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CONSTITUTION OF INDIA The Constitution of India was passed by the Constituent Assembly of India on November 26, 1949, and came

into effect on January 26, 1950. India celebrates January 26 each year as Republic Day. It is the longest written constitution of any independent nation in the world, containing 395 articles and 12 schedules, as well as numerous amendments, for a total of 117,369 words in the English language version. Contents 1 The importance of the Constitution 2 History 2.1 The Cabinet Mission 2.2 The Constituent Assembly 2.3 Objectives Resolution 3 Features 4 Features of the Indian Constitution adapted from other Constitutions 5 Preamble 5.1 The importance of the Preamble 5.2 Explanation of some of the important words in the Preamble 5.2.1 Sovereign 5.2.2 Socialist 5.2.3 Secular 5.2.4 Democratic 5.2.5 Republic 6 Schedules 7 Amendments 8 Articles The importance of the ConstitutionThe Constitution lays down the basic structure of government under which the people are to be governed. It establishes the main organs of government - the executive, the legislature and the judiciary. The Constitution not only defines the powers of each organ, but also demarcates their responsibilities. It regulates the relationship between the different organs and between the government and the people. The Constitution is superior to all other laws of the country. Every law enacted by the government has to be in conformity with the Constitution. The Constitution lays down the national goals of India - Democracy, Socialism, Secularism and National Integration. It also spells out the rights and duties of citizens. The Constitution applies to the State of Jammu and Kashmir with certain exceptions and modifications as provided in article 370 (which is a temporary provision) and the Constitution (Application to Jammu and Kashmir) Order, 1954. History The Cabinet MissionWorld War II in Europe came to an end on May 9, 1945. In July, a new government came to power in the United Kingdom. The new British government announced its Indian Policy and decided to convene a constitution drafting body. Three British cabinet ministers were sent to find a solution to the question of India's independence. This team of ministers was called the Cabinet Mission.

The Cabinet Mission discussed the framework of the constitution and laid down in some detail the procedure to be followed by the constitution drafting body. Elections for the 296 seats assigned to the British Indian provinces were completed by July-August 1946. With the independence of India on August 15, 1947, the Constituent Assembly became a fully sovereign body. The Assembly began work on 9 December 1947. The Constituent AssemblyThe Constituent Assembly was the body that framed the constitution of India. The people of India elected the members of the provincial assemblies, who in turn elected the constituent assembly. Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Patel, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad and Shyama Prasad Mukherjee were some important figures in the Assembly. There were more than 30 members of the scheduled classes. Frank Anthony represented the Anglo-Indian community, and the Parsis were represented by H.P. Modi. The Chairman of the Minorities Committee was Harendra Coomar Mookerjee, a distinguished Christian who represented all Christians other than Anglo-Indians. Constitutional experts like Alladi Krishnaswamy Iyer, B.R. Ambedkar, B.N. Rau and K.M. Munshi were also members of the Assembly. Sarojini Naidu and Vijaylakshmi Pandit were important women members. Dr. Sachidanand Sinha was the first president of the Constituent Assembly. Later, Dr.Rajendra Prasad was elected president of the Constituent Assembly while B.R. Ambedkar was appointed the Chairman of the Drafting Committee. The Constituent Assembly met for 166 days, spread over a period of 2 years, 11 months and 18 days. Its sessions were open to the press and the public. Objectives ResolutionThe underlying principles of the Constitution were laid down by Jawaharlal Nehru in his Objectives Resolution: India is an Independent, Sovereign, Republic; India shall be a Union of erstwhile British Indian territories, Indian States, and other parts outside British India and Indian States as are willing to be a part of the Union; Territories forming the Union shall be autonomous units and exercise all powers and functions of the Government and administration, except those assigned to or vested in the Union; All powers and authority of sovereign and independent India and its constitution shall flow from the people; All people of India shall be guaranteed and secured social, economic and political justice; equality of status and opportunities before law; and fundamental freedoms - of talk, expression, belief, faith, worship, vocation, association and action - subject to law and public morality; The minorities, backward and tribal areas, depressed and other backward classes, shall be provided adequate safeguards; The territorial integrity of the Republic and its sovereign rights on land, sea and air shall be maintained according to justice and law of civilized nations; The land would make full and willing contribution to the promotion of world peace and welfare of mankind. FeaturesThe Constitution of India draws extensively from Western legal traditions in its enunciation of the principles of liberal democracy. It is distinguished from many Western constitutions, however, in its elaboration of principles reflecting aspirations to end the inequities of traditional social relations and enhance the social welfare of the population. According to constitutional scholar Granville Austin, probably no other nation's constitution

"has provided so much impetus toward changing and rebuilding society for the common good." Since its enactment, the constitution has fostered a steady concentration of power in the hands of the central government - especially the Office of the Prime Minister. This centralization has occurred in the face of the increasing assertiveness of an array of ethnic and caste groups across Indian society. Increasingly, the government has responded to the resulting tensions by resorting to the formidable array of authoritarian powers provided by the Constitution. However, a new assertiveness shown by the Supreme Court and the Election Commission suggests that the remaining checks and balances among the country's political institutions are resilient and capable of supporting Indian democracy. Furthermore regional parties are gaining popularity at the expense of national parties which has led to coalition governments at the centre. As a consequence, power is becoming more decentralised. The Constitution in its final form owes much to a number of different principles from various other Constitutions. The general structure of the Constitution's democratic framework was largely the work of B. N. Rau, a constitutional scholar of international standing. Supporters of independent India's founding father, Mohandas K. Gandhi, backed measures that would form a decentralized polity with strong local government ² known as panchayat ² in a system known as Panchayati Raj, i.e. rule by Panchayats. However, the view of more modernist leaders such as Jawaharlal Nehru, ultimately prevailed leading to the establishment of a parliamentary system of government and a federal system with a strong central government. Features of the Indian Constitution adapted from other Constitutions British Constitution Parliamentary form of government The idea of single citizenship The idea of the Rule of law Institution of Speaker and his role Lawmaking procedure Procedure established by Law u/a 13 United States Constitution Charter of Fundamental Rights, which is similar to the United States Bill of Rights Federal structure of government Power of Judicial Review and independence of the judiciary President as supreme commander of armed forces u/a 52 Due process of law u/a 13 Irish Constitution Constitutional enunciation of the directive principles of state policy French Constitution Ideals of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity Canadian Constitution

