Business Administration

Leadership: Past, Present & Future
The Role of Leadership in Business and Management

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Abstract
The fundamental objective of this research paper is to discuss the concept of leadership from both theoretical and practical perspectives. Leadership probably is one of the most essential aspects of business and management. Leadership is a crucial role of managers and it is in this particular area that the actual distinction in performance and efficiency can be made evident. This paper predominantly focuses on discussing the various principles of leadership and how efficient leaders lead their teams. Great leaders of the business history and their leadership styles are provided as evidences in this paper. Later on an analysis the ethical challenges that are faced by leaders and potential solutions for such ethical challenges are provided. In addition to the above, the research also presents the lessons that may be learnt from past leadership and how efficiently they can be implemented in future leadership.

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Contents
Abstract.......................................................................................................................................2 1. Introduction..............................................................................................................................4 1.1 Problem Statement.............................................................................................................9 1.2 Purpose of Research..........................................................................................................9 1.3 Hypotheses........................................................................................................................9 1.4 Scope of the study.............................................................................................................9 2. Research Methodology.........................................................................................................10 2.1 Research Process............................................................................................................10 2.2 Aims and Objectives of the Research...............................................................................11 2.3 Research Design..............................................................................................................12 3. Literature Review...................................................................................................................13 Carlson Ghosn.......................................................................................................................19 Arthur C Martinez...................................................................................................................20 Jacques Nasser.....................................................................................................................20 Jack Welch -...........................................................................................................................20 Giovanni Agnelli.....................................................................................................................24 3.1 Significance.........................................................................................................................44 4. Analysis of Findings...............................................................................................................45 5. Conclusion.............................................................................................................................48 6. Recommendations.................................................................................................................51 7. Appendix................................................................................................................................53 8. Bibliography...........................................................................................................................54 Error: Reference source not found

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All such various dimensions would tend to have impact on the larger workplace behavior. Introduction In today’s swiftly changing business milieu. However. it is very true. In the recent past. It is not a simple task for the organization to keep all the employees contented and enthused. i. the result is dissatisfaction of employees. gained facts and skills as epitomized in the skill set and propensities of people working in the organization. at all times. Human resources can be defined as the sum of the inherent capabilities. outlooks and behaviour. greater frustration. and possess higher job expectations. A manager should spend plenty of time in improving interpersonal relations and motivate the employees to develop their performance quality. Aptitude and ability of employees can be sharpened by training. as extensively accepted.e. human beings 4 . the human resources is its most essential asset (). Employees vary as individuals. Abilities are an expression of the personality traits possessed by an individual. awareness has dawned upon business enterprises that the workforce. motivation and proviso of prospects for education and personal development. It is very imperative for the superior to know the various dimensions that motivate an employee as the modern day employees are more knowledgeable and well-informed. in their requirements. Leadership is as learnable as any other expertise. employees go through more work pressure. Organizations as well have become more multifaceted than what they were earlier. When their requirements are not fulfilled or their objectives are not accomplished. There can be various reasons for an employee being discontented.1. Though this fact may not sound very realistic. and hence require greater managerial skills for efficient management.

Therefore. • Technical skills – An individual’s knowledge and ability to make efficient use of any procedure or system comprises the technical skills. • Human skills – A person’s capability to co-operate with other members of the organization and work effectively in teams is referred to as human skills. encourages dissatisfaction amid employees and impacts organizational productivity and efficiency negatively. in the lack of effective leadership. Even if an organization is conferred with ample resources. the traits can accordingly varied to the necessary skills and abilities. A leader may be characterized as a person who creates a clear vision. leadership skills being the yield of personality traits. Incompetent leadership worsens employee confidence. The people working at the operational and professional levels are obligated to possess certain technical skills.are remarkably good at familiarizing their personality to suit the circumstance. “Failing organizations are usually over-managed and under-led. solving people’s problems and gaining acceptance of other employees. Bennis who is known to be the Chairman of the Leadership Institute that was founded at the University of Southern California. Effective human skills are an 5 . sets objectives. Quite a few theorists have tried to characterize leaders and leadership.()”. Human skills also involve developing positive interpersonal relationships. In the view to Warren G. encourages people and gains their commitment to accomplish the goals and realize the vision. namely. All theorists have the same opinion that leaders persuade people and that leadership entails persuading people to strive towards the desired goals. it will not be able to operate smoothly. Three skills that are primarily used by leaders have been identified.

Communication is one more vital and essential characteristic that a leader needs to possess. This communication is vital for sharing information and synchronizing action(). thoughts and feelings. Participation proves beneficial for the organization in numerous ways.essential requirement at all levels of the organizational hierarchy and especially for people in leadership positions. and additionally improves communication within the organizations(). It also includes an ability to anticipate the future outcomes of his present-day actions from the organizational perspective. Participation is one another important skill that a leader needs to possess. the employees must also 6 . individuals and groups try to exchange ideas. In the lack of channels of proper communication. • Conceptual skills – Conceptual skills refer to the capacity of an individual to evaluate complex situations and to realistically process and understand available information. It improves the motivation levels of the workforce. Communications is important for accomplishing administrative and organizational efficacy. Lack of proper communication results in employees not being aware of what their colleagues are doing and they will also fail to have no idea about what their goals are. and will also not be able to evaluate their performance. leaders will not be able to give directions to their subordinates and consequently management will not obtain the information it needs to design plans and take proper decisions. reduces the attrition and absenteeism rate in the organization. In all organizations. leaders have to define the proper organizational structure and create long-term strategies and goals. Additionally. In order to make sure that there is utmost participation of employees in all the various organizational activities.

As already stated in the above paragraphs. It is rather a value addition to the existing processes or products. and a smaller amount resistance to change. The support of top management is very crucial for the growth of the organization which can be further translated to individual growth. It is very important that organizations emphasize people-oriented values apart from the performance and profitability of the organization. A few less concrete benefits that may result from employee participation are reduction in the number of organizational conflicts. and at the same time they also need to be interested in that particular area of work. The 7 . lower stress levels in the minds of the employees. The resultant increase in self-esteem and job satisfaction of the employees consequently results to better cooperation with colleagues and managers and therefore an overall improvement of organizational performance. it augments their involvement in the task that they undertake. In order to ensure the true participation of employees. Participation directs to development in both the quantity and the quality of the productivity of the organization. Since participation increases the motivation levels of employees. This fact is true with respects to individuals also.have the pertinent capabilities and skills. improved commitment of employees to the accomplishment of goals. innovation is a new idea that is being applied to initiating or improving a change in existing processes. Participation also has numerous other advantages in the form of lessening the attrition rate and absenteeism level amongst the workforce. Innovation is not just making something new and different from the existing processes or products. it is necessary that the organization creates such an ambiance and impression so that the employees are both psychologically and emotionally involved in the organizational activities.

