also apply their greater awareness of social norms to peer interaction. including achievement. Contact with a wider variety of peers probably contributes to elementary school children’s increasing awareness that other has viewpoints different from their own.
and these relationships must be satisfying and stress-reducing if the child is to achieve maximum potentialities. and Andrasik.by milestones unmet. and parents must be fierce advocates to make sure their children receive the services. food allergies or terminal illness. foods banned. As suggested by Halforn. developmental delays that catch up quickly or remain entrenched. 29) Like any other human being. The retarded child needs. Diagnoses like autism. changing visions of the future and providing immediate difficulties in caring for and educating a child. Developmental disabilities are some of the most devastating for a family to deal with. close emotional relationships with others. The designation is useful for getting needed services. pp. the Developmentally Challenged child does not live in a vacuum.881) Children with Special needs "Special needs" are commonly defined by what a child can't do -. The parents manifest negative personality reactions to the child deficient abilities. as do all persons. experiences denied. These minuses hit families hard. P.. Kathy H. p. Down syndrome and mental retardation often cause children to be removed from the mainstream.al. (Baldrige. The relationships between the Developmentally Challenged child and parents are great importance. and may make "special needs" seem like a tragic designation. (Costabile et. N. activities avoided. & Newacheck. and gaining understanding for a child and stressed family. Frank. and then it becomes more difficult for 14 . occasional panic attacks or serious psychiatric problems. setting appropriate goals. and inclusion they need and deserve. therapy.youngsters are quite good at telling the difference between playful wrestling and a true aggressive attack. schooling. 600-609) children with special needs may have mild learning disabilities or profound mental retardation.W. (pp.
parents of children with Special needs know the compassion their child has for others. which will have different concerns than one dealing with mental illness or learning problems or behavioral challenges. Children with special needs may make a difference in many ways and to many people..16). According to Potera . in general. so goes the child. since the welfare of the child depends. While every parent may not anticipate raising a doctor or lawyer. A family dealing with developmentally challenged children will have different concerns than one dealing with chronic illness. thus.al. in large measure. Parents have to find the right professionals to help.) Expectations of family with special needs Parents dream that their children will work to benefit society. Smiles and hugs are freely given. page 269-272. “as the parent goes. can adversely affect the full maturational development of the Developmentally Challenged child. the desire for the child to contribute to society is strong. This is unfortunate. but very little has been given to study of the emotional reactions of the parents. on the well being of the parents.wholesome relationships to be established. A child with Special needs continually reminds his/her family and everyone around him/her that compassion is an important character trait. the less likely it is that the child will achieve the level of emotional maturity he is capable of attaining. and make hard decisions about therapy. Living with a child with mental health issues can put family members on a roller coaster of mood swings and crises and defiance.” (Hutt. Matt et. Considerable attention has been devoted to study of many aspects of the retarded child. Carol (p. The greater the negative emotional reactions of the parents. 15 . Negative reactions of the parents. And he/she can make this understood without ever speaking a word.
Parental Reaction to a Child with Special Needs When a child is born with a birth defect or has an illness that requires special care. the other parent often criticizes the less skillful effort. communication may break down. The parent’s who involved in the care giving activities may feel neglected because much attention is directed toward the child and resentful that he or she is not adequately informed to be competent in the care. and neither is able to support the other. time and financial resources. the 16 . the parent may have a little understanding of the time and energy needed to perform those activities. and the father shoulders the financial responsibilities .(p. As a result. Depending on the role assumed by each parent. and hospitalization. However. the mother often performs the bulk of the traditional care and household responsibilities. their initial reactions of shock and disbelief gradually resolve into acceptance of the child’s limitations.. Marilyn J. On the other hand. The consequences of missed clues and wrong guesses can be significant. Without active participation in the care of the child. However. In most cases.medications. with changing gender roles these responsibilities may be shared and parent’s may divide the task according to their level of comfort or skills. When the less competent parents makes an effort to become involved. involving both parents in decision making and in education regarding the care of the children with special needs can decrease some of the burdens of care often placed inadvertently on mothers.423) suggested that caring for a child with disability may place tremendous demands on the parent’s energy. Hockenberry. the family is under additional stress.
the family often experiences a fall in income because one parent must remain home with the sick child rather than work outside the home.parents’ grieving may be chronic as they repeatedly see other children doing things that their child cannot and perhaps will not ever do. Independent of their unique situation. including getting appropriate care and accommodations. which ultimately has to bear responsibility for the child’s . The presence of a Developmentally Challenged child in a family unit has far reaching effects. At the periphery of the circle of which the child is the center are the effects of retardation on society at large. and these effects indeed may be a great issue. (Mckinney.management and treatment. which will have different concerns than one dealing with mental illness or learning problems or behavioral challenges. and adjusting routines and expectations. Strains on the marriage and the parents’ relationships with their other children are inevitable under these circumstances. and divorce may add yet another strain to the family. Health insurance benefits may quickly reach their maximum. p. promoting acceptance in the extended family. (“Special Children.blisstherapeutic. there are some common concerns that link parents of challenged kids. Special Parents Part 1” http://www. These families often suffer financial hardship.607) A family dealing with developmental delays will have different concerns than the one dealing with chronic illness.com/special-children-special- parents-part-1/) 17 . Emily Slone. Parents have little time or energy left to nurture their relationship with each other. school and community. At the core are the tremendous impacts made by the child’s condition on parents and siblings. Siblings may resent the parental time and attention required for care of the ill child yet feel guilty if they express their resentment. planning for an uncertain future. Nor should it be overlooked that the reactions of the family and society in turn affect the child with special needs. Even if the child has public assistance for health care costs.
