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Do-Hyun Jang

Department of Electrical Engineering Hoseo University Asan-kun, Chungnam 337-850, KOREA

Iqbal Husain

Department of Electrical Engineering The University of Akron Akron, OH 44325 USA

Mehrdad Ehsani

Department of Electrical Engineering Texas A & M University College Station, TX 77843 USA

Abstract : A modification of the (n+l) switch converter topology for star-connected switched reluctance motor drives is proposed, which is suitable for low speed as well as high speed operation. Freewheeling circuit with a dual time constant has been designed to reduce the current tail in decreasing inductance region, which reduces the negative torque and improves the system efficiency. The different modes of operation of the converter is discussed, and a comparison is made with the (n+l) switch converter topology.

I. INTRODUCTION The switched reluctance motor (SRM) has a number of inherent advantages that have sparked interest in its use as an adjustable speed drive. Among these are low cost of construction due to absence of rotor windings or magnets, low rotor inertia and high torquehertia ratio, sustained high speed operation and simple converter requirement. The SRMs are easily operable in four quadrants and provide excellent speed-torque characteristics through appropriate positioning of the phase excitation pulses with respect to the rotor position. The wide speed range of operation also make it suitable for a variety of unique applications. In this paper, a low-cost SRM converter suitable for high speed operation with the reduced number of power switches is presented. The converter topology is a modification of the (n+l) switch converter topology, which requires (n+2) switches for n-phases. The proposed topology can eliminate the problem of negative torque encountered in the (n+l) switch topology. This modification makes the new topology suitable for wide speed range of operation. The new topology is also suitable for star-connected motors, which are used in space restricted applications. Experimental results of the developed topology are presented to verify the capabilities of the proposed converter, and compared with those of the (n+l) switch converter. 11. BASIC SRM OPERATION

A . Basic Principle

windings on diametrically opposite poles are connected in series to form one phase. The rotor does not have any winding and is made of magnetic steel laminations. When a stator phase is energized, the nearest rotor pole pair is attracted towards the energized stator phase to minimize the reluctance of the magnetic path. Therefore, by energizing consecutive stator phases in succession it is possible to develop constant torque in either direction of rotation. Several other combination of stator and rotor poles are possible but a 4/2 or 2/2 configurations has disadvantage that if the rotor and stator poles are aligned exactly, it would be impossible to develop a starting torque. The configurations with higher numbers of statorhotor poles have less torque ripple and do not have the problem of starting torque.

v

Fig. 1 Cross-section of a four-phase, 816 SRM. B. Torque Production Torque in the SRM is developed by the tendency of the magnetic circuit to adopt a configuration of minimum reluctance, and it is independent of direction of the current flow. The torque in terms of co-energy is [ l ]

T(8 ,i)

=

awye ,i)

w’

ae

1 . 2 dL

-,

where 8 is the rotor position angle and i is the current in the stator windings. Under the simplifying assumption of magnetic linearity, the torque equation becomes

The SRM operates on the basis of varying reluctance in its magnetic circuit. A schematic diagram of the SRM with eight stator poles and six rotor poles is shown in Fig. 1. The stator 0-7803-2730-6195 $4.00 0 1995 IEEE

T(8,i)= --I 2

de

where L is stator phase self-inductance at any value of 8.

