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# Code No: R5411008 1

## IV B.Tech I Semester(R05) Regular/Supplementary Examinations, December 2009

DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Common to Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering and Electronics & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks

1. A slowly changing continuous-time signal f(t) is sampled every T seconds.
(a) Assuming that the changes in f(t) are very slow compared to the sampling frequency, show that in the
z-domain,
1 z
1
T
corresponds to dierentiation. Obtain a block diagram of this dierentiator using a pure delay element z
1
.
(b) What is an equivalent integrator in the z-domain? Draw a graph of the output in each case when the input
is a unit step sequence. [8+8]
2. Derive the state space model of discrete control system using direct programming method and draw its block
diagram. 
3. Investigate the controllability and observability of the following system

x
1
(k + 1)
x
2
(k + 1)

1 2
1 1

x
1
(k)
x
2
(k)

1 1
0 0

u(k)

y
1
(k)
y
2
(k)

1 0
0 1

x
1
(k)
x
2
(k)


4. Discuss Liapunov stability analysis in detail, explaining the terms Positive Deniteness, Negative Deniteness,
Positive Semi deniteness, Negative Semi deniteness, Indeniteness of scalar functions and Liaponov functions.

5. What are the dierent techniques used to design digital controllers. Explain the merits and demerits of the
techniques. Explain any two techniques in detail. 
6. A discrete-time system dened by
X(k + 1) =

0 0
20.6 0

X(k) +

0
1

u(k)
y(k) =

1 0

X(k)
Design a control law u = -KX so that the closed loop system has eigenvalues at 1.8+j2.4, -1.8-j2.4 
7. (a) Discuss briey Kalman Filtering algorithm and explain the various recursive relations.
(b) With neat block diagram explain the full order observer. [8+8]
8. Obtain the control law for the system X(k + 1) =

0.8 1
0 0.5

X(k) +

1
0.5

u(k)
to ensure that the closed lop poles lie within a circle of radius 1/; ( = 5, ) in addition to minimization of the
performance index J =

k=0

x
2
1
+ u
2

## for the system. 

Code No: R5411008 2
IV B.Tech I Semester(R05) Regular/Supplementary Examinations, December 2009
DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Common to Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering and Electronics & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks

1. Obtain the inverse Z-transform of the following in the closed form.
(a) F
1
(z) =
0.368z
2
+0.478z+0.154
z
2
(z1)
(b) F
2
(z) =
2z
3
+z
(z1)
2
(z1)
(c) F
3
(z) =
z+2
z
2
(z2)
[6+5+5]
2. Find the state variable models for the following system represented by the dierence equation
(a) y(k+3)+5y(k+2)+7y(k+1)+3y(k)=0
(b) y(k+2)+3y(k+1)+2y(k)=5r(k+1)+3r(k) [8+8]
3. Consider the system dened by,

x
1
(k + 1)
x
2
(k + 1)

a b
c d

x
1
(k)
x
2
(k)

1
1

u(k)
y(k) =

1 0

x
1
(k)
x
2
(k)

Determine the condition on a, b, c and d for complete state controllability and complete observability. 
4. Determine the stability of the following characteristic equations by using suitable tests.
(a) 5z
2
2z + 2 = 0
(b) z
3
0.2z
2
0.25z + 0.05 = 0
(c) z
4
1.7z
3
+1.04z
2
0.268z + 0.024 = 0. [5+5+6]
5. (a) What are the two basic transformations used to convert an analog system transfer function to a digital
system transfer function? Explain each procedure.
(b) Explain the design of digital controllers through bilinear transformation. [8+8]
6. Explain the steps involved in the pole placement design by state feedback for multi input system. 
7. Consider the digital process with the state equations described by
X(k + 1) = AX (k) + Bu(k)
c(k) = D X(k)
Where A =

0 1
1 1

,B =

0
1

,D =

2 0

## . Design a full order observer which will observe the states

x
1
(k) and x
2
(k) from the output c(k), having dead beat response. Write the dynamic equation for the observer.

