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ANS WE R T H E FO L L O WI NG 25 T O
ANS WE R T H E FO L L O WI NG 25 T O 30 WO RDS E ACH

1. FROM WHICH COUNTRIES OF EUROPE DID THE COLONIZERS COME TO AMERICA? WHY DID THEY COME TO AMERICA?

1. Colonizers came to America from the European countries, viz. Spain, England, France, the Netherlands and Portugal in which verginia was the first.

2. They came to America to settle colonies and eager to reap the benefits of Nature‘s bounty.

2. WHAT WERE THE PROBLEMS OF THE COLONISTS? WHICH PROBLEM DID THE COLONISTS FACE?

The Colonists face the following problems:

1. There were protest of the Red Indians who were original inhabitants of America.

2. There were mutual border disputes between the neighbouring colonies.

3. Agriculture and trade activities had to be regularised.

4. Administrative set up need to be devised.

3. WHAT DID ENRAGE MANY A COLONIST AFTER THE END OF THE „SEVEN YEARS‟ WAR?

1. A war broke out between England and France over possession of certain areas in Ohio and elsewhere in North America, known as Seven years war.

2. After the end of seven years war (1756-1763), England acquired possession of Canada and all lands lying between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River from France.

3. As these newly acquired territory was temporarily reserved as Red Indian Hunting grounds. The colonists wanting to move westward beyond the Appalachian were restrained from doing so by England.

4. This enraged (angry) many a Colonists after the end of the seven years war.

4. WHY DID THE MERCHANT COMMUNITY GROW APPREHENSIVE ABOUT THE SUGAR ACT?

1. England was facing enormous financial problems due to the Seven years‘ War, with a view to raise revenue for England in the colonies; the Sugar Act of 1764 was passed by the British Parliament.

2. It imposed a tariff duty on sugar imported into America from West Indies.

3. It also made the customs checks more stringent.

4. Hence, The Merchant community grow apprehensive about this act.

5. WHY DID THE STAMP ACT PROVE TO BE AN UNJUST ACT?

The Stamp Act prove to be an unjust Act because

1. It affected various strata of the American society as it levied stamp duty on newspapers, legal documents, insurance policies, ship‘s papers and licences and even playing cards.

2. Because of the above reason the stamp act prove to be an unjust act.

6. HOW DID THE COLONISTS CONDEMN THE STAMP ACT? WHAT WAS ITS EFFECT?

(A) The Stamp Act was severely condemned by the colonies and they expressed their protest in the following ways 1 The protestations took the form of virulent attack on the nature of the British constitution 2. They boycott of British goods and civil disobedience. (B) The resistance of the colonists was so strong that the British Parliament was forced to repeal the Stamp Act.

7. WHY WAS THE TENSION MOUNTING BETWEEN THE COLONIES AND ENGLAND?

1. Tension was already mounting between the colonies and the Mother country on account of the presence of the British Army with its headquarters first in New York and then in Boston.

2. This army was actually kept for securing frontiers.

3. But the colonists saw this army as an attempt to control them

4. The incident known as ‗Boston massacre‘ (5 th March, 1770) was the result of frequent clashes between the colonists and the Red Coats, meaning the British Soldiers.

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8. WHY THE FRENCH REVOLUTION IS REGARDED AS THE STARTING POINT IN THE HISTORY OF THE MODERN WORLD?

1. The French revolutions was outwardly a revolt against monarchy, but the aim of bringing about social equality was the underlying inspirations

2. This is why the French revolution is regarded as the starting point of history of the modern world.

9. WHAT IS MEANT BY A REVOLUTION? (MAR 2008)

1. A Revolution means a fundamental change brought about intentionally.

2. People are aroused to action when a certain social system inflicts injustice, either on an individual or the society as a whole and tries to thwart (spoil) social development.

3. Such action in the form of a revolt destroys the old system and replaces it with a new system based on new values.

4. In other words, a revolution is a social struggle against injustice.

10. HOW WAS THE FRENCH SOCIETY DIVIDED BEFORE THE REVOLUTION?

1. Before the revolution, The French society was divided into three social classes : The first Estate, the second estate and the third estate, in the descending order

2. The first estate consisted of higher order of priests and clergy.

3. Nobles and landlords were included in the second estate.

4. First two classes together accounted for only four percent of the French population.

5. The rest 96 percent constituted the third estates. Merchants, lawyers, doctors, teachers, craftsman, farmers and serfs included in the third estates.

11. EXPLAIN THE ROUSSEAU‟S CONCEPT OF THE STATE?

Rousseau, one of the outstanding thinkers of the world is regarded as an inspiration behind the French Revolution.

1. According to Rousseau, the society creates a ‗Political‘ state‘ for a stable life.

2. The state is not a divine creation but is the outcome of a sort of unwritten social contract.

3. If the state failed to abide by the terms of the contract, people have natural and moral rights to overthrow the state authority.

12. HOW DID LOUIS XVI TRY TO IMPROVE THE CONDITIONS IN FRANCE?

1. Louis XVI was crowned as a French monarch when France faced extreme financial crises.

2. Louis XVI had made an honest effort to bring France out of the financial difficulties with the help of his finance ministers Turgot, Necker and Calonne.

3. He had convened a meeting of the nobles and put before them his finance ministers‘ proposal to levy taxes on the noble.

4. He had also explained to them the difficulties the country would face if the proposal was not accepted.

5. The nobles, however, were adamant and refused to accept the proposal, Louis XVI convened the Estates General, the representative‘s body of all the three classes in France.

13. WHICH PRINCIPLES WERE PROCLAIMED (make known) BY THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY IN THE „DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS‟?

1. In the declaration of human Rights the National Assembly proclaimed the principles of liberty, equality and Fraternity.

2. These principles not only served as the basis of the French Constitution but also provided a value structure to the mankind.

14. WHAT CONDITIONS LAID THE FOUNDATIONS OF CAPITALIST ECONOMY IN EUROPE?

1. With the discovery of new-routes, a number of European merchants came forward to trade with the eastern countries.

2. Trading companies with share capital contributed by different individuals were formed.

3. The rulers also gave military protection to merchant ships and granted trade concessions too.

4. Wealth began to accumulate in Europe.

5. These conditions laid the foundation of Capitalist Economy in Europe.

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15. HOW DID THE BRITISH TRADERS EARN HUGE PROFITS FROM THE TRADE WITH THE EASTERN COUNTRIES?

1. The British merchants used to buy goods in the eastern markets and sell them in other world market and not European markets for profit.

2. For example, the British traders used to buy textiles in India to sell it in Indonesia. The sale proceeds were then used for buying spices for British Markets.

3. This is how the British traders earned huge profits from eastern trade.

16. HOW DID INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION BEGIN IN ENGLAND?

1. In 18 th century Britain was a formidable navel power. It had established many colonies in Asia and also in America for purpose of trade.

2. England also had made progress in the field of science and technology.

3. The new techniques were useful in producing commercial goods.

4. Ores needed for machines and factories, and coal to run them, were available in plenty.

5. Long fibre cotton also easily available to her from her colonies in America.

6. Due to all these factors, industrial revolution first began in England.

17. HOW DID THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION SPREAD IN EUROPE?

1. The industrial revolution which had began in England soon spread in Europe.

2. France and Germany made rapid advance in iron and steel, and chemical industries.

3. Industrialisation took place at a rapid speed in Holland and Belgium.

18. WHAT IS IMPERIALISM?

1. The world history is full of examples of powerful and ambitious rulers who had expanded their kingdoms beyond their national boundaries.

2. They built empires by annexing the neighbouring regions as well as distant lands.

3. The Greek and Roman empires of ancient times are well known.

4. This kind of territorial expansion is called imperialism.

19. WHAT IS ECONOMIC IMPERIALISM?

1. From the 17 th century onwards, especially due to the Industrial revolution, a new type of imperialism came into existence.

2. The main aim of this new imperialism of westerners was constantly to secure more and more economic gains for the nation through trade and other means.

3. This was achieved by political and economic domination of the foreign lands.

4. This new form of imperialism is referred to as ‗economic imperialism‘.

20. HOW DID THE IMPERIALIST POWERS IMPOSE THEIR CULTURE ON THE PEOPLE OF ASIA AND AFRICA?

1. The imperialist powers claimed that they had come to civilize the ‗savage‘ people of Asia and Africa.

2. They also aimed at the spread of Christianity,

3. in this way, the imperialist powers tried to impose their culture on Asia and

21. HOW DID BRITISH SECURE THE DIWANI RIGHTS IN BENGAL?

1. In Bengal, the British and the Nawab of Bengal were at logger-heads on the issue of trade-concessions to be given to the East India Company.

2. In the battle of Plassey the British defeated the Nawab of Bengal in 1757.

3. This, victory, opened flood gates for the British in India‘s Politics.

4. Later on, they secured Diwani rights (right to collect the revenues) in Bengal.

22. WHICH RESTRICTIONS WERE PUT ON THE FOREIGNERS BY CHINA?

1. The ‗Eight-Point regulations‘ issued by China put a number of restrictions on the foreigners.

2. The restrictions were intended to prevent the foreigners from communicating directly with the local people.

3. Moreover, foreigners entering China had to kneel (rest on the Knee) before Chinese emperor.

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23. RITE A NOTE ON THE „BOXER RISING‟?

1. To avoid the actual political division of china and to enjoy the economic benefits, the united states declared the ‗Open Door‘ policy in 1899 whereby all countries would have equal rights to trade anywhere in china.

2. A constant interference in trade and religious matters by the westerners led to discontent among the Chinese which took the form of ‗Boxer Rising‘ (1900).

3. This anti-foreign reaction was suppressed and China was looted by the imperialist powers.

24. HOW DID JAPAN TURN IMPERIALIST?

1. Japan, land of the rising sun, was an isolated (alone) backward feudal country that was closed to foreigners.

2. In 1853, Commodore Perry, an American naval officer, first entered into Japan and a commercial treaty was forced on her by the United States.

3. Five Japanese ports were opened to Americans and these imperialist powers started exploiting Japan through many concessions.

4. But soon the Japanese learnt their lessons, modernised their country and emerged powerful. Japan a victim of imperialist, soon herself turned imperialist.

25. HOW DID BRITISH EXPLOIT INDIA ECONOMICALLY?

1. The British exploited India economically by deceitful (practising fraud) trade practices.

2. The Expenditure on fat salaries, allowances and pensions of British officers was paid from the Indian revenue.

3. The Expenditure on military was also drain on Indian Revenue.

26. HOW DID THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS COME INTO EXISTENCE?

1. President of the U.S.A Woodrow Wilson considered it imperative (important) to establish a world organisation on a permanent footing for maintain world peace.

2. Ultimately, a committee of experts was set up under the chairman ship of President Wilson to draft the covenant.

3. The final draft of the covenant was accepted by Allied nations on 28 th April, 1919, and the League held its first session on 10 th January, 1920.

27. WHAT WERE THE OBJECTIVES OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS?

1. The objectives of the League of Nations were explained in the preface of its covenant (contract) were as follows

2. To promote international deliberations for settlement of disputes.

3. To accept collective responsibility for maintain territorial integrity and political independence of member nations.

4. To eschew war, secret pacts and interference in the internal affairs of other nations.

28. WHICH WERE THE ORGANS OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS?

1. The League was to functions through three organs, namely the Assembly, the Council and the Secretariat.

2. The Head quarters of the League of the Nations were located at Geneva in Switzerland.

3. The Permanent Court of international Justice at The Hague in the Netherlands and the International Labour Organisations were two bodies connected with the League of Nations.

