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Note the particular features of skin which are involved in temperature regulation

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Hairs with the erector Pilli muscle

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Sweat glands Blood arterioles The skin is an effector in the control of body temperature. It is particularly important to prevent cooling or overheating of the core (essential organs and brain)

The hypothalamus as the co-ordinator of temperature regulation: Vasoconstriction: is a cold adaptation narrowing of arterioles that reduces blood flow to the surface of the skin is coupled with a dilation of the horizontal shunt vessels. This prevents heat loss from blood near the skin surface and retains heat in the body core for essential organs. Vasodilation: is an adaptation to warm conditions in which arterioles dilate sending more blood closer to the skin surface from where heat can be radiated to the surrounding environment. The horizontal shunt vessels are constricted sending most blood closer to the skin surface. Additionally sweat (mainly water) is released onto the surface of the skin where it enters the vapour phase when warmed by the heat carried by blood. Therefore the vapour of sweat carried away heat energy from blood. Cold: when cold the following events occur to reduce heat loss and raise temperature. Lower than regulation temperature blood reaches the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus signals the vasoconstriction (narrowing) of arterioles Muscle effectors are produces the rapid contraction relaxation of muscles known as shivering which produces more body heat. Hot:

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Sweat is secreted onto the surface of skin when body temperature is high Sweat is largely composed of water which has a high specific heat capacity (absorbs a heat easily) Body heat is transferred from skin and blood to the sweat The sweat evaporates transferring heat away and in doing so cools the body

Hair and temperature control:

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In warm weather the erector-pilli muscle are relaxed and the hairs lie flat. This prevents a build up of a 'boundary layer' of warm air. Air movement will further accelerate the loss of heat. In cold weather the erector-pilli muscle contracts and the hair moves vertical. This traps a 'boundary layer' of warm air that reduces the temperature gradient and in turn reduces heat loss.

Other longer term adaptations take place when exposed to continuously high or low temperatures. These effects are often linked to the metabolic rate of the organism and are atleast in part influenced by the endocrine system.

b) Alpha cells in the pancreatic islets secret glucagon. h) High blood glucose levels stimulate the beta pancreatic cells a) Beta pancreatic cells secrete insulin. content of a tissue is determined by the concentration of the surrounding tissues. Model: a) Low glucose concentration is detected by the pancreas. The regulation point for blood glucose is around 5 mmol dm-3. The response and change in blood glucose levels becomes the new stimuli for receptors This is a typical feedback control. Respiration: Some tissues are entirely dependent on blood sugar as a respiratory substrate being unable to either store glucose of metabolise fat. c)Glucagon flows through the blood to receptors on liver cells. Whilst a significant mechanism for the control of heat loss in many mammals the relatively hairless body of humans derives very little benefit from this mechanism. f)Insulin flows through the blood to the receptors on liver cells. g)Insulin stimulates the liver to remove blood glucose and store this as glycogen (insoluble) Blood sugar regulation alternative diagram (labels correspond to both diagrams) Note from the second diagram that the glucose levels remain within a set of narrow limits. including the roles of glucagon. insulin and alpha and beta cells in the pancreases islets Blood sugar concentration is regulated for a number of reason amongst which: Osmosis. Explain the control of blood glucose concentration. Additional features of blood sugar regulation: . d)Liver responds by adding glucose to blood stream.

• • • Insulin stimulates the 'glucose-transporter molecules' in the cell membrane of liver cells to take up glucose.(test with a Clinistic )  High concentrations of blood glucose (hyperglycaemia) results in the movement of water from cells by osmosis. Then the glucose is taken up and stored as glycogen as in the liver.  Particularly the breakdown of protein for energy creates organ damage.  This extra fluid in the blood results in larger quantities of urine production. except that is for the cells of the nervous system which require a constant blood glucose level. Insulin stimulates the incorporation of 'glucose-transporter molecules into the cell membrane of the muscle cells. They will describe that if they do not eat regularly that they experience muscle weakness. Distinguish between type 1 and type 2 diabetes Type I diabetes (early or juvenile onset):  Auto-immune disease in which the beta-cells pancreatic are destroyed. Muscles will store around 900g of glycogen in comparison to the average 100 g in the liver.  Responds well to regular injection of insulin probably manufactured as the genetically engineered humulin. After the absorption of glucose most cells will switch their metabolism to the beta oxidation of fat and preserve their glycogen stores. Reproduction Draw and label diagrams of the adult male and female reproductive system .  Reduced number of receptors on the liver cell membrane. Type II diabetes (Adult onset):  Reduced sensitivity of the liver cells to insulin. mild visual disturbance.  A lack of glucose in cells means that fats then proteins have to be metabolised in respiration. • • • Adipose (fat cells) are also stimulated to take up the glucose and begin its conversion to fat. Almost all cells are influenced in this way by insulin. Ask around your class for people who whilst not diabetics experience mild hyperglycaemia or have experienced this as on the odd occasion. Insulin is responsible for the conversion of glucose to glycogen but also to fat. The interesting features are those that affect their nervous system and have some remarkable resemblance to mild migraine symptoms. This cannot be done by the cells of the nervous system which of course is another reason to maintain blood sugar levels.  Unable to produce insulin. lethargy. In both types of diabetes there is:  a build of glucose in the blood stream and it will then subsequently appear in urine.