Furthermore. Likewise. Secondly. mission and strategies of the organization are communicated very clearly to the human resources of the organization. to other members of the organization. 3M fosters a culture of innovation in its organization. overcome confrontation if any and ensure that the organization implements their ideas or innovations. Such individuals succeed in obtaining support for their innovation by communicating their vision pertaining to its potency. Structural variables form an important source of innovation. In addition to this. the employees are never forced to adopt traditional methods to achieve the goals of the organization. For instance. in innovative organizations. It is only then that the organization would be able to successfully reach higher heights and progress well(). the organization culture and the support of the management to its employees are the three important sources of innovation in organizations. Idea champs are those people in an organization who are highly enthusiastic in promoting the ideas they have newly developed. In such organizations. support knowledge sharing and design suitable systems for rewarding employees who outperform. the key elements that foster innovation at 3M are its capability to recruit and retain talent. management in innovative organizations trains and develops its workforce to update their talent and acquaintance and encourages them to become idea champs. Instead. experiment with innovative ideas and assume the responsibility for implementing them. construct a challenging atmosphere within the organization. It allows its employees to spend 15% of their working hours on independent projects. the vision. The structure of an organization has got a profound impact on the innovation that is expected to happen sooner or later in the organization. the management encourages its employees to take risks. their confidence 8 .structural variables of an organization. systematize essential support for their ideas within the organization.

the problem is that a lot of modern day organizations forget to focus on effective leadership. 1. The key aspect of any academic study is to deeply acknowledge the objectives of the study. 1. 1. greater amount of attention has to be paid to the issues which are to be correlated to the fundamental aspects. This paper focuses on explaining the drawbacks in modern day leadership and highlights how leaders can succeed and emerge as exemplary leaders in the current day challenging environment. For any dissertation to be meaningful. The objective of this paper is to understand the concept of leadership from various 9 . and valuable solutions will be offered depending on the success of the various researches. a lot of ground works on the contemporary issues and especially when working on the key aspects. team leadership and managerial ethics.and dedication plays a predominant role in persuading others about the potential of the innovation.2 Purpose of Research The main purpose of conducting this research is to get an overall understanding of leadership and at the same time to learn from the past and present mistakes and try implementing the lessons thus learn in future leadership. However.1 Problem Statement Leadership can determine the success or failure of an entire organization.4 Scope of the study A detailed approach to any issue or the topic can help in gaining deeper insights. 1.3 Hypotheses Various problems will be investigated during this project.

Besides choosing the most suitable methodology also depends on the availability of resources among many other variables. there is no one best approach to follow since the choosing process is different to each research as well as the objectives themselves. This research project is basically a well-structured process which has a beginning. 2. intermediate part and the end.dimensions and also to look at the ethical challenges that may be faced by efficient leaders. In today’s world. Research Methodology Any researcher faces the dilemma of choosing the most suitable approach to meet the aim and objectives of a study. Research is generally assumed to be a complicated task which is actually not if the various parts or phases of the research are clearly understood. Therefore this chapter becomes one of the most important chapters. This chapter seeks to discuss and justifies the methodology used in this research. 10 . It moves to explain the most relevant approaches. It starts by describing the research process and its objectives. 2. data collection methods and data analysis to finally select the most suitable methodology for the current research and it finishes by concluding the main points through the chapter. However. research was conducted in relevant areas by reviewing many secondary sources. research designs. In order to meet this particular objective. research is alternatively being termed as logical reasoning()(). A wrong approach may hamper the objectives and significance of the whole study.1 Research Process The purpose of conducting research is to find a suitable solution for a specific and immediate problem that is confronted.

an exhaustive revision of the theoretical and empirical framework within the related review of literature was made(). interpreted and presented in this research. Another step was the research approach and design of the research. Secondly. Apart from this.The problem formulation was the first and the most important step of the research process for this study. as already stated. research evidences of past research and of course the worldwide web. is to look at the aspect of leadership from both theoretical and practical perspectives.2 Aims and Objectives of the Research The fundamental objective of this research study. The data were collected according to the chosen method. This step also influenced the data collection method. This step covers the way in which data were collected to answer the research objectives. the information needs and the sources of information. how the study will be done. The literature review was based on secondary research conducted by reviewing various journal articles. 11 . The problem was defined clearly and specifically. The problem was properly translated into a research topic and the reason why the research was required was also spelt out. as an ill-defined problem may result in an ineffective solution. a prominent CEO of an organization of decent size has been personally interviewed in order to obtain his inputs which are of great help in making this research paper better. This step helped the study by generating and refining the research objectives. books. 2. Finally. The objectives should cover question regarding the purpose of the study. The interview with the results has been given in the later parts of this paper. It is against this background that the above objective has been established. the data were analyzed. A wide research in the field of leadership is conducted and the findings of the same are presented.

It can thus be viewed as a most important tool used as an aid for tackling various problems. Normally the research design is broadly classified into exploratory research.2. there also exists an implicit assumption with regards to research that the ultimate findings of the research should have the actionable quality. Moreover. To be more specific. the user 12 . In a nutshell. Research is a process of collection of data in an organized manner with subsequent recording and analyzing of such data that will help in an effective decision making process. the above definition of research lays emphasis on two important aspects. The design of the research plan determines the tools and techniques that are employed for conducting the research(). Furthermore. A research project is basically a well-structured process which has a beginning. analyzing and interpreting data for optimal decision making. Research can formally defined as the objective and formal process of systematically obtaining. In today’s world.3 Research Design Research is considered to be an effective tool that provides a linkage between the corporate environment and the organization. descriptive research and causal research()(). research is alternatively being termed as logical reasoning(). The most important fact that needs to be borne in mind while conducting research is that the research should not be influenced by individual views and considerations of the person conducting the research. intermediate part and the end. Research is generally assumed to be a complicated task which is actually not if the various parts or phases of the research are clearly understood. They are objectivity and systematic process in data collection and analysis. research is a methodical and purposeful study conducted to obtain solutions for specific problems.

” In his book ‘On Becoming a Leader’. In absence of such actionable quality. Exploratory research helps in the identification of the presence of potential opportunities.of the research data must be able to make use of the results for the purpose of effective decision making. Research Design can be simply defined as the structure followed by the researcher. As the problem is clearly defined in exploratory research. journals. Managers do things right(). Descriptive research is generally conducted after the above research. Literature Review Warren Bennis is a pioneer in leadership who claims that – “Leaders do the right things. magazines etc. The data for this kind of research is obtained from books. 13 . he collects a set of lessons from the varied experiences of 28 dissimilar cases of triumphant leadership. the utility of the research findings would be significantly undermined. Research Design is the important component or key ingredient which holds all the various elements of the entire research(). A design is elaborately explained by using a succinct data which further enables in the summarization of a complex or difficult design structure in an efficient manner. In causal research. A research design consists of various elements 3. It is recommended that the book is surely read by a broad spectrum of people. the quantum or intensity of the problem is identified in descriptive research. since practically every one of us are drawn in the leadership process either as leaders leading a team or as followers or as both leaders and followers. the cause and effect relationships between two variables are analyzed().

It is about a coaching failure in which that author – Warren Bennis personally takes part. the author depicts in a very delicate way that failure is actually a process of learning and is nothing to get annoyed of. 14 . He fails as a coach to mitigate the coaching. To substantiate this opinion. Warren Bennis’ significance is in his research – specifically in his capability to distill from the experiences of triumphant leaders a set of interesting lessons on how to become a successful leader. Interestingly. These lessons are further interspersed in the book with the help of subjective stories and vignettes by the leaders who have actually experienced all those lessons. Form the 28 cases of varied leadership experiences. The author also strongly remarks that courses for leadership will help gain skills but not qualities like vision and character which are highly essential to become a successful leader. In addition to these. He describes the same as a failure of leadership. and occasionally a very remarkable presentation that is very clear and inspiring. His experience was portrayed as the case of “Ed” in the first chapter of the book under the section Surrendering to the Context. The author highlights specifically that the ability to lead and successful leadership can be indefinable and that final success is not assured. he presents his own experience of a failed coaching. persuasive. This format generates a highly realistic. the author also examines the personal characteristics of all the 28 leaders who have been interviewed and the milieu in which they emerged as successful leaders. the author segregates and presents common themes and aspects. The above case is a personal experience of the author that he presents in the first chapter of the book.The author examines varied experiences of 28 different cases of leadership and clearly presents the ‘how’ of leadership.