Early emotions include denial. the medical personnel. p. and decreased appetite. Although every special-needs child is different and every family is unique. complicated health care. Anger may be directed toward the family. lack of energy. planning for an uncertain future. and guilt. the infant’s potential for a normal life). which may be expressed as concern about what must be done in the immediate or distant future (surgical procedures. often after a prolonged period. inability to sleep. withdrawal from relationships. including getting appropriate care and accommodations. certain defects are associated with long term parenting problems. Sadness and depression. anger. and the family must mourn the loss of the perfect infant they fantasized about during pregnancy. Denial and disbelief are the initial reactions of most parents to the birth of an infant with a congenital defect. The face is visible to everyone. Gradually. they want them to be healthy. may precede acceptance and resolution. Emily Slone. school and community. but it is seldom directed toward the infant.607) All parents share similar dreams for their children. Birth of an infant with an anomaly evokes a grief response. Guilt may be expressed as a question of responsibility for the defect: “I shouldn’t have worked so much while I was pregnant. and it may take the form of fault-finding or resentment. (Mckinney. there are some common concerns that link parents of challenged kids. feelings of sadness abate and the family can accept and resolve grief. and parents are fearful about whether the child will be accepted. Above all. or the self.” Other emotions include fear.Common concerns for Families with a Child with Special Needs Although any defect in a newborn produces extreme concern and anxiety. They want them to be successful at what they do. and adjusting routines and 18 . Anger is often a pervasive response. they want them to be happy. manifested by crying. promoting acceptance in the extended family.
com/od/gettingadiagnosis/p/whatare . and Tourette syndrome. uncertainty. (Mauro.about. With diagnoses like ADHD. (Hockenberry. Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. (Mauro. Terri . muscular dystrophy and cystic fibrosis. Dysfunction of Sensory Integration. compassionate.about. and worry. and health threats like food allergies and obesity. they require specialized strategies that are tailored to their specific abilities and disabilities. congenital conditions like cerebral palsy and dwarfism. Terri .“What Are" Special Needs"?”http://specialchildren.“What Are"Special Needs"?”http://specialchildren. p.h tm) Behavior Issues: Children with behavior issues do not respond to traditional discipline. and accommodations for disabilities. Parents of children with special needs are often more flexible.345) Medical Issues: Medical Issues for children include serious conditions like cancer and heart defects. kids with behavior issues throw their families into chaos and are seriously at risk for school problems. stubborn and resilient than other parents.expectations. expensive equipment. Their parents need to be flexible and creative. chronic conditions like asthma and diabetes. Their families have to deal with frequent crises.htm) Developmental Issues: 19 . If those strategies are not developed and used.com/od/gettingadiagnosis/p/whatare. long hospital stays. Children with medical issues may require numerous tests. They have to be.
“What Are "Special Needs"?” http://specialchildren. schooling.com/od/gettingadiagnosis/p/whatare.com/od/gettingadiagnosis/p/whatare. and make hard decisions about therapy. The consequences of missed clues and wrong guesses can be significant. Down syndrome and mental retardation often cause children to be removed from the mainstream. Diagnoses like autism.about. (Mauro.com/od/gettingadiagnosis/p/whatare. Terri . and inclusion they need and deserve.about. and parents must be fierce advocates to make sure their children receive the services. changing visions of the future and providing immediate difficulties in caring for and educating a child. They require specialized learning strategies to meet their potential and avoid self-esteem problems and behavioral difficulties.htm) Mental Health Issues: A child's problems with anxiety or depression can sneak up on parents.htm) 20 . (Mauro.about. Terri . Parents of learning-challenged kids need to be persistent both in working with their reluctant learners and with the schools that must provide the help these children need. therapy.htm) Learning Issues: Children with learning disabilities like dyslexia and Central Auditory Processing Disorder struggle with schoolwork regardless of their intellectual abilities.“What Are "Special Needs"?” http://specialchildren. Parents have to find the right professionals to help. Terri .“What Are "Special Needs"?” http://specialchildren. (Mauro. medications. and hospitalization.Developmental disabilities are some of the most devastating for a family to deal with. Living with a child with mental health issues can put family members on a roller coaster of mood swings and crises and defiance. problems with attachment may smack them right in the face.
and to help families design and implement an appropriate treatment plan. Children with autism need a comprehensive evaluation and specialized behavioral and educational programs.ww?name=The+Child+with+Autism§ion=Facts+for+Families) Autism is usually identified by the time a child is 30 months old. is not yet talking. It is often discovered when parents become concerned that their child may be deaf. pointing. They may be able to live independently when they grow up. Some children are very bright and do well in school. Mental retardation is commonly associated with autism. Some children with autism may also benefit from treatment with medication.An Autism Child According to American Academy of Child-Adolescent Psychiatry.org/page. smiles or facial expressions by nine months no babbling. Other children with autism function at a much lower level. (http://aacap. They 21 . reaching or waving by 12 months no single words by 16 months no two word phrases by 24 months regression in development any loss of speech. babbling or social skills The severity of autism varies widely. and avoids interaction with others Some of the early signs and symptoms which suggest a young child may need further evaluation for autism include: • • • • • • • no smiling by six months of age no back and forth sharing of sounds. resists cuddling. Child and adolescent psychiatrists are trained to diagnose autism. from mild to severe. although they have problems with school adjustment.
problems with other children. and job instability. there are no reliable treatments for autism. It is n overwhelming challenge physically and emotionally adding anxiety on the person caring for the child. Is the child crying because he/she is thirsty. and the responsibility of upbringing. or sick? When a parent cannot determine their child's needs. Parenting an Autistic ChildTop of Form Bottom of Form Raising a child with autism is one of the hardest things a parent will ever have to do. Rearing a child with autism often contributes to marital problems. Unfortunately. Autism characteristics and compulsive behaviors concern parents since they seem odd and obstruct with performance and learning.can also help families cope with the stress which may be associated with having a child with autism. both are left feeling frustrated. Although there is nothing that we can do to change the origin of the problem.g. parents are left playing a guessing game. developmental and behavioral problems of the autistic child falls largely on the family. More parents are raising 22 . Although there is no cure for autism. The child's frustration can lead to aggressive or self-injurious behaviors that threaten their safety and the safety of other family members (e. Research indicates that parents of children with autism experience greater stress than parents of children with learning disabilities. appropriate specialized treatment provided early in life can have a positive impact on the child's development and produce an overall reduction in disruptive behaviors and symptoms. Therefore. An individual with autism may not express their basic wants or needs in a way that one would expect. hungry. there are strategies which family members can do to reduce the level of abnormal behavior and increase the child's ability to cope. siblings).
as well.brighttots.brighttots. receiving appropriate help and education are the basic hardships of the parents of a disabled child.000. Recently.children with a diagnosis of autism and families often find themselves dealing with financial and social challenges. compared to today's rate of 1 in 150. In comparison to parents of typically developing children. While an ASD diagnosis can alter parents' dreams for their children. they should be optimistic. Much has been learned about ADS in the last 15 years and research into causes and interventions continues to grow. parents raising children with disabilities experience more parenting stress and have higher rates of anxiety.com/Autism/Parenting _autistic_child)Parenting autism is uniquely challenging and can be very demanding. there are increasing efforts to involve parents of children with autism in interventions. 23 .com/Autism/Parenting_autistic_child) The Challenge of Parenting a Child with Autism According to (Parenting an Autistic a child Child with >http://www. Fifteen years ago the incidence of autism was 1 in 5. Even among parents raising children with disabilities. according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Daily care routine. The additional stress can be significant. parents of children with autism report significantly higher levels of stress and are more likely to experience depression. (Parenting an Autistic Child > http://www. taking its toll on the whole family and even contributing to a high divorce rate. The underlying cause of these findings may be that parenting stress is associated with the frequency and extent of child’s inflexible behavior and children with autism often engage in unusual behaviors and have heightened sensory sensitivity. economic problems.