A quasi-federal form of government (a federal system with a strong central government) The idea of Residual Powers Australian Constitution Freedom of trade and commerce within the country and between the states Power of the national legislature to make laws for implementing treaties, even on matters outside normal Federal jurisdiction Japanese Constitution Fundamental Duties u/a 51-A Weimar Constitution Emergency Provision u/a 356 Preamble ³ WE, THE PEOPLE OF INDIA, having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE, social, economic and political; LIBERTY of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship; EQUALITY of status and of opportunity; and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation; IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November, 1949, do HEREBY ADOPT, ENACT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS CONSTITUTION. ´ The preamble is not a part of the Constitution of India as it is not enforceable in a court of law. However, the Supreme Court has, in the case of Kesavananda Bharati vs. The State of Kerala, recognized that the Preamble is a part of the Constitution and may be used to interpret ambiguous areas of the Constitution where differing interpretations present themselves. However, the Preamble is useful as an interpretive tool only if there is an ambiguity in the article itself and should not be treated as a rights bestowing part of the Constitution. An interesting side note concerns the words "SOCIALIST" and SECULAR in the preamble. The original drafting used the words "SOVEREIGN DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC". The two additional words "SOCIALIST" and SECULAR were introduced by the controversial 42nd amendment. The amendment was pushed through by Indira Gandhi in 1976, when she had dictatorial powers. A committee under the chairmanship of Sardar Swaran Singh recommended that this amendment be enacted after being constituted to study the question of amending the constitution in the light of past experience. The importance of the Preamble The wording of the Preamble highlights some of the fundamental values and guiding principles on which the Constitution of India is based. The Preamble serves as a guiding light for the Constitution and judges interpret the Constitution in its light. In a majority of decisions, the Supreme Court of India has held that the objectives specified in the preamble constitute the basic structure of the Indian Constitution, which

State and local) by a system of universal adult franchise. It implies equality of all religions and religious tolerance. The Supreme Court in S. who is 18 years of age and above and not otherwise debarred by law.R Bommai v. Every citizen of India. India has adopted a mixed economy and the government has framed many laws to achieve the aim and the Child Labour Prohibition Act. No religious instruction is imparted in government or government-aided schools.26 November 1949. is entitled to vote.signifies that power is ultimately vested in the hands of the people of India. SchedulesSchedules can be added to the constitution by amendment. All citizens. Under social equality. The first words of the Preamble . in which the head of state is appointed on hereditary basis for a lifetime or until he abdicates from the throne. Every citizen enjoys this right without any discrimination on the basis of caste. secularism and national integration. The President of India is elected by an electoral college for a term of five years. India is internally and externally sovereign externally free from the control of any foreign power and internally. language. Republic As opposed to a monarchy. It must treat all religions with equal respect. Lastly. The government must not favour or discriminate against any religion. The Post of the President Of India is not hereditary. therefore does not have an official state religion. for a fixed tenure. SecularThe word secular was inserted into the Preamble by the 42nd amendment act of 1976. The Preamble lays down the most important national goals which every citizen and the government must try to achieve. everyone has equal status and opportunities. creed. India. The twelve schedules in force cover the designations of the . directly or indirectly.sex. It implies social and economic equality. Explanation of some of the important words in the Preamble[edit] Sovereign The word sovereign means supreme or independent. This is in effect emphasizing a commitment towards the formation of a welfare state. irrespective of their religious beliefs are equal in the eyes of law. Every citizen of India is eligible to become the President of the country. Social equality in this context means the absence of discrimination on the grounds of caste. colour. Socialist The word socialist was added to the Preamble by the 42nd amendment act of 1976. practice and propagate any religion they choose. it has a free government which is directly elected by the people and makes laws that govern the people. such as socialism. sex. the people" . creed."We. The people of India elect their governments at all levels (Union. Democratic India is a democracy. Every person has the right to preach. Though the Preamble is a part of the constitution still it nor any of its content is legally enforcible. it lays down the date for the adoption of the Constitution .religion. a democratic republic is an entity in which the head of state is elected. Union of India held that secularism was an integral part of the basic structure of the constitution. etc. popularly known as 'One man one vote'. religion or education.cannot be amended. colour. Economic equality in this context means that the government will endeavour to make the distribution of wealth more equal and provide a decent standard of living for all.

Anti-Defection provisions for Members of Parliament and Members of the State Legislatures. State. before sending them for the President's assent.States and Union Territories. Article 31B-Validity excluded from Court¶s Review (land and tenure reforms. By special majority of the Parliament and ratification of at least half of the state legislatures by special majority. which should not be less than half of the total membership of the house. Forms of Oaths. Allocation of the number of seats in the Rajya Sabha (Council of States . Provisions for the administration of tribal areas in Assam. the association of Sikkim with India). Municipality (Urban Planning). Provisions for the administration and control of Scheduled Areas and Scheduled Tribes (areas and tribes needing special protection due to disadvantageous conditions). The Official Languages. By special majority of the Parliament: Amendments can be made in this category by a two third majority of the total number of members present and voting. However. Most of the Constitution can be amended after a quorum of more than half of the members of each house in Parliament passes an amendment with a two-thirds majority vote. After this. Articles pertaining to the distribution of legislative authority between Union and State governments must also be approved by fifty percent of State legislatures. an amendment to the Constitution is an extremely difficult affair. the Supreme Court of India in the landmark case of Kesavananda Bharati vs. In 1974. Panchayat Raj (Rural Development). it is sent to the President for his assent. and normally needs at least two-thirds of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha to pass it. Many more amendments followed. and Concurrent (dual) lists of responsibilities. The . On paper. at a rate of almost two amendments per year since 1950. Emoluments for High-Level Officials. Many matters that would be dealt with by ordinary statutes in most democracies must be dealt with by constitutional amendment in India due to the document's extraordinary detail. The Union (central government).the upper house of Parliament) per State or Union Territory. the Constitution of India is one of the most frequently amended constitutions in the world. The first amendment came only a year after the adoption of the Constitution and instituted numerous minor changes. AmendmentsMethods of Amendment By simple majority of the Parliament: Amendments in this category can be made by a simple majority of members present and voting.