Warren Bennis deals with the age old question of whether can be successfully trained in leadership skills with a smart and perceptive response. The pace at which things generally happen upsets them. The author strongly believes that if only this sort of considerations to failure would the fruits of such failure are reaped.This case of “Ed” and his leadership failure makes the discussion extremely truthful. individuals who strive continuously to achieve more things in less time. there are also other chapters which discuss the aspect of failure in leadership namely ‘Learning from Adversity’ and ‘Reflection and Resolution’. One of the most significant catalysts is the espousal of life’s prosperous experiences principally the adversities. Passion. Leadership is impossible to be ‘taught’ in a classroom setting. In page 39 of the book. the author lists certain Core Leadership Ingredients. They try to involved themselves in more than one thing at a time and are 15 . talking. They are namely a guiding vision. reflecting on it and carefully investigating it. Trust and Curiosity and daring. The author has provided a wide range of material. One of the most significant messages that the author has conveyed from these chapters of the book is that. According to the author. however it can obviously be ‘developed’ or possibly more precisely ‘realized’. The case demonstrates that leadership capability can be indescribable. which is held by all successful leaders virtually identical with development and progress. They try to be fast in everything they do. The most significant lesson that Warren Bennis extracts from the 28 successful leadership experiences is the fact is the necessity to make mistakes. Integrity. In addition to the above chapter. whether it is eating. according to him ‘embracing’ failure necessarily means abode on it. walking etc. however success is not a guaranteed aspect. even in the face of opposition are believed to be ambitious and achievement-oriented.

The traditional methods of teaching restrain a person’s ability to develop a sense of individuality().always busy and find themselves unable to cope with leisure time. ““The manager administers. listening to others and participation is effective in developing one’s individuality. the leader focuses on people” " The manager relies on control. the leader does the right thing”()” Self-knowledge is another aspect which Bennis highlights in this book. the leader innovates” " The manager copies. According to him. They emphasize numbers and quantity and measure their success in quantitative terms like amount of output produced etc. the leader's eyes are on the horizon” " The manager imitates. The differences between a leader and a manager were very excellently explained by the author in page 45 of the book. the leader inspires trust” " The manager has a short range view. He also believes that innovative learning that comprises of anticipation. the leader has a long range perspective” " The manager asks how and when. leaders are their own people” " The manager does things right. He claims that it is necessary for people to re-evaluate the way they learn things. the leader challenges it” " The manager is the classic good soldier. the leader develops” " The manager focuses on systems and structure. Reinforcement is better approaches for making 16 . the leader is an original” " The manager maintains. the leader originates” " The manager accepts the status quo. The author feels that there is surely a definite difference between a leader and a manger. the leader asks what and why” " The manager has eyes always on the bottom line. The author feels that this difference is similar to the difference between people who master the situation and those who surrender to the same.

Organizations can be designed and managed in numerous ways. It is not just the skill of the person. The behavior of individuals working in an organization is 17 . The vital aspect that is associated with learning is the understanding of individual behavior. they generally share certain common rudiments. an individual who only makes use of his skills to perform the activity without any emotional involvement in it is said to be involved in the activity just for the sake of doing the task. Reinforcement necessarily means ‘to strengthen’. There exists the bureaucratic way which is characterized by innumerable set of rules.individuals learn. regulations and standard operating norms. but his entire self which has to be involved in the activity. Hence reinforcing is considered to be the most vital principle of learning. On the contrary. and it particularly refers to a stimulus which strengthens the probability of a particular response being repeated. innovative learning necessitates the person to be aware of his past and present. For true participation to happen. Though individuals differ in various aspects. it is vital for a person to be both mentally and psychologically involved in the activity. Learning is one such rudiment. The author also feels that participation is a very crucial aspect of innovative learning. The author also portrays the significant role played by organizations in fostering leadership and innovative learning and thinking among their employees. and there also exists the informal management method which on the contrary is characterized by flexibility in rules and norms. In the opinion of the author. The process of learning is the same for all individuals but the variation lies in what they actually learn which further depends on the environment in which they are present. and consequently try and differentiate both and figure out the difference in situations and thereby figure out or anticipate what may possibly happen in the near future and getting prepared for handling the same. A person who is engrossed completely in an activity is said to be involved in the activity with complete ego.

The structural variables of an organization. innovation is a new idea that is being applied to initiating or improving a change in existing processes. the organization culture and the support of the management to its employees are the three important sources of innovation in organizations. in the book ‘Organizational Behavior and Design’. The support of top management is very crucial for the growth of the organization which can be further translated to individual growth. They tend to align their individual behavior with the group to which they belong in the organization. It is rather a value addition to the existing processes or products. Innovation is not just making something new and different from the existing processes or products. It is very important that organizations emphasize people-oriented values apart from the performance and profitability of the organization. They argue that management and leadership are not one and same and leadership is a distinct process that is mastered through experience as the time passes. This fact is true with respects to individuals also. As already stated in the above paragraphs. It is noticed that learning brings about noteworthy changes in the behavior of an individual. Barry Cushway and Derek Lodge present the difference between being a manager and an efficient leader. 18 . Similarly.known as learned behavior. Various theories of leadership are presented in brief in order to give an overview of the theoretical perspective of the concept.

The styles followed by them are also discussed. Then came an overhaul of the product line and the introduction of such winners as the new March subcompact – Japan’s third bestselling model in May – and the Altima Sedan. will realize assets by selling-off its interests on the basis of a cost/benefit analysis. according to Carlos Ghosn – “Financial operations worldwide will be centralized to develop global financial controls and risk management. securities and non-core assets and will adopt an inventory reduction program to decrease by 30 percent its inventory-to-sales level by 2002(). Additionally. which has share holdings in 1. In addition. The first objective: Trim the flab at Nissan by eliminating 21. Nissan will dispose of land. Carlson Ghosn – The Cost Killer: Known as ‘le cost killer’. shed long-time 19 . Arthur C Martinez – The Customers’ King: When he moved from vice-chairman of Saks Fifth Avenue to the top spot at Sears in 1992. The main problem at Nissan was the increased debt burden of the company. cost cutting and debt reduction were the two things that helped Nissan to overcome its bad state and regain its position in the global auto industry.”As already mentioned. closing five factories. Ghosn engineered the turnaround at Nissan with a ‘scrap-and-build’ philosophy. Carlos Ghosn had to take drastic measures with respect to cost cutting and debt reduction in order implement his turnaround strategy and review() Nissan from its perilous situation. winner of the 2002 North American Car of the Year Award (Prasad. Nissan.Here are few examples of some remarkable leaders in the business world.000 jobs. he killed the revered Sears catalo that was losing so much money.394 companies. and demanding 20% savings from suppliers. 2005). he uncovered problems deeply enough to require two complete transformations. To effect change. a name acquired during his days as Chief Operating Officer at Renault. He also closed dozens of unprofitable stores.

Jacques Nasser – Jacques Nasser. If you don’t know this. Such is the charisma this tough but humane Chairman of GE carries about him. 2005). Her passion.Another great leader who has great respects and also has set an example for corporate leaders is Jack Welch. you shouldn’t be playing. Jack Welch acknowledges that his leadership style. but they’ll come closer if they listen carefully to what he has to say” says Warren Buffet. “a way of getting the best out of people. They won’t be able to. The story of Sears has always been a storey of American Retailing (Prasad. One of the earliest things that really created a deep impact on the young Jack Welch was at the end of a hockey game. 20 . former CEO of Ford Motors had successfully led his organization through a massive transformation process cruising through the various factors that resisted change.” As Jack Welch says his mother – Grace Welch was the most influential person in his life. A company spread across 200countries and employing approximately 340.the seventh loss in a row! The statement was made in front of the whole team at the team lockers – “If you don’t know how to lose. “All CEOs want to emulate Jack Welch. Jack Welch created history as the Chairman of General Electric. and love had deep impact on Jack Welch’s life. energy.affiliates like Coldwell Banker and Allstate and oversaw a cautious entry into e-commerce. From a modest post PhD beginning in the 1960s at the lowest end of the ladder the climb to the top was one of great journeys ever witnessed by an individual in the corporate history that was every witnessed. which his team ended losing . 000 employees Jack Welch . The Chairman of Berkshire Hathaway about Jack Welch. you’ll never know how to win. CEO of GE.” he owes it to his mother – Grace Welch.

