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Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012





Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012 CONTENT TABLE TITLE I Declaration«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. II III PAGE

EXCUTIVE SUMMERY««««««««««««««««..

CHAPTER ONE««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. INTRODUCTION«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. 1.0 THE GENERALDISCRIPTION OF THE BACK GROUND OF CAMPANY««««««

1.1 Financial sports for wollega stadium«««««««.. «««««. 1.2 Main product or services««««««««««««. ««««««.. 1.3 Main customers or the end users of its products or services««.. 1.4 The back ground of the contractor company««««««««««
1.4.1 ESTABLISHMENT«««««««««««««««««««««««« 1.4.2 OBJECTIVE««««««««««««««««««««««««««. 1.4.3 VISION«««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. 1.4.4 MISSION««««««««««««««««««««««««««««. 1.4.5 MANDATE«««««««««««««««««««««««««««.. 1.5.1 ORGANIZATIONAL STATUS AND PROFILE«««««««««««. 1.5.2 HUMAN RESOURCES PROFILE«««««««««««««««««. 1.5.3 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES««««««««««««««««


Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

CHAPTER TWO««««««««««««««««««««««««««..

2. Construction Materials««««««««««««««««.. 2.0 Water«««««««««««««««««««««««.. 2.1Aggregates««««««««««««««««««««««..
2.1.1 Aggregates used for the construction of ground slab and concrete making««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««««

2.2 Sands«««««««««««««««««««««««««««« 2.3 cements«««««««««««««««««««««««««««
2.4 Mixer«««««««««««««««««««««««««

2.4.1Hand Mixing««««««««««««««««««««««
2.4.2 Mechanical Mixer««««««««««««««««««««« 2.5 Concrete«««««««««««««««««««««««««««

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

I Declaration

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project,2012

This report is the outcome of my observation on the Wollega Stadium project in the three months of duration of time. And it is not copied from any materials books. It·s my own work.

Prepared by student Esayas Tafese ( RET/858/01) From the Department of Civil and Urban Engineering, 2012



This report describes about Wollega stadium Multipurpose Project that found in Nekemte town. The project aims to avail a moderate entertainment center for the local youth for the sole of conducting the different types of sport activities. Generally the report is divided into two parts. The first part deals with the structural working and the second parts deals with the sanitary works on the project site. The first section of this part gives the general description on the back ground of the project area like its brief history, products or services, the end user of its products and the overall organization and work flows. The existing construction materials have been dealt in the second section of the report.

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

beams and elevation columns has been discussed here. The construction procedure of stepped seats. It deals the manufacture of blocks and the type of partition walls. I would like to thank GOD for giving me the strength to complete this work. And finally. The fifth section is concerned with the masonry works. The super structural works begins in the fourth section. On the last section or section three the overall benefits of intern ship is discussed. III ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First of all. Next to GOD.2012 The sub structural works like the construction of the ground floor slab has been discussed in the third section. In part two sanitary works that contain three sections.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. the first section is sanitary system and the second section deals about the appurtenance of sanitary which contain the parts of the sewerage and their respective construction materials. I would like to thank my family and Arba Minch University Institute Of Technology for they help me both financially and morally. I extend my deepest gratitude to the project site manager Ato Ebsa Galena for his help. conclusion and some recommendations have been made in the end section of the report. encouragement and initiation to do this practice effectively. . The finishing material and their procedure works of plastering is discussed in the sixth section.

.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project.2012 Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.

This step is believed to alleviate the shortage of entertainment facilities for the youth.000 is collected. the remainder part will be assumed to be finished in two years starting from now. public and donors. tennis court.346 1.FIFA standard foot ball field Gymnasium. . . starting from 2008 up to 2011.000 2. about 83. The total project cost which is estimated at 190 millions of birr expected from each community. The project can be considered as the most endeavor in positively changing the image of the town and building social infrastructure.000. The project is led by East Wollega Zone Youth and the Sport Bureau of this zone. The functional element of the stadium is listed below.000 seats that is fully covered roof with the following facilities:-Olympic standard running track and field.194 Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. So that at this stage it is assumed about 72 % of the construction is completed. Building function Main stadium Swimming pool Public library Guest house Outdoor games Net floor area (m2) 29.2012 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1. basket ball and volley ball fields etc. The construction is expected to last in four years i.147 808 1. Whereas.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. The stadium has 20. The youth center and stadium with its all accompanying facilities will be built in the western part of Nekemte town around the area commonly called by the name Gimbi . However ti could not being full filled because of economical and some other problems. Somewhat. swimming pool. to this date. The intention of the project is to construct a multipurpose stadium with a capacity to hold different kinds of sport competition.e.0 THE GENERAL DESCRIPTION OF THE BACK GROUND OF COMPANY Wollega stadium is an ultra modern stadium which is under construction. The size area occupied with the plot is 13 hectare.

manpower and materials to success its goal. 1.2012 1.3 Main customers or the end users of its products or services The project aims at building productive generation of youth with sustainable mental and physical well being with emphasis on reducing the spread of HIV-AIDS. . The main functional elements of the sports center is being the stadium. etc) are also included. 1. -Account No. Financial supports could be made through a block of the project:-Account No.2 Main product or services The main objective of the Wollega Stadium complex project is to avail a modern entertainment center for the local youth for the sole purposes of conducting the different types of sport activities. Merkato Branch and there are other organizational that are not listed. -Account No.846 commercial Bank of Ethiopia. other supportive facilities (i. 0170954669000 Commercial Bank of Ethiopia. 0171647552400 Commercial bank of Ethiopia Bole branch. It engages specifically in water resources development constructions and all water related constructions works. In addition to this it also increases the financial incoming economy either for the company or country as well.4 The back ground of the contractor company Oromia Water works Construction Enterprise (OWWCE) is Oromia regional administration government·s organizations. Therefore so many organization are took a participation in it. Nekemte. The enterprise carries out the professional duty of supplementing and enabling the government realize developmental action plan in the field of water resources development sector. The design reflects local culture (both tangible and intangible heritages). Among this few of them are listed below.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. reducing the spread of HIV. and oromia regional state. Arada Branch. for the development of the town. 1. The design has also expansion possibilities with cost efficient strategies. -Account No. -Account No.e. 123865133190 Awash International Bank.1 Financial sports for wollega stadium Since this stadium is an ultra modern one it need so much things such as money. (5047) 01718071650000 Commercial Bank of Ethiopia Addis Ababa branch.

(OWWCE magazine.  Building constructions.  Roads constructions. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. 1. besides roads and buildings constructions works. collects serviceprojects beneficiaries.35) 1. Issues. including manufacturing of constructions related materials.1 ESTABLISHMENT OWWCE was established in 1991 by the Oromia Regional Administration Government. and irrigations schemes.2 OBJECTIVE  Under take leading role in development activities.  For over all development achievement goals. III. Construct and administers water dams. The enterprise specializes in among others construction of dams. sewage constructions and drainage systems. so as to re-invest the funds elsewhere for similar developmental purposes.4.  Provide different kinds of services efficiently and effectively.4.5 MANDATE I.3 VISION Become most competent institution in the field of constructions sector is the main vision of Oromia Water works Construction Enterprise (OWWCE) Company. construction of potable water supplies lines. capacitating the organization in its overall performance.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. 1. redefining OWWCE mandate and terms. September 2010.  Injecting professional excellence in this all important field of constructions engineering sector.4 MISSION  Engage in water resources development activities by performing professional water constructions works. II.2012 1. the latest being in 2001.4. in relevant fields. hydro electric power constructions works.4.  Specialize in infrastructural constructions project net work nationwide. Relevant legislations were passed since then. . 1. Engages in water resources development activities. using up to date expertise to the satisfaction of clients and consumers. water based irrigations constructions.4. bore holes and deep water well drillings works. sells and pledges bonds.