In low speed applications. Thus. 2(a). if necessary. but also the number of required floating drivers. Miller et al. both switches are tumed off and the phase winding is quickly demagnetized through the two freewheeling diodes. together with the fact that the stator phases are electrically isolated from one another. The torque developed in SRMs is independent of the direction of current flow. The circuit of the suppression resistor converter shown in Fig. S3. and common diode. The type of converter required for SRM is intimately related to motor construction and the number of phases [2]. When the SRM is run in the forward motoring mode.3]. 3(a). During the magnetization period. S7 of the classic converter. This is true for both forward and reverse modes of operation of the SRM. the phase current must coincide with the decreasing inductance period as shown in this figure. the phase current freewheels slowly through the phase winding. the tum-on of the common switch during magnetization period of next phase interferes with the demagnetization of the previously conducting phase as shown in Fig. the current should be switched off before the end of the increasing inductance period to allow the current to decay fully before the inception of decreasing inductance so that no negative torque is produced. 3(b) has been reported by T. which requires two switches and two diodes per phase. the phase current is switched on such that it flows during the increasing inductance period. Therefore. S5. This topology not only reduced the number of power devices. To maximize motoring torque. for the upper four phase diodes. Common switch Q of (n+l) converter is substituted for the upper switches S1. and for negative or braking torque. the dc link voltage is applied to the phase winding. one of the phase diodes and common diode conduct and the magnetic energy is transferred to the capacitor C. the energy stored in the magnetic field at the end of a torque producing period of a particular phase is not necessarily dissipated. The converter requires only one switch and one diode 1122 - I . two phase switches connected to the winding are tumed on and the magnetic energy is transferred from the source to the motor. During forced demagnetization period. phase switch. Chopping or PWM . which is particularly important when the overlapping conduction is desired. This converter is derived from the classic converter of Fig. and common diode D. significant negative torque is generated in the off-going phase causing low efficiency of the SRM drive. Operating modes of (n+l) switch converter are analogous to those of the classic converter. (b) Idealized motoring torque T+ and braking torque T. Therefore. 2 (a) Idealized inductance profile for one motor phase. [2.7]. When the common switch is tumed on and one of the phase switch is tumed off. each stator phase of an SRM must be energized by unidirectional current pulse while the rotor is appropriately positioned relative to the stator. However. The (n+l) switch converter shown in Fig. Phase Inductance Aligned I J I Torque I (a> Rotor Position (b) Fig.The idealized inductance of an SRM is shown in Fig. low performance applications [4. (n+l) switch converter topology requires (n+l) switches and (n+l) diodes for an n-phase motor. The most flexible and the most versatile four quadrant SRM converter is the classic converter shown in Fig. 5(a). For positive or motoring torque. 3(c) is one of the most economical SRM converters suitable for low cost. the phase switch and common switch Q have to be tumed off. The energy can be pumped back to the supply at the end of the period of increasing inductance with an appropriate converter circuit. the performance of (n+l) switch converter is the same as that of classic converter using PWM method.for constant phase current. The off-going phase cannot be de-energized fast enough when the common switch is tumed on. At commutation. can be accomplished by switching either one or both the switches during the conduction period according to the control strategy. When one of the phase switches and common switch Q are tumed on during magnetization period. 1 1 CONVERTER TOPOLOGIES FOR SRM 1. high power drives. generates a wide variety of power circuit configurations. The main advantage of this converter is the independent control of each phase. 3(a). This unique feature of SRMs. This circuit is especially suitable for highvoltage. At higher speeds. unipolar converters are sufficient to serve as the power converter circuit for the SRh4 unlike induction motors or synchronous motors which require bi-directional currents. The particular choice also depends on the specific application. the number of switches required is twice to the number of phases and the upper level switches need the floating drivers. the phase current should be switched on during the constant low inductance region so that the current can build up before the period of increasing inductance starts. The converter does not need a bifilar winding or split power supply or even number of motor phases [ 5 ] . Furthermore. Therefore.

. Therefore. the freewheeling current of the (n+2) switch converter decays quickly after the freewheeling switch S is turned off at about the peak point of inductance profile. if the current tail in decreasing inductance region can be eliminated. Iv. When the current freewheels through Rd in the increasing inductance region. the dc link voltage is applied to the phase winding. low-cost SRM converter is proposed. a modification of the (n+l) switch converter to develop an efficient. as shown in Fig. energy is dissipated in the dump resistor instead of being regenerated in the source. 5(a). This is because the freewheeling path of the proposed converter includes the dump resistor and the time constant is LJ(R. At tum-off of phase switch. This converter has been used because of the few number of switches and the simplicity of control in spite of its low efficiency. 3(b) is that at high speeds. v. named the (n+2) switch converter. In this paper. the proposed converter prevents generation of negative torque and improves the system efficiency. is shown in Fig.per phase. performance of the (n+l) switch converter at high speeds can be improved. 4 Modified (n+l) switch converter for four-phase SRM. However. the dump resistor Rd is added in the freewheeling path and a freewheeling switch S is connected in parallel to Rd for the conventional (n+l) switch converter.. the current tail in the decreasing inductance region is long and a significant negative torque is generated. (b) (n+l) switch converter. The freewheeling switch S is kept closed during the chopping 1123 . When one of the phase switches is turned on. Single pulse operation of the (n+2) switch converter is explained in Fig. 3 Conventional converter configurations for SRM drives. Fig. 5(a) and Fig. If the freewheeling path involves the dump resistor in the demagnetization period but not in the chopping period. The topology. 5(b). In the low-speed mode operation. the dump resistor. Accordingly. In the proposed topology. and a common dump resistor Rd for all the phases. the current freewheels through the winding. Operation of the (n+2) switch converter in the increasing inductance region is the same as that of the (n+l) switch converter. MODIFICATION @+I) SWITCH CONVERTER OF The main drawback of the (n+l) switch converter of Fig. the current tail decays quickly after commutation because of the dump resistor. while the freewheeling currents of the ( n + l ) switch converter decays slowly with time constant LJR. 4. The loss of power output can be reduced if the turn-off angles of phase switches are adjusted optimally and the value of dump resistor is chosen properly [6]. and the freewheeling diode. (a) Classical converter. OPERATlON OF (?2+2) SWITCH CONVERTER Fig. so that part of the stored energy is dissipated in the dump resistor while the rest is converted to mechanical energy. in the decreasing inductance region. the current tail decay quickly and the generation of a negative torque can be reduced. (c) Suppression resistor converter. the phase current is kept constant by hysteresis control to produce the desired torque. 5(b). Accordingly. This is explained in Fig.+Rd). The combination of the suppression resistor converter and the (n+l) switch converter can provide efficient operation over a wide range of speed.