Articles 112 . which was never intended by the framers of the Constitution. Part V .98 on Officers of Parliament.consists of Articles 36 . Some noted authors of Constitutional law.151 on Duties and powers of Comptroller and Auditor-General. Articles 105 .Articles on the States. till January 2010. Using this doctrine.Articles 148 .30 on Cultural and Educational Rights. it can be argued that this doctrine is necessary to protect human rights from being abrogated simply by constitutional amendment.Articles 52 to 78 on The Executive.Articles 153 .18 on Right to Equality. . Articles 99 .consists of Articles 1 .78 on the Conduct of Government Business Chapter II . Chapter I . Articles 148 . Part IV .Article 123 on the Legislative Powers of the President. Chapter III . Articles 124 .147 on The Union Judiciary.Articles 79 .35 on Fundamental Rights.consists of Articles on the Union.Article 152 on the General definition of a State of the Union of India Article 152 . Articles Part I . Chapter II .122 on Parliament.122 on Procedure Generally.Articles 124 .162 on The Governor.151 on the Controller and Auditor-General of India. Articles 79 .106 on Powers. Part IV (A) consists of Article 51A . Articles 107 . However.Exclusion of the state of Jammu and Kashmir from the general definition of a state of the Union of India. Articles 77 . Articles 52 .4 on the Union and its Territory Part II .147 Establishment and Constitution of the Supreme Court Chapter V . Articles 32 . Article 123 on Power of president to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Parliament Chapter IV . Articles 74 . Articles 19 . There have been a total of 109 amendments to the constitution of India.100 on Conduct of Business. such as HM Seervai have argued that this is an usurpation of amending power by the judiciary.51 on Directive Principles of State Policy. Articles 89 .111 on Legislative Procedure.Attorney General of India. Part III .73 on the President and Vice-President. which expanded the scope of judicial review to include the power to review Constitutional Amendments passed by the Legislature. Part VI .11 on Citizenship.24 on Right against Exploitation. privileges and Immunities of Parliament and its Members. Articles 14 .35 on Right to Constitutional Remedies.167 on The Executive Articles 153 .117 on Procedure in Financial Matters. Chapter I .104 on Disqualification of members.consists of Articles 12 . Articles 29 .Fundamental Duties of each citizen of India.22 on Right to Freedom. the Supreme Court has struck down the 39th Amendment and parts of the 42nd Amendment as being violative of the Basic Structure of the Constitution.88 on Constitution of Parliament.consists of Articles 5 .28 on Right to Freedom of Religion. Articles 101 . Articles 118 . Articles 31 on Right to Property (Repealed) and Saving of Laws. Articles 76 .75 on Council of Ministers. Articles 23 .State of Kerala enunciated the Basic Structure Doctrine. Articles 25 .

Articles 245 . Part VIII .consists of Articles on Finance.consists of Articles on Municipalities.293 on Borrowing by States Chapter III .Article 213 on the Legislative Powers of the Governor Article 213 .195 on Powers. and obligations.164 on The Council of Ministers.207 on Procedure in Financial Matters. creation of Council of Ministers and High Courts Part IX . Articles 243P .231 on The High Courts in the States. Articles 168 .consists of Articles on the scheduled and Tribal Areas Articles 244 .consists of Articles on The Union Territories Articles 239 . Liabilities. Article 263 . Articles 243 .Articles 233 . Privileges and Immunities Parliament and its Members.consists of Articles on States in the B part of the First schedule. Chapter IV .on Persons not to be deprived of property save by authority of law Part XIII .consists of Articles on Relations between the Union and the States. Part XI .on Disputes relating to waters.244A on Administration.177 General Articles 178 .Articles 294 .293 on Borrowing Articles 292 . Article 238 Repealed. Property.300 on Succession to property assets.Articles 168 . Right. Articles 208 . Obligations and Suits Articles 294 .212 on The State Legislature.Articles 292 . Chapter V . Articles 188 .General Article 262 .255 on the Distribution of Legislative Powers Articles 245 . liabilities. Articles 202 .167 on the Conduct of Government Business.242 Administration.Power of governor to promulgate Ordinances during recess of Assembly of state. Chapter VI .Articles 214 . and legislatures. Articles 194 .291 on Miscellaneous Financial Provisions Chapter II .Articles 256 .189 on Conduct of Business.on Co-ordination between States Part XII . s. Articles 214 . Chapter III . 29 and Sch. Replaced by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act. Articles 190 .261 .237 on the Subordinate Courts Articles 232 .Article 300A on the Right to Property Article 300A . Chapter I .187 on the Officers of the State Legislature. Articles 166 .consists of Articles on Trade and Commerce within the territory of India . 1956. Contracts.consists of Articles on the Panchayat system.237 on Subordinate Courts Part VII . Contracts and Suits Chapter I .231 on High Courts in the States.263 on Administrative Relations Articles 256 .267 General Articles 268 .212 on Procedure Generally.291 on Finance Articles 264 . Chapter IV .255 on Distribution of Legislative Relations Chapter II .243O on the Gram Sabha and Panchayat system Part IXA .201 on Legislative Procedure.300 on Property. Article 165 on the Advocate-General for the State.Articles 163 . Articles 196 .281 on Distribution Revenues between the Union and the States Articles 282 . creation of Council of Ministers.193 on Disqualification of members.Articles 264 .243ZG on Municipalities Part X .

High courts Etc Chapter IV .323 on Public Service Commissions Part XIVA .349 on Language used in Supreme Court.consists of Articles on Special Provisions Relating to certain Classes. 1956.Replaced by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act. and the power of Parliament and States to impose restrictions on the same Article 306 .313 on Services Article 314 .Replaced by the Constitution (Sixty-third Amendment) Act.on Facilities for instruction in mother-tongue at primary stage. s.323 B Part XV . Article 351 .consists of Articles on Amendment of the Constitution Articles 368 on the Power of parliament to amend the constitution and procedure therefor Part XXI .314 on Services Articles 308 .378A on Temporary.Repealed . High courts.Repealed .Repealed .361A .Repealed .f.344 on Language of the Union Articles 343 .349 on Language of the Supreme Court.Miscellaneous Article 362 . Article 307 .351 on Special Directives Article 350 . s. Part XIV . 1989.305 on Freedom of Trade and Commerce.on Directive for development of the Hindi language.367 . Transitional and Special Provisions Articles 369 .Articles 348 . Part XVI . Transitional and Special Provisions Article 379 . 1978.consists of Articles on Services Under the Union and the States Chapter I .Articles 343 .Repealed .323 on the Public Service Commissions Articles 315 .f.consists of Articles on Temporary. Etc Articles 348 . Articles 363 .consists of Articles on Emergency Provisions Articles 352 .consists of Articles on Official Language Chapter I . 2.Replaced by the Constitution (Forty-fourth Amendment) Act. s.347 on Regional Languages Articles 345 . Part XVIII .Articles 308 .on provision for Special Officer for linguistic minorities.Articles 315 .Articles 301 .consists of Articles on Elections Articles 324 .consists of Articles on Tribunals Articles 323 A . s.Repealed .f. s. 20-6-1979). 36 (w.e.on Language to be used in representations for redress of grievances. Article 350A . Articles 330 .342 on Reservations Part XVII .Miscellaneous Part XX . 6-1-1990).Articles 345 .Miscellaneous Articles 361 . Chapter II . 29 and Sch. .Articles 350 .e.on Provisions as to financial emergency.344 Official Language of the Union Chapter II . 1972.391 .Replaced by the Constitution (Twenty-sixth Amendment) Act. Article 350B . 29-8-1972).359 on Emergency Provisions Article 359A . 1956. Article 360 .Replaced by the Constitution (Twenty-eighth Amendment) Act. 3 (w.Appointment of authority for carrying out the purposes of articles 301 to 304.329 on Elections Article 329A .e.347 on Language of the State Chapter III . Part XIX . 3 (w.Replaced by the Constitution (Seventh Amendment) Act. 1971.