8. What is a state regulator? Explain the steps involved in the design of state regulator. 

Code No: R5411008 3
IV B.Tech I Semester(R05) Regular/Supplementary Examinations, December 2009
DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Common to Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering and Electronics & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks

1. Show that the transfer function for
(a) a zero-order hold is,G
0
(s) =
1e
Ts
s
(b) a rst-order hold is,G
1
(s) =
Ts+1
T

1e
Ts
s

2
. [8+8]
2. Consider the discrete control system represented by the transfer function
G(z) =
z
1
(1+z
1
)
(1+0.5z
1
)(10.5z
1
)
Obtain the state space representation in the diagonal form. 
3. Consider the following continuous control system

x

1
(t)
x

2
(t)

1 1
0 1

x
1
(k)
x
2
(k)

0
1

y(t) = x
1
(t)
The control signal u(k) is now generated by processing the signal u(t) through a sampler and zero order hold.
Study the controllability and observability properties of the system under this condition. Determine the values
of the sampling period for which the discretised system may exhibit hidden oscillation. 
4. Explain Liapunov stability criterion for the linear time variant systems. 
5. What are PID controllers? Compare its performance with PI controllers and PD controllers. Explain digital
PID controller in detail. 
6. Explain the design steps for pole placement by state feedback for single input system in detail with a suitable
example. 
7. (a) Explain the eects of the observer on a closed loop system performance.
(b) Consider the system
X(k+1) = GX(k) + Hu(k) Y(k) = CX(k)
where G =

0 1
0.16 1

; H =

0
1

; C = [1 1]
Design a current observer for the system. It is desired that the response to the initial observer error be
8. Derive the solution for optimal control problem using transfer function approach. 

Code No: R5411008 4
IV B.Tech I Semester(R05) Regular/Supplementary Examinations, December 2009
DIGITAL CONTROL SYSTEMS
(Common to Electronics & Instrumentation Engineering and Electronics & Control Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks

1. (a) Obtain the Z-transform of
i. f
1
(t) =
1
a
(1 e
at
) where a is a constant
ii. f
2
= 9k(2
k1
) 2
k
+ 3 k 0
(b) Show thatz
_
k (k 1) ..... (k h + 1) a
kh

=
(h!)z
(za)
h+1
. [5+5+6]
2. Consider the discrete control system represented by the transfer function
G(z) =
z
1
(1+z
1
)
(1+0.5z
1
)(10.5z
1
)
Obtain the state space representation in the diagonal form. 
3. Dene controllability and observability of discrete time systems. For the following system,
Y (z)
U(z)
=
z
1
_
1 + 0.8z
1
_
1 + 1.3z
1
+ 0.4z
2
Determine whether the system is observable and controllable. 
4. Determine the stability of the following characteristic equations by using suitable tests.
(a) 5z
2
2z + 2 = 0
(b) z
3
0.2z
2
0.25z + 0.05 = 0
(c) z
4
1.7z
3
+1.04z
2
0.268z + 0.024 = 0. [5+5+6]
5. (a) What are the two basic transformations used to convert an analog system transfer function to a digital
system transfer function? Explain each procedure.
(b) Explain the design of digital controllers through bilinear transformation. [8+8]
6. Consider the system
X(k+1) = FX(k) + Gu(k)
Y(k) = CX(k)
where
F =
_
0.16 2.16
0.16 1.16
_
G =
_
1
1
_
C =
_
1 1
_
Design a state feedback control algorithm which gives closed loop characteristic roots at 0.6+j0.4, 0.6-j0.4 
7. (a) Discuss the necessity of an observer in control systems.
(b) Draw the block diagram of a reduced order observer and explain the advantages over full-order observer.
[6+10]
8. Evaluate the minimum performance index and also nd out the optimal control law to minimize the given
performance index for the discrete time control system dened by
x(k+1) = 0.3679 x(k) + 0.6321 u(k) ; x(0) = 1.
The performance index is
J =
1
2
[x(10)]
2
+
1
2
9

k=0
_
x
2
(k) + u
2
(k)