Fig. . . the common switch and the freewheeling switch. 5(b) and Fig. I I OFFI.. the dc link voltage is applied to the phase winding. The single-pulse operation of high-speed mode of the (n+2) switch converter is divided into four modes per cycle according to the turn-odtum-off of the phase switches. and the current waveforms of one motor phase. SI /LI*l~ s2 . as shown in Fig. . Therefore. ' . (a) (n+l) switch converter (b) (n+2) switch converter. gating signals for the phase switches. [111] . * I I . the PWM operation of low-speed mode of the (n+2) switch converter is the same as that of (@+I) switch converter. : 11 1 $111 : [III] Mode I ( Magnetizing period ) : When the phase switch and common switch Q is turned on and the freewheeling switch S is tumed off during interval [ONl. 6. . Mode(S1) Mode(S2) i [I 1 :[Ill: I . I a . i I (&1<15") . the common switch Q and freewheeling switch S. The various modes are shown in Fig. f . 5 Inductance profiles.period so that the magnetic energy is saved in the winding instead of being dissipated in the dump resistor. OFFI]. 6(a). . The phase voltage equation during the magnetization period is given by 1124 I . (OFF1+15") * . .

. (7) Mode [III] (Slow dissipation period): Common switch Q should be turned on at w t = ON1+15" so that a dc link voltage is applied to the next phase winding. The phase voltage equation during the slow dissipation period is Freewheeling current if during this mode is given by if(€)) = Z2 epx() -0 Wm'2 Mode [IV] (Fast dissipation period): The freewheeling switch S is turned off at about the peak point of inductance profile (e = l5"). during the interval [ON1+15". the current decays quickly in the 1125 . and Ra and La are the resistance and inductance of the phase winding. during the interval [ONl. the stored energy is dissipated slowly. Of course. [ 2+ 2 1 La(€))i. respectively. as shown in Fig. -x() ep-] -8 '"m'l . = irRa w + Regenerating current i is given by . Mode (111 ( Regenerating period ) : When the phase switch and the common switch Q is turned off and the freewheeling switch S is tumed on during the interval [OFFl. 6(b). The phase voltage equation during the regenerating period is given by -V.where o m is the motor speed. the energy retums to the de llnk voltage bus from a motor. and then the freewheeling path involves the dump resistor. Therefore. OFF11 can be obtained i by solving (3) (4) vd Fig. (ON1+15")]. Accordingly. the next phase is in the state of Mode [I] during this period. ir(8)= I. (b) Mode 11. Phase current .-[l R1 e G' .15"] until reaching the decreasing inductance region. 6 Four modes of operation of (n+2) switch converter: (a) Mode I. lR. (e) Mode 111 and (d) Mode IV. The phase current decays slowly in the freewheeling path with a time constant of L.

The single-pulse operation of the (n+l) switch converter is divided into three modes. hence. 5(b). The test motor was run from a dc source of 100 V. (&=40R2. 7 shows the oscillographs for the gating signals of phase switch and common switch.ON1 = -8". (b) (n+2) switch converter. OFFl =lo". OFFl =5".ON1 = -lo. . the (n+l) switch converter does not have the ability to restrain the current tail in decreasing inductance region. ) 1126 I . IGBT switches having an on-state resistance of 0. and the waveforms of winding current of the (n+l) and (n+2) switch converters when the SRM is run at a light load by the single pulse method using a dump resistor of 40 R. Id8 The dissipating current id in Mode [IV] decays faster as the value of dump resistor Rd is increased. The motor speeds under these conditions have been measured to be 1200 rpm for the (n+l) switch converter and 1340 rpm (b) Fig.4 mH with a winding resistance of 0. Fig. (14) R. The phase voltage equation during the dissipation period is given by for the (n+2) switch converter. + R... + Rd) and the remaining energy is dissipated in the resistor R d The next phase continues to operate in Mode [I] during this mode. (&=40R2. 40 R and 50 Q were chosen for the experiment. Accordingly..7 Experimental waveforms for gating signal and winding current I. The oscillographs show that the width of one cycle of phase current of the (n+2) switch converter is narrower than that of the (n+l) switch converter. V. 30 R. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS A test circuit of the dual-decay converter was built and evaluated with an 8/6. Therefore. Dissipating current id during this mode is given by where and i3 = .0 hp star-connected SRM. Mode [Il.6 to 27. The tum-on angle (ON1) of the phase switches is at -1" and the tum-off angle (OFFl) is at 10". The increase in speed is because the dump resistor of 40 C2 in the (n+2) switch converter can restrain the current tail. which reduces the negative torque in the decreasing inductance region..dL. and Mode [III] per cycle without Mode IIV]. 1.freewheeling path with a time constant of L. (b) ( n ~ 2switch converter. T2 = i. the generation of negative torque is further reduced as shown in Fig.ce>l.. The motor phase inductance varies from 3. Rd can not be kept high because the voltage stress of the phase switches increases with higher Rd [4. while the (n+2) switch converter is operated in Mode [IV] as well. +U.e. and dump resistors valued at 10 R. In the converter. the value of the dump resistor should be designed properly considering the capability of phase switches to withstand the voltage stress.025 R were used as power devices.8 Experimental waveforms for gating signal and winding current 11. and OFF2 =lSo) (a) (n+l) switch converter. However. /(R.6]. CO) Fig. i. the tum-off angle (OFF2) of the freewheeling switch is set at 15". and OFF2 =lSo) (a) (n+l) switch converter. The circuit of ( n i l ) switch converter in the decreasing inductance region is operated in Mode [IIIj continuously.9 SZ. Mode [ I l l . Also.