what he envisaged could be his last day at GE. If the circumstances were genuine and the mistake was totally unintentional it was to accept the mistake. One of the biggest lessons that Jack Welch learnt in his earlier days at GE was that to succeed one had to really take chances and risks – big calculated risks and the company culture permitted him to do just that. monitoring people to ensure compliance and setting how much to stretch a person were among things that Welch learnt at a very tender age from his mother. facing reality.500 per year. He learnt one of his earliest corporate lessons early that year itself – To get out of the pile – winning teams come from differentiation.95 halaracs electric bulb – a product that never 21 .Some of the management skills that Jack Welch is known for . never miss a day of work and ensure that each and every customer – traveler on the train was greeted – these were the things that Hack Welch did practice at his work place too. He had a equally impressive father – a ticket collector on a local train – who with his unique way of work impressed on the young Welch to work hard – very hard. Jack Welch started is work at GE in 1960 with a modest pay of $10.competing hard to win. keeping the motivation levels high in people by alternating between the stick and the glove handling. He was promptly called the next day. Jack Welch actually blew up a factory or at least a good part of it in his fourth year at GE. much to his surprise the entire analysis was so intellectual and bereft of emotion that he came out positively from that experience. remove the weakest and always fight to raise the bar. reward the best. The GE team that came up the $ 10. And this experience taught him a very important lesson – not to push someone down when their chips are down or when they have made a mistake – that does not mean that any one at GE can do anything and get away with it.

Jack Welch himself acknowledges the appraisal. but also hugged!() One of the simplest things that Jack Welch always practiced was to be himself. Who did not fit in to his scheme of things had to go. He did not like them. This was attributed to his youthfulness and immaturity.” This Chairman of GE – one of the most admired CEOs in the world also had his flop sides. Pompous and arrogant people did not have a place on his team. Jack Welch was not the type of manager that one would expect – he did not like to sit down to have one to one canned conversations. Bad hires that did not perform also met with the same fate. was actually very useful in his career. He had developed some habits and he stuck by them throughout his entire stint with GE. which he found much later. He actually encouraged conflict – a controlled type of conflict which he calls as the constructive conflict. For instance he was always in a habit of send a person a handwritten note after a meeting on what was decided in the meeting. even a big swing and miss it.came into the market – was actually rewarded with promotions and increments – in the GE language “it is ok to take swing. He created a very informal but a very strong work environment for people to perform. He had a habit of intolerance with people. the GE head of Human Resources noted that Jack Welch over reacts emotionally that too to criticism and gets too personally involved in the work. During the time when he was being considered for a promotion to head a $400 million business division. He was quick. Jack Welch was known not to hide his feelings or emotions. He was also noted to have the anti-establishment attitude. He says he kicked. People who did not fit into this environment either left the organization themselves or were asked to leave. he was blunt to the point where people actually considered him to be rude. But the way he handled it was that there was never a shock or disappointment the way 22 . But those who delivered took home great bonuses and excellent salaries.

He was one person who was known to ask questions even if they were uncomfortable. Jack Welch was characteristic for his leadership style of lecturing. 23 . questioning and cajoling people to perform and perform at their best. While he did push his people to outperform themselves he also had set clear limits to how much he would push each one of them and also himself. He made sure that people knew it before he actually told them to leave. He had a very strong entrepreneurial vision of balancing the short term and the long term. The questions were aimed to get more clarity for himself and his team members rather than cynical questions. He was clear on what he wanted and went about pursuing it in an unabashed manner. To all this energy and vitality add attention to detail that very many CEOs at his level lack. Jack Welch believed that the human element in an organization was quite crucial for the success of the company. the one and only Jack Welch that history of human kind has ever witnessed. He envisioned that to be a winner an organization not only had to be no.() Jack Welch’s style has always been hands on performance. Also in the modern day management parlance referred to balancing the operational excellence and strategic excellence. Possibly this was one of the first and the best things that he did in his first address to the Wall Street as the Chairman of GE. Then you have Jack Welch. with atmosphere that would encourage them to see things as they are and deal with the way it is and not the way it ought to be. Welch spoke of the need to permeate every mind at GE with attitude.he handled things. He was always known to question – not be anti-establishment but to be sure of what he was getting into.2 in the business but also be in touch with the intangible soft values. Jack Welch is known to motivate the entire GE team by the sheer force of his personality and unbridled passion for winning the game of business. 1 or no.

These competencies in turn help the firm identify its cost or differentiation advantages and ultimately create value for the customers (). Fiat’s era of prosperity can be largely attributed to the growth of the mass car market in Italy during the 1950s(). as widely accepted. After the death of Giovanni Agnelli. 24 . The resources of an organization along with its skills create unique competencies. employee skills and efficiencies (). FIAT was able to offer many vehicles at affordable prices through FIAT Auto. technological know-how. It is not sufficient if a company hires brilliant people of a particular technology. all it may need is a change in leadership style rather than a change in the leadership. But sometimes. human beings are exceptionally good at adapting their personality to suit the occasion. It was as a result of his leadership and innovative strategies. patents and trademarks. The resources of the organization include its brand value. The skills include its service quality. This does not simply mean that the company has gained core competence. Most often a turnaround situation may demand an outsider to lead the company out of the mess. The ability to integrate and co-ordinate the various groups of the organization is the main aim of core competency of the leader. He strengthened the production system of the group’s automobile division. and the goodwill of the firm in the market. Vittorio Valletta who was a close associate of the later and also a key executive of FIAT Auto became the chairman of the group.The Italian automotive giant FIAT was started and grew gradually under the leadership of Giovanni Agnelli. It was under his leadership that the group entered an era of prosperity. Leadership is as learnable as any other skill.Giovanni Agnelli. one of the members of the Agnelli family. Right kind of leadership makes the difference. the traits can be varied to the required skills(). leadership skills being the output of personality traits. Skills are a manifestation of the personality traits of a person. But. So.

A leader may be defined as a person who establishes vision. employees undergo more stress. human resources are its most important asset ().e. Human resources is the sum of the innate capabilities. Lately. acquired facts and skills as exemplified in the skill set and aptitudes of people in the organization. the firm is said to have gained core competence. and have higher job expectations. Organizations too have become more complex than what they were earlier. realization has dawned upon organizations that employees. Talent and skill of employees can be honed by training. A manager who acts as a leader should spend ample time in improving interpersonal relations and direct the employees to improve their quality of performance. sets goal. In today’s rapidly changing business environment. i. Three skills that are primarily used by leaders have been identified. All theorists do agree that leaders influence people and that leadership involves influencing people to work toward desired goals(). These factors may affect their performance.It is only when there is effective coordination among all the groups involved in developing a particular product and bringing it into the market. Several theorists have attempted to define leaders and leadership. motivation and provision of opportunities for education and personal development. motivates people and obtains their commitment to achieve the goals and realize the vision. and so require greater managerial skills for effective management. 25 . namely. greater frustration. It is very important for the superior to know the factors that motivate an employee since the present day employees are more educated and more demanding.

There are predominantly three very important theories of leadership that attempt to describe leadership. Further.• Technical skills – A person’s knowledge and ability to make effective use of any process or technique constitutes the technical skills. The employees at operational and professional levels are required to have certain technical skills. there are numerous theories that attempt to explain the qualities required by an individual in order to be an efficient leader. solving people’s problems and gaining acceptance of other employees. However. Effective human skills are an essential requirement at all levels of the organizational hierarchy and especially for people in leadership positions. Leadership Theories – As already mentioned above. it is pertinent to be noted that not all the various theories that exist about leadership are in agreement with each other and hence this tend to result in confusion(). & 26 . • Conceptual skills – Conceptual skills refer to the ability of an individual to analyze complex situations and to rationally process and interpret available information. It also encompasses an ability to foresee the future consequences of his present-day actions from the organizational point of view. Human skills also involve developing positive interpersonal relationships. • Human skills – An individual’s ability to co-operate with other members of the organization and work effectively in teams is referred to as human skills. They arePersonality Trait theories. Behavior Theories. managers have to define proper organizational structure and establish long-term plans and goals.