1 ORGANIZATIONAL STATUS AND PROFILE Oromia Water Works Construction Enterprises (OWWCE) is a government parastatal organization that commands a record two billion birr capital. 1. sells. . imports. exports and rents water works construction equipments and related materials. MACHINES AND MOTOR VEHICLES Machineries 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 Truck Loader Excavator Back hoe loader Tractor Front end dumper Compressor Dozer Compactor Grader Wagon drill Scraper Light vehicles Shower Truck Fuel Truck Crane Nissan flat bed Mobile work shop Low bed High bed Isuzu Truck Number 84 12 6 4 13 8 5 14 8 4 1 2 143 5 1 2 1 2 5 1 2 Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project.2012 Manufactures.IV. distributes. September 2010.(OWWCE magazine.5.

September 2010. Besides.2 HUMAN RESOURCES PROFILE Oromia Water works Construction Enterprise (OWWCE) is proud to enjoy a 1810 man.5. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.2012 Service Bus 3 Auto mobile 11 Station Wagon 8 Wheel excavator 3 Truck crane > 60 tone 1 Rig 19 Jack hammer 3 Flat bed Trucks(for rigs) 2 Total 373 1. . dedicated work force.3 ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES OWWCE is governed by the board of Directors.22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project.5. OWWCE·s board of governors is tasked among others with the responsibilities of: y Devising organizational strategy.(OWWCE magazine. layout short and long term action plan. several other hundreds of contract-based staff and seasonal casual workers entail part of the able organizational work force. The board is assigned and confirmed in to office by the president of Oromia regional state. 36) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Staff by professional fields Engineers Construction Forman Surveyors Accountants Management Purchasing experts Marketing experts Economists Geologists Electricians Auto mechanics General mechanics Secretary science Lawyers Other professionals Semi-skilled Total Numbers 215 183 81 138 79 37 17 19 23 56 88 25 26 7 83 733 1810 1.

and Take appropriate corrective measures whenever need arises.y y y y Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. decides and confirms annual regular working budget. . The board conducts supervisory activities. OWWCE organizational operations are headed and coordinated by General Manager. Gives necessary support. drilling Administrations and branch Capacity building branch Somali Regional project coordination office projects office Wolonchiti irrigations Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. organizational structures of OWWCE are as follows: ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURES Board of directors divisions General Manager (GM) Auditing and supervisions Legal Affair Chief Engineer and deputy (GM) Schemes Administrations Chief Hydrologist Business promotions procurement And contractor administration property Administrations and constructions Branch-1 Constructions branch -2 Constructions branch-3 Supplies Machineries administrations and work shop branch Human resources.2012 Sets. Generally.

The organization·s structural design to ensure facilitations of the constructions works efficiently and professionally. constructions department. 9) Work shop and machineries Administrations department. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. 6) Contracts and Business development department. . 7) Schemes Administrations department. and 10) Somale Region based project coordinate office. 37. 3) Third constructions department. 5) Property administrations and procurements department. as partly summarized below: 1) First. 4) Human resources and capacity building department. b) 29 clean potable water supplies lines constructions projects. 52 projects site are in Oromia regional state provinces. 8) Drilling department. 2) Second constructions department.2012 1. 2010. 1. The enterprises activities are organized in to nine major departments and a project coordinate office. Of the 56 OWWCE construction projects.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. They include: a) 13 water-based irrigations constructions projects. while four projects sites are found in shinili province of the somale regional state. Several departments further subdivide in to need-based divisions and services.7 CONSTRUCTION PROJECTS OWWCE under took and engaged in a record fifty six (56) huge and diverse constructions projects.6 TASKS DISTRIBUTIONS AND COORDINATIONS As per OWWCE magazine. September. The following is breaking down list of the diverse constructions projects successfully under taken by OWWCE.

Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.mortar .Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project.sand . and Meka dam construction project.2012 c) 9 buildings and towers constructions projects. Construction Materials Construction materials are the materials that used for construction at the site. CHAPTER TWO 2. . Three projects are on construction by OWWCE in Nekemte city at this time.cement . From the three above projects I have observed the construction of wollega stadium project for the duration time of three months. These are: i.form work . -5 bore holes rehabilitations program completed. Let see the properties of each of these materials. ii.aggregate . The following drilling engagements were also parts of the water related constructions projects exercised by OWWCE.and etc. And -Pump-testing was completed on some 4 bore holes.reinforcement bar . d) 2 marsh lands reclamations (drainage system) constructions projects.concrete . 21 water wells constructed without test-pumping. They were:   14 bore holes constructed with test-pumping performance.mixer . This materials are like water . Nekemte Referral hospital construction project. iii. Wollega stadium construction project. and e) 3 roads constructions projects.

When the project completed they will use splinter. they use clean water for the construction purposes. industrial wastes and silts. The other use of water at this project football field is for watering of the grass on the This water reaches at grass by using pumping.2012 2. This is to react chemically with cement and finally set and harden. The water used in concrete mixes has its own function. But. water of doubt full quality should be submitted for library analysis and tests.0 Water The water that used as construction materials. the use of well Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. firstly it should be it should be washed. The aggregate that used for such purposes should be studied by Geologists before using it. 2.1Aggregates Aggregate is used for different purposes at the construction site. This results changing the color of concrete and affects the durability of concrete. Then by the help of man power water become distributed over the surface of the planted grass . which is on construction.Note that this method is only when the project is on construction.1 Aggregates used for the construction of ground slab and concrete making The aggregates used as the construction of the ground slab and concrete making should be well graded. it weakens the bond between aggregate and cement. ground floor slab. oil. reducing of the strength of concrete and the durability of concrete. . As the author investigated at the site. it makes an additional chemical reaction with cements. And results. especially for concrete making should be clean water that fit for drinking. if it is not washed. retaining wall and for concrete making. 2. First the water is pumped from the collector tanker with the help of generator.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. Therefore. If it is not clean water what would be problem followed on the construction? If impure water is used like the water that consists of salts. If the rocks that used as aggregate contain some impurities like silts. This is for the construction of hardcore. And also it used to lubricate concrete and make it workable.1. As the author observed at the site.

2. . This is to avoid an additional chemical reaction. The sands that used for construction of building materials should be well glade.2012 grading aggregate is in to reduce the void spaces created between them. the finer particles help to occupy the space (voids) between the larger particles. The presence of this foreign material in sand prevents adhesion ability of sand. the cement that reaches at the site: It should not put (stay) more than 15 days in storage.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. This is used especially when.3 cements Cements are materials with adhesive and cohesive properties which make them capable of uniting or bonding to gather fragments or particles of solid matter into a compact mass. It should be free from air entering. The sand used for concrete making is not being all fine as that used for plastering or mortar. it results a good concrete and ground floor slab with an economical costs. AS the author observed at the site. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. It should be free from moisture (dampness). 2.2 Sands Sand is the material that used for concrete making and mortar making (used for binding materials of masonry blocks and plastering). Thus the resulting dense mortar and permitting cement or lime in filling the remainder of the voids and binding the sand particle to gather. And finally. It should contain fine and coarse sand. That is a particle should be all fine or all coarse. the sand used for mortar (plastering). When the sand is well gladded. The sand used should be cleaned and free from dirty or other foreign materials. This makes the concrete Un workable. But before its use the silt contents of sand should be checked. When the void spaces is reduced or decreased the quantity of cement it needs also reduced or decreased.