Bedtime routines can be interrupted by difficulties sleeping. (Autism For Parents >http://autismforparents. In addition. one parent stays home with the autistic child. Not being able to do things as a family can impact the marital relationship. while the other takes the siblings out to an event.helpguide. A better outlook to abilities and feelings about parenting a child with autism may lead to a more supportive involvement that enhances the parent’s wellbeing.Parents’ expectations and beliefs about parenting begin before their child is born and are modified through interactions with their developing child. 24 . Scheduled dinner times may not be successful due to the child's inability to sit appropriately for extended periods of time.org/mental/autism_help. Because children with autism behave in ways that are unusual and hard to foresee. spouses often cannot spend time alone due to their extreme parenting demands and the lack of qualified caregiver to watch a child with autism in their absence. For families of children on the autism spectrum this can be a particular challenge.wordpress.htm). additional challenges of getting their child to sleep through the night or eat a wider variety of foods. Studies have revealed that parental stress and depression are negatively associated with parenting capability. or the parents’ way of interpreting feelings of competence in the parenting role. For example. Fixed behaviors may prevent families from attending events together. how parents interpret their children’s behavior may play a strong role in parental experience. All of these issues and behaviors are physically exhausting for families and emotionally draining.com/) According to Helping Children many with families cope Autism with the (http://www. Understanding self-efficacy also has been associated with wellbeing among mothers and has been shown to reduce the effect of the child behavior on mothers’ anxiety and depression.
The care-taking demands of nurturing for a child with autism may lead one parent to give up his or her job. and various therapies. holidays. 25 . The Stress of Not Having a Typical Child There is a well-known point of view which says that parents of children with autism spectrum disorder are grieving the loss of the "typical" child they expected to have. Even though parents try to fight off thinking about the future. endless caretaking) trigger grief reactions. confusing and depressing.The Stress of Future Care-taking One of the most major sources of stress is the concern regarding future sheltering. The feelings of anguish that parents experience can be an additional build up of stress due the child’s ongoing temperament. parents are distraught by the loss of lifestyle that they imagined for themselves and their family. these thoughts and worries are still constantly present.. There may also be no other family members willing or capable of carrying out this task.g. The Stress of Finances Having a child on the autism spectrum can drain a family's resources due to expenses such as evaluations. Experiencing "chronic sorrow" is a psychological tension that can be frustrating. In addition. They fear that no one will take care of their child like they do. Parents know that they provide their child with exceptional care. educational programs. Current theories of grief suggest that parents of children with developmental disabilities experience episodes of grief throughout the life cycle as different events (e. birthdays. financial strains may be escalate by only having one income to support all of the families' needs.
CT. APRN. one in Germany. University of Connecticut. One study using older 26 . VT. Five of the studies were conducted in the United States. CPNP entitled “Parenting a Child with Chronic Illness: A Metasynthesis” works at Essex Pediatrics. Essex. The remainder of the participants were identified as mothers. MS.Review of Related Studies A study. Storrs. The age of the children ranged from birth to 22 years of age. with 140 of those clearly identified as fathers. with the exception of five families from one study with no indication of the parental role of the participants. conducted by Jean Sheerin Coffey. She is a Doctoral Candidate. and four in Canada. The studies involved 533 participants. The 11 studies chosen were conducted in four different countries. “Parenting a Child with Chronic Illness”. one in Japan.
children was retrospective and asked the parents to reflect on parenting when the child was younger. (Jean Sheerin. pp.”. The first step was to construct a table of metaphors from each of the studies. During the construction of the table. Division of Occupational Therapy. At West Virginia University. It was conducted in the United States last 2003. This accumulated body of knowledge is presented from the parents’ point of view as they care for a child with a chronic illness.. Each of the themes is then illuminated through the rich quotations of the parents caring for their child with chronic illness. the occupational demands of mothering extend to address the specialized needs of that child. When a mother has a child with a chronic impairment. This is to help the mother on how to deal with their child and on how to extend their patience towards the child.. The use of a metasynthesis is an effective way to use the collective information generated from individual qualitative studies. And to explore the phenomenon of parenting (by mother)a child with chronic illness as reported from a qualitativeresearch perspective. Her subject are those children diagnosed with chronic illness cared for by their parents or guardians.51-59) Another study conducted by Melnick Watson on the year 2000 entitled Mothering a child with hidden impairments. C. This research explores how the type of hidden impairment in a child influences family routines and 27 . This study describes the mother that has a child with hidden impairments. “Qualitative metasynthesis entails a systematic approach to the collection and analysis of qualitative studies. The results of the study is that the 11 studies yielded a rich supply of metaphors. The purpose of this study was to create a comprehensive chronicle of the phenomena of parenting a child with a chronic illness. seven themes evolved from the studies.
nlm. This research explores how the type of Hidden Impairment in a Child Influences Family Routines and Occupations. high perception of child-related demands. with these mothers reporting that family provides them with extensive physical and emotional support. and from the usual pattern of coping with chronic childhood disability documented in the literature.ncbi. (“Mothering a child with hidden impairments”. concerns. and less confidence in their success in mothering these children. and support. these mothers often stated that there was no such thing as a "normal" day. This qualitative study consisted of interviews with 22 mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). a behavioral disorder. the occupational demands of mothering extend to address the specialized needs of that child. They felt constantly "on alert" and did not feel that they had "normal" routines. In contrast. a physical disorder. resources. Although mothers of children with cystic fibrosis reported a persistent emotional sorrow." The pattern of responses offered by these participants differs significantly from that of the participants whose children have cystic fibrosis. In describing their daily routines. they felt they were able to "normalize" their daily routines. 28 .occupations. The transcripts of these interviews were analyzed in terms of consistency with existing literature on parenting the child with hidden disability. http://www. mothers of children with ADHD felt distress because their child did not easily conform to social standards. and for emergent themes.nih. In this analysis the experiences of mothers of children with cystic fibrosis were consistent with research findings on other chronic conditions. and 22 mothers of children with cystic fibrosis. and were likely to express exhaustion in their role as "mother.gov/pubmed/14763639) When a mother has a child with a chronic impairment. Open-ended questions were used to explore family demands. routines. Based on this study. time use. mothers of children with ADHD reported little family support.