29. WHAT WERE THE DUTIES OF THE SECRETARY GENERAL OF THE LEAGUE OF NATIONS?

1. The secretariat of the office of the league, headed by the Secretariat General, appointed by the Council with the approval of the Assembly.

2. He was responsible for the functioning of the league.

3. He was responsible for maintaining records, determine the issues to be placed for deliberations

before the Council and Assembly, participating in their deliberations and implementing their decisions

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30. WHAT ARE THE OBJECTIVES OF THE UNITED NATIONS?

The objectives of the United Nations are:

1. To maintain peace by peaceful settlement of disputes and renunciation of war.

2. Respect for sovereignty and non-interference in domestic matters of the members nations.

3. Right of self-determination and respect for human rights.

4. Promotion of international understanding and cooperation in economic, social and cultural fields.

31. STATE THE ORGANS OF THE UNITED NATIONS?

1. Principal Organs: - The General Assembly, the Security Council, the economic and social council, the trusteeship Council, International Court of justice and the Secretariat are the Principal organs of the U.N.

2. Specialised agencies: - The world Health Organisation, the Food and Agriculture Organisations and the United Nations Educational, scientific and cultural organisation are among the specialised agencies of the U.N.

32. WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY?

1. The General assembly discusses all matters within the scope of the UN Charter and makes recommendations to the Security Council to take actions.

2. It elects the non-permanent members of the Security Council, the members of the Economic and social council, the judges of the international court of justice and appoints the secretary general on the recommendations of the Security Council.

3. It admits new members to the UN on the recommendations of the Security Council.

33. THE EAST INDIA COMPANY BEGAN TO MAINTAIN SMALL TROOPS OF ITS OWN?

1. The East India Company had restricted itself to trading activities alone.

2. The British had started getting involved in Indian politics due to the existing political instability.

3. Internal peace was necessary for uninterrupted (continues) trade.

4. Therefore, the East India Company began to maintain small troops or its own.

34. WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE SECURITY COUNCIL?

1. The Security Council discusses any issue that poses a threat to world peace.

2. It has the power to take punitive actions, including military actions, against the erring members.

3. It makes recommendations to the General Assembly as regards the appointment of the Security General and admissions of new members.

35. WHAT ARE THE CHANGES THAT HAVE TAKEN PLACE IN THE LIFE OF MAN BY THE DISCOVERIES AND INVENTIONS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY?

1. The Discoveries and inventions in Science and technology have made human life materially happy and prosperous.

2. We now have mobiles, household‘s electrical appliances and heavy machinery used in factories. Jet planes, Ships, T.V. sets and other means of communication have brought the world closer.

3. The X-ray detects diseases inside the human body while scientific medicines are eradicating so far called incurable diseases.

4. Plastics and nylons have totally changed man‘s life style. Cloning has proved man‘s capacity for recreating any living being.

36. WHY DID MAN START THE MOVEMENT DEMANDING THE USE OF ATOMIC POWER FOR PEACEFUL PURPOSE?

1. The early years of the 20 th century prepared the basis of the atomic age, when Albert Eienstein put forth his famous theory relating to energy, matter and speed of light in 1905.

2. In later years, scientists discovered that tremendous energy can be generated by splitting uranium atom. This led to the creation of atom bomb.

3. Its experiment on Japan during the second World War horrified the world due to the enormity of its destructive power.

4. It gave rise to a movement demanding the use of this atomic power for peaceful purposes.

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37. HOW COULD THE ORIGIN OF THE COLD WAR BE TRACED BACK TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A SOCIALIST STATE IN RUSSIA? Or EXPLAIN THE COLD WAR BEGAN?

1. Origin of Cold war can be traced back to the establishment of a socialist state in Russia in November 1917.

2. Western countries considered it as a potent (powerful) threat to their democratic and capitalist way of life.

3. Since its inception (start), they adopted various means to pull down the socialist regime (government), but failed.

4. During the Second World War they conveniently (suitably) joined hands with U.S.S.R. against the Nazi aggression. Even before the war ended, mutual suspicion (doubt) and fear of earlier years remerged.

38. WHICH MAJOR QUALITIES OF COMPUTER HAVE MADE IT AN EXTREMELY VALUABLE DEVICE?

1. Charles Babbage‟s invention the computer, which initially did only additions and subtractions, is now performing

various intellectual activities within seconds.

2. The major qualities of a computer which has made it extremely valuable are:

Tremendous working speed. Memory which stores limitless information. Accuracy in providing data on demand. Precision (care) in handling many tasks simultaneously. Supplying and processing data as required.

39. IN WHAT WAYS IS THE KNOWLEDGE OF SPACE BEING USED FOR CONSTRUCTIVE PURPOSES?

1. Like atomic power, knowledge of space is being used for both destructive and constructive purposes.

2. On the one hand, politicians are planning star war, and using space for international spying, while on the other hand

satellites are being sent and stationed in space.

3. These satellites collect information about natural calamities like tsunamis, earthquakes and storms Climatic changes and also to control means of communications.

4. Today, the study of space is no longer a matter of theoretical study satisfying human curiosity but has become a medium of promoting progress of human civilization.

40. WHY DID THE EUROPEAN IMPRIALIST NATONS HAVE TO QUIT THE COLONIES?

1. The European imperialist nations were enfeebled by the tremendous economic losses and were no longer in a

position to retain control over their colonies.

2. The two super powers, the USA and the USSR, were openly opposed to colonialism.

41. WHY DID NIHILISTS FLEE FROM RUSSIA?

1. A group of thinkers in Russia called the ‗nihilist‘ stood for absolute individualism.

2. They became strong critics of all kinds of restrictions imposed on the people by the Tsarist regime.

3. All social institutions such as government, religion, marriage, ethics, etc. Were the targets of Nihilist Criticism.

4. Naturally they suffered the wrath (anger) of the authorities. Therefore, many nihilists either fled from the country or began to work secretly.

42. THE TRIPLE ALLIANCE WAS BORN IN 1882?

1. Bismarck achieved his goal of unification of Germany by defeating Austria in 1866 and then France in1870. 2. Then he isolated France by offering his friendship to the weak Austria. In 1879, he signed a secret military alliance with Austria that assured Austria. German help against Russia to acquire East European territories. 3. In 1882, Italy joined Germany and Austria against France. Thus, the triple alliance was born.

43. WHY DID CIVIL WAR TAKE PLACE IN SPAIN IN 1936?

1. General Fransisco Franco, who rose in rebellion in 1936, was supported by some army officers and monarchical reactionary elements.

2. The Republican government was supported by the peasants, workers and the reformists.

3. Thus, the division of the people in two factions, led to the Civil War in Spain in 1936.

44. W HOM DID KARL MARX CALL AS „THE PROLETARIAT‟? WHY

1. Karl Marx called the workers and the peasants as ‗the Proletariate‘.

2. The workers and the peasants were called as the proletariat because they did not own any means of

production.

3. Moreover they suffered exploitation at the hands of ‗the haves‘.

45. WHY DID DICTATORSHIP EMERGE IN PORTUGAL?

1.

Antonio de Oliveira Salazar became the Prime Minister of Portugal in 1932.

2.

Salazar made a new constitution which curtailed political freedom and made Portugal an authoritarian state.

3.

Thus, the entry of Salazar into Portuguese politics responsible for the emergence of dictatorship in Portugal.

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46. WHAT WERE THE CAUSES THAT LED TO THE ENMITY AMONG THE EUROPEAN NATIONS?

The causes that led to the enmity among the European nations were

1. The extreme ambitions.

2. Mutual distrust (doubt) and enmity.

3. Conflicts.

4. The race to acquire colonies in Asia and Africa.

47. WHY DID AMERICA DECLARED WAR AGAINST WAR AGAINST GERMANY IN 1917?

1. The First World War had started in 1914 whereas America entered the war late in 1917.

2. The ship Lusitania was sunk by a German submarine and many Americans lost their lives.

3. Inspite of America‘s stern warning to Germany against unrestricted use of submarines, Germany continued the submarine war.

4. This enraged America and it declared war against Germany on 6 th April 1917 thereby joining the Allied power.

48. WHICH THINKERS WERE RESPONSIBLE FOR THE AWAKENING IN RUSSIA?

1. Thinkers like Dostoyevsky, Leo Tolstoy, Pushkin, Maxim Gorky, Lenin, Trotsky and many more were

responsible for awakening in Russia.

2. Their writings were marked by liberalism and humanism.

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GIVE REASONS FOR THE FOLLOWING STATEMENTS IN 25 TO 30 WORDS EACH

1. The British parliament was forced to repeal the „stamp Act‟.

1. The Stamp Act levied stamp duty on newspapers, legal documents, insurance policies, ship‘s papers and licenses and even on playing cards in America.

2. It was severely condemned by the colonies and the protests took form of virulent criticism on the nature of the British constitution; boycott the British goods and civil disobedience.

3. Because of these reasons, The British parliament was forced to repeal the „stamp Act‟

2. The period from 1750 to 1850 is described as the „age of revolutions‟.

The period from 1750 to 1850 is described as the ‗Age Revolutions‘. Because-

1. The thirteen British colonies in North America revolted against England and won freedom in 1783. This revolution is, therefore, rightly called ‗the American War of Independence.‘

2. The French revolution led to the overthrow of the tyrannical rule of the Bourbon dynasty in 1789.

3. The Industrial Revolution which commenced in England and later spread other countries of Europe, brought about phenomenal changes in production of goods needed by man.

4. The causes leading to these revolutions and settlement of the issue at stake were the notable features of the century roughly spanning the years 1750-1850.

3.On 4 th July 1776, the congress severed all political bonds with England. On 4 th July 1776, the congress severed all political bonds with England because, 1.There was a general resentment among the colonists due to various taxes and restrictions imposed on them by England. 2.They realized that war with England was imminent and there was need for a unified action. 3.England officially declared war on the thirteen colonies on 23rd August, 1775. 4.So the congress severed all the political bonds with England (the mother country) and proclaimed the Declaration of independence 4 th July, 1776.

4.The American war of independence is regarded as an event having far reaching effects on the World History.

1. After the war a federal form of democratic government was introduced for the first time in the world.

2. The American War of Independence established the right to revolt against injustice and right to freedom of the people.

3. At many places, movements were launched to fight for fundamental rights.

4. The American experiment of written constitution was imitated by many countries.

5.The discontent of the masses expressed itself in the form of a powerful revolt in 1789. The discontent of the masses expressed itself in the form of a powerful revolt in 1789; because-

1. The common man in France resented all pervading social inequality.

2. The burden of taxation squarely fell on the common man.

3. The common man also suffered from forced labour, payment of salt tax and the ‗tithe‘.

4. The judicial system was also based on inequality.

6.Rousseau is regarded as the prophet of the French Revolution.

Rousseau, one of the outstanding thinkers of the world has inspired the French revolution.-

1. According to Rousseau, the state is not a divine creation but is the outcome of an unwritten social contract.

2. It means, if the state fails to fulfill the terms of contract, the people have a natural and moral right to overthrow the state authority.

3. This idea of Rousseau proved to be conducive to the revolutionary spirit.

4. Hence, Rousseau is regarded as the Prophet of the French Revolution.

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7.