The researchers also suggested leaders possessed some personality traits that are unique and essential for efficient leadership.Contingency Theories According to the trait theory of leadership. or possibly possess to a very minimal extent. leadership traits can be acquired with the help of training and experience. The behavioral leadership theories tend to explain the behavioral aspects of leaders. famous personalities in history like Napoleon and Alexander were natural leaders and would have become leaders even if they were made to face situations which were different from what they actually were confronted with. One famous trait theory is the “great person” theory of leadership. they were however very severely criticized for the reason that those theories were not supported by valid evidence and they had oversimplified assumptions regarding the conceptual framework of leadership. It was believed that there was something unique about a person which enabled him to emerge as a leader. 27 . For instance. According to this particular theory. Trait Theories Initial research into the field of leadership concentrated on leaders’ traits. leaders tend to possess certain personality traits that non-leaders do not have at all. Early researchers studied the personality characteristics that make an individual a leader and concluded that leaders are born and are not made(). Although both the above mentioned theories tried to explain leadership in a very simple manner. Further research into this field resulted in the development of contingency theories which tried to overcome the inadequacies of the above mentioned two theories and also eliminated the contradictions involved in them.

Research aimed at identifying universal traits which are applicable to all leaders has not resulted in crucial results. Application of trait theory to organizational leadership yielded even more puzzling results. and job-relevant knowledge(). modern researchers have now started to highlight on multiple intelligences of leaders rather than trying to segregate a single most important characteristic leading to their success. Researchers were not able to support the theory with the traits as noticed in successful leaders. high levels of energy. honesty. self-confidence. Research to recognize the physical traits associated with leadership was also likewise unsuccessful. 28 . The only common trait identified among all leaders was intelligence. Actually. stronger and even brighter than their leaders. they have little logical or prognostic value. some researchers also found that many followers are taller. integrity.They may not be inborn. “Some general characteristics found in leaders are ambition. Hence. For example. graciousness. some researchers who studied the emotional intelligence of leaders have suggested that empathy. their emphasis has changed from personality traits to job related skills. Contrary to the former view that leaders are born with certain unique qualities. optimism and ability to read non-verbal cues in a social setup are important characteristics of successful leaders. Although some researchers still clinch to the trait theory of leadership. trait approaches only give a portrayal of leaders. this theory led to a more pragmatic approach to leadership because it believed that leaders might not be born with the desired traits. desired to lead. intelligences. who believed that leadership traits can possibly be acquired through learning and experience. The ‘great person theory’ was perhaps the outcome of the influence of the behavioral psychologists.” Nonetheless.

29 . Even as personality theorists have the same opinion that human personality development takes place in different stages of physiological and psychological development. paying particular attention to successful leaders. Several of them disagree that there are no precise stages with respect to individual personality development process and consider that personality development is an incessant process and that the level of development is based mainly on the available opportunities of learning opportunities. They attempted to recognize the behaviors that were unique to leaders. the University of Michigan Studies. According to the researchers and psychologists of behavioral research. “This was quite hard. and which distinguished them from non-leaders or non-performers. surroundings. they vary in the opinion about the precise stages and the kind of development that takes place at each and every stage. the Managerial Grid and the Scandinavian studies. All of these four studies sought to identify the specific behaviors demonstrated by effective leaders. as it involved finding out answers to questions such as – “If most of the leaders they study are found to be autocratic. would it mean that this kind of behavior is a characteristic of all successful leaders?()” The four important theories that fall into the above category are the Ohio State Studies. the personality development of an individual is influenced by a variety of factors such as inheritance. researchers shifted their focus to the behavioral aspects of leadership. and distant from the follower.Behavioral Theories As the trait theories did not successfully establish the connection between traits and effective leadership. maturation and knowledge.

they somehow failed to take into account the situational aspect and the various situational factors that influenced the success or failure of leaders to a large extent. Production-oriented leaders attain low levels of job satisfaction and group productivity. All the above studies also concluded that development-oriented leaders are more competent than leaders who fail to have this particular dimension in their approach and style. Conversely. the researches of this particular study also found that some exceptional situations in which the above type of leadership may not even be successful().The outcomes of all the above mentioned four studies were almost similar. Similarly the managerial grid and Scandinavian studies resulted in the evolution of a new dimension of behavioral leadership named the development-oriented behavior. The researchers and psychologists concluded that leaders who are more employeeoriented achieve higher levels of job satisfaction and increased levels of group productivity. This 30 . leaders who possessed the above dimension tend to constantly experiment with new ideas and practices and embrace change and this new dimension is believed to be the most important aspect of modern day effective leaders. According to these researchers. This is because the researchers found out that people who scored high on both dimensions of initiating structure and consideration were able to attain higher levels of performance and job satisfaction compared to those individuals who scored low on either one of the above stated dimensions or even both of them. The Ohio State studies resulted in the conclusion that a “high-high” type of leadership resulted in obtaining best performance results. Though the above theories were successful in explaining leadership in terms of behavior and also successfully established a relationship between behavior of leaders and the performance of their subordinates.

leadership requirements depend on the situation facing the leader. The favourability or unfavourability of a particular situation to a leader is analyzed based on the following parameters: Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership – Pictorial representation 31 . According to this model. Their model was an extension of some of the existing theories relating to task and employee orientation. The theories also suggest that a leader should carefully analyze the nature of the situation before deciding on the appropriate style of leadership to be adopted. Contingency Theories The contingency theory postulates that leaders have to change their style depending on the situation they face. and the choice of the most appropriate style of leadership depends on whether the overall situation is favourable or unfavourable to the leader. The five Contingency theories are discussed below: Fiedler’s contingency model One of the earliest models of contingency leadership was developed by Fred Fiedler and his associates.ultimately led to the emergence of yet another leadership theory – the Contingency theory of leadership.

The above can be further explained as follows: According to Fiedler. they must adapt their style of leadership to suit the situation. Fiedler’s model suggests that managers must examine the situation in which they operate in terms of people. degree of task structure and the leader’s position are high. a situation is considered to be favourable to the leader if the scores on all the three dimensions namely. 32 . Fiedler proposed that a task-oriented. If this is not possible.leader-member relationships. and organization. task. they must at least attempt to change the elements of job to suit their style. tough-natured leadership style is most effective in highly favourable or highly unfavourable situations and a people-oriented. lenient type of leadership style is most appropriate in moderately favourable or unfavourable situations().

Degree of task structure This refers to the degree to which the task on hand can be performed efficiently by following a particular method. The LPC scale requires leaders to think of all the persons with whom they would have worked. If a leader has friction with majority of his subordinates. and then requires them to describe the one person with they would have worked the least well with. leader are asked to describe this person on a series of bipolar scales such as those shown below: Unfriendly 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Friendly Uncooperative 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cooperative Hostile 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Supportive Guarded 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Open 33 . From a scale of 1 through 8. For instance. The leader’s position It refers to the power or formal authority that the leader is bestowed within the organization.Leader. That particular individual may be someone from the past or somebody with whom the leader is currently working with. then he scores low on this dimension.member relationship This indicates the extent to which a leader is accepted by his subordinates. a leader has more power if he is in a position to decide the rewards and incentives for his followers.