it gives large product of concrete in short period of time. This machine has more advantages than that of hand mixing. Mixing may be done by hand or mechanical mixture (mixer). And sand is measured by a measuring box 40cm long.1Hand Mixing This method is carried when there are no suitable equipment materials on the site.4 Mixer Mixer is the instrument used to mix the concrete making materials. This was when sand and cements are mixed to gather for the plastering purpose. 35cm wide. 2. which can tight water and clean. It saves the time of working (i. 2. .) and it makes a well chemical reaction between the constituent materials. which correspond to 35 liter of volume. 2.2012 2.5. Then by adding some amount of water mixing become continued up to get the required plasticity.4. and 25cm depth.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. 2. How hand mixing is carried out? First the cement and sand are mixed to gather in dry state with the ratio of 1:3 respectively. sand and water and allowing the product t o cure for hardening. it should be measured according to the ratio required. Finally bring it to the required places and starting work with this made mortar. The author investigated how hand mixing is carried out. should be done on proper dry board.e. Hand mixing. Each cement bags contain 50 kg. Before mixing them to gather.1 The production of concrete at the site Concrete is simply produced according to the procedure below.2 Mechanical Mixer Mechanical mixer is the type of mixer that can work with the help of the energy it gets from electric power.4. Finally it results a good bond concrete. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. cement. During this cement is measured by weight in cement bags.5 Concrete Concrete is a building construction materials that can be obtained by mixing aggregate.

Whereas. Then batching is followed. This leads to make the stiffness concrete before its work due to the effect come from it from those weak labourers. When mechanical machine is used it is better to use the machine that·s circular in shape . Then allowing freely rotation of this cylindrical drum for a few minutes (10 or 15 minutes). This mortar is obtained from the mixture of sand. When concrete is going to be placed on harder concrete. 2. Therefore labourer should be more power full to reaches the concrete to the required working place before it sets. This carried by measuring cement by cement bags in which contain 50kg. and 25cm depth. This to control the setting time of concrete.5 Mortal Mortar is one of the types of construction materials that used for binding. means has the ability to rise up and down. . After the constituent materials are measured mixing with the required ratio.e. When concrete is transported to the required places by the use of labour force or machine care should be given to it. few millimeters of mortar is necessary to prevent formation of stone pockets and secure tight joints. 35cm wide.5. Finally. which is measuring of materials according to the required ratio. As the author observed on the site they use mortar for the binding of hollow concrete blocks with each other. C-25 concrete strength is mixed by the ratio of 1:2:3 (i. 2.2 Handling of concrete The obtained concrete by passing the above process should be properly handled. Then by rising up the collected constituent materials and allowing it to falls down in a movable cylindrical part of mixer after small amount of water is flushed to it.two boxes of sand and three boxes of aggregate ) respectively. Then they collected in the collector part of machine which is flexiable. For example. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. and measuring of sand and aggregate by using of a measuring box.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. This means when labourer transports the concretes to the place of working some of them are move quickly and some of them are move slowly due to lack of enough endurance or strength or force. cement and water. when labour force used care should given to for those that has hard power.2012 First clearing the mixer and adjusting it for work. the resulted concrete becomes fallen down from the drum on clean places. This box has standard dimension which is 40cm long. one bag of cement (50kg).

As the author observed at the site .It should be free from moisture (i. ground floor slabs . 2.e. deformed/ribbed and twisted types of reinforcement bars. -10mm diameter bars for the lateral reinforcement bars of stepped seats. beams . They use this different size of bars for different types of purposes. It has high tensile strength than that of plain reinforcement bars. 16mm.7. Depending up on their sizes of diameter. and 20mm diameters of reinforcement bars on the wollega stadium project t. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. 2.6Reinforcement bar Reinforcement bar is normally made up milled steel. Whereas depending up on their mode of production at industry.columns and the like.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. its collected at dry area). 10mm. there are 8mm. but has low bonding capacity. 3. Deformed/ribbed reinforcement bar is produced in our country and uses at differen places like for the construction of beams. Twisted reinforcement bar has high tensile strength than on the above two reinforcement bars. This is done: -To avoid corrosion of reinforcement bars . . They use: -8mm diameter bars for the lateral reinforcement bars (stirrups)of columns and beams.2012 2. Reinforcement bars cover Reinforcement bars have a minimum concrete cover of 25cm thick and for thick reinforcements at least twice the diameter of the reinforcement bars. 2.the selected twisted bar is the one that produced in foreign country especially in Turkey. 2. Plain reinforcement bars has diameter of 8mm and uses as stirrups of the longitudinal r reinforcement of beams and columns. Almost all party of wollega stadium is constructed from this type of reinforcement bars. as the author observed on the site .1 Where they use this different types of reinforcement bars? 1. . Foundations and slabs.1. although its costy. This is because of its low costs when compared with that of the deformed bars. there are plain.6.7 Where reinforcement bars are stored? . they use reinforcement bar at the position of tension resistance. There are different types of and sizes of reinforcement bars.The reinforcement bars are put on wood in order to avoid rusting. -16mm and 20mm diameter bars for the longitudinal reinforcement of columns.

2012 -To protect the steel bars from fire hazards. example slab.. And there are different kinds of super structure that the author observed on the site. That is. 2. . The formwork base or soffit limits the depth and shape of wet concrete and has to resist the initial dead load of the dry set concrete until it has gained sufficient strength to support its own dead weight. sever environment is 50mm. size and position as it sets. Each of the form work parts have its own services or purposes. steel and plastic. example footing. example beam. - - .Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. These are: -stepped seats Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. Supporter or props: This part of the formwork is used to support the above form works on the desired level of them.5Form work Form work is one type of the construction materials that used to give the required shape and size of the construction desired. It is important to appreciate that the actual form is the reverse shape of the concrete member which is to be cast.0 SUPER STRUCTURE COSTRUCTION WORKS Super structure is the structure that exists above the surfaces of the earth. The formwork sides limits width and shape of wet concrete and has to resist the hydrostatic pressure of the wet concrete which will diminish to zero within a matter of hours depending on setting and curing time. -To increase the bond strength. Durability and control of crack width is related with finishing and provision of adequate cover to reinforcement bars. The nominal cover for structural elements located in the interior of the building with dry environment and mild condition is 15mm. CHAPTER THREE 3. Concrete when first mixed is a fluid and therefore to form any concrete member the wet concrete must be placed in a suitable form work or mould to retain its shape . It·s made from wood. humid environment with moderate exposure is 25mm.

The constructed stepped seats and the one that are still on construction has two shapes. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. consultant engineer. Slab is the structure that carries the live load (people and other movable materials loads) and dead loads (self weight and other fixed material loads) and transfer this loads to the constructed column under it. The curved shape has the same dimension with the straight one in width and riser. This is due to its curved shapes. These are the straight and the curved shapes. These materials are: -formwork: it can be wood.1 stepped seats The stepped seats are the structure that has similar serves and design as to slab. types. Blue print paper is the paper that has a blue color and easily understands to read than the drawing on the manual design book. quantities.1. but different in length. The main purpose of stepped seat is in order to give the suitable sitting places of the audience without one block the other audience during playing is taking places. 3. And the straight stepped seats have the dimension of 10. 2.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. . Its length is increase from the inner to outer since its radius is increase toward the outer direction. 80cm wide and 40cm riser or height. steel and/or plastic according to the required shapes. 3. places. cement and water). Preparation of construction materials and the places of works: the preparation of the construction materials and the working place is the pre condition of construction works. -The characteristic compressive strength of concrete. -mixer: mixer is used to mixes the constituent materials of concrete (sand.2012 -beams and -elevation columns.1 The construction procedure of stepped seats The basic procedure carried during construction of stepped seat is listed below: 1. -The shape and type of form work from the bill of quantity paper and the like. aggregate.000cm length. Forman and project manager and other related worker) can gets information like: -The sizes. spaces and the overall structure the reinforced bars of the stepped seats. From this study the worker ( site engineer. A detail study: the detail study of stepped seats going to be constructed is taken from the blue print paper of drawing.