Louis XVI was compelled to convene the Estates General. Louis XVI was compelled to convene the Estates General, because,

1.

Louis XVI tried to improve the financial conditions in France with the help of his finance ministers- Turgot, Necker and Calonne.

2.

His Finance Ministers opined that it would not be possible to increase the revenue of France unless the nobles were made to pay taxes.

3.

This proposal was put before the meetings of the nobles by the king. He also explained the difficulties the country would face if the proposal was not accepted.

4.

The nobles refused to accept the levy of taxes and any curtailment in their privileges.

8.

Louis XVI was guillotined on 21 st January, 1793.

1.

The Constitution of 1791, curtailed the power of the King.

2.

While, France was in political turmoil, (confusion) Louis XVI appealed to certain European monarch for their help against his people.

3.

He and his family were apprehended while they were trying to escape from France in disguise.

4.

The King was tried for treason and was found guilty hence; Louis XVI was guillotined on 21 st January, 1793.

9.

Robespierre was put to death on 28 th July, 1794.

1.

The reign of terror which continued from 1793 to 1795 was marked by terrorism of the extremist leaders.

2.

Robespierre was the leader of the revolutionaries.

3.

Thousands of innocent sympathizers of the revolution were beheaded by Robespierre merely on suspicion.

4.

People, at last weary (tired) of this bloodshed, arrested Robespierre on 28 th July, 1794 and put him under Guillotine.

10.

Cotton textile was England‟s chief industry. Cotton textile was England‘s chief industry. Because-

1.

England had climate that was favorable for the cotton textile industry.

2.

Cotton textile industries had already been started since the middle of 16 th Century in England.

3.

Ores needed for machines and factories, and coal to run them, were available in plenty.

4. Long fibre cotton also easily available to her from her colonies in America.

.

11.

The Gulf between the rich nations and the poor nations widened.

1.

In search of new markets, industrial nations of Europe began to colonize Asia and Africa on the strength of their capital, modern machines and well equipped military.

2.

These colonies lost their freedom. The backward nations were forced to serve as supplier raw materials to the industrial nations.

3.

Therefore, the Gulf between the rich nations and the poor nations widened, because

12.

The Cities had to face many problems.

The Cities had to face many problems because,

1. Migration of people from villages to cities increased with industrialization.

2. The crowding of cities led to shortage of dwelling places, water supply and other facilities.

3. The cities were plagued with health hazards, slums and pollutions. Thus, the cities had to face many problems.

13. Human life became mechanical and monotonous.

1. On one hand industrialization encouraged spread of rationalism. But on the other hand money become measures of man‘s success.

2. Man became materialist. Thus, human life became mechanical and monotonous. (Dull)

14. The East India Company began to maintain small troops of its own.

1. Till 1740 A.D. the East India Company had restricted itself to trading activity alone.

2. Due to political instability in India in the following years the British started dabbling in Indian politics and tried to gain political control.

3. Internal peace was necessary for uninterrupted trade. Also, political leverage (power) would help them in securing concessions conducive to the promotion of their trade.

4. Thus, The East India Company began to

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15. The Western countries became keen to make investments in China.

1. The treaty signed after the second Anglo-Chinese war allowed the foreigners to travel in the interior of china.

2.

It granted more concessions to the western powers in respect of trade, low tariff duties

3.

A scramble (rush) for further concessions continued after the Sino-Japanese war in 1894-1895.

4.

Thus, the western countries who were mainly interested in commerce became keen to make investments in china.

16.

The Europeans became inquisitive about the African Continent.

1.

The contracts that Europe had with Africa on account of its slave trade were limited to the coastal regions.

2.

The interior Africa was unknown to the outside world till the middle of the 19 th century and was called The Dark Continent‘.

3.

Later on, adventures like Stanley, Livingstone Baker explored the valleys of the four major rivers in Africa namely the Nile, the Niger, the Congo and the Zambezi.

4.

Their travel accounts made the Europeans more inquisitive about the African Continent.

17. The Africans were subjected to many restrictions.

1. France, Belgium, Italy, Germany, and Spain were the chief imperialist nations who participated in the

scramble for Africa.

2. The European acquired value laden (loaded) mines like Diamond and Gold.

3. They provided the Dark Continent with facilities such as the railways and the roads.

4. In exchange, the Africans were subjected to many restrictions like payment of hut tax, poll tax and cumbersome (bulky) forced labour.

18. President Woodrow Wilson of America urged upon the Allied Nations to set up a World organizations.

President Woodrow Wilson of America urged upon the Allied Nations to set up a World Organizations. Because,

1. The concert of Europe of 1815, the Berlin congress of 1878 and the Hague Conference in 1899 and 1907 were aimed at achieving world peace.

2. In spite of these efforts the World war ‗I‘ broke out in 1914, causing tremendous destruction.

3. President of U.S.A. Woodrow Wilson, considered it imperative to establish a world organization on a permanent footing for maintain world peace. Even before the end of the war, he included this point in his 14 point programme.

19. The League of Nations did little to rectify the injustice done to the defeated nations.

1. The League of Nations was formed for maintain world peace but it failed to take firm decisions against aggressions by major powers.

2. It just looked at the failure of collective security hopelessly.

3. It was handicapped on account of conflicting self interest of nations, lack of co-ordinations among its dominant members, refusal of U.S.A to secure membership and lack of military power.

4. Besides the covenant of the league was closely linked to the peace treaties, the league of nations did little to rectify the injustice done to he defeated nations.

20. The Five permanent members can halt any decision of the Security Council.

The Five permanent members can halt any decision of the Security Council. Because,

1. The five permanent members of the Security Council have been given veto power.

2. All important decisions of the Security Council, to be effective, need unanimous vote of all permanent members.

21. The UN failed to check the critical situation arising out of the cold war.

1. The Cold war was a reflection of over powering ambitions of the USA and the USSR to control the world.

2. The USA and the USSR were the permanent members of the Security Council and exercised veto power is

counter back each other in the UN.

22. 20 th Centuries stands out as a century of revolutionary transformation in human life. 20 th Centuries stands out as a century of revolutionary transformation in human life. Because,

1. The Progress made by man in the fields of science and technology during the 20 th Century was stupendous.

2. Science and Technology have made human life materially happy and prosperous.

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23.

The Cold war began after the Second World War.

 

The Cold war began after the Second World War. Because,

 

1. Demonstration of military might in the Second World War and the establishment of influence over the east European countries by Russia made the East European countries apprehensive about the expansion of communism.

2. The United States responded to this challenge by means of Truman Doctrine, Marshall Plan and formation of military alliances like NATO, CENTO and SEATO.

3. The USSR responded by giving economic aid to the socialist countries and signed the Warsaw Pact.

24.

In its practical form globalization has become synonymous with new colonialism.

1. Globalization as it exists today has certain demerits. Big western companies or multinationals are eager to invest their surplus capital in underdeveloped and undeveloped countries so that they can exploit their natural resources, control their markets and add to their profits.

2. Consumerism has set in, dollar has become God.

3. Basic human values are declining and the gap between the rich and poor nations is widening.

4.

Thus, in its practical form globalization has become synonymous with new colonialism.

25.

Japan and Italy were offended.

 

Japan and Italy were offended. Because,

 

1. Italy felt betrayed as the promises given to her earlier were not fulfilled at the Paris Peace Conference.

2. The western powers did not give equal status to Japan.

26.

America dropped two atom bombs on Japan.

1.

America had launched offensive against Japan in mid-1942.

2. After recapturing the pacific islands, America was close to Japan in early 1945.

3. America wanted to force Japan to Surrender.

27.

France Surrendered in June, 1940.

1. France Surrendered in June, 1940. Because,

2. The German army bypassed the famous eastern defense line and entered France from the North.

3. The French were not in a position to face the unexpected onslaught of the German army.

28.

22 nd January, 1905 known as the „Bloody Sunday‟

1. A number of workers led by Father Gapon marched towards the royal palace in St. Petersburg on 22 nd January, 1905.

2. They wanted to place their grievances before the emperor.

3. However, the Tsar‘s soldiers attacked the workers, resulting in bloodshed.

4. Since this event took place on Sunday, it is known as the „Bloody Sunday‟ in the Russian history.

29.

Kemal Pasha raised a rebellion. Kemal Pasha raised a rebellion, because

1. Turkey was defeated in the First World War

2. The Treaty of severs had reduced the Turkish Empire into an insignificant European nation as she had to cede large parts of her territorial possessions.

3. Turkish national honour touched an all-time low.

28.

Leaders like Lenin were exiled by the Russian government.

1)

Leaders like Lenin were exiled by the Russian government, because The Intellectuals and political thinkers like Lenin criticized the reactionary policies of the Tsarist regime.

2)

They also expressed their displeasure over the restrictions imposed on the people.

3)

As the Tsarist regime was intolerant of criticism, leaders like Lenin were exiled.

29.

England and France interfered in the politics of Eastern Europe.

England and France interfered in the politics of Eastern Europe, because,

1. The Balkan region was strategically important.

2. The nation that controlled this region could establish its influence over the Mediterranean Sea.

3. England and France wanted to keep out Russia from this region.

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ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS IN 40 TO 50 WORDS EACH
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS IN 40 TO 50 WORDS EACH

1. Which incident is known as „Boston Massacre‟? Why?

1. Tension was mounting between the colonies and the mother country due to the presence of the British army, with its head quarters first at New York and then in Boston.

2. The British army was sent to the American colonies for securing the frontiers.

3. The Presence of the British army was seen by the colonies as an attempt to control them.

4. Frequent clashes took place between the colonies and the Red coats, i.e., the British army.

5. The incident known as the ‗Boston Massacre‘, which occurred on 5 th March 1770, was the result of such conflicts.

2. Give an account of the „Boston Tea Party‟.

By the Tea Act of 1773, the East India Company acquired a monopoly of Tea Trade with America.

1. The ‗Dartmouth‘, first of the three ships with cargoes of chests of tea, arrived at Boston harbors on 27 th November, 1773.

2. The people were agitated over the issue of levy of duty on tea.

3. They wanted the Ship to go back to England.

4. As this demand was not conceded, some 8000 people assembled near Boston‘s old south church.

5. On the night of 16 th December, 1773 a disciplined group of men disguised as Mohawk Indians rushed abroad the ship and dumped all the chests of tea into the sea.

6. This event is known as the „Boston Tea Party‟ in the American history.

3. Why did the colonists declare, No taxation without representation‟?

1. The discontent in the American colonies was mounting due to the imposition of new taxes and other restrictions.

2. The stamp Act of 1765 was replaced by the British parliament as it was severely condemned in the colonies.

3. The British Parliament, even after repealing the Stamp Act, declared that it had unrestrained power to legislate for the colonies.

4. The representatives insisted that taxation without their consent, expressed personally or through their

representatives, was a violation of their rights.

5. In order to express their sentiments the colonists declared, ‗No taxation without representation‘.

4. Why was the first continental Congress convened at Philadelphia on 5 th September, 1774? What did the Congress Achieve?

Objective of the first Continental congress: -

1. The General resentment against the various taxes and restrictions imposed by the British brought about unity among the colonies.