pp. Dispositional factors are likely to be a major influence in determining how one parents. A. routines. F. with these mothers reporting that family provides them with extensive physical and emotional support. In contrast. They felt constantly “on alert” and did not feel that they had “normal” routines. a behavioral disorder. more distal factors also may be shaping the way a mother handles parenting responsibilities. other. and for emergent themes. and less confidence in their success in mothering these children. they felt they were able to “normalize” their daily routines.” The pattern of responses offered by these participants differs significantly from that of the participants whose children have cystic fibrosis.This qualitative study consisted of interviews with 22 mothers of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although researchers have studied the relationships among maternal 29 . high perception of child-related demands. and were likely to express exhaustion in their role as “mother. Open-ended questions were used to explore family demands. these mothers often stated that there was no such thing as a “normal” day. Based on this study. and from the usual pattern of coping with chronic childhood disability documented in the literature. In this analysis the experiences of mothers of children with cystic fibrosis were consistent with research findings on other chronic conditions. (Cronin. concerns. and support. mothers of children with ADHD reported little family support. Although mothers of children with cystic fibrosis reported a persistent emotional sorrow. a physical disorder. time use. The transcripts of these interviews were analyzed in terms of consistency with existing literature on parenting the child with hidden disability. resources. mothers of children with ADHD felt distress because their child did not easily conform to social standards. In describing their daily routines. and 22 mothers of children with cystic fibrosis. 83–92) While parenting behaviours have direct effects on children’s behavioural outcomes.
were classified as delayed (n = 97) or nondelayed (n = 128). as well as supportive and non-supportive parenting. the association between self-mastery and child behaviour problems was partially mediated by nonsupportive parenting reactions.A. the two conditions did not differ in self-mastery. supportive parenting. In the non-delayed condition. “Parenting children with and without developmental delay: the role of self-mastery”.with authors Paczkowski E. all aged 4 years. and child behaviour problems all related significantly to one another. For the sample as a whole and within the delayed condition. The children.supportive parenting reactions. Participants were 225 families. drawn from Central Pennsylvania and Southern California. and child behaviours. Self-mastery. The Coping with Children’s Negative Emotions Scale measured different ways parents perceive themselves as reacting to their children’s distress and negative affect. although self-mastery was still significantly associated with problem behaviour.USA. or non-supportive parenting. so this group is of primary interest in the search for precursors to psychopathology. conducted in L..examined how the maternal dispositional trait of self-mastery. and Baker BL. parenting. Children with developmental delays evidence elevated clinical level behaviour problems. The Self-Mastery Scale measured perceived level of control over life events. assessed by the Child 30 . although significant relationships also were found among the variables of interest.dispositional factors. non-supportive parenting did not have a significant main or mediation effect. The present study. few studies have examined these relationships when the child is at developmental risk. Delay status moderated the relationship between negative parenting reactions and child behaviour problems. relate to behaviour problems in young children with and without developmental delay. The Child Behavior Checklist assessed children’s behaviour problems. Delayed condition mothers reported significantly more child behaviour problems than non-delayed condition mothers. non.
allowing for a clearer understanding of the influences on problem behaviours in children with developmental delays. Vidhya Ravindranadan.. S. Therefore we could say that the present study extended research on parental dispositional factors and parenting by measuring self-mastery as a global personality trait rather than measuring self-efficacy related specifically to childrearing. The purpose of their study is to attempts to ascertain the level of adjustment and attitude of parents of children with mental retardation. Department of Psychology. PhD is presently Reader in Psychology. Thiruvananthapuram. is Research Scholar in the Department of Psychology. University of Kerala. children in the delayed and non-delayed groups had similar levels of total problem behaviour. The findings support the view that parenting behaviours have a greater impact on children at developmental risk. Kariavattom. There exist 31 .com/2011/01/10/parenting-children- with-and-without-developmental-delay-the-role-of-self-mastery) Another study entitled ”Adjustment and Attitude of Parents of Children with Mental Retardation” by Vidhya Ravindranadan and Raju. relationships were examined for both developmentally delayed and non-delayed samples. Their respondents are those parents (either mother or father) of children diagnosed as mentally retarded.University of Kerala while Raju. The results have indicated that parental attitude is the only variable which shows a significant difference among the subjects grouped on the basis of religion.wordpress.S. Moreover. However. When mothers displayed low levels of non-supportive reactions. (Paczkowski E. This study takes places in the University of Kerala. when mothers were medium or high in nonsupportive reactions. Kerala. >http://trisomydisorders.Baker BL.Behavior Checklist Total and Internalizing scores. children in the delayed group had much higher levels of problem behaviours than those in the non-delayed group.
It is expected that it will help the parents to deal effectively withtheir children having problem. The findings of this studyindicated that parents have a negative attitude towards their children with mental retardation. The results also imply that there exists significant difference between rural and urban parents only in social adjustment and parental attitude and not in other variables. The conclusion of this study is to indicated that parental religion.27). income. The subjects of lower and higher income did not show any significant difference in none of the variables. of which 30 are less educated and low socio-economic class(group1) and 30 well educated upper middle class mothers (group2). p. on1998 about “The perceived parental burden and service use for child and adolescent psychiatric disorders” that 32 . Rao. Locality of parents influences only on the dimensions of social adjustment and parental attitude. The most important implication of this study is the need for uplifting the parent’s social and psychological well-being. (p. K. The sample comprised of parents of 60 moderately mentally retardedboys and girls. A longitudinal study hosted by Angold et. but there is change in parental attitude among different religious groups. M. and education do not have any significant influence on adjustment variables.However.44) conducted a study on maternal attitude and child rearing practices of mentally retarded children.27) conducted a study on “ Behaviour disorders in moderately mentally retarded children and the relation to parental attitude”.44).no significant difference among the groups of subjects on the basis of education in all the variables.. The study investigated the attitude of mothers towards their mentallyretarded sons in 23 areas of child rearing the result revealed significant differencesbetween group 1 and group 2 in respect of 7 areas of child rearing practices.( Behari. The sampleconsisted of 60 mothers. & Ruchi. al. Behari and Ruchi (p. Rao (p.