A situation is considered to be favourable to the leader if the scores on all the three dimensions are high. If this is not possible. The ability of an employee to carry out a particular task and the extent to which he is motivated to perform the task constitutes the maturity of an individual. Fiedler’s model suggests that managers must examine the situation in which they operate in terms of people. Blanchard and Hersey characterised leadership style in terms of the amount of direction and of support that the leader gives to his or her followers. and organization. they must attempt to change the elements of job to suit their style. and so created a simple grid: 34 . Feidler proposed that a task – oriented. they must adapt their style of leadership to suit the situation. the maturity level of the subordinate plays a major role in influencing the leadership style of the superior. lenient type of leadership style is most appropriate in moderately favourable situations. Hersey and Blanchard’s situational theory According to the situational leadership or ‘Life – Cycle’ model developed by Hersey and Blanchard. task. it is felt that leaders have to adopt different leadership styles to deal with different subordinates. According to this model of situational leadership. tough natured leadership style is most effective in highly favourable or highly unfavourable situations and a people – oriented.

However the leader eases the process of decisions. Directing (Telling) . to the subordinates. the control remains with the subordinate.1. Delegating – Though Leaders are still involved in decision making and problem-solving. 2. 4. 3. 35 .Leaders dictate day-to-day decisions like task allocation and processes.Leaders define the roles and tasks of the 'follower'. but seeks ideas and suggestions from the follower.Leaders still define roles and tasks. and supervise them closely. Coaching (Selling) . but control is with the subordinate. They make decision are the same are announced by them and this type of communication turns out to be predominantly one-way communication. Decisions remain the leader's right. Supporting (Participating) . however communication is probably twoway.

leaders establish a special relationship with a small group of subordinates.” Also. This observation led to the development of the Leader – Member Exchange (LMX) Theory of leadership.5. Leader – Member Exchange Theory 6. interact with them frequently and offer them special privileges. research has indicated that generally. 8. subordinates is referred to as the in – group while the rest are referred to as the out – group. The other factors that form the basis of selection into the in – group include a higher level of competence than the out – group members and extroversion. give them more attention. The strength of the Hersey Blanchard model lies in its simplicity and intuitive appeal. Although the theory does not explain the basis on which a leader chooses his in – group members. who belong to in – groups. This usually happens due to the time “This small group of constraint the leader faces in interacting with all his subordinates. The out – group people get less of the leaders’ time and attention(). Moreover. But George Green and his associates observed that leaders often act very differently towards different subordinates. the interaction between the leader and the out – group people are less frequent and purely formal. The LMX theory suggests that the in – group people receive high performance ratings and thus obtain rewards and 36 . leaders favour the people who have attitudes and personality characteristics that are similar to their own. According to the LMX theory. the model emphasizes on an individual’s capabilities and willingness to undertake a specific task. The leaders trust the subordinates. and tend to select such people as in – group members. usually early in their interaction. Most of the traditional theories of leadership assume that leaders treat all subordinates alike. 7.

congruence of their goals with that of the organization. leaders have to adjust their behaviour depending on the situation. and nature of problem structure i. Initially.promotions quickly. 37 . The twelve problem attributes can be broadly classified into two classes – decision – quality and employee – acceptance. Employee – acceptance can have dimensions like need for commitment. their prior approval. In the year 1973.e. Problem Attributes 11. According to the model. the leader should assess a situation in terms of its problem attributes. The leadership – participation model proposed by Vroom and Yetton is normative in that it provides a sequential set of rules that can be followed fro ascertaining the type and amount of participation required in decision making in different situations. and conflict among the employees. Leadership – participation model 9. the model consisted of a decision tree with seven contingencies and five alternative leadership styles. according to Vroom and Yetton. 10. Different situations demand different activities – routine and non – routine – to be carried out by leaders and thus. Later Vroom worked with another academician. Victor Vroom and Philip Yetton conducted extensive research on leadership behaviour to establish the relationship between leadership behaviour and decision making style. Decision – quality dimensions include cost considerations. structured or unstructured. there is greater satisfaction with the leader and lower turnover among the in – group members when compared to the out – group members. As a result. Arthur Jago and came up with a revised model. The new model included twelve contingencies instead of seven as in the original mode which are also called problem attributes. information availability.

The leadership – participation model is based on three important assumptions which are yet to be proved: Leaders can precisely classify problems by following the decision tree format. It borrows some important elements from the Ohio State Studies and the expectancy theory of motivation. According to the path – goal theory. 14. Thus. employees accept the leader’s classification of the situation and changing his leadership style from situation to situation. Other factors considered in the model are level of subordinate information. the behaviour of a leader is acceptable to subordinates as long as: • The subordinates find that the satisfaction of their needs such as promotion and rewards depends on their effective performance. Path – goal theory The path – goal theory is a contingency model of leadership developed by Robert House. time constraints. and. leaders are willing to and capable of adapting their styles to suit the situation. Further. the leader should provide required support and guidance to his followers and help them achieve organizational goals. according to the path – goal theory.12. and 38 . if the problems are analyzed using the above format. Even complex and apparently unique problems can be identified and categorized into known classes. He should establish individual or group goals for employees that are compatible with the broad organizational goals. he also removes any obstructions that come in the way of employee achieving these goals. 13. geographical distance between subordinates. the leader defines the path to achieve goals. leader’s motivation to conserve time. the leader’s motivation to develop subordinates. finally.

They are provided with guidance, support and rewards that are needed are effective performance.

Robert House suggested four types of leadership with the help of the path – goal theory. They are:
1. Directive Leadership – The leader clearly tells his subordinate what is expected

from them, gives them work schedules and instructs them on ‘how’ to do the task. This is similar to the initiating structure defined in the Ohio State Studies.
2. Supportive Leadership – The leader tries to focus and be attentive to the needs

and problems of his subordinates. This is similar to the consideration dimension identified in the Ohio State Studies.
3. Participative Leadership – The leader discusses and takes into account the

suggestion and comments made by his subordinates before making a decision.
4. Achievement – oriented Leadership – The leader attempts to develop his

subordinates by giving them challenging tasks and higher responsibilities, and encouraging them perform at their best. The path – goal theory suggests that the leader’s behaviour depends on two contingency variables – environmental factors like the formal authority system or the nature of task, and personal characteristics of the subordinates like experience, capabilities and locus of control. Job satisfaction and employee performance are likely to be influenced positively when the leader compensates for things lacking in the work – environment or in the employee.

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Contrary to the Fiedler’s Contingency Model of Leadership which states that a particular leader consistently exhibits a particular behaviour which does not change over time or with the situation, Robert House assumes that a leader behaves in a flexible manner. He suggests that a leader can exhibit any of the above types of behaviours depending on the situation. Also, this theory suggests that the leader’s behaviour depends on two contingency variables namely the environmental factors like the formal system of authority or the nature of the task, and secondly the personal characteristics of the subordinates like experience, capabilities and locus of control etc. Job satisfaction and employee performance are likely to be influenced positively when the leader compensates for things lacking in the work environment or in the employee. House also proposes that the leader’s behaviour will be ineffective if it is not consistent with the environment and subordinate’s characteristics. Communication is one more important and crucial feature that a leader needs to possess. In all organizations, individuals and groups attempt to exchange ideas, feelings and emotions. This communication is essential for sharing information and coordinating action(). Communications is essential for achieving managerial and organizational effectiveness. Without communication, employees will not be aware of what their co-workers are doing, will not have any idea about what their goals are, and will not be able to assess their performance. In the absence of channels of communication, supervisors will not be able to give instructions to their subordinates and management will not receive the information it requires to develop plans and take decisions. In all organizations, individuals and groups attempt to exchange ideas, feelings and emotions. This communication is essential for sharing information and coordinating action. Communications is essential for achieving managerial and organizational effectiveness. Without 40

communication, employees will not be aware of what their co-workers are doing, will not have any idea about what their goals are, and will not be able to assess their performance. In the absence of channels of communication, supervisors will not be able to give instructions to their subordinates and management will not receive the information it requires to develop plans and take decisions. In other words, the basic management functions of planning, organizing, directing and controlling cannot be carried out without communication. Participation is one another crucial skill that a leader needs to possess. Participation proves advantageous for the organization in many ways. It improves the quality and quantity of output. It also improves the motivation levels of employees, decreases the rate of attrition and absenteeism, and improves communication within the organizations(). In order to ensure the maximum participation of employees in all the activities of the organization, the employees must also have the relevant abilities and skills, and should be interested in that particular area of work. Participation, according to Warren Bennis, motivates people to contribute their ideas and creative suggestions. In a participative environment, people try to use their capabilities and creativity to accomplish the goals. Participation is also believed to enhance the motivation levels of an individual by offering them the opportunities to offer their opinions and suggestions for the accomplishment of the organizational goals and in the process giving them the direction to accomplish their own individual goals. Hence, the contribution aspect of participation offers individual a path to accomplish their goals. However it is very pertinent to note that, participation is a social process wherein individuals are actually involved with their profession and attempt to make the same a successful affair.