2. Realizing that war with England was imminent, the colonies felt the need for a unified action

3. Therefore, the First Continental Congress was convened on 5 th September, 1774 at Philadelphia. Achievements: -

4. The delegates of the colonies declared their right to life, liberty and prosperity.

5. The people were asked to arm themselves and form their own militia.(military)

5. Describe the social conditions in France before the revolution.

1. The French society before the revolution was divided into three social classes called estates.

2. The first estates consisted of the higher order of priests and clergy.

3. Nobles and landlords were included in the Second Estates.

4. The Third Estates consisted of the remaining 96% of the population of France.

5. Almost all political and economic powers were usurped by the first and the Second Estates. They enjoyed

a number of privileges and did not pay any taxes.

6. There was a wide cultural, social and economic divide between the first two Estates and the Third Estates.

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6. EXPLAIN MONTESQUIEU THEORY OF SEPARATION OF POWERS. (March 2008)

1. The comparative study of the British and the French judiciary had driven Montesquieu to the conclusion that the French system lacked the qualities of freedom, equality and impartiality of the British system.

2. This was due to concentration of all powers in the hands of French monarch.

3. He was, therefore, of the view that legislative executive and judicial powers should be separated.

4. This he claimed would guarantee freedom, equality and protection of life and property in France.

5. Thus, Montesquieu strongly advocated the theory of separation of power which deeply influenced the intelligentia in France.

7. GIVE AN ACCOUNT OF THE SPECIAL FEATURES OF THE CONSTITUTION OF FRANCE.

1. The National Assembly drafted the pro-people constitution after the fall of Bastille on 14the July, 1789.

2. This constitution came into effect on 14 th September, 1791.

3. It was based on the principles of liberty, equality and fraternity.

4. It curtailed the powers of the king.

5. It abolished the political privileges of the nobles and the high order of clergies.

6. The National Assembly had already abrogated feudalism on 4 th August, 1789.

8. STATE THE IMPORTANCE OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION IN THE CONTEXT OF THE WORLD HISTORY.

The French revolution was a revolt against monarchy, to bring social equality. It had a great impact on the world.

1. People all over the world will remember the French revolution as a successful revolution.

2. The principle of sovereignty as enshrine (protect) in it, has become the foundation stone of social life in modern world.

3. It has also permanently established the axiom that a despotic (autocratic) rule is unethical.

4. The revolution has given the value structure of liberty, equality, fraternity, democracy and constitutionalism.

5. It has also inspired many leaders of modern India. E.g., Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Bhau Mahajan etc. the French revolution has radically changed the world-psyche and hence it is considered as an epoch.

9. What is meant by industrial capitalism?

1. To meet the increasing demand of goods in these markets, it was necessary to increase production.

2. To increase production, it was necessary to improve the technology of production.

3. The new method of production, new social structure, new life style and new ideology together are referred

to as Industrial Capitalism.

10. Name the agitation that occurred against the political and social inequalities? What were the effects of these agitations?

1. Workers‘ Movement, the Chartist Movement and Women‘s Movement for Equal Rights were the agitations began in the industrial nations against the political and social inequalities.

2. These movements led to the ideas of constitutional government and the welfare state acquired firm roots in Europe.

3. The workers formed unions to protect their interests and this led to conflicts between the factory owners and the labour union.

4. This contributed to the emergence of socialist ideology in Europe.

11. What were the evil effects of the Industrial Revolution?

1. The backward nations of Asia and Africa were colonized by the industrial nations of Europe.

2. The backward nations lost their freedom and were forced to serve as a supplier of raw materials. The gulf between the rich and poor countries began to widen.

3. Increase migration of people from villages to cities led to shortage of dwelling places and water supply, health hazards, slums and pollution.

4. Unemployment, low wages and lack of safety in factories led to conflict between factory and labour unions.

5. Man became materialist and human life became mechanical and monotonous.

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12. Explain the background to the imperialist race.

1. The renascent spirit: - The renascent spirit inspired the Europeans to undertake voyages in all directions.

2. Geographical discoveries: -The progress in navigation in the 15 th century led to the discovery of new sea- routes and unknown lands.

3. Trading activities: - The traders followed the discoverers. They reached the newly found land in Asia and Africa.

13. How did the British increase their trade in India?

1. The British traders resorted to ‗tariff war‘. They pressurized their government to levy custom duty on

imports from India.

2. This led to the decline and eventually the stoppage of import of Indian goods into England.

3. Gradually thereafter the English goods, especially cloth, flooded the Indian market.

14. How did the British exploit the Chinese economically?

1. The first Anglo-Chinese war ended with the treaty of Nanking (1842). As per the treaty, Hong Kong was ceded to Britain; Hong Kong later became a permanent trading base for Britain.

2. Five more forts were opened for Britain.

3. The treaty signed after Second Anglo-Chinese war allowed the foreigners to travel in the interior of China and granted trade concessions like low tariff duties to western countries.

15. How did a Scramble for Africa begin in earnest?

1. The Berlin Conference on Africa in 1884-85 was attended by a majority of European nations.

2. The conference declared the principle of ‗Effective Control‘.

3. The idea of ‗Effective Control‟ gave a thrust to the plan of participating Africa.

4. As a result, a Scramble for Africa began in earnest.

5. Except Ethiopia and Liberia the rest of the African territories went under the control of one or the other European nation.

16. Explain the background to the establishment of the League of Nations.

1. The First World War broke out and caused enormous destruction.

2. American President Woodrow Wilson emphasized the need for a permanent world organization for maintaing peace.

3. At the Paris Peace Conference, President Wilson urged upon the Allied powers to set up such an organization.

4. A Committee of experts chaired by President Wilson drafted the covenant of the League of Nations.

5. Allied Powers accepted the final Draft of the Covenant. The League of Nations came into existence on 10 th January, 1920.

17. Explain the Functions of the League of Nations.

1. The League of Nations functioned through its Assembly, Council and Secretariat.

2. The Assembly discussed the issues and made recommendations to the council.

3. The council had the power to take action against member nation.

4. The Secretariat headed by the Secretary General was responsible for maintaing records, drawing up the agenda and participating in discussions and implementing decisions.

18. Give an account of the Establishment of the United Nations?

1. The Foundations of the United Nations Organization (UNO) was laid by the Atlantic Charter, signed by the US President Franklin Roosevelt and the British Prime Minister Winston Churchill in August, 1941.

2. The Atlantic Charter was endorsed by 26 Allied Nations on 1-1-1942 by adopting the ‗Declaration of UNO‟.

3. The draft of the proposed world organization was prepared at the Dumbarton Oaks conference in 1944.

4. The San Francisco Conference adopted the UN Charter in June, 1945. Fifty nations were signatories to the Final Draft.

5. The UN became operational from 24-10-1945.

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19. State the Functions of the International Court of Justice?

1. The International Court of Justice has jurisdiction (power) over all matters referred to it by the member- state.

2. It decides on the International disputes brought before it by the member-states. Its decisions are binding on the member-states concerned.

3. It gives legal opinion on the issues of international significance, if sought by the General Assembly or the Security Council.

20. How the atomic energy is used for the welfare activities?

1. Atomic energy releases a nuclear radiation which has uses in the field of medicines and industry.

2. Nuclear therapies are used for the treatment of incurable diseases like cancer.

3. Tremendous energy can be generated in nuclear plants and that will solve our energy crisis. The power can be used for the material progress of mankind.

21. How is the knowledge of space useful for the welfare of mankind? (March 2008)

1. The satellites are being sent and stationed in space to collect information about water, minerals, and oil resources.

2. It provides advance information about natural calamities like tsunami, earthquakes, storms, climatic changes.

3. It serves as a means of communication across the globe.

4. The study of space now is not just a matter of theoretical study satisfying human curiosity. It has become a medium of promoting the progress of human civilization today.

22. Why are the thinkers worried that the increasing importance of computers would lead to atrophy of human intellect?

1. Computer performs a number of intellectual activities within seconds.

2. It stores enormous information, provides accurate data on demand and also undertakes data analysis.

3. Human life has become highly computerized and it would to come to a standstill if computer fails.

4. Due to the ever increasing importance of and dependence on computers the thinkers are worried that it would lead to atrophy of human intellect.

23. What was the contribution of the revolutionaries to the Indian freedom movement?

1. Formation of secret organizations: -The revolutionaries formed secret organizations like Abhinav Bharat,

Yugantar and Anusheelan Samiti and trained the youth in revolutionary activities.

2. Protest against the British rule: -They assassinated a few British officials to protest against the Government‘s anti-Indian measures.

3. Object of reverence: -Martyrs like Bhagat Singh, Sukhadev, Rajguru, Chandra Shekhar Azad and Surya Sen became objects of reverence.

4. Woman revolutionaries: -Madame Cama, Kalpana Dutt, Preetilata Waddedar and Veena Das set an inspiring example by playing a remarkable role in the revolutionary activities.

24. Why did the process of decolonization in Africa begin later than in Asia? The processes of decolonization in Africa begin later than in Asia due to the following reasons:

1. Rich Natural Resources: -The colonial powers did not want to give up control over their African colonies which were rich in natural resources.

2. Lack of Western education: -Due to lack of Western education, nationalist sentiments was not strong in African countries.

3. Multiplicity of Tribes: -Africa was divided into large number of tribes and this stood in the way of forging a unified resistance.

25. What were the objectives of the Indian National Congress?

The Indian National Congress was established in 1885 to attain the following objectives:

1. National Unity: -To forge national unity irrespective of caste and creed.

2. National Platform: -To create a common national platform for discussing national problems.

3. National Demands: -To place the demands of the people of India before the British Government and appeal to it for fulfillment of these demands.

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26. Which Factors were responsible for the rise of aggressive nationalism in the European Countries? The Following Factors were responsible for the rise aggressive nationalism in European countries during the inter-war period (1919 to 1939)

1. The territorial changes in Europe which were made at the Paris Peace Conference had caused discontent in some European countries.

2. Humiliating conditions in the treaty of Versailles hurt the German national Pride.

3. Italy felt betrayed as the peace treaties did not fulfill the promises given to her earlier.

27. Why did Japan surrender on 14 th August, 1945?

1. America had launched offensive against Japan in the middle of 1942.

2. The American army recaptured the Pacific islands and advanced towards Japan in the early 1945.

3. As Japan refused to surrender, America dropped atom bombs o the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and

Nagasaki.

4. This unprecedented devastation paralyzed Japan and led to her surrender on 14 th August, 1945.

28. Why did dictatorship emerge in Spain?

1. Failure of the Republican Government: -The Republic Government, that came to power in 1931, failed to provide economic and political stability.

2. Rebellion of General Franco: - The Failure of Republican Government led to the rebellion of General Franco in 1936.

3. Civil War: -In the ensuing Civil War, Franco was supported by some army officers and the reactionary monarchical elements‘ whereas the Government was supported by peasants, worker and the reformists. Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany extended active support to Franco.