On the study about “Parenting stress in mothers and fathers of toddlers with autism spectrum disorders” in associations with child characteristics by Davis and Carter on the year 2008 delineates children’s functioning that contribute to the different components of parenting stress that may aid in developing and refining parent-focused interventions. Furthermore. and 13-yearsolds. a representative sample of 45000. identified through the student information management system of the public school systems in 11 countries in western North Carolina. Children with depressive or anxiety disorders proved less burdensome than children with other disorders. The psychological burdens described by parents as resulting from their children’s problems suggest that this issue is worthy of more attention. The presence of perceived burden was associated with at least a fivefold increase in the rate of service use. 33 . Participants in this study were the first 54 American families ( 108 parent. Briefly. the presence of perceived burden was associated with threefold increase in the use of specialist mental health service.would describes the predictors of viewed parental burdens and its impact on the use of specialty mental health and school disorders. 9-11. Parents who attributed burden to their children were likely to seek specialty health services for their children and their children were also more likely to receive school services. A screening questionnaire was given to parents that consist of 55 questions about child’s behavioral problems. While parents with preexisting mental health problems perceived more burdens showed that again levels of child’s sypmtomatology and functional impairment had the most effect on parental perceived burden scores. it also appears that most effects of symptomatology and impairement on service use were mediated by perceived parental burden. When child had both diagnosis and impairment.
behavior problems that are not clinical manifestations of ASD were also associated with parental stress. Mothers were affected by children’s difficulty with self regulation skills ( ADL’s). it is not surprising that many mothers and fathers evidence high level of stress. Also of note is that at least half parents studied did not evidence significant levels of parenting stress and depressive symptoms while at the same time that may families cope to the disease. Competencies and behavioral problems are also perceived as stressful and varies across parents and types of parenting stress. In addition. For fathers externalizing behaviors were the primary noncore autism behavior that was associated with stress. The most common predictor of parenting stress was the delays and deficits in social skills by children with ASD. Surprisingly. Given the unique challenges in raising ASD. cognitive and verbal functioning were not salient predictors of stress for mothers or fathers and were only associated with fathers’ perception of child difficulty. 34 .54 mothers and 54 fathers)participating in a larger longitudinal study in which both mothers and fathers completed relevant questionnaires. The study accounts that high levels of stress are present in mothers when their children are quite young. A second important finding from the study is that parents of toddlers with ASD share highly concordant view of their child’s behavior due to autism symptoms and socio-emotional and behavior problems and delays in acquisition of competencies their children. as well as fathers share same levels of stress. The fact also that the study provide that parental depression has no relationship between parental depression and parents’ report about their children’s functioning suggests that parental depression play less of a role in parental appraisal in children’s behavior with ASD. The central finding of the study is that there are different aspects of children’s behaviors are predictive of parenting stress.
Additionally. The younger child. As families learn about autism . Concerns about the older child did not arise until he approached school age. more seriously involved child. these highlight the need for family interventions to take into considerations the ways in which parents’ experiences are unique. DC. Both parents agreed they faced considerable stress and provided detailed examples of specific psychosocial Stressors. The family psychosocial stressors related to parenting two children with autism spectrum disorder.The parents disagreed on the different long-term educational goals for the younger. S John entitled “A Case Study on Autism: School Accommodations and Inclusive Settings” on 2004 at Washington. missed a number of early developmental milestones and was referred for testing prior to age 4. According to Coffey. the wife wishes he would share in this role. while the father was less concerned about the high school diploma. the husband wants his spouse to keep abreast of the advances in autism and advocate for the children. Kenneth M and Obringer. the more severely affected. They concurred on the developmental history of the children. Families who are experiencing significant levels of stress immediately following their child’s diagnosis. Conversely. For example. The mother was very firmly committed to this child receiving a standard high school diploma.Because social relatedness is at the very core of autism and deficits are the focus of much of the autism intervention and the fact that these characteristics are most stressful for parents is important for professionals to know when working with families of young children. parenting stress due to limited social relatedness may diminish. the husband believes that he has suffered professionally dealing with the stress of having two children with autism spectrum disorder and must remain focused on his professional career. The daily activities and routines of family life both parents agreed that apart from church involvement the family 35 .
but with multiple supports this appears to be the case. Lebanon. The parents believed that a smaller school with a reduced pupil-teacher ratio provided more flexibility and a greater willingness to accommodate. Jose. The atmosphere within a small school was one feature that contributed to their children's success. Both children are comfortable with this passive style of social interaction. Ashrafieh. (Sarsoza. little has been written concerning the supports required by a family with such challenges.and post-tests of knowledge and parenting attitudes were administered to mothers. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire was completed by mothers to screen for children with behavioral problems and was repeated at the end of the intervention. Faculty of Medicine. Due to the infrequency of multiple incidence autism. Beirut. A teacher or related service provider might not be inclined to picture a family with multiple incidences of autism as having the ability to function successfully in the community and school. on the year 2010 entitled “Dissemination of an evidence-based intervention to parents of children with behavioral problems” in a developing country in the Department of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology.has few outside interests or social activities. and Cassir Y. Pre. Mental health workers trained social and health workers in 36 . Farrah L.65-67) A study conducted by Fayyad JA. This project describes the dissemination of an evidence-based parenting skills intervention and aims to train social and health workers with little or no mental health background so that they themselves train mothers of children with behavioral problems in impoverished communities in a developing country. home visits by the teacher are encouraged. The small school with a single K-12 campus facilitated a smooth transition from grade to grade. pp. Balamand University. Also.
gov/pubmed/14763639) 37 .social development centers and dispensaries. Each social and health worker trained mothers of children with behavioral problems under supervision utilizing an Arabic adaptation of the treatment manual for externalizing disorders "Helping Challenging Children" developed by the Integrated Services Taskforce of the World Psychiatric Association Child Mental Health Presidential Programme. Three-fourths of mothers related that the program helped them develop new parenting skills.nih. > http://www. Whereas 40. Farrah L.ncbi.1% post-intervention.7% after the training. this decreased to 6. The proportion of children who obtained an SDQ total difficulties score in the abnormal range decreased from 54. A total of 20 workers and 87 mothers participated in the training. (Fayyad JA.2% of mothers used severe corporal punishment with their children before the intervention. and Cassir Y.4 to 19.nlm.