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only if strong leadership is established. but it is not always the case. The clarification that he gave for such an answer is that Situations can create leaders. but will never emerge as a leader. Thomas replied in a very skeptical manner. Some people can learn the theory their whole life. Another important aspect that Mr. Mr. participation is believed to help in constructing a spirit of cooperation and enthusiasm to accept responsibility in the minds of individuals working in a group or organization. Mr. Thomas Graf feels that the same is not easy. Inc. CEO of Century Casinos. Thomas clarified was if good leaders are always good managers. Therefore.). He feels that Good leaders might have a vision and know how to motivate and influence people. However. He said both Yes and No as his answers. Participation makes individuals very good group members. 42 . Thomas Graf.An interview that has been conducted with Mr. When asked if leaders are a creation of situations and circumstances. Once individuals start taking responsibilities. an opinion that matches with the views of Warren Bennis. Some people are meant to be leaders and if they are confronted with certain situations they can emerge as leaders. time and the willingness to learn and evolve must be taken into consideration. but at the same time they could also lack managerial skills (organizational control etc. It persuades them to happily acknowledge their responsibilities in the activities of the group. they tend to display greater amounts of interest in performing their duties and usually find a path to accomplish their task in a successful manner. also yielded very useful information regarding leadership. The interviewee told me from his experience that he tries to motivate his employees on a daily basis and tries that they ultimately keep the organizations goals in mind. He feels that in order to learn leadership skills from the get go a lot of passion. According to him. Make them feel like they belong to something bigger. Even he feels that leadership is a learnable skill. employees will follow and help building strong business organizations.

They gain the respect and trust of their followers. Servant leadership model is one among the various transformational leadership models. Most often a turnaround situation may demand an outsider to lead the company out of the mess. Their main focus is on the individuals whom they actually lead. They appreciate and encourage rationality and careful problem solving among their followers. Greenleaf. all it may need is a change in leadership style rather than a change in the leadership(). Transformational leaders are good at expressing complicated goals and objectives in simple terms. 43 . Servant leadership is one of the most popular models of leadership that has gained popularity in the recent past. leaders are defined as individuals “who serve the people he/she leads which implies that they are an end in themselves rather than a means to an organizational purpose or bottom line().” Servant leaders tend to devote themselves to serve the organizational needs. Servant leaders’ exhibit excellent listening skills and they also build a feeling of oneness. As already stated above. But sometimes. Transformational leaders are believed to have a vision which they are able to clearly communicate to others. They are also inclined towards inspiring their followers by communicating to them the high expectations the organization has of them and assure them of their capacity to meet those expectations.Right kind of leadership makes the difference. They may even use non-verbal communication to communicate with their subordinates. They motivate their team members excellently and try to bring out the best out of every individual team member. According to this model. This model was developed in the year 1970 by Robert K. They establish a mission for their followers and make them take pride in working towards that mission(). They train all the other members and encourage them to express their inner self and also strive to facilitate personal growth in every team member.

Confidence and trust along with cooperative nature of the teams are supposedly the key components of efficient organizations. with leadership coming from many people in many places. 44 .Servant leaders are believed to be efficient because the needs of all the followers are taken such good care that they tend to reach their complete potential. by their very nature. 3.1 Significance In the world of modern day organizations. diverting out attention away from building institutions that. this would in turn help in building trust and cooperation in organizations. The major strength of this kind of leadership is that it forces people away from self-serving. value and encourage people who report to them(). In order to remain effective. continually adapt and reinvent themselves. “this idealization of great leadership leads to an endless search for heroic figures who can come in to rescue the rest of the world from recalcitrant. the leader needs to be an individual who posses excellent character and integrity and needs to have a pertinent zeal and commitment to lead people through serving them. Leaders tend to earn influence by maintaining compliance with the legitimate needs of an individual. dominant leadership and makes those in charge imagine more about how to revere. not just from the top? The significance of this study lies in finding out an answer to the above question. thus perform at their finest.” But might this very thinking be a key reason how such institutions prevail? Might not the continual search for the hero-leader be a critical factor in itself. non-competitive institutions().

personal and unique ways of experiencing situations.4. Servant leaders also tend to possess balanced objectivity or subjectivity. Both these characteristics have their own disadvantages when not balanced properly in a profession. These are actually opposite end of the continuum. then there is a possibility that he becomes too involved emotionally with the problems of the other person and this may not allow him to help them properly. Analysis of Findings The following are the major characteristics or qualities that are to be possessed by an individual in order for him to become a servant leader. • • Listen to all aspects that are uttered and also expressed and not said Empowerment is very essential through which other members of the group are given opportunities • Positive attitude is very essential in order to influence people positively as it contagious and reflects one’s self • • • • Escalate issues in order to quickly solve the problems Better results can be obtained through resolution Honest feedback gathering will help build trust Serving by way of leading gives an individual the ability to influence people Apart from the above mentioned aspects. making an objective assessment of situations. certain other characteristics like effective communication. the ability to call a spade a spade and communicating this reality to the team members opposite in a way to empower them in their current situation and give feedback effectively are also the traits of servant leaders. If the servant leader is too subjective in his approach to group members. 45 . This refers to private.

For managers. The reason behind highlighting one specific model of leadership. In order for organizations to effectively meet these challenges. “Decision-making describes the process by which a course of action is selected as the way to deal with a specific problem(). making decisions about cost cutting in the organization by five percent represents a problem. managers require support from individual employees and their work groups who often defy change. an indepth study of the behavior of individuals within workgroups. For example. Effective Decision-making is yet another important aspect that is to be possessed by every successful leader.Now. if the servant leader is too objective in his approach or relationship with the team members. This in turn would lead to a great difficulty in communication and cause resentment. global competition and prominence on total quality management are the challenges confronting modern organizations. strategic affiliation. The manager also needs to make decisions when there is an 46 .” People at all levels in an organization are constantly making decisions and solving problems. So. then there is a possibility of the servant leader being viewed by the client as uncaring and uninterested in the well-being of the other person. the decision-making and problem-solving tasks are particularly important aspects of their jobs().servant leadership model is that most of the turnaround artists about whom discussions were presented in the earlier parts of the paper fall into this category. Increasing miscellany. for an effective management of organizations. including an analysis of the nature of workgroups is required. it is usually the manager who has to confront it and decide what action to take. Managers make decisions which deal with a specific problem and also an opportunity simultaneously. knowledge and information explosion. Which employee should be assigned a particular task? How profits should be invested? Whether the problem is large or small.