4. Defeat: -Franco defeated the Republican Government and became military dictator of Spain.

HISTORY OBJECTIVES

1. The European explorer Christopher Columbus, Amerigo Vaspucci and

were mainly responsible

for discovering the northern, eastern and central parts of the American continent in 15 th century. (Magellan, John

Cabot, Vasco-da-Gama)

2. The seven years war concluded with the treaty of

3. The

4. By an Act of 1773, the East India Company acquired a monopoly of the

(London, Paris, New York)

of 1764 was passed by the British Parliament.(stamp Act, Sugar Act, Import Duties Act)

trade with America. (cloth,

tea, sugar)

5. The common man of France had to suffer from forced labour, payment of salt-tax and income to be paid to church.(income-tax, tithe, religious tax)

6. Montesquieu was a

7. was

8. ―Without

9. had read Rousseau. (Lousis XIV, Lousis XV, Lousis XVI)

10. The 18 th century

11. France and

a tax of 1/10 th of

by profession. ( doctor, lawyer, teacher)

exiled from France.(Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau)

the French revolution would not have taken place.‖ (Montesquieu, Voltaire, Rousseau)

was a formidable naval power in Europe. (France, Britain, Portugal)

made rapid advance in iron and steel and chemical industry in the early phase of industrial

Revolution. (Italy, Germany, Spain)

12. In 1615 A.D. the British obtained permission to start a factory at

13. The British obtained permission to start a factory at Surat, from emperor Akbar)

14. Africa was called as

15. During the years 1740 A.D. 1761 A.D. the internal politics gave rise to confrontation between the French and the British

( Mumbai, Surat, Madras) (Shahajahan, Jahangir,

(The province of slaves, The dark Continent, The backward)

in

province. (Central, Carnatic, Bengal)

16. was known as the ‗hermit nation‘. (India, China, Japan)

17. The

18. The headquarter of the league was located at Geneva in

19. The basic foundation of the U.N.O. was laid down by the

20. The Secretary General is appointed by the General assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.

21. Albert Einstein, a German Scientist prepared the basis for the atomic age. (German, French, Polish)

22. Cloning has proved man‘s capacity for recreating any living being. (X-rays, Cloning, Splitting uranium)

23. The Space journey undertaken by Yuri Gagarin proved that man can live in space. (Neil Armstrong, Yuri Gagarin)

24. Russia signed the Warsaw pact with the Socialist countries. (Berlin, Warsaw, Moscow)

Congress (1878) was aimed at maintaining the world peace. (Paris, London, Berlin)

( Denmark, Switzerland, Norway) charter of august 1941. ( Atlantic, Yalta)

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ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS IN 80 TO 100 WORDS EACH
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS IN 80 TO 100 WORDS EACH

1. GIVE AN ACCOUNT OF AN AMERICAN DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

(A)

The American Declaration of Independence, drafted by Thomas Jefferson, was adopted on 4 th July,

1776.

(B)

The Main principles embodied in the Declaration are as follows:

1.

All men are created equal by the creator-the God.

2.

All men are endowed with certain inalienable rights to Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.

3.

The Government is instituted to secure these rights.

4.

The government derives its just powers from the consent of the people.

5.

People have the right to change a government that goes against these basic principles.

6.

People also have the right to institute a new government in place of the ousted ones.

2. WHAT WERE THE CONSEQUENCES OF THE „AMERICAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE‟? The prolonged war ended, with the victory of continental forces under George Washington against British commander Lord Cornwallis on 19 th October, 1781 and U.S.A. came into existence. Following were the consequences of the American War of Independence.

1. George Washington was sworn in as the first President of the 13 United States.

2. A federal form of democratic government was introduced for the first time in the world there by inspiring many countries of the world.

3. With addition of the 37 new states, today the U.S.A. comprises a total 50 states.

4. The American war of Independence also established a right to revolt against injustice and right to freedom.

5. At many places, movements were launched to fight for fundamental rights.

6. An experiment of written constitution was imitated by many countries of the world.

7. The American war of Independence had far reaching effects on the world history.

3. What were the effects of the French Revolution?

The Effects of the French revolution were as follows: -

1. It ended absolute monarchy in France and feudalism disappeared forever

2. The principle of republicanism acquired deep roots in France.

3. It upheld the Principles of Sovereignty of the people, which became the cornerstone of social life in the modern world.

4. It established the axiom that despotic rule is unethical.

5. It has given the world such lofty socio-political ideals like liberty, equality, fraternity constitutionalism and democracy.

6. It inspired the nations held in servility and societies in shackles to revolt.

7. The French Revolution, in short, changed the world-psyche.

4. Explain the idea of Industrial Revolution?

1. Industrial revolution is phenomenal change in the process of production of goods needed by man.

2. The first phase of industrial revolution covered a century (17501850).

3. In this process, the old simple tools were replaced by new complex machines.

4. The manpower, animal-power and water-power were replaced first by steam-power and later on by electricity.

5. The small domestic industries were replaced by huge factories.

6. This evolutionary process had revolutionary consequences.

7. Therefore we refer to it as Industrial Revolution.

8. It all started when the European merchants realized that their profits would be greater if their own countries began mass production of various goods for eastern markets.

9. They used their profits to increase the productivity.

10. England was the birth place of Industrial Revolution.

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5. What are the effects of the Industrial Revolution on the World? (March 2008) The effects of the Industrial Revolution on the World are as follows: -

1. Impetus to Economic Progress of Europe: - There was increase in production of variety of goods. The internal and external trade also increased considerably with the help of improved transport and communication

2. Improvement in standard of living of common man: -The mass production of goods led to reduction in their prices. The increased availability of jobs increased the purchasing power of common man this led

to improve the standard of living of common man.

3. Growth of Cities: -Industrialization led to growth of cities. Migration of people from villages to cities led to shortage of dwelling places, water supply and other facilities.

4. Colonization: - The Industrial Nations o Europe colonized backward nations of Asia and Africa and made them supplier‘s raw material. As a result, the gap between the rich and the poor nations widened.

5. Democracy, constitutional government and welfare state: - The awareness regarding their rights among the urban population strengthened democracy. The workers‘ Movements, the Chartist Movement and Women‘s Movement for equal rights, the ideas of constitutional government and welfare state acquired firm roots in Europe.

6. The Socialist ideology: -The workers formed unions to safeguard their interests. The Conflicts between the factory owners and the labour unions led to the development of social ideology.

6. Give an account of how the British expanded their empire in India? The Process of expansion of the British empire in India can be stated as follows: -

1. Taking advantages of the political instability in India, the company started getting involved in Indian politics.

2. It defeated the French in the Third Carnatic War (1761)

3. It defeated the Nawab of Bengal in the Battle of plassey in 1757. Later, it secured Diwani rights and became virtually the masters of Bengal.

4. The British then defeated the rulers of Mysore and the powerful Marathas.

5. By 1818, the British had subjugated almost all of India.

6. Subsequently the remaining princely states were either annexed or had a nominal existence.

7. Explain the effects of the imperialist policy on the Indian Economy?

The effects of the imperialist policy of the British on the Indian Economy were as follows:

1. Destroyed self-sufficient villages: -The imposition of the British administration destroyed self-sufficiency of the Indian Villages.

2. Indebtedness of the Farmers: -Levy of the land revenue at an increased rate and the insistence on cash payment by the British led to the indebtness of the farmers.

3. Decay of Indigenous industries: -Availability of cheap foreign goods led to the decay of indigenous village industries like, artisans, craftsmen etc,

4. Commercialization of agriculture: -The Farmers were encouraged by the British to grow crops like cotton, tobacco and indigo. This commercialization of agriculture resulted in the shortage of essential food grains.

5. Development of Industries: - In the later part of the British rule, industries were developed in India. The British had the major share of the investment in these developing industries. A biog chunk of profit was pocketed by the British Capitalists.

8. How did the British exploit India after 1858?

1. The British traders used to buy goods in India at cheaper rates and sell them in Europe at exorbitantly high rates.

2. The British government levied custom duty on imports from India. Consequently, the Indian exports declined and the British goods began to flood Indian markets.

3. The financial burden on account of fat salaries and allowances of the British officers, their luxurious bungalows and larish facilities as well as their pension after retirement were borne by India.

4. The expenditure on military establishment was also met from the Indian revenue.

5. The Salary and allowances paid to the British officers from Indian revenue was many times more than those paid to Indian Officers.

6. The British pocketed a big chunk of profit out of the investment in Indian Industries.

7. Thus India suffered economic exploitation at the hands of the British Government.

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9. Explain the Process of „Partition of Africa‟. The Conquest of Africa by the Western Imperialist is known as the ‗Partition of Africa‘. The stages In the conquest of Africa are as follows: -

1. Early Colonization: -In the initial period the European powers offered military assistance to the tribal chiefs and in return asked them to cede their territories. Later, different European powers declared certain territories as their ‗spheres of influence‘.

2. Absence of opposition: -The Europeans could carry on with their imperialistic measures without any use

of military strength in the initial phase of colonization as there was no opposition from the tribal chiefs.

3. Entry of Germany and Belgium: -After 1880, Germany and Belgium began to evince keen interest in Africa. This led to urgency among the European powers to grab as much as possible of African territory.

4. Berlin Conference: - Majority of European powers attended the Berlin Conference on Africa in 1884- 85. The Conference declared the Principle of ‗effective control‘.

5. Scramble for Africa: -The principle of ‗effective control‘ gave impetus to a ‗Scramble for Africa‘. England, France, Belgium, Italy, Germany and Spain were the main participants. Barring Ethiopia and Liberia, the rest of the African territories went under the control of one or the other European powers.

10. What was the significance of the Russian Revolution? (March 2008)

The Significance of the Russian Revolution can be stated as under:

1. It was the first communist revolution.

2. It was responsible for the improvement of the conditions of the workers the world over.

3. Russia introduced the concept of planned economic development after the revolution. It was a blessing to many countries which later gained independence from the colonial rule.

4. Russian revolution popularized the concept of ‗Welfare State‘ throughout the world.

5. Emancipation of ma from all kinds of bondage‘ was the most significant message conveyed by the Russian Revolution.

11. What was the contribution of Lenin to the Russian Revolution?

Lenin, the Bolshevik leaders, played a significant role in the growth of Russia. He contributed in the following ways.

1. The revolution aimed at raising the standard of living, bringing about prosperity and establishing social equality, Lenin stove hard to bring these ideas into reality.

2. His government nationalized all means of production to quicken the pace of industrialization.

3. State control over labour, state distribution of goods and a move to get away from money economy were other features of his policy called as ‗war communism‘.

4. Later, he launched the New Economic Policy (NEP), which was a partial return to market and money economy.

12. What are the merits and demerits of Globalization?

(A) Merits of Globalization: -The Merits of Globalization are as follows:-

1. Globalization has opened up world markets.

2. It has led to an increase in production.

3. It has promoted individual skills and initiatives.

4. It has made trade consumer-oriented.

(B) Demerits of Globalization: -The Demerits of Globalization are as follows: -

1. Globalization has led to uncontrolled competition and endangered the small scale industries.

2. It has resulted in unrestricted exploitation of natural resources of the poor countries by the multinational companies.

3. It has brought in consumerism and led to decline in basic human values.

4. Basic human values are declining.

13. How did decolonization begin in Asia and Africa? (A) Decolonization in Asia: -

1. The British government granted freedom to India and Ceylon in 1947 and to Burma in 1948.

2. Dr. Sukarno and his colleagues led their countrymen in their fight against the colonial masters. Pressure of the world opinion, finally made the Dutch to grant freedom to Indonesia.

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3.

The people in Indo-China fought against France for Independence and later against the USA for the unification of the North and South Vietnam under the leadership of HI-CHI-MINH. (B) Decolonization in Africa: -

1.

The British government granted freedom to Gold Coast in 1957, which then was named Ghana.

2.

Jomo Kenyatta led the fight for freedom in Kenya.

3.

Robert Mugabe, the leader of the Patriotic Front, led the fight for freedom in South Rhodesia (Zimbabwe) and it became a free country in 1980.

4.

14. Discuss the Gandhian phase of the Indian Freedom Movement?

1. Beginning of the New Era: -The Emergence of Mahatma Gandhi as the leader was the beginning of a new era in India‘s freedom movement.