Family This study helps the families in coping with their situation and also helps them improve their caring abilities towards other than normal children. Significance of the study The study is important to the nursing practice. This requires more patience. because having children other than normal is quite different from having normal children. mothers having children other than normal. understanding. community. this help them understand the life situation they are in to because we all know that this situation is not an easy responsibility. Statement of the objective: The main objective of this study is to explain the lived experiences of mothers caring other than normal children. 38 .The Problem Statement of the problem This study aims to answer the problem: What is the lived experience of mothers caring for other than normal children. families. and love. This enables them to highlight pre-existing problems and let them understand situation related to parenting. attention. and to the nursing profession. Mother This study help the mothers broaden their knowledge in taking good care of children with autism specially other caregivers.
and assistance for a family or relative who have a special child. Scope and limitation 39 . Nursing Practice Nursing is an educative instrument. and community living. student nurses gain information about caring other than normal children. constructive. The student nurses can also be instrumental in providing anticipatory guidance to assist families to cope with stressors in the transition to parenting and coping especially during the first year of life in caring other than normal children. personal. this study helps in the improvement of the practice of nursing by providing relevant findings for the advancement of care strategies. This helps the students to have a proper guidance to facilitate the dissemination of the information by teaching the mother with a special child as well as the community and any other concern citizens about taking care of the child. Student Nurses As healthcare providers.This helps to cope successfully with their extra demands and extra stress and also helps them in preparing themselves in changing behavior towards the child. It provides information. In relation in the above statement. Community The result of the study increases the level of understanding of the community regarding the experiences of mothering other than normal children. direction. a maturing force that aims to promote forward movement of personality in the direction of creative.
the results of this study might not be hold true for mothers having children other than normal residing in other places because experiences will vary depending into where was and what is its environment. This is to ensure the validity of data. bad. Limitation of the study The study is deals with the experiences of mothers taking care of children other than normal. or whatsoever as long as it defines the mother-child relationship which this study is trying to understand. The study is conducted only under the vicinity of Dumaguete city with its 30 barangays. with in their experienced life in Dumaguete city. Other than normal children. are those children with Autistic disorder. Researcher Methodology 40 . The respondents is treated fairly and equal and without bias.Scope of the study This particular study is focused on explaining experiences of mothers caring for other than normal children. The feedback the respondents adhere is depicting the situations they are in to. rewarding. The study is focused only on the experiences either good. whom this study categorizes. For this.
this normally translates into gathering “deep” information and perceptions through inductive. through how they are perceived by the actors in a situation. (6) Formulating an exhaustive of the phenomenon under the study in as unequivocal a statement of identification as possible. which provides a rich description of the essential structure of the phenomenon. Philosophical discipline originated by Edmund Husserl. (7) Asking participants about the finding as final validating step. The researcher makes use of Collaizi’s Method for the data analysis of the study. The purpose of the phenomenological approach is to illuminate the specific and to identify the phenomena. the attempt to isolate it and set it off from all assumptions of existence or causal influence and lay bare its essential structure. (2)Receiving each protocol and extract each significant statement. In the human sphere. Another method that will be use is the Husserlian Method. (5) Integrating results into an exhaustive description of the phenomenon under the study.” Phenomenology emphasizes the immediacy of experience.Research Design This research is a phenomenological qualitative study. Husserl's concept of the life-world— 41 . Phenomenology restricts the philosopher's attention to the pure data of consciousness. (1) Reading all protocols to acquire a feeling for them. uncontaminated by metaphysical theories or scientific assumptions. discussions and participant observation and representing it from the perspective of the research participants. Collaizi method comprises of seven steps. Husserl developed the phenomenological method to make possible “a descriptive account of the essential structures of the directly given. qualitative methods such as interviews. (4) Organizing the formulated measuring into themes. (3) Spelling out the measuring of each significant statement.
hearing and visual impairments and Autism disorders. ( Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. there is a waiting area for mothers who supervised their children attending the learning center. The area surrounding 42 . A person from Dumaguete is called a "Dumagueteño". The learning center is only meant for children with special needs which includes. it has a population of 102. on both ends.as the individual's personal world as directly experienced—expressed this same idea of immediacy. although some will just go there just to fetch their child.com/Husserlian+phenomenology> Research Environment The City of Dumaguete is a city in the Philippine province of Negros Oriental. Copyright © 1994-2008 Encyclopædia Britannica. Inc. The study was conducted specifically in Dumaguete West City Exceptional Child Learning Center. It is the capital.http://encyclopedia2. principal seaport. The learning Center is a two storey building. Jose Rizal. And on the second floor.265 people. According to the year 2000 census. his personal philosophizing flowered into an international movement. Each floor has four rooms and a wooden stair on both sides. The city is nicknamed The City of Gentle People coined by the late Dr. With the appearance of the Annual for Philosophical and Phenomenological Research (1913–30). and largest city of the province. On the first floor. there is a small canteen where children ate and buy their meals. Dumaguete is referred to as a university town because of the presence of four universities and a number of other colleges where students of the province converge to enroll for tertiary education. under Husserl's editorship. Its most notable adherents were Max Scheler and Martin Heidegger. It is a located just beside West City Elementary School.thefreedictionary.
Mother (regardless the age group she may belong). (1) must not be a single parent. what are your experiences in taking care of your child with special needs?” Subject will be provided with a questionnaire having the main question. Research Respondents The subject of this study falls on the criteria as follows: A. (3) with or without a stable job. their chairs are arranged depending on whose student is occupying this is to ensure that each student will be accommodated effectively. The gathering of data on this study is based on the main “As a mother. This is for the proponents to have a cross reference or significant data of the subject they have. The floors in each storey are very clean as well as inside each room. Research instrument It is clear that in doing activities where truth and reality is the aim to understand. Audio recorders and digital cameras are also be using as well if situation requires. Each room is specially designed depending on the type of disability the room is occupied for. (2) Living within the vicinity of Dumaguete city. (4) caring a child/children diagnosed of having an Autism living with her that belongs to any age group and must be attending a special education class. These identified gadgets and devices are going to be used while 43 . Other specification will not be limit to the subject as long as the criteria mentioned above are achieved. On the rooms were mentally impaired students are belong. Thus. correct selection and utilization or usage of instruments to be used must be addressed promptly.the Learning Center is crowded with students both coming from the elementary school and from the learning center especially during recess and breaks. demographic data is also included.