on the Power of the President to remove difficulties. '' To place the Service Tax formally. In this context. this amendment act has inserted article 268A and amended article 270. After coming into effect as Constitution (88th Amendment Act 2003. 95th Amendment Bill: The Constitution 95th amendment bill was passed and came into effect as Constitution (88th Amendment Act 2003 to place "Service Tax " formally under Union List. we find the information up to The Constitution (Ninetyfourth Amendment) Act. It inserted in the Union List Item 92 C 'taxes on services" 96th Amendment Bill: Constitution (96th amendment )Bill was passed by Lok Sabha on May 6. Background: The 42nd amendment of the Constitution had imposed a freeze on the delimitation of the constituencies. Constitution 84th amendment act 2001 (It came into force on 21-02-2002 ) lifted the . Authoritative text in Hindi and Repeals. the item relating to "taxes on services" was not specifically mentioned in any entry either in the Union List or in the State List. date of commencement. it shall not be necessary to readjust the allocation of seats in the House of the People to the States and the division of each State into territorial constituencies under this article.395 Commencement. 42nd amendment also provided that until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2000 have been published. 2003 & Rajya Sabha on August 5. This act updates delimitation against the very latest count of the population. under Article 246. 2003. In the Seventh Schedule to the Constitution. However we don't find any crisp info regarding the current situation of further amendment acts/ bills. 2003. authoritative text in Hindi and repeals Latest Constitutional Amendment Bills Almost all books available in the market. the central government kept levying the service tax exercising the powers under Entry 97 of the union List. including any tax which has not been mentioned in Union List or the State List. 2006.". Article 392 .This act has came into force on 12-06-2006.s. Since "Taxes on Services" is not there in either of the lists. Articles 393 . Part XXII consists of Articles on short title. (link) . At the same time Entry 97 of the Union List empowers the Union Government to Make laws in respect of any other law which is not enumerated in list II (State List ) and List III (Concurrent list). The Constitution 95th Amendment Bill was passed in Lok Sabha on May 7. 29 and Sch. So we have tried to solve this problem.

In June 2003. But within the overall number of seats allocated to each state for Parliament and within the state for its Assembly as frozen at the 1971 levels. the rationalization of the constituencies. The 96th Constitutional Amendment is a progressive step that updates delimitation against the very latest count of the population. 2002. a retired Judge of Supreme court was appointed its chairman and one member of election commission and state election commissioners as its ex-officio members. Justice Kuldip Singh. was earlier to be done on the basis of the 1991 Census and after 84th amendment on the basis of 2001 Census. . Pursuant to Constitution 84th amendment act 2001. under the Delimitation Bill 2002. This decision made the Delimitation Commission to start work afresh. 97th Amendment Bill: The Constitution (97th Amendment) is also known as an amendment to Anti-Defection Law. readjustment of seats on Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha was frozen up to 2026. Gaya Ram (political word for describing the practice of floor-crossing by members). Assam. This paved the way for constitution of Delimitation Commission on July 12. In other words. including re-fixing of the number of seats reserved for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. the delimitation act 2002 was also passed. This amendment added the Tenth Schedule to the constitution which contained the provisions regarding the disqualification of members of the parliament or state legislatures in the event of defection. The Constitution (52nd Amendment) Act 1985 was passed to curb the menace of defection and clip the wings of Aya Ram. pursuant to the 84th Amendment. This amendment provided that the delimitation of the assembly and parliamentary seats should be done on the basis of 2001 census figures. However. Parliament Passed the Constitution (87th amendment act) 2003. Nagaland and Manipur. is to re-adjust the territorial constituencies in the House of the People with regard to the seats allocated to each state and the re-adjustment of the territorial constituencies of the Legislative Assembly of each state. Thus we can understand that the main task of the Delimitation Commission set up.freeze on delimitation of the constituencies imposed by the 42nd amendment act and allowed delimitation within the states on the basis of 1991 census. In other words Tenth Schedule. Background: Defection which literally means (withdrawing support or help despite allegiance or responsibility) leads to political instability. also known as the Anti-Defection Act was included in the Constitution in 1985 by the Rajiv Gandhi ministry and sets the provisions for disqualification of elected members on the grounds of defection to another political party. the Lok Sabha got dissolved and fresh elections were held for 14th Lok Sabha. Meanwhile in March 2004. During the same period Guwahati High Court stated the delimitation exercise in respect with Arunachal Pradesh. The court took this decision on the basis of dispute in census figures.

after this amendment. Deleting this paragraph allowed one-third of the legislature party to split without attracting provisions of the existing ant defection law. This act was passed and came into force as Constitution (92nd Amendment) Act 2003. The Constitution (Ninety First Amendment) debarred the defectors from holding any public office as a minister or any other remunerative post till the end of the current term or till fresh elections are hold. Due the these developments. The bill propsed to include a Chapter IV-A in Part V of the Constitution which shall be in charge of appointing judges to the higher judiciary and for transferring High Court Judges. The 97th amendment bill sought to reduce the size of the ministerial council to 10% of the members. This amendment bill came in effect as constitution 90th Amendment act 2003. inquire into the cases of misconduct or deviant actions of a judge other than those that are punishable with his or her removal. and advise the chief justice of India or chief justice of High Courts appropriately after such enquiry. Further. Law Commission of India and the National Commission to Review the Working of the Constitution (NCRWC). Dogri. the size of the Council of Ministers cannot be more than 10 per cent of respective strengths of Parliament and State legislatures. the Constitution (Ninety First Amendment) 2003 also sought to check defection by restricting the size of Council of Ministers 15% of the Lok Sabha & Assembly members. This amendment was carried out during NDA Government's regime and based upon recommendations made by Dinesh Goswami Committee. there was one more amendment to Anti Defection Law in the form of Constitution (97th Amendment) Act. This act took the number of official languages in India to 22. 98th Amendment Bill: The Constitution 98th amendment Bill sought to constitute a National Judicial Commission. The bill also sought to empower the National Judicial Commission to draw up a code of ethics for judges. If any member splits. 99th Amendment Bill: The constitution (99th amendment) Bill sought to protect the rights of the non-tribals in the newly elected Bodo Territorial Council (BTC) by keeping intact the existing representation of the scheduled tribes and nonscheduled tribes in the Assam legislative assembly from the Bodoland territorial Council Areas district. .Further Constitution (Ninety First Amendment) act of 2003 brought certain changes in the 1985 Antidefection Law. 100th Amendment Bill: The Constitution (100th) amendment Bill sought to insert Bodo. This amendment deleted paragraph 3 of the Tenth Schedule. In other words. he disqualifies the membership and seek fresh election. At the same time. it is not possible for handful members to split and create new parties. Maithili and Santhali in the 8th schedule of the constitution.