Construction of formworks: the form works are constructed by carpenter with the guidance of surveyor. Curing: after the form work is removed the outer faces of the constructed seat is covered with wet sacks. Checking the arrangements of reinforcement bars. total station. And then starting of curing with water up to the final setting time of concrete (i. The site engineer checks the arranged reinforcement bars either it matches with the design or not. Surveyor gives some information to the Forman to keep the quality of the work. 6. -giving the elevation point of form work of the stepped seats. -The sizes of reinforcement bars they have been used. These information are: -giving the alignment point of the stepped seats. 5. up to 28 days) Stepped 80cm Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. -The spaces of the lateral and longitudinal reinforcement bars and etc. angle and the level of form work and etc. The formworks should be attached with plastic fiber materials to avoid the some attachments of concrete during removal of formwork. 7. And report it to the consultant engineer.e. Depending on this information the carpenter constructs the scaffolding and the formworks. The consultant approves the arranged by looking: -The types of reinforcement bars they have used.2012 -survey equipments: like thedolite. Casting of concrete: After the consultant engineer approves the works the concrete become casted to the constructed form work. 8. This is either the ribbed or twisted bar and he checks the places of their production.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. During concrete is casted it should be compacted with a uniform depth of not more than 25 cm. Arrangements of the reinforcement bars: the longitudinal and lateral or stirrups are arranged according to the specified design and tighten them with a thin wire. nail. -giving the distance. 3. . It also used to left the outer faces of stepped seats smooth after concrete is set. oil and the like. 4. Removal of the constructed formwork: the constructed form work is gradually removed from the stepped seats without any attachment of concrete to it. -Scaffold. leveling and meter tape and other needed materials for survey measurements.

2 the inverted L shape of stirrups of stepped seats. Fig 3.2012 40cm stepped footing 20cm 40cm Fig 3.1. especially when the audience moves up and down on the seats. The stirrups or the lateral reinforcement bars have L-shapes see fig 3.2.2 The detail of reinforcement bars The longitudinal reinforcement bars are inserted into the arranged stirrups. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. Note that those added reinforcements are placed at the edge of the stepped seats.1. 3. Its reinforcement bars arrangement is attached on the arranged reinforcement bars of stepped seats.1.1 the cross section of stepped seat.this beam has four longitudinal reinforcement bars that are positioned two of them are on the upper parts and the left two bars are on the bottom parts. These stirrups are arranged on the leveled formworks through keeping of spaces distance given on the design paper. And they serve to resist the loads that come from the human foot loads and keep the seats from cracking when loads are applied on it.1. After that an additional reinforcement bars of beam is inserted into it .Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. Note: the way of construction of stepped footing is similar to the stepped seats. .

1 The construction procedure of beams The beams construction procedure is listed below with their specific definitions of each step. This tells either the beam will be floor beam or grade beam or sloped beam. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.2 beams Beams are the structure that used to transfer the loads that come from slab or from stepped seats to the column constructed under it. (I. There are three types of beams that are completely constructed and still on the construction. closed at the bottom face. The way of its construction is similar to with that of floor beam. an open at the upper faces and the closed two sides). Grade beams Grade beams the beam that attached with the ground surface.2. This detail study gives different information about the beams going to be constructed.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. Sloped beams. It is used to support the stepped seats and transfer the loads to the column constructed under it. 1) Detail study of beam design: the beam structure is studied from the blue print paper.2012 3. The of its construction is different from the other. 3. And its shape of form work is different from that of an open box shapes. Its bottom surface does not require closing of it since it is attached to the ground. The information that can be gained from this study is: -Knowing the type of beam going to be constructed. That is it does not need the bottom support form works. . These are: i) ii) iii) Floor beams Grade beams and. Sloped beams These are the beams that found with some inclination angle measured from horizontal ground surfaces. i) ii) iii) Floor beams Floor beams are the beams that found on certain elevation from the ground surfaces. And it is constructed with the help of form work that has the shapes looks like an open box. It used to carry the wall`s of ground floor and to give an additional support to the column. And also it gives the side support to the ground floor slab. It is used to transfer the loads that come from floor slab to the column.e.

16mm. The detail formwork construction is listed on the next section of 3. 5) Checking of the reinforcement bars arranged: The similar process is take places with the previous one which is stepped seats construction procedure. to avoid the attachment of concrete during removal of form work.2 4) Arrangement of the reinforcement bars: The longitudinal reinforcement bars are arranged and positioned in their respective places with the help of stirrups. nail. The lateral reinforcement bars and stirrups are connected with a thin wire through keeping of the design spaces. 2) Preparing of construction materials and the places of working: the materials needed for the construction of beams are:-form work: it can be steel or wood. -mixer -Vibrator. -Knowing the sizes of the reinforcement bars. -Knowing the quantities of the lateral and longitudinal bars. oil and other materials. -Knowing the shape of stirrups and -Knowing of the characteristic strength of concrete. width and depth) of the beam -The level of the form work and etc. For example 14mm. 3) Construction of form work: the form works are constructed by Carpenter with the help of the information obtained from survey. either deformed/ribbed or twisted). Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. The surveyor gives -The alignment of the string will be stretched. -Knowing the space distance of longitudinal and lateral reinforcement bars. But before that moisten the internal surfaces of the form work with oil .2. -Knowing the surface characteristics of the reinforcement bars (i. .Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. 20mm diameters of reinforcement bar.e. Depending on the above information carpenter erects form work.2012 -Knowing the dimension of the cross section of the beam. -the elevation point of the beam -the dimensional point (the length.

Therefore. Whereas the form works soffit is to support the initial load of the wet concrete until it has gained sufficient strength to be self supporting.3 for a detail discussion. 7) Removing of form work: the striking or removing form work is take places in different condition. If the concrete is excess vibrated the concrete become bleeding. This is done on the uniform depth of not more than 25cm.2012 6) Casting of concrete: after the consultant engineer approves the arranged reinforcement bars the concrete become casted into the constructed form works. The beam formwork sides are to retain the initial hydrostatic pressure of the wet concrete. It is essential that all joints in the form work are constructed to prevent the escape of concrete from the molded form work.1 Beam Formwork This is basically a three sided box supported and propped in the correct position and to the desired level. it should be compacted with a medium time of vibration period. and care should be given when the vibrator is used. Bleeding is the rising of water that carry many fine particles.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. If concrete is less vibrated it results shrinkage during drying of concrete that leads to cracking of it. since the objective of compaction is to eliminate air holes and achieve maximum density.2. The casted concrete should be compacted with vibrator. humidity and consequent curing rate.1. . The removal time of the form work will vary with air temperature. 8) Curing: after the form work is removed covering the outer surfaces with wet sack and starting of curing to avoid rapid evaporation. Struts Soffit Props Braces Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. See the next section of 3. The rising water tends to weakens the top portion and in extreme cases form scum over the surfaces. 3.