Some examples of convenience sampling are when students use their classmates in a research study or a television reporter interviews people on the street. In pilot studies. Sampling Procedure Convenience sampling is also known as grab. accidental or haphazard sampling. some researchers might use convenience sampling.wisegeek. Functionality and reliability of these devices and gadgets are satisfactorily double-checked and tested prior to its usage. convenience 44 .htm) Researchers use convenience sampling not just because it is easy to use. but because it also has other research advantages. This means that subjects are chosen in a nonrandom manner. than probability sampling is stringent accurate nonprobability sampling. opportunity. With this method.interview is going on. but it is not always feasible. When time or cost is a factor. researchers have no way of calculating how well their sample represents considered the to population be more as a whole.> http://www. With nonprobability sampling. paid volunteers or clients. the researcher chooses subjects because of convenience. As the name describes.(What is convenience sampling?. the researcher uses subjects that are easy to reach. It is often used in pilot or exploratory studies when the researcher wants an inexpensive and quick way to discern whether further research is warranted.com/whatis-convenience-sampling. and some members of the population have no chance of being included. and In general. The subjects are selected just because they are easiest to recruit for the study and the researcher did not consider selecting subjects that are representative of the entire population. Many social science studies use convenience sampling with students. Convenience sampling is a nonprobability method.
45 . it is better if you can describe the possible effects of the people who were left out or the subjects that are overrepresented to your results. • The relative cost and time required to carry out a convenience sample are small in comparison to probability sampling techniques. Such studies are also very useful for detecting relationships among different phenomena. It is also necessary to describe the individuals who might be left out during the selection process or the individuals who are overrepresented in the sample. This will allow the readers of your research to get a good grasp of the sample that you were testing. (CONVENIENCE SAMPLING APPLIED TO RESEARCH.com/convenience-sampling. This enables you to achieve the sample size you want in a relatively fast and inexpensive way. It will also enable them to estimate the possible difference between your results and the results from the entire population. This sampling technique is also useful in documenting that a particular quality of a substance or phenomenon occurs within a given sample.experiment-resources. > http://www. In connection to this.sample is usually used because it allows the researcher to obtain basic data and trends regarding his study without the complications of using a randomized sample. When using convenience sampling.html#ixzz1axWfdNBQ Advantages of convenience sampling • Convenience sampling is very easy to carry out with few rules governing how the sample should be collected. it is necessary to describe how your sample would differ from an ideal sample that was randomly selected.
adequacy. reliability. • to make generalisations from your sample to the populationyou are studying. Accuracy. The researcher in pair will go to Dumaguete West City Exceptional Child Learning Center to visit a Special Education Class. a questionnaire having the demographic data and the main question is the research instrument that the researcher is going utilized in order to gather the necessary data. researcher introduces themselves and explains the background and purpose of the study.com/articles/convenience -sampling-an-overview. (Convenience sampling: An overview >http://dissertation. The researcher is then select possible subjects to this study (this is after the letter of permission from the proper authorities has already been signed and approved). and relevance are only the basic factors that must take first into account when gathering the data. those individuals that qualifies the selected criteria are going to be considered our respondents. As mentioned. To start the data gathering procedure. If possible the place of the meeting must be properly selected and manipulated base from the ultimate convenience of the subject and must be in her preference as long as the place will be free from interruption and outside influences.The convenience sample may help you gather useful data and information that would not have been possible using probability sampling techniques. with the use of Convenience sampling method. quality. which require more formal access to lists of populations. During the meeting with the subject.laerd.php) Procedure of data gathering Gathering the data is the one of the most crucial part of this study. Then consent signing and contract setting is obtain by the 46 .
researcher before proceeding to the actual data gathering. Operational Definition of Terms Lived Experience Lived experience. After the question and answer process and sufficient data is already obtain respondent is thanked after. researcher assures their subjects that whatever information obtain from them is always kept in strict confidential. After the consent is already signed and fully understand by the subject she is then asked by the researcher to fill up the demographic data first followed by the question “As a mother. Thus. In times the subject cannot well explicate her answer with the question. the researcher must prepare a readymade follow up questions to facilitate the subject. Any relationship formed from the interview is terminated and proceed to the next phase of the data analysis. as defined by the proponents and use in this study. are those activities which involves an individual that eventually leads to the gaining of knowledge or understanding and skill or in vice versa. Caring 47 . what are your experiences in taking care of your child with special needs?” During the data gathering process the researcher undertaking the question and answer process is staying to facilitate the subject while answering.
Mother CHAPTER II Presentation. I asked myself that who will take care to my child”…. It is because I’m thinking what will happen to my child when I got old. and behavioral development of children. or having intense interests restricted to only particular things or topics.For this study. Autism Autism is a disorder that affects the social. maintain.1: Worries on the exceptional care given to child Respondent #1: “Nabalaka nako kay 2 years old na dili pa siya kabalong mulakaw. and Interpretation of Data Theme no. the way it is executed. Other symptoms may include constantly repeating certain actions or behaviors. emotional.. so I’m controlling his meals” 48 . the proponents define caring as any activity that promotes. Analysis. and advance the care given to a child regardless the structure. Symptoms of autism usually appear before the age of three and can last the rest of a person’s lifetime. gi sige na namu praktisan pero wala ra gihapon” Respondent #3: “I was so afraid at first. Autism is at least four times more common in boys than in girls.“I am afraid that he get too fat that would cause him sickness. Autism is marked by serious difficulties in interacting and communicating with other people. and as well as its principles of doing so.