Bill proposed states as the basic unit to judge which community is a minority in which state. President A. . a Supreme Court judgment decreed that Jains should not be treated as a minority at the national level and no more communities should be declared as a minority at the national level." Constitution (One Hundred and Third Amendment) Bill. Chairperson of this committee was Smt Sumitra Mahajan and the committee submitted its report on February 21. 2006. 2005. Bills were referred to the Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Social Justice and Empowerment. J. Current Status: The Bill got lapsed. 2004. The minority standard of Muslims. Jammu & Kashmir. 2006 and the 104th Constitution Amendment Bill became the the Constitution 93rd amendment Act. 2007. the Union Cabinet approved for moving the official amendments to the Constitution (One Hundred and Third Amendment) Bill & National Commission for Minorities (Repeal) Bill. Background: In 6 states& UTs viz. in Punjab Sikhs are in majority. While the President is to consult the states. It proposed to dissolve the National Commission for Minorities. would then notify the minorities in that state.12.103rd Amendment Bill: The Constitution (One Hundred and Third Amendment) Bill. 104th Amendment Bill: Constitution (One Hundred and Fourth Amendment) Bill was pased 22nd December. 2004 was to bring an end to these anomalies. in J& K Muslims are in majority. They will be consulted by the President of India. 2004 proposed to establish a new National Commission for Minorities. Only the state government may declare communities as minorities. Sikhs. Abdul Kalam signed it on January 20.2004. 2005. The Constitution (One Hundred and Third Amendment) Bill. Note: On May 3. Some features: The National Commission for Minorities (Repeal) Bill. 1992. Lakshadweep. 2004 along with National Commission for Minorities (Repeal) Bill. 2004 was introduced in Lok Sabha on 23. P. The states would be asked for their view on the basis of data available as to who is a minority. 2005. "On August 8. Buddhists and Parsees who are designated as minority in India should not be applicable to these states. he would not be bound to act on their advice. Mizoram. 2004 repeals the National Commission for Minorities Act. Meghalaya. Nagaland and Punjab. in order to inspire greater confidence towards the effectiveness of the Commission. 2004 along with National Commission for Minorities (Repeal) Bill. . For example. with a constitutional status. the Hindus are a minority in contrast with the rest of the country.

Madhya Pradesh & Orissa. 2005 Supreme Court had delivered a judgement by 7 judges uninamously in case of P. State of Maharashtra & Ors. In conclusion. including professional colleges. vs. Supreme court declared that State can't impose its reservation policy on minority and non-minority unaided private colleges.". who may in addition be in charge of the welfare of the scheduled castes and backward classes of Bihar. It brought all private institutions. whether aided or unaided. The move was to reverse the Supreme Court Judgement. The Supreme Court avoided answering the question whether reservations can be made in private institutions. This bill was passed and got assent of the President on June 12. Article 15 of the constitution. stated the following and did not include the term "admission to educational institutions". the Supreme Court of India upheld the Government's move for initiating 27% OBC quotas in Government funded institutions. excepting minority educational institutions. In April 2008. Clause(5) says: "Nothing in this article or in sub-clause (g) of clause (1) of article 19 shall prevent the State from making any special provision. The 93rd Constitutional amendment was brought (in a hurry) for ensuring reservations to other backward classes and Scheduled castes and Tribes in Private Educational institutions. The bill came in effect as Constitution (94th Amendment) Act 2006.This bill has been quite famous as "Quota Bill". Short Background: In August 12. whether aided or unaided by the State. as it was originally framed in 1950. it has also quietly achieved much more than that by widening the scope of the Amendment Act to specifically include the term "admission to educational institutions".. for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or for the Scheduled Castes or the Scheduled Tribes in so far as such special provisions relate to their admission to educational institutions including private educational institutions. whether aided or unaided. This act amends the article 15 and adds clause 15(5) after Clause 15(4). other than the minority educational institutions referred to in clause (1) of article 30. Inamdar & Ors.A. 106th Amendment Bill: . 2006 sought to exclude Bihar from purview of article 164 (1) and to extend the provision of this article to Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. 2006.by law. It adds a new clause to Article 15 of the Constitution. 105th Amendment Bill: The Constitution (One Hundred Fifth) Amendment Bill. this amendment enables the constitution to provide for reservations for OBCs in all "educational institutions" including private. stating that the question will be decided only as and when a law is made making reservations in private institutions. The Court has reiterated its prior stand that "Creamy Layer" should be excluded from the ambit of reservation policy. Note: Article 164 (1) provides for a minister in charge of the tribal welfare. under the purview of the Government's policies on reservation and fee structure.

Free and fair elections to be conducted by an independent body. autonomous functioning. State governments can co-opt upto two nominees on the Board of a co-operative society. 2007. Audit by independent auditors or Auditing firms out of the panel approved by State Government or an authority authorized by the Government in this behalf. Directors in the Cooperative Societies will also include two women and one Scheduled Caste representatives. 2006 was introduced in the Lok Sabha on May 22. In August 2008 Union Cabinet gave approval for moving certain official amendments in the Constitution (One Hundred and Sixth Amendment) Bill. . Background: The Constitution (106th Amendment) Bill proposed to to insert a new part IX B in the Constitution and adding Articles 243ZH through 243ZT providing for incorporation. The bill also specified for elections to be held before the expiry of the term of the Board. 2007. Chairperson of this committee was Prof. 2006. regulation and winding up of co-operative societies. The bill specified maximum number of Board members and the tenure of the members.. 107th Amendment Bill: The Constitution (One Hundred and Seventh Amendment) Bill. It was referred to the Department Related Standing Committee on Agriculture which submitted its report on August 20. 2007 had been introduced in Lok Sabha on November 30. The committee recommended at any other place in the constitution. This decision included benefits like empowerment of cooperatives by inserting article 43B in Part-IV of the Constitution providing for Voluntary formation. The Sixth Schedule to the Constitution (Amendment) Bill. Note: Government of India had constituted a high powered committee in 2005 in the chairmanship of Shri Shivajirao G. Committee also suggested that no supersession of the Board of Directors should be allowed in any case where government share holding is less than 51%. Ram Gopal Yadav. The bill specified that the Board of a co-operative society that has government shareholding or loans can be superseded for the maximum period of six months. The Bill specified certain offences related to co-operative societies. The committee was also asked to recommend appropriate lagislation for the Co-operatives.Constitution (One Hundred and Sixth Amendment) Bill. Patil to review the achievements of the cooperatives during the last one hundred years. State legislatures can define the penalties related to co-operative societies. democratic control and professional management. 2006. identify the challenges faced by the sector and suggest measures to address them to enable the movement to keep pace with the changing socio-economic environment. 2007 was also introduced with the same bill. The committee reviewed the Constitution Amendment Bill (106th Amendment Bill 2006) and recommended some more changes including that introducing new part IXB after part IXA along with the Panchayati Raj Institutions (PRI) and Municipalities would imply that cooperatives are a part of governance.