During the arrangement of bars there may be the splicing. Whereas the positive reinforcement bars are arranged at the bottom parts. .Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project.2. 2) Removing of soffit form work: this is practically within days but as a precaution some props are in position until concrete member is self supporting. This bar is used to resist the positive reinforcement bars. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. The negative reinforcement bars are placed at the upper part to resist the negative moments.2 Erecting of beam form work 1) Props positioned and leveled through 2) Soffit placed. 3. leveled and position checks 3) Side forms placed and their position is checked before being fixed 4) Strutting on the its position and fixed it 5) Final check before casting concrete. The bar splicing is will be done depending on the following rule. Fig 3. -bars which are spliced should be staggered. Typical form work striking or removing time Beam sides:-9 to 12 hours. bending or hooking and cutting of bars if it is so necessary. These are: -splicing of bars should be avoided at point of maximum moments.3 Striking or Removing beam form work 1) Removing the side forms: this allows drying air movement to take place around the setting concrete. Beam soffits:-8 to 14 days but props left under it. Beam props:-15 to 21 days 3.1 simple beam formwork detail 3.4 The reinforcement bars of beam detail There are negative and positive reinforcement bars. -Splices are made simply by lapping the bars at the sufficient distance to transfer stresses.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project.3 Column Columns are the vertical load bearing members of the structural frame which transmits the beam loads down to the foundations.2012 When the beam going to be constructs is an end beam. -hook or bend may not start closer than d/2 from the face of the support. . They are usually constructed in storey heights and therefore the reinforcement should be lapped to provide structural continuity.4 the reinforcement bars arrangement 3. Hook or bend Main reinforcement bars Stirrups· spaces Stirrups Fig 3 2. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. there is bending of the longitudinal reinforcement bars. This is depending on: -hook or bend may not start before the line of a support.

7) Casting concrete: concrete is casted to the constructed forms. 6) Fixing of electrical conduit (if any). mixer. plumb bob. there are trapezoidal and rectangular cross sections of column on the project site.nail and other needed materials. 3) Arranging or positioning of reinforcement bars: the selected longitudinal reinforcement bars are tightening on the stator reinforcement bars.1 The construction procedure of column 1) Detail study: the column detail structure is obtained from the blue print paper. type and surface character of the reinforcement bars of the column going to be constructed.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. 9) Curing: after the form work is removed the outer faces should be covered with wet sack and the curing becomes started until the column gets its strength needed. 5) Construction of form work: the side forms are fixed on kicker by checking its perpendicularity with the horizontal construction under it. quantity. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. 4) Checking the spacing between the reinforcement bars and its verticality with the help of plumb bob. This materials are like the formwork. Then tighten with stirrups and attaching the spacer to it.2012 Depending on their dimensional shapes. The joint columns are separate from each other by use of insertion of cheapod between them. This cheapood helps to prevent the transmission of an accidental crack from one column to the other beside column. And also the characteristic compressive strength of concrete and its volume are the information obtained from the quantity or bill of quantity paper. dimension. 8) Removing of formwork: the constructed forms are dismantled gradually with any attachments of concrete to its internal faces. And also there are isolated and joint columns when they classified up on their relative distances. 2) Preparing of construction materials and working places: the materials used for the construction of the column are first be prepared before the starting of the works. The isolated columns are the column that found on certain separate distance and has its own single foundation. Start or are the bars that left above the column compacted with concrete. . size. This paper gives deeply information like the shape. The casted concrete should be compacted in a uniform depth of not more than 25cm. spaces. But before that the form works should be moisten first. 3. This means that the two joint columns have one foundation.3. electrical conduit (optional). The joint columns were constructed at the position place of where the curve block and the straight block were come to gather.

3.2012 3.2 below Cleats Soldiers Fig 3. The Column form wo Civil and Urban Engineering Dept.2 Reinforcement bars The longitudinal reinforcement bars are tightening with the lateral reinforcement bars or stirrups. .Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. -It prevents the slender longitudinal bars from buckling out ward by bursting the thin concrete cover. In general he main function of this lateral reinforcement bars are: .3. There are different shapes of stirrups that used for the column construction. These diamond shapes stirrups are position by jumping of two rectangular shape stirrups tighten. Column form work This consists of a vertical mould at the desired shape and size which has to retain the wet concrete and resist the initial hydrostatic pressure caused by the wet concrete. For the dimension of the column greater than or equal to 70cm they use an additional diamond shape of stirrups at the internal part of the column. 3. See fig 3. This are depends on the dimension of the column going to be constructed.It hold the longitudinal bars in position in the forms while the concrete is being placed.

From the above three types of masonry the project uses the first one which is the type of the concrete masonry for partitioning of wall. 15x20x40cm and -For partition wall they use. width and depth). -For internal wall they use. These are -for external partition wall they use.e.2012 The base of the column CHAPTER FIVE MASONARY WORKS Masonry is the term used to refer construction using pieces of construction materials made into blocks and stacked together using different binding mechanisms.Allow faster construction because of their size and light weight. 10x20x40cm. There are three types of masonry. . There are three types of HCB depending up on their dimension sizes (i.They are cheaper to produce . Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. .And they allow economical use of mortar. The main reason of the project uses this Hollow Concrete Block masonry is: . length.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. This type of concrete masonry used is Hollow Concrete Block (HCB). These are: i) ii) iii) Concrete masonry Stone masonry Brick masonry. 20x20x40cm. These different sizes of HCB are used for different purposes.

-Blocks shall not leave their place of manufacture before the age of 28 days. Hollow Concrete Block Class Average of 6 blocks 42kg/cm2 35kg/cm2 20kg/cm2 70kg/cm2 Individual block 38kg/cm2 32kg/cm2 18kg/cm2 65kg/cm2 Class A Class B Class C Class AA Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. sand and aggregates. shape.1 The Manufacture and Curing of Hollow Concrete Block Concrete blocks shall be obtained from supplier or may be manufactured at site.2012 5. The contractor shall prepare design trial mix using the above available materials to give the average minimum compressive strength as specified in the compressive strength requirements of this section after casting and curing of 28 days. A minimum of 9 blocks shall be prepared from this mix for testing. -Blocks shall be remaining under shed and wet cured for minimum of 7 days after casting.2 Compressive strength of Hollow Concrete Blocks The following are the minimum compressive strength requirement for blocks at the age of 28 days. And then samples and test results shall be submitted for approval by the engineer before any blocks are delivered or used in the construction works. Then the produced Hollow Concrete Block should be: Uniform in texture. -Produced under shed on suitable smooth floor.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. -The surface characteristics of blocks shall be such that a good key for plastering and render is provided where required. 5. 5.1 Manufacturing of Hollow Concrete Block Hollow Concrete Blocks shall be manufactured from cement. . with sharp arises and free from any cracks or defects.1. The mix proportion of the material components are to be adjusted as required to obtain the required compressive strength. -Only machines of approved design shall be used for the manufacture of blocks.

Load bearing walls are those walls that accept and transmit structural loads to the foundation. o To give Smooth surface in which dust and dirt can not lodge.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. Pointing 6. Whereas non load bearing walls are those which support their own self weight and do not accept any structural loads. ceilings and other building components with thin coat of plastic mortar to form a smooth durable surface.1 Plastering: - - Plastering is the process of covering rough surface of wall. columns. o To give decorative effect o To protect surfaces against vermin Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. objectives of plastering: o To protect the external surface against penetration of rain water and other atmospheric agencies. . CHAPTER SIX Building Finishing: Plastering.2012 Class AAA 50kg/cm2 46kg/cm2 Note: Class AA is for load bearing wall below grade Class AAA is for load bearing wall above grade.