.2: Difficulty in handling the child Respondent #1:“Lisod kaayu among kahimtang ato kay masakiton kaayu siya gamay sikil magsakit dayun siya”……“Lisod gyud kaayu siya ehandle kay masakiton. kahinanglan pa ug adjustments” Respondent #2: “In my case.. it is not easy to have a child with special needs”…. bisan maligo.. bata pa man gud ko ato” Respondent #6: “Mahadlok ko sa kondisyon sa iyang kasing kasing kay tambok biya na siya basun maputos ba ug tambok”…. this really worries me since she is my first-born. kay lahi ra gyud ang akong anak buluyagon ug dili kasabot unsa iya ganahan. ug mumata” Respondent #9: “…. I am thinking about what she will become when she got older with that condition……” Worries are never be remove from the mothers having a child with disabilities especially when the child is in illness state. buluyagon.. Theme no.it was really a struggle on how to raise her compared with a normal child and little expectations in return” 49 .Respondent #4: “I keep on thinking as he get older of how will I give him the normal life the same as other normal children” Respondent #5: “Mahadlok ko usahay kay basun dili nako mahatag ang mga kahinanglanon sa akong anak”……. mulihok. maghilak gani ko usahay” Respondent #8: “Pait kayo ug magkaanak ug autistic. because she cannot take medicine easily” Respondent #3: “Caring my child is not easy because he is not the same compared to other children. Her condition really worries me because of her late development.. There are times that I need to be absent just to be with him when he is going to be admitted” Respondent #5: “Gatabanganay ra mi sa akong mga igsoon sa pagbantay niya sa hospital kay kapoy biya kaayu magatiman ug ingon aning bata” Respondent #6: “Kapuyan pod ko usahay samut na kung sige siya pabuyag nako. as a mother.“Magproblema ra ko kay dugay na siya mukaon.there was denial coupled with anger and apprehension on how to raise a child with special needs.atiman sa akong anak atong bata pa siya ky mahadlok man ko basun magkina..“Gabalaka gni ko usahay sa akong anak sige ra biya siya kaadmit”……“Akong mga igsoon ra man ang ga.unsa nang bata.” Respondent #9: “….“It’s also not easy for me to take care for her when time of sickness.
Researchers at the University of Washington Autism Center asked mothers about their experiences and found that moms of children with autism had higher levels of parenting-related stress and psychological distress than mothers of children with developmental delay. “kaon na. difficulties and depression with regards to the overall welfare of their child with special needs. and Recommendations Summary of Findings Mothers caring a child with Autistic disorder are commonly experiencing worries. 3: Depression from the condition of the child Respondent #1: "Na depress ko kay ang akong anak dili normal tungod ra pod sa akong binuhatan nga dili angay” Respondent #4: “Maguol ko kung sige siya ug pabuyag nako. but this relationship was stronger in mothers of children with autism (Jeffrey Munson. 70% of the 10 respondents report that the worries of mothers with Autistic child 50 . ako ra siya ulog ulogan.” Respondent #8: “Makaguol gyud ko ug maayo kay ako nga iyang inahan dili siyan usahay mutoo nako” Chapter III Summary of Findings. Kusog siya musukol. Children's problem behavior was associated with increases in both parenting-related stress and distress in both groups. mangusi dayon manangas pod ug bisag unsa” Respondent #5: “Maguol ko kanang mga panahon nga mahospital siya dayun ako nga iyang inahan wala ko sa iyang tapad” Respondent #6: “Maguol ko usahay kung dili siya mukaon. sayo pa” Respondent #7: “Maguol pod ko usahay kung makahunahuna ko niya ug iyang gibati kay dili man unta na iyang sala nganung naingon ana siya. PhD >speechlanguage-pathology-audiology. manumbag siya.kaon na” dayun mu ingon ra man na siya “unya ra.aspx? cc=210578) Theme no.com/editorial/content/editorial.advanceweb. Conclusions.
Peterson (Eds. Brooks-Gunn R. 19(4). A. (2010) Pain Assessment in People with Intellectual or Developmental Disabilities. the emotional tendencies of mothers having a child with special needs. Becoming a mother: An analysis of women’s experience of early motherhood. M. (1991). pp.110. F. L. and Andrasik..) The Encyclopedia of Adolescence (Vol.are nevertheless one of the common concerns they are experiencing throughout the course of their care to their child with special needs. D. Journal of Advanced Nursing. Schmied. 719-728 Baumrind. Conclusions It already understood that caring Work cited BOOK: • Aston. (1997). In J. & Wyllie. Parenting Styles and Adolescent Development. Difficulties are also part of their experience as 70% of the total respondent states that these difficulties are often their common complains in dealing with their child with special needs. Everitt.Lerner. This emotional task varies among the respondents but all points out into one direction. 29-35. L.C. Learning to be a normal mother: Empowerment and pedagogy in postpartum classes. L. Depression in mothers with special needs is also shown in 60% of the respondents’ statements.. Frank. p. Vol. & A. Kathy H. These worries are all towards the status of their child’s condition in long term basis. 2). Barclay. Rogan.116 51 • • • ... V. 25. Public Health Nursing. These difficulties comprise not only the exceptional care that the child requires but also the dealing of the behaviors that their child with special needs is manifesting. 284-293 Baldrige.. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins: USA. (2002).
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Radiological Society of 2011/01/10.html http://www.absoluteastronomy.<http://radiology.com/Autism/Parenting_autistic_child Rao (1994).com/what-isconvenience-sampling.wisegeek.2.org>.com/topics/Dumaguete_City What is convenience sampling?.<http://trisomydisorders.com/search/images?_adv_prop=image&fr=yfp-t-701s&va=dumaguete+map • • • • • • http://www.> http://www.com/about_6622232_abnormal-childbehavior-psychology. • Parenting an Autistic Child > http://www.2011 http://www. “Abnormal child behavior can have a psychological cause”. Sarah Moll.rsnajnls.com/2011/01/10/parentingchildren-with-and-without-developmental-delay-the-role-of-self-mastery/>2007. 21.yahoo.wordpress.ehow. 56 . ehow Contributor Oct.com/special-children-special-parents-part-1/.brighttots. A study of Behaviour Disorders in Moderately mentally Retarded Children and their relation to Parental Attitude . Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology. 27-31.USA . North America Inc.search.blisstherapeutic. 2011/01/10.htm http://images.
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MAEd. Joles Nick B.MN Research Adviser 58 . Sincerely yours.Foundation University College Of Nursing Dumaguete city September 30. TAYKO. we are going to conduct a study which entitled “A lived experience of mothering other than normal children: A phenomenological study”. In relation to this we are asking for your permission to allow us conduct this said study in the area of Dumaguete city with the college under your management and guidance. We are third year student nurses of foundation University College of Nursing (FUCN) currently enrolled in Nursing Research (NRES) for this semester. 2011 PROF.RN. We are hoping for your positive response.RN.MELANIE MAE O. Emerenciana Group Leader Noted by: MS. As a requirement for the said subject necessary for our course.NENITA P.MAN Dean College of Nursing Foundation University Good Day Ma’am. AUSTERO.