Krishnan and S. pp. “Efficiency and The oscillographs of Fig. I.J. Vukosavic and V.C. and OFF2=15”) (a) &=lo R (b) &=30 R (c) Control. [5] S.. 9 shows the oscillographs of the winding current using (n+2) converter for 10 R. J. Fulton. P.G. England: Oxford Press.” Fig. as previously stated. Miller. “ SRM inverter point (OFFl) is at 5” and OFF2 is also at 15”. Miller.253-265. speeds have been measured to be about 2000 rpm for (n+l) switch converter and 2460 rpm for (n+2) switch converter. The turn-on low cost converter for switched reluctance motor drives. Stephenson. “Variable speed reluctance motors. (n+2) switch converter under various dump resistors. Blenkinsop. 9 show that the current tail in the decreasing inductance region decreases and the motor speed increases as the value of the dump resistor is increased.-H. Ehsani. Becerra and M. The high speed control is possible with the (n+2) switch converter.492.” IEEE Trans.B. waveforms of winding current of 273-276. Oxford. 7 and Fig. pp. pp.30 R. and 15” respectively.Fig. July 1988. July 1980. 1034. Corda and N. OFF1=6”. pt. [7] R. The motor topologies: A comparative evaluation. OFFl and OFF2 are set at -7”. R.M. because it can reduce the production of negative torque by controlling a switch during freewheeling. Lawrenson. Stefanovic.1047. 1994.E. VI. Krishnan and P. From the experiment of speed characteristics. vo1. The ON1..The oscillographs of Fig. 6”. P.” in IEEE-PESC Conf Rec. no. Lee. on Ind. The motor speeds have been measured to be 2010 rpm for 10 R.485 .and 50 R values of the dump resistor. switch and common switch.567. 8 shows the oscillographs for the gating signals of phase Power Electronics and Variable Speed Drives. it is observed that the current tail in the decreasing inductance region decreases and the motor speed increases as the value of the dump resistor is increased.127. Fig.T. Husain and M. pp. switch per phase converter for switched reluctance motor drives.E. The proposed (n+2) switch converter topology is suitable for PWM operation at low speeds as well as single pulse operation at high speeds. High speed control is not possible with the (n+l) switch converter. J. “Analysis and design of a the two converters under similar conditions except that the turn-odoff angles of phase switches are different. CONCLUSION A converter topology suitable for star-connected switched reluctance motor drives is proposed in this paper. no. R. vo1. [3] T.Bower.J. 561 .4. Appl. 1991 [6] D.27. 1989. 1993.” in point (ON1) of the phase switch is at -8” and the tum-off IEEE-IASConJ: Rec. pp. (ON1 =[2] T. Materu. Switched Reluctance Motors and Their 7”. pp.R.” IEEE-IAS Con$ Rec.J. IEE. the reluctance motor drives.658restraint capability of the negative torque depends on the 664.N. IEE Conf. Ehsani.6. 8 show that it is easier to performance analysis of dual-decay converter for switched restrain the current tail in the (n+2) switch topology than in the (n+l) switch topology at higher speeds. 1994.. [4] R.=50 SZ “Four quadrant brushless reluctance motor drive. 9 Experimental waveforms for winding current of the Proc. However. ” 1127 7 ~- . “Analysis and design of a single value of dump resistor.and 2414 rpm for 50 R. Jang. 2144 rpm for 30 R. The converter has been derived from the (n+l) switch converter topology to make it suitable for operation over a wide range. REFERENCES [ 11 P.

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