2. Satyagraha-a novel weapon: -Mahatma Gandhi resorted to Satyagraha, a new weapon, to fight against the British rulers. Satyagraha means passive resistance.

3. Programmes: -The Congress accepted the Programmes of Swedeshi, boycott, removal of Casteism, Hindu-Muslim unity and rural betterment along with the Satyagraha during the Gandhian Phase.

4. Mass Movement: -The Indian freedom movement became a mass movement under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Thousands of people participated in the Non-cooperation movement (1920-22), The Civil Disobedience Movement (1930-34), and the Quit India Movement (1942-45). The Indian National Congress became a truly national organization.

5. Attainment of freedom:-The Gandhian Phase in the freedom movement was concluded by the British rulers granting freedom to India in 1947.

15. Give an account of the conditions in France before the revolution, with the help of points Given: 1. Social Condition, 2. Tax System, 3. Third Estates

1. Social Condition: -

a. The Pre-revolution French society was divided into three social classes (estates).

b. The First Estates consisted of the higher order of priests and clergy.

c. The nobles and the landlords constituted the Second Estate. The first two classes comprised only 4% of the Population.

d. The remaining 96% French population constituted the Third Estate.

e. The members of the First and Second Estates enjoyed political and economic privileges.

f. There was a wide cultural, social and economic divide between the first two classes and the common people.

2. Tax System: -

a. The Priests and the nobles were exempted from payment of all taxes.

b. The burden of taxes squarely fell on the common people.

c. They had to pay salt tax and the tithe to the church.

3. Third Estate: - a. The Third Estate was a heterogeneous group, consisting of lawyers, doctors. Teachers, craftsman and serfs. They were the real architects of France‘s prosperity but their status was insignificant.

16. State the consequences of the World War-I

The First World War (1914-1918) had far reaching effects on the world politics following are the consequences of World War I.

1. Loss of Life: -more than 10 million European soldiers and one lakh American soldiers lost their lives in this deadly war. Twice the numbers of dead were injured. The war took heavy toll of European life.

2. Loss of Property: - Economic loss due to the use of destructive weapons was enormous. A great amount of civilian property was lost.

3. Bad economic conditions: -Trade and industry came to a standstill. Except USA and Japan all other states whether victorious or vanquished, became bankrupt.

4. Foundation of World Peace Organization: -League of Nation (1920) was created to guarantee independence and territorial integrity to big and small states of the world.

5. Geographical changes: -map of the Europe was redrawn and many new nations were born in Europe.

6. The political, military and economic centre of power was shifted from Europe to America.

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17. Give an account of the contribution of the moderates and the extremists in the freedom struggle?

1. The moderates were the founders of the Indian National Congress.

2. They discussed national problems at the annual session and appealed to the British Government to fulfill Indian Demands.

3. With the passage of time, the tone of the moderates became assertive.

4. The younger elements became critical of government‘s apathy and emphasized the need for organizing public opinion to pressurize the government.

18. Discuss in detail (Hitler‟s) Germany‟s Nazism. Or describe the principles of Hitler‟s Nazism? The ideology of Hitler is known as Nazism. His autobiography the ‗Mein Kampf (my struggle) shows clearly the principles of Nazism, which are as follows:

a. Extreme Patriotism:

Hitler had deep hatred towards the Republican Government of Germany. He openly charged the Government of being guilty of signing the humiliating Treaty of Versailles and declared that such government could never protect the interest of the country.of Nazism, which are as follows: a. Extreme Patriotism : b. Racial Superiority :- Hitler believed

b. Racial Superiority:-

Hitler believed that the Germans were Nordic (Aryan) by race and that they had the capacity and the moral right to rule over the world.the interest of the country. b. Racial Superiority :- It was necessary to unify all the

It was necessary to unify all the Nordic Germans and bring all German speaking territories under Germany‘s possession. Germany‘s possession.

c. Anti-Semitism: -

Hitler believed that the German Jews had no love for Germany and that Germany suffered defeat in World War I due to their selfish and greedy nature.under Germany‘s possession. c. Anti-Semitism : - The emphasis was on the elimination of the Jews

The emphasis was on the elimination of the Jews so that Germany could progress.in World War I due to their selfish and greedy nature. d. Opposition to Communism and

d. Opposition to Communism and Democracy: -

Hitler believed that communist philosophy was not favorable for Germany‘s growth and so, Communism should be uprooted completely from Germany. Communism should be uprooted completely from Germany.

He also opposed democracy. He believed that the representatives of common men could not take immediate decision for the benefit of the nation as they lacked the intellectual capacity.so, Communism should be uprooted completely from Germany. e. Militarism : - The objective of Nazism

e. Militarism: -

The objective of Nazism was to wipe off the injustice done to Germany by the Treaty of Versailles and so, militarism was propounded by the Nazis.as they lacked the intellectual capacity. e. Militarism : - 19. What are the consequences of

19. What are the consequences of the World War II?

The Second World War was far too destructive as compared to the First World War. The consequences of the

Second World War were as follows:

a. Loss of Human life and Material loss: -

During the six years of the duration of World War II, almost fifteen million soldiers and equal number of civilians were killed, countless numbers were seriously injured. as follows: a. Loss of Human life and Material loss : - The terrible devastation caused
II, almost fifteen million soldiers and equal number of civilians were killed, countless numbers were seriously

The terrible devastation caused by atomic bombs benumbed minds.

b. Establishment of U.N.O: -

Having witnessed the highly destructive nature of the war, the need for maintaining world peace was acutely felt which gave birth to the U.N.O. America took initiative in founding the U.N.O.atomic bombs benumbed minds . b. Establishment of U.N.O : - c. Process of Decolonization :

c. Process of Decolonization: -

War efforts placed enormous pressure on the economies of all warring nations. Colonial powers like England, France found it difficult to hold their colonies in he face of nationalist movements. Hence they had to leave the colonies.in founding the U.N.O. c. Process of Decolonization : - d. Emergence of Super Power :

d. Emergence of Super Power: -

America was not directly affected by the war operations and she emerged with a stronger economy being the sole supplier of goods during the war.had to leave the colonies. d. Emergence of Super Power : - Russia suffered economic losses,

Russia suffered economic losses, but her military might and economic base remained strong. Consequently, they emerged as super powers in the post war period.economy being the sole supplier of goods during the war. e. Cold War : - Mutual

e. Cold War: -

Mutual suspicion and hatred of former year‘s reemerged and world nations came to be divided into two opposite camps capitalist camp led by U.S and socialist camp led by U.S.SR. two opposite camps capitalist camp led by U.S and socialist camp led by U.S.SR.

20. What are the Causes of the World War I?

21. What are the Causes of the World War II?

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SHORT NOTES

1.

OFFICIALS OF THE RAJYA SABHA.

1. The Vice President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of the Rajya Sabha.

2. His tenure is of five years.

3. He presides over the meetings of the Rajya Sabha and conducts the legislative business therein.

4. In the absence of the chairman the deputy chairman performs his function.

5. The Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha is elected by its members from among themselves.

2.

METHODS OF AMENDMENT TO THE CONSTITUTION.

1.

Changing conditions demand changes in the constitution.

2. Parliament alone can change the provisions in the constitution.

3. However, it has to follow the procedure prescribed in the constitution. This is known as Amendment procedure of the constitution.

4. Some provisions in the constitution are amended by a simple majority of parliament.

5. Some are amended by a special majority of parliament.

3.

QUORUM: -(march 2008)

1. The proceedings of the houses begin only when a prescribed minimum number of representatives are present in the house.

2. The requirement of a minimum number is known as ‗quorum‘.

3. This ensures that the government takes all decisions by consulting the majority of people‘s representatives

 

(presence of 1/10 of the total membership of the house is the quorum)

4.

FINANCIAL POWERS OF PARLIAMENT: -

1. The parliament has total control over the financial matters of the centre.

2. Without the consent of the Lok Sabha, the government can neither imposer a new tax nor can it use any money from the government treasury.

3. The Annual Budget of the union is passed by Lok Sabha.

4. Lok Sabha being a directly elected house has more financial powers than the Rajya Sabha.

5.

UNION LIST, STATE LIST, AND CONCURRENT LIST: -

 

The constitution of India has clearly defined the division of powers and for this purpose the subjects of governance have been divided into the following three lists.

 

1. The Union List: - It includes subjects of national importance like defence, foreign relations, currency, foreign trade, etc. The Centre makes laws on these subjects.

2. The State List: - The regional specificity and environmental uniqueness necessitates that the State governments make laws on certain subjects and these subjects are included in the State List. Internal law and order, agriculture, education, water supply, public hygiene, etc. are subjects in the State List.

3. The concurrent List: - Subjects on which both the Centre and the States can make laws are in the Concurrent List. Family law, environment, forests, etc. are some of them. However, in the case of a contradiction the law of the Centre prevails.

7.

JUDICIAL POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT.

Ans. The Judicial Powers of the President are as follows.

1. Appointment of the Judges: - The President appoints the Chief Justice of India and the judges of the Supreme Court and High Court.

2. Granting Pardon: - The president grants pardon to a convict on the submission of mercy petition. He can commute or suspend the punishment.

3. Removal of the judges: - He can remove a Judge of the Supreme Court or a High Court when Parliament proposes such removal by a resolution.

6.

TYPES OF BILLS: -

Ans. The draft of a proposed law is called bill. The bills are of the following types.

1. Government Bill: -A bill introduced in the House by a minister is known as Government Bill.

2. Private Member‟s Bill: - A bill introduced by a member who is not a minister is known as Private Member‘s Bill.

3. Money Bill: -A bill dealing with taxation, government expenditure and debt is known as Money Bill.

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8. FORMATION OF THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS.

1. All the Ministers are selected by the Prime minister and recommended for their appointments

2. He distributes the portfolios among them and allocates business accordingly.

3. He/she co-ordinates (manage) the policies of the government.

4. His suggestions and inputs get prominence over others.

5. He presides (supervise) over the meetings of the council of ministers.

9. PRESIDENTIAL RULE

OR

STATE EMERGENCY.

i. The centre is responsible for protecting every state from external threat and internal

disorder. ii. The president has been empowered to declare emergency in a particular state facing

disorder or instability. This is known as state emergency or presidential rule.

iii. Presidential rule brings in certain changes. The president can take over the administration of the concerned state.

iv. He may dissolve or suspend the state assemble. This declaration of emergency must be approved by the parliament within a period of two months.

10. COURT OF RECORD. OR SUPREME COURT

1. The Supreme Court is the apex court of India.

2. Its decisions are recorded and preserved.

3. They assume the character of a law.

4. No decision of Supreme Court can be challenged in any court in India.

5. The decisions of the Supreme Court are final and are binding on all courts in India. Therefore, Supreme Court is a court of record.

11. COMPOSITION OF THE HIGH COURT.

1. A High Court consists of a chief judge and other judges.

2. The number of judges varies from state to state.

3. The Mumbai high court has 61 judges at present (2006). It has three benches at Aurangabad, Nagpur and Panaji.

12. JUDICIAL REVIEW: -

1. The Supreme Court is the guardian of the constitution too.

2. It does not allow the parliament or the Executive to make any law that violates the provisions of the constitution.

3. Laws or actions against the constitution are declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.

4. The power of the Supreme Court to examine the constitutionality of laws and actions is known as judicial review.

13. PRINCIPLE OF COLLECTIVE RESPONSIBILITY.

1. The collective responsibility implies the ―Team Sprit‖. The Prime Minister generates a team spirit among the members of the Council of Minister.

2. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha for the policies and the decisions of the government.

3. It remains in power till it enjoys the support and confidence of Lok Sabha.

4. The resignation of the Prime Minister is in effect to resignation of the Council of Ministers.

14. MUNICIPAL COMMISSIONER: -

1. Municipal Commissioner is the Chief Executive Officer of the Municipal Corporation, appointed by the State Government.

2. He belongs to the Indian Administrative Service.

3. The Commissioner is the administrative head and is expected to function in mutual cooperation and understanding with the council.

4. The State Government may recall call him when the Council passes a resolution to that effect.

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5. The Commissioner is assisted by the Deputy Commissioner and other officials like City Engineer, Medical and Health Officer, etc.

15. OPTIONAL FUNCTIONS OF A MUNICIPAL CORPORATION.

The optional functions of a Municipal Corporation are as follows:

1. Provision for secondary and higher education.

2. Arranging theatres, public parks, playgrounds and museums.

3. Arranging reception to the visiting dignitaries (VIP) and honouring them with citations.

16. THE PRESIDING OFFICERS OF THE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL.

1. The President and the Vice President are the presiding officers of the Municipal Council

2. Both are elected by the elected members of the council from amongst themselves for a term of 2 ½ years.

3. There is a provision for the reservation of these offices, in the manner prescribed by the law, for women, SC, ST and OBCs. (Other backward class)

4. The President is the first citizen of the city/town. He presides over the proceedings of the Council the General Body. He is the chairperson of the Standing Committee and supervises the financial matters.

5. The Vice President performs these functions in the absence of the President.

17. WARD COMMITTEES: -

1. The Ward Committees are formed with the intention of enhancing the participation of the people in local governance.

2. They are constituted in cities having a population of more than 3 lakhs.

3. Wards are grouped together for this purpose.

4. They consist of elected members from the wards and some members from voluntary organizations.

5. Ward Committees deal with the problems of the citizens in the respective areas and suggest solutions. They can also prepare a plan for development in their area with an estimate of expenditure.

18. PRESIDING OFFICERS OF THE ZILLA PARISHAD.

1. The President and the Vice President are the presiding officers of the Zilla Parishad.

2. They are elected by the members of the Zilla Parishad from among themselves for a term of 2 ½ years.

3. The Office of the President is reserved for women, SC, ST and the OBCs by rotation.

4. In the absence of the President, the vice president exercises all the powers.

19. THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICERS (CEO)

1. The Chief Executive Officer is the head of administration in a Zilla Parishad.

2. He is an IAS officer appointed by the State Government.

3. With the help of the administrative machinery, the CEO implements rural development schemes.

4. He is also responsible for implementing the resolutions and decisions of the Zilla Parishad.

5. He is assisted by the Deputy CEO and the heads of various departments.

20. THE CHAIRPERSONS AND DEPUTY CHAIRPERSON OF THE PANCHAYAT SAMITI.

1. The Chairperson also called as Sabhapati and the deputy chairperson also called as Upsabhapati are the presiding officers of the Panchayat Samiti.

2. They are elected by the elected members of the Panchayat Samiti for a term of 2 ½ years.

3. The office of the Chairperson is reserved for women, the SC, ST and the OBCs by rotation.

4. In the absence of the Chairperson, the Deputy Chairperson performs his functions.

21. GRAM SEVAK.

1. The Zilla Parishad appoints a Gram Sevak to carry out the routine work of the Gram Panchayat.

2. She/he works as the Secretary of Gram Panchayat.

3. The records and accounts of the Gram Panchayat is maintained by the Gram Sevak.

4. She/he records the minutes of the meetings of the Gram Panchayat.

22. FUNCTIONS OF THE GRAM PANCHAYAT.

The functions of the Gram Panchayat are us follows.

1. Water supply

2. Construction and maintenance of roads.

3. Public hygiene.

4. Registration of the births and the deaths.

5. Supervision over primary education.

6. Extending support to the state government in implementing preventive measures against health hazards.

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Answer the following questions in 25 to 30 words each.

1. WHAT ARE THE SUBJECTS INCLUDED IN THE UNION LIST?

1. The Union List consists of 97 subjects of national significance.

2. Some subjects in the Union List are defence, foreign relations, foreign trade, currency and coinage, post and telegraph, railways, ports and airways.

3. The centre makes laws on these subjects.

2. ENLIST THE IMPORTANT SUBJECTS INCLUDED IN THE STATE LIST.

1. Internal law and order, agriculture, water supply, public hygiene etc. are incorporated in the state list.

2. The state government makes laws on this considering the regional specificity and environmental uniqueness of the area.

3. EXPLAIN THE SUBJECTS IN THE CONCURRENT LIST.

1. Subjects like education, family law, environment, forest etc. are included in the concurrent list.

2. Both the centre and the state governments are empowered to make laws on the subjects included in the concurrent lists.

4. WHAT ARE RESIDUAL SUBJECTS?

1. Subjects which are not mentioned in the Union list, state list or concurrent lists are known as residual subjects.

2. The centre is empowered to make laws on such subjects.

5. WHAT ARE THE QUALIFICATIONS FOR THE MEMBERSHIP OF THE LOK SABHA?

The qualifications prescribed for the membership of the Lok Sabha are

1. The person should be a citizen of India.

2. The person must have completed 25 years of age.

3. The person must fulfil all other conditions of representations prescribed by Parliament from time to time.

6. EXPLAIN THE QUALIFICATIONS PRESCRIBED FOR THE MEMBERSHIP OF THE RAJYA SABHA.

The qualifications prescribed for the membership of the Rajya Sabha are:

1. The person must be a citizen of India.

2. The person must have completed 30 years of age.

3. The person must fulfil all other conditions of representation prescribed by Parliament from time to time.

7. WHAT IS THE TENURE OF LOK SABHA?

1. The normal tenure of the Lok Sabha is five years.

2. This period can be extended by one year, at a time, during a national emergency.

3. If no single party or a coalition of parties is able to form the government, then the Lok Sabha is dissolved before the expiry of its term.

8. HOW IS THE DEPUTY CHAIRMAN OF THE RAJYA SABHA ELECTED?

1. The Deputy Chairman of the Rajya Sabha is elected by the members of the Rajya Sabha from among themselves.

2. In the absence of the Chairman, the Deputy Chairman performs his functions.

9. IN WHICH LANGUAGES ARE THE PROCEEDINGS OF PARLIAMENT CONDUCTED?

Ans.

1. The proceedings of Parliament are conducted either in Hindi or in English.

2. But the members have the choice to speak in their mother tongue as well.

3. This helps to overcome the barrier of language and facilitates free expressions of thoughts.

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10. INDIA HAS ADOPTED FEDERAL SYSTEM OF GOVERNMENT.

1. India is a big country with an extensive territory.

2. Many religions and languages co exist in our country.

3. So it was considered that a federal system of government would be ideal to manage the affairs of our country.

4. Hence India adopted the Federal System of government.

11. THE GOVERNMENT OF MAHARASHTRA HAS APPROACHED THE SUPREME COURT FOR THE SETTLEMENT OF ITS BOUNDARY DISPUTE.

1. Reorganization of States took place in India some years after attaining independence.

2. At the time of reorganization, Belgaum a town having predominantly Marathi speaking population was included in Karnataka.

3. Hence the Government of Maharashtra has approached the Supreme Court for the settlement of its boundary dispute.

12. THE PRESIDENT NOMINATES TWO MEMBERS FROM THE ANGLO INDIAN COMMUNITY TO THE LOK SABHA.

1. The makers of the Indian constitution were keen on providing representation to the various sections of Indian society in parliament.

2. The Anglo Indian community has been given representation in Parliament by way of nomination.

3. So if the community is not adequately represented then the President of India is empowered to nominate two members of this community to the Lok Sabha.

13. THE LOK SABHA CAN BE DISSOLVED BEFORE THE EXPIRY OF ITS TERM.

1. The term of Lok Sabha is five years.

2. But it can be dissolved before the expiry of the term in the following circumstance.

3. If no single party or coalition of parties is able to form a government, then the Lok Sabha is dissolved and fresh elections are held.

4. So the Lok Sabha can be dissolved before the expiry of its term.

14. THE RAJYA SABHA IS CALLED A PERMANENT HOUSE.

1. Unlike the Lok Sabha, the Rajya Sabha is never dissolved completely.

2. One third of its members retire after every two years and the same number of representatives are elected.

3. The term of each member in the Rajya Sabha is six years and the term of all the members of Rajya Sabha does not expire at the same time.

4. Hence the Rajya Sabha is a permanent House.

15. WHEN DOES THE SPEAKER OF THE LOK SABHA LOSE HIS OFFICE BEFORE COMPLETION OF THE TERM?

Ans. The speaker of the Lok Sabha loses his office before completion of the term if.

1. He ceases to be a member of the Lok Sabha.

2. He resigns from his office.

3. The Lok Sabha removes the Speaker by passing a motion of ‗No Confidence‘ against him.

16. WHAT ARE THE QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED FOR CONTESTING THE PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION?

The qualifications required for contesting the Presidential election are:

1. The person must be a citizen of India.

2. The person must have completed 35 years of age.

3. The person must be qualified to get elected to the Lok Sabha.

17. WHICH ARE THE IMPORTANT APPOINTMENTS MADE BY THE PRESIDENT?

1. The President appoints the Prime Minister and the other ministers on recommendations of the Prime Minister.

2. He appoints the Governors of the states, the Attorney General, the Comptroller and Auditor General and the Chief Election Commissioner.

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3. He appoints the Ambassadors and diplomats of the Government of India.

4. He appoints the Chief Justice of India and the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts.

18. WHEN DOES THE PRESIDENT PROCLAIM A NATIONAL EMERGENCY?

1. The president has certain emergency powers to deal with extraordinary situations.

2. If the President feels that the country‘s integrity and security is threatened by war, external aggression or internal armed rebellion, then a state of National Emergency is declared by the president.

19. WHAT ARE THE CHANGES CAUSED BY THE IMPOSITION OF FINANCIAL EMERGENCY?

1. If the president feels that the country‘s financial stability is in danger, then the President can declare Financial Emergency. The Financial emergency brings in certain changes in the routine of the administration.

2. The salaries of the government employees and the judges of the Supreme Court and the High Court are curtailed.

3. The President may issue orders regarding observance of certain norms of financial discipline.

20. STATE ANY TWO FUNCTIONS OF THE PRIME MINISTER.

1. Formation of the Council of Ministers is the most important function of the Prime Minister.

2. He decides on the ministers and recommends them to the President for appointment. He also assigns portfolios to them

3. The Prime Minister is the link between the President and the Council of Ministers. He communicates all the decisions of the Council of Ministers to the President.

21. EXPLAIN THE FINANCIAL POWER OF THE PRESIDENT.

1. A money bill is introduced in the Lok Sabha only with the prior recommendation of the president.

2. The President appoints the Finance commission after every five years.

22. WHAT ARE THE QUALIFICATIONS PRESCRIBED FOR THE JUDGES OF THE SUPREME COURT?

The following qualifications have been prescribed for the person to be appointed as a judge of the High Court.