Availability of binding materials. such slaking may even continue for 6 to 8 months. Addition of lime to cement imparts adequate plasticity resulting in smooth plastered surface. A good plaster should be: o easily adhere able to the back ground and remain adhered during all variations in seasons and other atmospheric Conditions o hard & durable o With good workability o possible to apply all weather Condition o Effectively check penetration of moisture. Lime mortar: . 6. finishing requirements and weather conditions.- Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project.Is the best mortar for external plastering work as it is practically non absorbent. Before mixing water.Cement mortar Have both the properties of lime mortar as well as cement mortar. However.Hydraulic lime yields harder and stronger surface . .The lime used for plastering may be either fat lime or hydraulic lime.2012 o To conceal (hide) inferior materials or defective workmanship. and Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. durability. the mortar should be used with 30 minutes of mixing. .The mix proportion (cement: sand) may vary from 1:4 to 1:6 . the plastered surface gets damaged.If un slaked particles remain in such a plaster. well before initial setting takes place. such as random rubble (R.1. . 2. Mix proportions (cement: lime: sand) generally used are: 1:1:6.e. The back ground over which plastering is to be done depend up on the type of wall construction.2 Number of coats of plaster. lime: sand) varies from 1:3 to 1:4 for fat lime and 1:2 for hydraulic lime.much stronger than lime mortar . When water is mixed. Hydraulic lime Contains particles which slake very slowly as it comes in contact with atmospheric moisture. . blisters are formed during the process of slow slaking. 1:1:8 or 1:2:8 6. Thus. brick masonry. Cement mortar: .The mix proportion (i.1.R) masonry.1Types of Mortars for plastering The selection of type of plaster depends up on the following factors. 3 Lime. 1.The sand used for plastering should be clean. fat lime is preferred since it yields good putty after slaking. dry mixing is thoroughly done.

10 to15 mm thick. (a) Three coat plaster. The first coat (under-coat or rendering coat) provide means of Leveling uneven surface. therefore. lime plastering can be applied in three or two coats. Average thickness is 6 to 9mm. If plastering is done in a single coat only. can be applied in one. . The third coat (setting or finishing coat) provider smooth surface and is about 2 to 3 mm thick. The second coat (floating coat) serve as an intermediate coat.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. 1. all masonry joints should be raked to a depth of 10mm in brick masonry 15mm in stone masonry for providing key to the plaster.3 Methods of plastering preparation of back ground: For plastering new surfaces. Generally. 6. Plaster in one coat is applied only for inferior work. All mortar droppings and dust should be removed with the help of stiff wire brush. two. lime plaster is applied in three coats while cement plaster is applied in two coats.2012 cement block work etc. Plastering is. since it causes heavy shrinkage and Consequent cracking. The normal thickness is 12mm. its thickness should lie between 6 and 12mm. The thickness of coats should be such as to cover all inequalities of the surface. i) Application of rendering coat     The mortar is forcibly applied with mason·s trowel and pressed well in to the joints and over the surface. This surface is allowed to slightly harden and then scratched criss -cross with the edge of trowel. Then. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. the surface is allowed to set for at least 7 days. or three coats.1. Lime plaster: After preparing the back ground. Any unevenness is leveled before the first coat is applied Keep the back ground wet before applying the first coat during plastering. Different thickness of plaster is required for different types of back grounds.

.The rendering is kept wet for at least 2 days. The mortar is then thrown with mason·s trowel. the rendering coat is a combination of the rendering and floating coat of the ´ three coat plasterµ and is done under one continuous operation except that the scratching of rendering coat as specified in three coat plaster is not done.2012 (ii) Application of floating coat: The rendering coat is cleaned of all dirt.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. cleaning the surface and well-watering it. spread and rubbed to the required plain surface with wooden float. Cement plaster and Cement-lime plaster: a) Two. b) Three coat plaster: The procedure similar to two-coat plaster except that an intermediate coat known as floating coat is applied.3 Special Materials used in Plastering Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. - 2. . the rendering coat is damped evenly. . and then allowed to dry completely. dust and other loose mortar droppings. Applied immediately after the floating coat.If the surface to be plastered is very uneven. . c) Single-coat plaster Used only in inferior quality work. .Then the first coat or rendering coat of plaster is applied. .1. 6.It is lightly wetted.Before applying the final coat.Coat plaster Backing ground is prepared by racking the joints. (iii) Application of finishing: Consists of cream of lime applied with steel trowel. rubbed and then smooth finished. - b) Two coat plaster: In case of two coat plaster. a preliminary coat is applied to fill up the hollows before the first coat. It provides even surface. The total thickness may be about 12mm Finishing is applied in a manner Similar to three coat plaster. In order to maintain uniform thickness of plaster screed are formed of plaster on wall surface by fixing dots of 15mm size of 2m interval.

3) used in halls. arising out of late slaking of lime particles in the plaster. 1) Acoustic plaster 1) Contains gypsum mixtures applied as final coat in finishing the plastered surface 2) Such coat under goes chemical reaction resulting in production of gas bubbles and consequent formation of tiny openings in the coat.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. It hardens with in 3 to 4 minutes of adding water. auditoriums 2) Barium plaster 1) made from cement. These honey-Combed minute openings absorb sound. fire proofing.2012 Special materials are used in plastering or over the plastered surface to meet some specific requirements of the finished surface. sound insulation etc. and for repairing holes and cracks 4) Others 6.1. 2) Plaster of paris in Combination with lime used for ornamental work. 3) Gypsum plaster (plaster of Paris) 1) Obtained by heating finely ground gypsum heated at 1600 to 1700C. . sand and Barium sulphate 2) Provided in x-ray rooms. 2) Cracking  Formation of cracks or fissures is due to  imperfect back ground  structural defects in building  excessive shrinkage  movements of back ground  faulty workmanship 3) Crazing  It is the whitish crystalline substance which appears on the surface 4) Efflorescence Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. such as to increase durability.4 Defects in plastering 1) Blistering of plastered surface  This is the formation of small patches of plaster swelling out beyond the plastered surface. for better appearance. To extend the setting time suitable retarders are used.

Imparts better appearance to exposed surface. 5) Flaking  Formation of very loose mass of plastered surface.2 METHOD OF POINTING All joints are raked down to a depth of 20mm while the mortar is still soft. Hides defective workmanship. The general challenges of the construction works and its solutions 1) The sliding of the soil of the soil Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. Advantage of pointing.2. Pointing is generally recommended for the finishing of exposed external wall. Removed by dry brushing and washing the surface repeatedly.2.2012 It is the whitish crystalline substance which appears on the surface due to presence of salts in plaster-making materials as well as building materials like bricks. Now mortar is carefully placed in desired shape in these joints with the help of a small trowel. sand. Cement mortar. Lime mortar. 6) peeling  Complete dislocation of some portion of plastered surface. cement: sand (1:3) 6. cement etc and even water. results in patch.  Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. 6. 6.1MORTAR FOR POINTING I. The surface and joints are then cleaned and thoroughly wetted.2 POINTING - The term pointing is applied to the finishing of mortar joints in masonry Pointing consists of raking the joints to a depth of 10 to 20mm and filling it with better quality mortar in desired shape. due o poor bond between successive coats. lime: sand (1:2) II. Protects the joint from adverse effect of atmospheric actions. The mortar is pressed to bring perfect contact between the old interior mortars. .