The natural cycle repeats until there is either a pregnancy or the woman reaches menopause and the end of the reproductive phase of her life. These cycles coordinate the development and release of an egg with the conditions required in the uterus to support a pregnancy. Produces follicular fluids. Luteinising Hormone (LH):       Stimulates the development of a primary follicles (oocytes). Following puberty human become fertile and in females this is manifest as the menstrual cycle. Progesterone:   maintains the lining of the endometrium negative feedback on FSH and LH . high LH is associated with a resumption of meiosis in the oocyte. FSH and LH are two hormone that are active at significant phases of human development including primary and secondary sexual characteristics. Anterior Pituitary Hormones: Follicle Stimulating hormone (FSH) Develops the oocyte in the follicle. Ovarian Hormones Oestrogen:   Stimulates the development of the endometrium (lining of the uterus) and it associated blood supply.  During the second half of the cycle (high oestrogen) there is negative feedback on FSH and LH. During the first half of the cycle there is positive feedback through increased sensitivity of the follicle cells to FSH (Up-regulation of receptors on the follicular cell plasma membrane). Meiosis has been arrested in Prophase I since the embryonic stage. Only at the point of fertilisation does meiosis complete.  stimulates the development of the corpus luteum.Outline the role of hormones in the menstrual cycle including FSH ( follicle stimulating hormone ) and LH ( luteinizing hormone) estrogen and progesterone  Sexual maturity in women is marked by the beginning of the menstrual cycles. Increases the number of follicular cells which in turn produce oestrogens. They are both significant hormones in the primary sex determination. surges in mid cycle (12 days) to bring about ovulation.    The cycle is controlled by hormones from both the brain (FSH and LH) and the ovary(oestrogen and progesterone).

(f) Progesterone maintains the lining of the thickened endometrium in preparation for the implantation of a fertilised egg. . The progesterone production stops. (g) If implantation does not take place then the Corpus luteum degenerates and fails. (b) Primary follicle cells secrete oestrogen which in turn increase the secretion of FSH in a positive feedback. (c) The oestrogen thickens the lining of the uterus in preparation for a fertilised egg. illustrating the relationship between changes in hormone levels and ovulation.Annotate graph showing hormone levels in the menstrual cycle. menstruation and thickening of the endometrium a) Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) is secreted by the pituitary gland of the brain and stimulates the development of a primary follicle. This loosens the now mature egg which is released in ovulation  LH reduces the secretion of Oestrogen  LH stimulates the empty follicle to develop into the corpus luteum e) Progesterone and oestrogen together stop any more LH and FSH being secreted from the pituitary. (negative feedback)  This prevents further follicle development or ovulation.    The endometrium breaks down and the 'menstrual period' begins The inhibition of FSH and LH by ovarian hormones has been removed and so they begin their secretions again of FSH. (d) The peak of oestrogen secretion at day 12 causes the pituitary to release a surge of LH. A new cycle has begun.

Other reasons for infertility include stenosis (blockage) of the cervix which again can be overcome by simple procedures and the mechanical introduction of sperm through this passage (as above). First performed by Sir Robert Winston in 1978 Oldham England. 2. . One of the assisted reproductive technologies is called 'In Vitro fertilisation' or IVF. testosterone initiates the development of male genitalia. Around mid teens. Post puberty testosterone maintains the production of sperm cells and the male sex drive. testosterone initiates the development of secondary sexual characteristics growth of the penis and testis 3. Louise Brown was the first of millions of 'test tube babies'. This can be rectified by concentrating the male sperm before being placed into the uterus of the female using a catheter. Week 7 of embryonic development.List three roles of testosterone in males 1.      increase in muscle mass increase in the length of the long bones (height) increase in the length of the vocal cords (voice deepens) spermatogenesis Outline the process of in vitro fertilization (IVF) One of the common reasons that a couple cannot produce a pregnancy is the low sperm count of the male. The first stage of the technique maybe preceded by the taking of inhibitors of FSH and LH but this stage maybe missed through monitoring using ultrasound. In more complex cases of infertility it is necessary to fertilize the egg cell outside of the body before introducing the embryos into the uterus for implantation.

As examples   over comes infertility allow families for people who must be sterilised e.g..Dicuss ethical issues of IVF Advantages of IVF: there are as many reasons for this treatment as there are people seeking this treatment. radiography/chemo therapy cancer patients Disadvantages of IVF:    what happens to unwanted embryo's what happens to orphaned embryo's should infertility be by-passed .