Background: Constitution (108th Amendment) Bill 2008 seeks to reserve one-third of all seats for women in Lok Sabha and the state legislative assemblies. 2010. The bill also seeks to reserve one-third of SC & ST seats for women of those classes. All District Councils have the power to make laws on a range of subjects such as the allotment of land. 109th Amendment Bill: Constitution (109th Amendment Act) 2009 was passed by Rajya Sabha on the 3rd August. Assam. and assented to on 18 Jan. 2009 & Lok Sabha on the 4th August. and inheritance of property. use of water course. This article has sought to extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies by another 10 years. The GHC has the power to make laws on 45 additional subjects such as agriculture. the words "seventy years" shall be substituted. The Bills were referred to the Standing Committee on Home Affairs which submitted its report on Feb 28. The bill further says that the reservation shall cease to exist in 15 years from the commencement of the act. Current status : Passed and this is the Latest Passed Amendment Act 110th Amendment Bill: . Standing Committee was unable to verify facts on the ground. Darjeeling (GHC). 108th Amendment Bill: Constitution (108th Amendment) Bill or Women s Reservation Bill has been the most highlighted amendment bills of recent times. Therefore. This bill was introduced in Rajya Sabha on May 6. 2008 and passed in Rajya Sabha on March 9.Current Position: This bill got lapsed.tripura. education and transport. Background: Through this amendment article 334 of the Constitution. Seats may be allotted by rotation. 2009 and ratified by the legislatures of not less than one -half of the states. Darjeeling in the Sixth Schedule What is Sixth Schedule? Sixth Schedule Articles 244 and 275 provides for the creation of autonomous District Councils in certain tribal areas of the North-Eastern states viz. it accepted the views of the central and state governments and recommended that the Bills be passed with some amendments. 2010. Chairperson of this committee was Sushma Swaraj. The Bill sought to form a District Council for the hill areas of Darjeeling in West Bengal called the Gorkha Hill Council. for the words "sixty years". The time period of 60 years under article 334 of the constitution was to lapse on January 25.mizoram.meghalaya.. 2008. Background: These bills sought to amend the Constitution to include Gorkha Hill Council. The allocation of the reserve seats to be determined by an authority or as prescribed by the parliament. 2010 and this bill extends the reservation beyond January 25. 2010.

Minister of Agriculture. 2009 was introduced in the Lok Sabha on November 26. which has to submit its report. Sharad Pawar . Current Status: The bill is pending . The Bill was referred to the Department related Standing Committee on Rural Development (Chairperson: Smt Sumitra Mahajan). 2009 was introduced in the Lok Sabha on November 30. Consumer Affairs and Public Distribution System. democratic control and professional management of co-operative societies. Background: Article 243D of the Constitution provides that a minimum of one-third of the total number of seats filled by direct elections in the Panchayats shall be reserved for women. autonomous functioning. Current Status (Till: March 2010) :This Bill has been approved and now has been referred to the Departmentally-related Parliamentary Standing committee on Urban Development for examination and report in March 2010. providing for reservation of seats for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and also for the women in Urban local Bodies. Background: The Bill adds a new Directive Principles of State Policy stating that the State shall endeavour to promote voluntary formation. Also. 112th Amendment Bill: The Constitution (112 th Amendment) Bill was introduced in the Lok Sabha on November 24. 2009 and this bill seeks to seeks to amend many clauses of Article 243T of the Constitution. Parliamentary Standing committee on Urban Development now invites suggestions the same bill. a minimum of one-third seats shall be reserved for women among the total number of offices of Chairpersons in the Panchayats. 2009 by Sh. .P.The Constitution (One Hundred and Tenth Amendment) Bill. Offices of Chairpersons in Panchayats shall be reserved for SC/STs and women in a manner to be prescribed the state legislatures. 2009 by the Minister of Panchayati Raj. Joshi. which outlines certain guidelines for running co-operative societies. Shri C. The Bill seeks to amend the article 243D to enhance the quantum of reservation for women from one-third to one-half of the total seats in the Panchayats. The seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Panchayat. 111th Amendment Bill: The Constitution (One Hundred and Eleventh Amendment) Bill. The reservation shall be in proportion to the population of SC/STs in the state. Similar reservation shall be provided among the total number of offices of Chairpersons. It further inserts a new part IX B in the Constitution (adding Articles 243ZH through 243ZT).

solid waste management. education and health. Also. sanitation. Sharad Yadav. Through this Bill the Government of India seeks to increase the representation of women in Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) from the present level of one-third to 50 percent which would also include enhancement of reservation for women upto 50 percent in seats reserved for Scheduled Castes.The committee is headed by Mr. 2010 seeks to change of name of the language mentioned in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. 2010. Article 243T: Article 243T of the Constitution provides that a minimum of one-third of the total number of seats filled by direct elections in every Municipality shall be reserved for women. the name of the language specified as "Oriya". etc. This would result in increased representation of women in ULBs and is likely to yield significant benefits in terms of higher priority to women s issues in critical areas of urban Governance and service delivery such as water supply. a minimum of one-third seats shall be reserved for SC/ST women within the seats reserved for SC/STs in a Municipality. Scheduled Tribes. The Constitution (One Hundred and Thirteenth Amendment) Bill. Offices of Chairpersons in Municipality shall be reserved for SC/STs and women in a manner to be prescribed the state legislatures. The Current Status of this bill is : pending Background: The Government of Orissa had forwarded to the Central Government in December 2008. The memoranda containing views of the individuals/organizations interested in the subject matter of the Bill. 113th Amendment Bill: The latest amendment bill is Constitution (One Hundred and Thirteenth Amendment) Bill. and also to hear oral evidence on the subject are invited. in the Eighth Schedule of Constitution be accordingly and authorised the Government of Orissa to place the matter before Government of India for change of name of the State and change of language of the State and change of their Hindi translations. 2010 which was introduced on March 15. inter alia. from 'Oriya' to 'Odia'. The seats may be allotted by rotation to different constituencies in a Municipality. Background: The Constitution (112th Amendment) Bill 2009 to provide for 50% reservationof women in Urban Local Bodies. The reservation of SC/STs shall be in proportion to the population of SC/STs in the state. and 50 percent reservations for women in the posts of Chairpersons. 2008 that. the Resolution passed by the Legislative Assembly of Orissa on 28th August. Please note that the bill that seeks to change the name of Orissa to Odisha is Orissa (Alteration of .