This makes the problem of reducing the required depth of the trench. But I have seen the problem raised on the column. When the foundation is affected by the saturation of soil it may results the differential settlement of the construction. And also it may fail the contractor in credit. . The sliding of soil occurred due to the remaining of black cotton on the top during the site clearance and also it may come from the staying of trench openly with out applying the desired works with a limiting given time. After the column is casted with concrete and set the stator reinforcement bars left for continues floor become disordered. This may makes the deeply percolation of wastes down to the soil and reaches at the foundation. i. 2) The installation of the sewer line When the installation of sewer line is carried in the excavated trench they simply make the back filling of soil in it immediately after the working is finished with checking of the leakage the sewer at the joint or deflected point of the pipe. This makes the hard problem when they want add the column of the next floor. As Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. the construction was almost stopping its work due to the shortage of the construction materials.e.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. In addition to that making the desired plan before excavating the trench and after the trench is excavated applying the construction on it and finally back filling with a selected material. When the project completed and starts its serves there may be the leakage of sewer at the joint or at any place. the longitudinal reinforcement arranged at the four sided place of the column comes into the center instead of holder at the side. Therefore the trench is back filled with the selected material it is better to check the leakage effects of the pipe with water. 4) The shortage of construction materials Especially at the beginning of the iterance of me at the site. This is the first case to extend the construction period of the project. Therefore it·s better to arrange the reinforcement bars by the skilled Forman. Therefore it is better to clear the sites deeply before any construction project is applied on it. 3) The positioning of the stirrups When the stirrups are positioned on their respective design spaces they should be tighten with the longitudinal reinforcement bars it each joint. And it needs a reclearance of the sliding soil in the trench which results wastage of time and costs.2012 When the trench is excavated for the sanitary works there was the sliding of soil into the open trench.

-To provide a good sanitary environmental condition in a project. The type of sanitary that was on the construction was sewerage works. In doing so the human waste is also carried through the sewers. fly developing or bacteria growing. 1. The formworks were decomposed due to the rain.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. Sewers are provided also to prevent flooding of the city flowing rain fall. -To dispose of all liquids from a community of stadium to a proper place for preventing favorable condition of mosquito breeding. . PART TWO CHAPTER ONE SANITARY WORKS 1. This is mainly related to excrete disposal. The methods of collection adopted are mainly the following two types. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. The aims and objects of sewerage works are described below. The sewage work on this site is provided for disposing of spent up water. Then they replace this form work with the other new form work and the old form work become useless. Therefore the construction materials should be prepared before any construction step is started in order to finish the works on the specified agreementof time and to be kept from the cost credit . or land to get polluted where it is finally disposed of. Introduction Sanitary work is one of the works that were partially constructed and partially on the construction at wollega stadium construction project site.2 SANITATION SYSTEM System of sanitation is classified on the basis of methods of collection and conveyance of waste produced in a community at the project site.To dispose the human excreta to a safe place by a safe and protective means. -proper disposal method should be adopted to protect sub soil water getting polluted. -To treat the sewage if required so as not to endanger the body of water. .2012 I have seen on this project the formwork constructed for the construction of the stepped seats were stayed a minimum of one year due to the lack of the cement and reinforcement bars at the construction site. The purpose of the sanitary work at this site is in order to remove the waste products that will come from different rooms of this project.

this is the one that that wollega stadium project uses for its system of sanitation. The volume of water requirement is comparatively large and the sewage thus produced is carried through properly designed sewerage system. Whereas the sanitary sewage is taken to treatment plant separately and after required treatment it is disposed of. The initial washing from drainage area i. The disposal of sewage is done to a body of natural water or on land generally after doing required treatment. In this system some additional water is required for flushing and collecting human excreta.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. the sewers are designed as sanitary sewer but sufficient excess capacities are provided to carry a part of storm discharge also. As storm water is carried combined system one single set of sewer are laid for carrying liquid wastes from a community.In separate system two separate sets of sewers are laid. These are -combined sewerage system -separate sewerage system and -partially separate system I) Combined system:. and from this dust bins the refuse is collected and carried by trucks or carts to the point of disposal. One set will carry sanitary sewage and the second set will carry storm water. it is not foul in nature and normally disposed to natural water course without treatment. There are three types of sewerages. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. 2) Water carriage system: . III) Partially separate system: . . a part of the storm water is included in the sewer. 1. Both sanitary sewage and storm water is allowed enter the sewerage system for disposal.3 sewerage system Nature of sewers provided for carrying different types of liquid wastes will indicate the sewerage system. This system helps in simplifying the drainage of the this system all sorts f refuse from a community is collected first in a dust bins or garbage vats. II) Separate system: . the excess is diverted to the natural water courses.e.2012 -Dry or conservancy system -Water carriage system 1) Dry or conservancy system:.In this system of sewerage. When the quantity of storm further exceeds the permissible capacity.

used for carrying sewage. Whereas for the storm water carriage they use a ditch constructed from reinforcement concrete in which it work is almost completed when the author reached the project site. .Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project.2012 From those the above three types of sewerage system the wollega stadium project uses the second system which is separate sewerage system. -It should have good hydraulic property i.e. when the author was there.1 Sewer line Sewer is a pipe or conduit. smooth surface. Therefore. -Material should be such that joints can be easily made. this discussion considers the one that were on the construction which is sewer line. stone ware. -Material used should be cheap for economizing the sewerage scheme. The main case of they use this type of plastic pipe is: -it has light weight -It has smooth surface hence hydraulically more efficient. The construction of this storm sewer is almost is almost completed.e. Each may be suitable under different conditions. . plastic materials.It is easy to handle. From all types of these construction materials the plastic pipe is used as sewer for the sanitary work of stadium projects.3.e. In general the pipes should have the following qualities: -It should be durable i. generally closed but normally not flowing full. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. 1. resistant against corrosion and abrasion caused by sewage . The material that can be suitable for sewerage construction are brick.2. -It should be easy to handle i.3. Sewer materials There are various materials used for sewer construction.It should have strength normally to bear external force. A sanitary sewer is one which carries sanitary sewage and excludes as far as possible storm sewage. non ²brittle etc. 1.It has a quick installation helping faster execution and . including surface run off and street wash. cast iron. glass fiber reinforced plastic pipes. In this case they use the plastic pipes which are laid according to the required slope that is still on construction. A storm sewer carries storm water only. light weight. cement concrete both plain and reinforced.

2.2 Construction of sewers The complete design and detail drawings should be available before available before execution the actual construction. drop man holes. the manholes thus help in joining sewer lengths and also help in their inspection. egg shaped. -The nature and type of bedding.1 Man holes Manholes are masonry or reinforced concrete chambers. from this type of shapes the circular one is exist on the this construction project site.3 Shape of sewer There are different shapes of sewer like circular. Besides it gives maximum cross sections area for the amount of materials used in walls. 2. This has its own reasons.2012 1. clean out flushing tanks and the like. These devices include man holes. 2.1 The construction procedure of sewer Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. constructed at suitable intervals along the sewer lines. Circular sewer is the most common and widely used from very small diameter to large section. . it has fairly good hydraulic property. The detail working drawing will indicate -the alignment of sewers -the size of sewers . 2.The position of manholes and other appurtenant structures -The pipe levels and grades at different position. horse shoe type and etc. cleaning and maintenance. for providing access into them. rectangular. If the manhole covers are perforated they may also assist in ventilating the sewers.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. and help in its efficient operation and maintenance. From these let see that were on construction at the project site which is man holes. CHAPTER TWO SEWER APPURTENANCES Sewer appurtenances are those structures which are constructed at suitable intervals along a sewerage system. -The width and depth of trenches.3.

Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. 2) Marking of alignment: the center lines of the sewers are marked on the ground first. (a) Fig 2. Depending on the nature of soil and size of sewer pipes the type of bedding is determine. It becomes easier to establish the sewer pipes by fixing the level of manholes. 3) The alignment and grade control are the most important factors in sewer construction.2012 1) Locate the position of manholes: the position of man holes are located and marked on the ground with the help of detail layout plan.used under heavy external load. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. In such case construction become difficult and arrangement of dewatering has to be done. Normally the trench water is allowed to collect into a sump in the trench and from there it is pumped out. Particularly manholes are important and they are numbered.used in loose soil (c) Encased bedding:.2. the sewer lines are divided into smaller segments between two adjacent man holes.1 (b) (c) (a) Normal bedding : . Then the edge line of the sewer trench etc. .used in firm compacted soil (b) Haunch bedding:. In case of severe water problem the water is brought down below the trench level by well point method. 6) Providing of bedding to make hard surface of uniform and required gradient. 4) Excavation of trench 5) Dewatering of trenches (optional): in water logged areas or in case of deep sewers when the trenches goes below the ground water table trench gets filled up with water by seepage water. are also marked before starting excavation.

This leakage may take place either through joints or through cracks in pipes. What ever method of construction is used the construction sequence will follow the same pattern. i) ii) iii) iv) Assemble and erect form work Prepare and place reinforcement Pour and compact or vibrate concrete Strike and remove form work then curing proceeds. . 1) Improving the practical skills This is the main out come of the benefits of the internship.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project.after sufficient time is allowed for setting the joints and before back filling the excavated trench.after the sewer is laid and tested. The top of trench is finally restored similar to the original road surface CHAPTER THREE THE OVER ALL BENEFITS OF THE INTERN SHIP Intern ship enables students to gain and improve the applying of the theoretical knowledge into the actual working. These are: Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. By this way the proper consolidation of the filling materials is achieved. Back filling of trenches:. Each layer laid should be properly compacted by ramming and watering. The use and the time period of removing form works. I have understood the big difference between referring of any necessary material for the supervision of the applying working is better than that of what I had been reading for the case of passing the class exam or simply for success. 2) Up grading of the theoretical knowledge In this intern ship. the trench is filled up by the excavated materials in layers of 15cm each. That is: -side form work in 9 to 12 hours -soffit form work in 7 to 14 days -props in 15 to 21 days. the sewer is tested against leakage. In addition it helps the student the achievement of the following. In general the following are some of the knowledge I have improved during field practice. The knowledge I gained that related with practical skills is the procedure of constuction works. If the leakage is heavy proper repair has to be done. Pipes should be from defects and cracks.2012 7) Sewer lay: after the bedding has been prepared as detailed above pipes are laid. 8) Testing of sewers:.

Knowing the chain age of process when somebody fails in a problem or criminals and the solution given to him. But those that produced in our country has twisted surface character that were not high as to the foreign . When the trench is excavated it should be back filled with a selected material after three or four days after the desired construction is worked in it.2012 -the identification of the type and shape of reinforcement bars those that are produced in our country and at the foreign country especially in Turkey.e. If the sliding of soil is occurred due to accidental shortage of construction material. tolerate . three or four days). There are different nation and nationalities and the project site. placing cement bags adry or free from moisture area that does not exceed 15 days and etc. And also the case is occurred when the time of back filling of the excavated trench is exceeds its limiting time (i. How to ask the site leader for the need of some information or to share his knowledge. 3) Improving inter personal communication skill. -reading drawing detail from a blue print paper and etc. The one that were produced in foreign country has the most twisted surface character and make high bonds with concrete. unless it makes the sliding of soil into the open trench before the construction is carried in it. construction technology management and hydraulics.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. And also how to communicate with the stranger coming on site for observation or supervision of the site and support him by giving the information they need. I had participate in team working. 4) Improving team playing skill Team works are more power full than individual works. The sliding of soil is take place when there is a lack of actual or deep site clearance of site.respect themselves and their leader to ful fill their own duty works. -why and how the soil sliding is occurred. . And I have learned from them the way of they communicate. The of I said this is when I was at the site. -the placement place of the construction materials:. -the difference between mixing of concrete with warm water and cold water. . On this team works the coordinator of the site order as to do the calculation of the quantity Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. placing and producing concrete block in a shed area.placing of the reinforcement bar at dry places or at the place free from moisture. The warm water react rapidly with cement than cold water. This team work includes different students that came from different university institute with different field of study like civil engineer. supporting the sliding soil faces by form work. This make the remain of black cotton soil on the top.The way of sand is tested at the site.

Office engineer: Office Engineer have the duties of calculating the cost estimation and proposing the project schedule. From these leaders I have learned the responsibilities of each of them. II) III) IV) Consultant Engineer: Approves the each steps of the worked construction through looking those completed. I) Project Manager: Manages all the daily activities carried out on the site and order them by giving the work schedule to each employer according to their field.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. In this we have done on the calculation of super structure. 5) Improving the understanding of work ethics This is how to respect the rule and regulation of company like: -Respecting the working time -Keeping the equipment`s company -knowing the responsibilities and duties of employer -Not to absent from the work with out any problems -Reflecting a basic work habits and etc. .2012 materials for that were constructed and for that on the construction. If the constructed works does not match with the designed drawing he has the authority to dismantle all works. Site Engineer: site engineer applies the design into the actual works through supervision of Forman and survey. And etc. Conclusions Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. 5) Improving leader ship skill There are different leaders on the site starting from the project site manager to the Forman. sanitary and electricity by sharing the idea relate with our field of study to each other and we could finish the works in time given.

then curing proceeds. Recommendations I need to recommend some of the company problems and the constructed project. Whatever method of construction is used the construction sequence will follow the same pattern i) ii) iii) iv) Assemble and erect form work Prepare and place reinforcement Pour and compact or vibrate concrete Strike and remove formwork. from 2008 to 2011). The company should overcome those problem listed above for his future works by strengthen its management system. Internship helps student to upgrade the theoretical knowledge they gained from the class into the actual working. And it extends the plan to the next coming two years to finish the left works ( at the middle of 2014 years). In the case of the following problems.e.2012 Before any construction is carried preparing and testing of the construction materials is the pre condition for any project after the site is investigated and cleared. I) Management The management system of at the higher level of the have some problems like: -Lack of employing labour skilled from different field of study.Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. -shortage of construction materials during the working time of construction that results the broken of works before finishing. -Lack of budgeting budget at the required time -Lack of the supervision of labour force effectively and the like. Therefore Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. But still now the only 72% was constructed due to some problem faced. The sanitary works means the installation of the sewer for the disposal of wastes and finally to treat it. . II) Planning The company planned to finish the works in the past four years (i.

Therefore it is better to learn the two courses before the student go to the intern site for the future generation. It·s better to re arrange the selected materials especially the top black soil to grow fast the planted grass on it. This is by using different layers of selected material with slopes and perforated pipes.2012 the company should improve the methods of his planning for the future by searching the solutions of the past weaken. Civil and Urban Engineering Dept. But we have not learned these two courses. But due to some missing activities the field failed to do so. III) Foot ball field The foot ball field of stadium is design as to possibility of playing foot ball during the rainy season. .Intern Ship Report On Wollega Stadium Project. IV) Intern Ship All Most all construction is carried depending up on the building construction or equipment course and quantity survey or specification course.