1. She/he must be a citizen of India.

2. He She must have held a judicial office in India for atleast 10 years.

3. She/he must have practiced as an advocate at a high court for at least 10 years.

4. A distinguished jurist in the opinion of the President of India.

23. WHAT ARE THE QUALIFICATIONS PRESCRIBED FOR THE JUDGES OF THE HIGH COURT?

The following qualifications have been prescribed for the person to be appointed as a judge of the Supreme Court.

5. The person must be a citizen of India.

6. The person has been a judge of a High Court for a period of five years or he/she must be an advocate who has been practising in a High Court for a period of ten years.

7. A distinguished jurist in the opinion of the President of India.

24. EXPLAIN THE GROUNDS FOR THE REMOVAL OF THE JUDGES. OR STATE THE PROCEDURE FOR THE REMOVAL OF THE JUDGES OF THE SUPREME COURT AND THE HIGH COURTS.

1. A judge of the Supreme Court or a High Court enjoys a fixed tenure in the normal course.

2. However, a judge of the Supreme Court or a High Court can be removed from office by the President on grounds of proved misbehaviour or incapacity.

3. Parliament must pass a resolution to this effect by a special majority.

25. WHAT IS „ORIGINAL JURISDICTION‟?

1. Original jurisdiction means the power of the court to hear and determine a dispute at the first instance.

2. For e.g. The Supreme Court has been given exclusive original jurisdiction to settle dispute between.

The Union and one or more states.

The Union and any state or states on one hand and one or more states on the other.

Between states.

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26. WHY ARE THE DECISIONS OF THE SUPREME COURT BINDING ON ALL COURTS IN INDIA?

1. The Supreme Court is also the highest ‗Court of Record‘ as all its decisions are recorded and preserved.

2. These decisions assume the character of law. The decisions of the Supreme Court cannot be challenged in any court.

3. Its decisions are final and binding on all other courts in India.

27. WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE GENERAL BODY OF THE MUNICIPAL CORPORATIONS?

The council is the General Body of the Municipal Corporations. Its functions are

1. To discuss the problems of the city and take policy decisions.

2. To approve the annual budget of the Municipal Corporation.

3. To elect members to various committees and also approves their decisions.

28. WHICH OFFICERS ASSIST THE MUNICIPAL COMMISSIONER IN HIS / HER WORK?

Ans. The Municipal Commissioner is the chief Executive officer of the Municipal Corporation. He is assisted by:

1. Deputy Commissioners

2. City Engineer

3. Health and Medical Officer

4. Education officer and

5. Fire fighting officer.

29. WHAT ARE THE CONSTITUENT ELEMENTS OF THE MUNICIPAL COUNCIL?

Ans. The Municipal Council has four elements:

1. The Council

2. The President and Vice President

3. Committees

4. Chief Officer and Administration.

30. HOW DOES THE STATE GOVERNMENT EXERCISE CONTROL OVER THE MUNICIPAL COUNCILS?

1. Municipal Councils must function according to the guidelines set out by the state government.

2. The government may dissolve a Municipal Council on grounds of inefficiency and maladministration.

3. The State Government may take over the administration of such a Council and appoint an administrator.

4. In Maharashtra, a separate Directorate of Municipalities is constituted to control and coordinate the affairs of the Municipal Councils.

31. EXPLAIN THE PROCEDURE TO ESTABLISH A NAGAR PANCHAYAT.

1. The State Government gives the status of Nagar Panchayat to a rural area which is in the process of transition to an urban area.

2. The population of such semi-urban area must be between 10,000 and 25,000.

3. Such area should be at a distance less than 20kms from a city with either a Municipal Corporation or Class ‗A‘ Municipal Council and not less than 25% population engaged in non agricultural occupations.

4. Or it should be an area which is at a distance of more than 20kms from a city with either a Municipal Corporation or Class ‗A‘ Municipal Council and has not less than 50% of its population engaged in non agricultural occupations.

32. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE IN CREATING CANTONMENT BOARDS?

1. The Cantonment Boards are a special type of urban local government.

2. They are created specially to deal with the problems of areas where army is stationed along with a substantial civilian population.

33. WHAT ARE THE CONSTITUENT ELEMENTS OF THE PANCHAYATI RAJ SYSTEM?

1. The rural local governing institutions in India are described as the ‗Panchayati Raj‘.

2. Gram Panchayat, Panchayat Samiti and Zilla Parishad are the three main constituents of the Panchayati Rajsystem.

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34. EXPLAIN THE FEATURES OF THE PANCHAYATI RAJ SYSTEM IN MAHARASHTRA.

1. A district is considered to be the main unit of planning and development, therefore the Zilla Parishad at the district level occupies an important position in the entire system.

2. The Panchayat Samiti is a link between the Zilla Parishad and the Gram Panchayat.

3. Gram Sabha is the people‘s organisation at the basic level and is given substantial power to realize democratic decentralisation.

4. The state government exercise control over the administration of these institution.

35. EXPLAIN THE COMPOSITION OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE OF THE ZILLA PARISHAD.

The composition of the Standing Committee of the Zilla Parishad is

1. The president of the Zilla Parishad is the ex officio chairperson of the Standing Committee.

2. The Chairpersons of the subject committees are also members of the Standing Committee.

3. The members of the Zilla Parishad elect eight members to the Standing Committee from among themselves.

4. The Standing Committee co-opts two members who have special knowledge about its functioning.

36. WHAT ARE THE SOURCES OF INCOME OF THE PANCHAYAT SAMITI?

The Panchayat Samiti does not have independent sources of income.

1. It receives grants from the Zilla Parishad annually to meet its expenses.

2. The state government also provides financial assistance to Panchayat Samiti for implementing its schemes.

37. WHAT IS THE PURPOSE OF ORGANISING A GRAM SABHA?

The purpose behind organising al Gram Sabha is:

1. To provide a platform for the villages to come together and discuss matters of local importance.

2. It provides the opportunity to villages to express their views, opinions and grievances.

3. Moreover, they are entitled to receive convincing answers to their questions.

4. The Gram Sabha is expected to bring transparency and openness in politics at the grass roots level.

38. WRITE ABOUT THE BLOCK DEVELOPMENT OFFICER (BDO)

1. The Block Development officer is the head of the Panchayat Samiti administration.

2. She/he is appointed by the state government.

3. She/he functions as the chief Administrative officer and the Secretary of the Panchayat Samiti.

4. Extension officers in Agriculture, health, animal husbandry, education, cooperation and industries assist the BDO in the administration of the Panchayat Samiti.

39. WHAT ARE THE QUALIFICATIONS REQUIRED FOR CONTESTING THE VICE-PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION?

The qualifications required for contesting the Presidential election are:

1. The person must be a citizen of India.

2. The person must have completed 35 years of age.

3. The person must be qualified to get elected to the Rajya Sabha.

40. HOW ARE THE COUNCIL OF MINISTERS APPOINTED?

1. The President appoints the Prime Minister and the Prime Minister creates his own Council of Ministers.

2. A Minister must be a Member of Parliament, at the time of his appointment, if not then he has to acquire it within a period of six months.

41. COMPOSITION OF THE SUPREMEM COURT?

1. The Supreme Court consists of a Chief Justice and other Judges.

2. According to the Constitution, the Parliament has been empowered to decide the number of other judges.

3. At present there are 25 other Judges along with the Chief Justice.

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BRIEF

1. EXPLAIN THE COMPOSITION OF THE LOK SABHA.

1. The maximum membership of the Lok Sabha is 552.

2. Anglo Indians have been given representation in Parliament by way of nomination. The President is empowered to nominate two members of this community, to the Lok Sabha not adequately represented.

3. Our constitution has provided for reserved constituencies for the scheduled castes and scheduled tribes.

2. DESCRIBE THE POWERS AND FUNCTIONS OF THE SPEAKER OF LOK SABHA.

1. She/he presides over all the meetings of the Lok Sabha.

2. She/he protects the dignity of the house and maintains discipline therein.

3. She/he interprets procedural rules of Lok Sabha.

4. She/he gives or rejects permission to ask questions and supplementary questions in Lok Sabha.

5. She/he decides whether the bill is a money bill or an ordinary bill.

3. EXPLAIN THE COMPOSITION OF RAJYA SABHA?

1. The Rajya Sabha has 250 members.

2. Out of these, 238 members are elected by the states and the Union Territories.

3. The remaining 12 members are nominated by the President from amongst distinguished persons in the field of literature, arts, science and social service.

4. States have been given representation in the Rajya Sabha on the basis of their production.

5. Thus states like Uttar Pradesh have 31 and Maharashtra have 19 members in the Rajya Sabha.

4. EXPLAIN THE IMPEACHMENT PROCESS?

1. The President can be removed from his office by a process called impeachment.

2. He can be impeached only for violation of the constitution.

3. The impeachment can be initiated in either house of parliament.

4. If Lok Sabha initiates charges against the President, Rajya Sabha investigates them.

5. When both houses of the parliament pass a resolution with special majority the president is removed from his office. Such an incident has not occurred so far in India.

5. DESCRIBE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE MAYOR?

The mayor is the presiding officer of the corporation and performs the following functions.

1. She/he presides over the meetings of the council and regulates its proceedings.

2. She/he co-ordinates the activities of the administration and exercises control over the same.

3. The mayor represents the city and participates in the various functions organised by the corporation.

4. She/he receives and welcomes dignitaries on behalf of the citizens.

6. WHAT ARE THE FEATURES OF CANTONMENT BOARD? The cantonment boards are created specially to deal with the problems of areas where army is stationed along with a substantial civilian population.

1. They function under the direct control of the Ministry of Defence, Government of India.

2. The Station Commander of the Cantonment is the President of the board.

3. Cantonment Boards have a great number of appointed and ex-officio members than the elected members.

4. Cantonment Boards are classified on the basis of the civilian population residing in those areas.

7. DESCRIBE THE COMPOSITION OF THE ZILLA PARISHAD?

1. The Zilla Parishad is the apex institution in the Panchayati Raj System.

2. The Zilla Parishad consists of elected and ex-officio members. The elected members are the representatives of the people.

3. The chairpersons (Sabhapati) of Panchayat Samitis falling within the jurisdiction of the Zilla Parishad are its ex- officio members.

4. One third of the elected seats are reserved for women. The scheduled Castes and scheduled tribes are given representation through reservation decided according to their proportion of population.

5. Twenty seven percent of the total seats are reserved for the other backward classes.

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8. WHAT ARE THE FUNCTIONS OF THE STANDING COMMITTEE OF THE ZILLA PARISHAD?

The functions of the Standing Committee of the Zilla Parishad are as follows:

1. It reviews periodically the activities of Zilla Parishad and takes important policy decisions.

2. It inspects and supervises the schemes of development of Zilla Parishad.

3. It takes decisions regarding taxation and other financial policy matters, discusses the annual budget before its submission to the general body.

9. DESCRIBE THE SOURCES OF INCOME OF THE ZILLA PARISHAD?

1. The Zilla Parishad makes an effort to improve the quality of life of its people by coordinating its manifold activities.

2. The Zilla Parishad has power to raise revenue for its effective functioning:

has power to raise revenue for its effective functioning: Its sources of income include Zilla Parishad

Its sources of income include Zilla Parishad imposes professional tax, general water tax, entertainment tax and tax on pilgrims. It receives grants from the state government. It receives its share in income as decided by the State Finance Commission. Zilla Parishad gets 70% share in the land revenue collected fo