a rate of almost two amendments pe r year since 1950. Many more amendments followed.Introduction to Indian Constitution The Constitution of India is the world's lengthiest written constitution with 395 articles and 8 schedules. The people of India. similar to that in Canada. . Infact the first amendment to it was passed after only a year of the adoption of the constitution and instituted numerous minor changes. It contains the good points taken from the constitution's of many countries in the world. the emoluments for high-level officials. The Constituent Assembly had been elected for undivided India and held its first sitting on 9th Dec. expression. The ten schedules in force cover the designations of the states and union territories. It also borrows the concept of a Supreme Court from the US. India is a federal system in which residual powers of legislation remain with the central government. It follows a British parliamentary pattern with a lower and upper house. as The Sovereign Constituent Assembly for the dominion of India. The constitution of India draws extensively from Western legal traditions in its outline of the principles of liberal democracy.1946. economic and political. do hereby Adopt. It embodies some Fundamental Rights which are similar to the Bill of Rights declared by the United States constitution. 1949. having solemnly resolved to constitute India into a SOVEREIGN SOCIALIST SECULAR DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC and to secure to all its citizens: JUSTICE. EQUALITY of status and of opportunity and to promote among them all FRATERNITY assuring the dignity of the individual and the unity and integrity of the Nation IN OUR CONSTITUENT ASSEMBLY this twenty-sixth day of November. re-assembled on the 14th August 1947. belief. LIBERTY of thought. Preamble of The Constitution We. The constitution has provision for Schedules to be added to the constitution by amendment. Most of the constitution can be amended after a quorum of more than half of the members of each house in Parliament passes an amendment with a two-thirds majority vote. Articles pertaining to the distribution of legislative authority between the central and state governments must also be approved by 50 percent of the state legislatures. faith and worship. The Indian constitution is one of the most frequently amended constitutions in the world. The constitution provides detailed lists dividing up powers between central and state governments as in Australia. and it elaborates a set of Directive Principles of State Policy as does the Irish constitution. It was passed on 26 Nov 1949 by the 'The Constituent Assembly' and is fully applicable since 26 Jan 1950. forms of oaths. At the time of signing 284 out of 299 members of the Assembly were present. Enact and give ourselves this Constitution. allocation of the number of seats in the Rajya Sabha. A review of the constitution needs at least two-thirds of the Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha to pass it. In regard to its composition the members were elected by indirect election by the members of The Provisional Legislative Assemblies (lower house only). social.

Article 2: Admission or establishment of new States Parliament may by law admit into the Union.] Article 4: Laws made under articles 2 and 3 to provide for the amendment of the First and the Fourth Schedules and supplemental. The territory of India shall comprise: The territories of the States The Union territories specified in the First Schedule. that is Bharat. boundaries or name of any of the States. the Bill has been referred by the President to the Legislature of that State for expressing its views thereon within such period as may be specified in the reference or within such further period as the President may allow and the period so specified or allowed has expired. and such other territories as may be acquired.The Union and Its Territory Article 1: Name and territory of the Union India. boundaries or names of existing States Parliament may by law: Form a new State by separation of territory from any State or by uniting two or more States or parts of States or by uniting any territory to a part of any State Increase the area of any State Diminish the area of any State Alter the boundaries of any State Alter the name of any State [Provided that no Bill for the purpose shall be introduced in either House of Parliament except on the recommendation of the President and unless. shall be a Union of States. The States and the territories thereof shall be as specified in the First Schedule. incidental and consequential provisions (including provisions as to representation in Parliament and in the Legislature or Legislatures of the State or States affected by such law) as Parliament may deem necessary. or establish. where the proposal contained in the Bill affects the area. every person who has his domicile in the territory of India and . No such law as aforesaid shall be deemed to be an amendment of this Constitution for the purposes of article 368. new States on such terms and conditions as it thinks fit. incidental and consequential matters Any law referred to in article 2 or article 3 shall contain such provisions for the amendment of the First Schedule and the Fourth Schedule as may be necessary to give effect to the provisions of the law and may also contain such supplemental. Citizenship Article 5: Citizenship at the commencement of the Constitution At the commencement of this Constitution. Article 3: Formation of new States and alteration of areas.

has returned to the territory of India under a permit for resettlement or permanent return issued by or under the authority of any law and every such person shall for the purposes of clause (b) of article 6 be deemed to have migrated to the territory of India after the nineteenth day of July. whether before or after the commencement of this Constitution. in the form and manner prescribed by the Government of the Dominion of India or the Government of India. he has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India since the date of his migration. 1948. or In the case where such person has so migrated on or after the nineteenth day of July. or Who has been ordinarily resident in the territory of India for not less than five years immediately preceding such commencement. and who is ordinarily residing in any country outside India as so defined shall be deemed to be a citizen of India if he has been registered as a citizen of India by the diplomatic or consular representative of India in the country where he is for the time being residing on an application made by him therefor to such diplomatic or consular representative. shall be a citizen of India. and In the case where such person has so migrated before the nineteenth day of July. a person who has after the first day of March. he has been registered as a citizen of India by an officer appointed in that behalf by the Government of the Dominion of India on an application made by him therefor to such officer before the commencement of this Constitution in the form and manner prescribed by that Government: Provided that no person shall be so registered unless he has been resident in the territory of India for at least six months immediately preceding the date of his application. Article 6: Rights of citizenship of certain persons who have migrated to India from Pakistan Notwithstanding anything in article 5. 1948. any person who or either of whose parents or any of whose grand-parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act. after having so migrated to the territory now included in Pakistan. Article 8: Rights of citizenship of certain migrants to Pakistan: Notwithstanding anything in articles 5 and 6. 1947. 1948.Who was born in the territory of India. or Either of whose parents was born in the territory of India. a person who has migrated to the territory of India from the territory now included in Pakistan shall be deemed to be a citizen of India at the commencement of this Constitution if: He or either of his parents or any of his grand-parents was born in India as defined in the Government of India Act. 1935 (as originally enacted). 1935 (as originally enacted). migrated from the territory of India to the territory now included in Pakistan shall not be deemed to be a citizen of India: Provided that nothing in this article shall apply to a person who. Article 8: Rights of citizenship of certain persons of Indian origin residing outside India Notwithstanding anything in article 5. Article 9: Persons voluntarily acquiring citizenship of a foreign State not to be citizens .

