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APA Format (Style) Summary of Rules

A large number of people who visit my writing help websites are looking for help with formatting and adding citations to their academic and/or professional papers. Many of those folks are required to use the standards of the American Psychological Association (APA). In its more than 270 pages, The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association covers literally thousands of technical details related to the writing and publishing of papers, and should be consulted if that level of detail is required. Nevertheless, there are a number of overall rules and general guidelines, which are normally sufficient for the preparation of most APA format papers at the undergraduate level. I have divided and summarized those below in three distinct sections: 1. Overall APA Paper Format Rules 2. APA Rules For In-Text Citation of Sources 3. Compiling and Formatting the APA Reference List Each of the above sections below contains a link to an actual sample pages of of the format being discussed. Overall Paper Format - APA
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The paper should be typed and double-spaced, on standard 8 ½´ x 11´, 20-pound white paper. All four outside margins should be set at 1 inch. As many as applicable of the following sections should appear in the paper, each one beginning on a separate page: abstract, text, references, appendices, author identification notes, footnotes, tables, figure captions, figures. Each section should have a running header on the first line of the page, flush left. The manuscript title on the first page should begin about 1/3 of the way down the page. The title block on that page should include: full title (one or more lines), writer's name, course name and number, instructor's name, and the date - all centered on double-spaced lines A running header with consecutive page numbering should appear flush left in the upper left-hand corner of each page, including the manuscript

1999). For later citations of the same work. Smith. Example: (ASSP. For citations of Internet resources. This running header will appear one-half inch from the top of the page. Normally. followed by the year of publication.. should appear in parentheses immediately after the quotation. Example: (Brendan. separate their names with the "&" symbol. and should contain a short version of the manuscript title. In-Text Citation of Sources .". p. Donaldson. 1997)." Example: (Brendan et al. The complete details on the source document are included in the "References" list at the end of the paper.APA y y y y y y y In general. In cases when the author's name is not in the signal phrase. 1998. If the author is an organization with a long cumbersome name. Example: (American Society of Strategic Planners [ASSP]. For more than two authors. with the author's name. identify all of the authors in the introductory signal phrase or in the parentheses the first time they are named. an in-text citation will be introduced with a "signal phrase" that includes the author¶s last name. followed by the page number. and the page number. Example: (Smith. 1997). name both authors in the signal phrase and in parentheses at the end of the quotation. cited within the body text of an article. followed by the year. "There was only one way to go after that" (p. & Warden. 263). with the acronym for the organization enclosed in parentheses. refer to the special page that I have set up about this right here. followed by the year of publication in parentheses.title page. Later citations of the same work can use the first author's name followed by "et al. use the entire name in the body text the first time it is used. Example: (Hartwick & Rogers. If the work cited has two authors. the year. To see examples of various APA Title Pages click here. use the acronym followed by the year. preceded by a "p.APA . Reference List . flush to the right margin. 1995). in parentheses at the end of the quotation. 1995). To see a sample APA Inside Page click here. The page number in the source document. Example: As Smith (1998) observed. enclose the author's last name. 97). APA in-text documentation format uses the author-date style of citation. For the latter.

All author's names in the references list are to use the inverted form. and do not use "p. Subsequent lines for the same entry are indented one-half inch. (i. list 1991 references before 1995 references for the same author). The reference list will arranged in alphabetical order. and underline it. When an author appears as both a sole author. When referencing PERIODICALS such as magazine articles or articles in scholarly journals. list the volume number in arabic numerals. APA Software StyleEase for APA Style is powerful software that automatically formats your APA paper for you. (These can be used when referencing newspaper articles or works in anthologies). with last name first. Do not use all capitals. From title page to bibliography." for the page numbers. Initials should be used for the author's first name.y y y y y y y y y y y A list of all sources cited in the paper must be included at the end of the paper. and use a shortened version of the title in parenthetical "in-text" citations in the body of the text. list the single author entry first. StyleEase does it all. use underlining or italics. Whichever convention is chosen must be used throughout the essay for all titles cited." or "pp. Handles simple papers to major dissertations with equal ease. If no author name is available for a publication. This list is entitled "References" and must begin on a separate page after the last page of text. When referencing BOOKS. When citing ARTICLES capitalize the first word and all proper nouns in the title. They are equivalent in this case.e. For two or more authors. This heading should be centered on the page. by author's last name. separate the names by commas and use "&" instead of "and" for the last name mentioned. alphabetize the entry by the title of the work. If there is more than one work by the same author. StyleEase will save the day." before the number. To see a sample APA Reference Page click here. Do not put titles of articles in quotations. not both. from oldest to most recent. do not use "et al" there. capitalize the first word and all proper nouns contained in the title and sub-title. StyleEase for APA Style . Do not use "vol. place the entries in order of publication date. and as the first author of a group. The first line of each entry in the list of references is typed flush to the left margin. For the title of the work being cited. All lines are double-spaced with no extra spaces between entries. If your paper is due soon. right from the MS-Word toolbar. use the last name of the author. For the references list.

Writinghelp-central. All Rights Reserved. . The information and links posted above were gathered through a variety of publicly available sources. Copyright © writinghelp-central.Other APA Resources If you feel that the above summarized rules and guidelines are too general in nature for you. Disclaimer: This site is not affiliated with either the Modern Language Association of America (MLA) or the American Psychological Association (APA). does not accept any liability for the information posted and have been assembled here for the convenience of users. links to a number of online sites with more detailed APA format information and examples are listed here.