systematize essential support for their ideas within the organization. It allows its employees to spend 15% of their working hours on independent projects. mission and strategies of the organization are communicated very clearly to the human resources of the organization. In addition to this. experiment with innovative ideas and assume the responsibility for implementing them.opportunity which is readily available for exploitation. the key elements that foster innovation at 3M are its capability to recruit and retain talent. 3M fosters a culture of innovation in its organization. the employees are never forced to adopt traditional methods to achieve the goals of the organization. 47 . Likewise. overcome confrontation if any and ensure that the organization implements their ideas or innovations. if the organization has excess funds. management in innovative organizations trains and develops its workforce to update their talent and acquaintance and encourages them to become idea champs. Secondly. in innovative organizations. It is only then that the organization would be able to successfully reach higher heights and progress well(). The structure of an organization has got a profound impact on the innovation that is expected to happen sooner or later in the organization. support knowledge sharing and design suitable systems for rewarding employees who outperform. construct a challenging atmosphere within the organization. In such organizations. or to spread out into new markets. Idea champs are those people in an organization who are highly enthusiastic in promoting the ideas they have newly developed. Structural variables form an important source of innovation. For instance. the manager needs to decide whether they should be used to boost shareholder dividends. the vision. innovation is also a very important aspect in the study of leadership. Instead. reinvested in existing operations. the management encourages its employees to take risks. Apart from the above. For instance.

their confidence and dedication plays a predominant role in persuading others about the potential of the innovation. However it is pertinent to recollect the fact that economies were primarily agrarian and electronics were nonexistent. Furthermore. Conclusion In the era bygone. leadership was restricted to very few concepts and situations. The safety and security was of the paramount concern and the one who was able to provide this became the choice of mates as well as great leaders. The few areas that really needed leadership historically were either leading a war or limited to providing leadership to the kingdoms and religious institutions.Such individuals succeed in obtaining support for their innovation by communicating their vision pertaining to its potency. the leadership in thoughts that was trying to control or in the least influence the way the physical might acted – this was the era of brahminical superiority in or similar ones in the Asian context and the era of religious superiority in the European and African Contexts. Like the great kings of various kingdoms across the civilized world and institutions like the church. As the complexity of human society increased and the thinking patterns diversified in human beings along with technological innovations there was another kind of leadership that began to emerge. This ultimately translated to physical prowess one way or the other or ultimately it led to controlling the physical superiority. There was extremely limited thought leadership involving higher levels of human intellect. space or numbers. Physical superiority meant either in terms of being larger in size. to other members of the organization. This kind of arm chair leadership that inherently tried to play a role in managing / controlling the thinking as well as the actions of the kings and the powers that were. 5. 48 .

The leadership 49 . The leaders who are really making an impact on the global directions are either the political leaders or the business leaders. Technological changes and improvements along with rapidly accelerating technological developments led to creation of a different kind of leadership – the mental and intellectual prowess. but what really matters is the economic superiority called for a new set of leaders to be created. This situation calls for leaders who can clearly and quickly create economic superiority either for themselves. As the industrial economy has transformed to service economy to information economy to knowledge economy to skill economy the faces of the leaders is also changing. This along with the realization that physical prowess is more or less not really important. the development of technology and scientific applications began to accelerate and accelerate rapidly. This led to various kinds of harassment and negative situations in the society that led to the kings / powers realizing that they were in the clutches of the religious minority. their organizations or their countries. Alternatively the oppressed class also realized that they were actually being exploited. Slowly the face of leadership has changed. This is more or less true across all the countries globally. This generic negative situation led to alternate leadership mechanisms being evolved in the society in general.Over a period of time what started off as a benevolent situation turned malicious and even perverted. The systems of kings and monarchs have disappeared or have been relegated into the background to be of ceremonial importance. This led to creation of various gadgets that began to ease the life of people and started creating a middle class – a new layer in the society. In addition to the changes in the social fabric and systems.

The recent episodes of financial failures of large corporations in the United States that led to a global economic crisis is an ample example of economic perversion – the single minded devotion to create wealth for self over the interests of the society. In line with the changing demands of the business situations today. This kind of perversion comes into play and plays havoc with global balance when human shortsightedness and greed overtakes the need for maintaining a health welfare outlook for the human race in general. 50 . What matters today is the ability of a leader to be able to grasp a current or future business situation and turn it into one of an opportunity for himself and the organization. the need for leadership also has changed.has changed from that of physical superiority to that on the intellectual superiority. Being able to provide better returns to self and all the stake holders in whatever form is what leadership is all about today. This kind of perversion leads to large scale global failures. The one who can actually respond the fastest and the best to the given situation and create economic advantage to himself or his affiliate is the one who becomes a leader. The type of leadership that is popular and effective is also changing from the authoritarian style to the participative style of leadership. What is critical today is not to be able to establish physical superiority but the need to establish economic superiority. Thanks to the strength of political leadership and institutional leadership that the world was drawn away fairly safely from the brink of collapse. What really matters today is the ability to provide thought leadership that would lead to economic superiority either for self or the organization. In the same breath it is pertinent to note that perversion exists even today at the leadership level.

human beings are exceptionally good at 51 . at some time in their existence. Recommendations Faced with the practical needs for considerable change. but what remains constant is the ability of leaders to keep an eye and maintain a balance between the benefit for self and their institutions and the human race at large! 6. Most organizations. But sometimes. the improvements are not sustainable in nature. Usually. the new leader implements cost cutting measures and enhances both productivity and profits. Most often a turnaround situation may demand an outsider to lead the company out of the mess. face decline in performance. Leadership styles have changed. Sooner or later. all it may need is a change in leadership style rather than a change in the leadership. Skills are a manifestation of the personality traits of a person. today.Leaders have changed. new crises ensue. However. as an alternative. A new hero-CEO turns up to propel new life into the organization’s anguishing fortune. During a company’s lifespan depicted in the firm’s lifecycle a stage comes when it may need a turnaround in order to survive. people cling to customary ways of doing things. New ideas do not emerge from people at the front lines because they are too scared to take risks and get exposed. Need for leaders has changed. the right kind of leadership makes the difference. giving rise to the search for new hero-leaders(). But. Most of the grand strategies proposed by leaders are never put to action. “Energies are not released to create new products or new ways to meet customer needs because people are too busy competing with one another to please their bosses. companies usually choose the hero-leader rather than extracting and developing leadership ability all over the entire organization. Leadership is as learnable as any other skill. as widely accepted.” This is the modern day scenario. Here.

So. leadership skills being the output of personality traits. 52 .adapting their personality to suit the occasion(). Organizations are increasingly focusing on improving the knowledge and skills of employees because of the continuous advancement in the technology and changes in the business environment. the traits can be varied to the required skills.

employees will follow and help building strong business organizations. CEO of Century Casinos. Besides the Yes/No options I included additional answers from the interviewee. but it should always be a good combination of managerial and leadership skills. Yes and No. Managerial skills can be acquired through formal education. Leaders are a creation of situations and circumstances. I chose 10 out of 15 questions from the questionnaire. Situations can create leaders. Some people can learn the theory their whole life. Some people are meant to be leaders and if they are confronted with certain situations they can emerge as leaders. Make them feel like they belong to something bigger. but will never emerge as a leader. if strong leadership is established. To learn leadership skills from the get go a lot of passion. Appendix Interviewee: Thomas Graf. The interviewee told me from his experience that he tries to motivate his employees on a daily basis and tries that they ultimately keep the organizations goals in mind. time and the willingness to learn and evolve must be taken into consideration. Is leadership necessary for building strong business organizations? Yes. Yes. Is good leadership sufficient to handle all dire situations in an organization? Yes. Inc. it can be learned but it’s not easy. Is leadership a learnable skill? Yes. but experience is more important than plain theory. but it is not always the case. 53 .7.

Managers and leaders are essential for business. But a good leader in one situation might not be a good leader when the situation differs. both are the most important factors in an organization and have to work closely together to assure long term success. Yes. Yes and No. Yes. No. 54 .Good leaders always are good managers.). a good leader never gives up and knows how to motivate others. the most successful leaders in the business world today are created by situations. Good leaders might have a vision and know how to motivate and influence people. but at the same time they could also lack managerial skills (organizational control etc. Never give them a feeling that something is out of control. Situations create leaders. but that doesn’t make them a good skillful leader automatically. Business owners always make great leaders. because business owners might have monetary resources available to own a business. Leaders always have solutions for all problems. Even if there’s no solution at the beginning. No.

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