when in pursuance to the Government of India Act. . 1984. or be deemed to be a citizen of India by virtue of article 6 or article 8. 1998. Rajya Sabha The origin of Rajya Sabha can be traced back to 1919. 1950. its Hindi nomenclature was adopted in 23 August. The Rajya Sabha. the Tenth Lok Sabha in June. continue to be such citizen. Thirteenth Lok Sabha in October. 1962. the Twelfth Lok Sabha in March. 1957. The President has the power to summon and prorogue either House of Parliament or to dissolve Lok Sabha. 1952. the Seventh Lok Sabha in January. 1977. 1954. Article 11: Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law Nothing in the foregoing provisions of this Part shall derogate from the power of Parliament to make any provision with respect to the acquisition and termination of citizenship and all other matters relating to citizenship.No person shall be a citizen of India by virtue of article 5. 2009. 1991. 1919. the Fifth Lok Sabha in March. the Second Lok Sabha in April. the Fourth Lok Sabha in March. 2004 and Fifteenth Lok Sabha in April. the Eighth Lok Sabha in December. the Ninth Lok Sabha in December. and 12 members nominated by the President. 1996. Article 10: Continuance of the rights of citizenship Every person who is or is deemed to be a citizen of India under any of the foregoing provisions of this Part shall. This Council of States. 1967. The Council continued to function till India became independent. the Third Lok Sabha in April. 1971. the Eleventh Lok Sabha in May. if he has voluntarily acquired the citizenship of any foreign State. 1980. Parliament of India Parliament Parliament is the supreme legislative body of India. The first general elections under the new Constitution were held during the year 1951-52 and the first elected Parliament came into being in April. comprising of mostly nominated members was a deformed version of second chamber without reflecting true federal features. The Constitution of India came into force on January 26. 1999. the Sixth Lok Sabha in March. 1989. The Rajya Sabha is to consist of not more than 250 members .238 members representing the States and Union Territories. subject to the provisions of any law that may be made by Parliament. The Indian Parliament comprises of the President and the two Houses-Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States). a second chamber known as the Council of States was created. Fourteenth Lok Sabha in May.

At present. the Constituent Assembly functioned as the Provisional Parliament until the first Lok Sabha. there is also a panel of "Vice Chairmen" in the Rajya Sabha. The Constitution provides that the maximum strength of the House be 552 members . Functions and Powers The cardinal functions of the Legislature include overseeing of administration. However. beyond a period of six months after the proclamation has ceased to operate. The House also elects a Deputy Chairman from among its members. and 2 members to be nominated by the President from the Anglo-Indian Community. Lok Sabha. with all their modern ramifications. The Charter Act of 1853. for the first time provided some sort of a legislature in the form of a 12 member Legislative Council. 1947 declared the Constituent Assembly of India to be a full sovereign body. and was constituted following General Elections in 1952. Lok Sabha is the House to which the Council of Ministers is responsible under the Constitution. is appointed by the Prime Minister as Leader of the House. it also assumed full powers for the governance of the country. 20 members to represent the Union Territories. and are replaced by newly elected members. while a proclamation of emergency is in operation. and discussing various subjects like development plans. With the coming into force of the Constitution on 26 January. Members of Rajya Sabha are elected by the elected members of State Legislative Assemblies in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of single transferable vote. . The Vice President of India is the ex-officio Chairman of Rajya Sabha. The normal life of every Lok Sabha is 5 years only while Rajya Sabha is a permanent body. Until 1853. one third of the members retire every second year. 1950. Money Bills can only be introduced in Lok Sabha. passing of budget. Lok Sabha Parliamentary institutions in India. the strength of the House is 545 members. there was no legislative body distinct from the Executive. 1954.Rajya Sabha is a permanent body and is not subject to dissolution. Difference between Lok Sabha and Rajya Sabha Members of Lok Sabha are directly elected by the eligible voters. The term of the Lok Sabha. ventilation of public grievances. The Lok Sabha is composed of representatives of people chosen by direct election on the basis of Universal Adult Suffrage. Apart from being a Constitution drafting body. The Indian Independence Act. Besides. Also it is Lok Sabha. unless dissolved.530 members to represent the States. owe their origin to India's British connections. However. this period may be extended by Parliament by law for a period not exceeding one year at a time and not extending in any case. The senior most Minister. which grants the money for running the administration of the country. is five years from the date appointed for its first meeting. the Hindi nomenclature was adopted on 14 May. Each member is elected for a term of six years. then known as the House of People. who is a member of Rajya Sabha. Rajya Sabha has special powers to declare that it is necessary and expedient in the national interest that Parliament may make laws with respect to a matter in the State List or to create by law one or more all-India services common to the Union and the States.

Dr. assume legislative power with respect to a subject falling within the sphere. that period is inextricably associated with the persona of Dr. Governor of the Reserve Bank of India. Singh joined the Government of India as Economic Advisor in the Commerce Ministry. and Chairman of the University Grants Commission. where he earned a First Class Honours degree in Economics in 1957. Assist the President in appointment of all high officials. under certain circumstances. Prime Minister of India Powers of Prime Minister Appoints the COuncil of Ministers. 1964] was an early critique of India's inward-oriented trade policy.Party (INC) India s fourteenth Prime Minister. He had a brief stint at the UNCTAD Secretariat as well. the most . the Chief Election Commissioner. Manmohan Singh is rightly acclaimed as a thinker and a scholar. Can recommend the dissolution of Lok Sabha before expire. during these years. Singh in his public career. He is well regarded for his diligence and his academic approach to work. Singh spent five years between 1991 and 1996 as India s Finance Minister. remove judges of Supreme and High Courts. 1932. Singh. exclusively reserved for the states. In the case of Money Bills. In 1971. Singh s academic credentials were burnished by the years he spent on the faculty of Punjab University and the prestigious Delhi School of Economics. UK. Leader of the House Dr. Can recommend to the President to declare emergency on grounds of war. India's Export Trends and Prospects for Self-Sustained Growth [Clarendon Press. the will of the Lok Sabha prevails. Allocates portfolios. Oxford. in a village in the Punjab province of undivided India. Manmohan Singh (May 22. Dr.international relations. and Comptroller and Auditor General in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Constitution. This was soon followed by his appointment as Chief Economic Advisor in the Ministry of Finance in 1972. This presaged a subsequent appointment as Secretary General of the South Commission in Geneva between 1987 and 1990. In what was to become the turning point in the economic history of independent India. The Parliament is also vested with the power to initiate amendments in the Constitution. His academic career took him from Punjab to the University of Cambridge. Dr. Dr. 2004 . Singh has occupied are Secretary in the Ministry of Finance. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh was born on September 26. Dr. The Parliament is also vested with powers to impeach the President. Singh completed his Matriculation examinations from the Panjab University in 1948. as well as his accessibility and his unassuming demeanour.till date) . His role in ushering in a comprehensive policy of economic reforms is now recognized worldwide. Advisor of the Prime Minister. and national policies. Among the many awards and honours conferred upon Dr. Can ask a minister to resign and can get him dismissed by President. His book. All legislation requires the consent of both Houses of Parliament. Dr. external aggression or armed rebellion. Among the many Governmental positions that Dr. The Parliament can. Advises President about President's rule in the State or emergency due to financial instability. In the popular view of those years in India. Singh followed this with a D.Phil in Economics from Nuffield College at Oxford University in 1962. Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission. The President convenes and prorogues all sessions of Parliamenr in consultation with him/her.

the Padma Vibhushan (1987). he still takes time off from affairs of state of indulge in music and in a bit of gourmet cooking. the Euro Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993). Born in the family of a humble school teacher on December 25 1924. the Jawaharlal Nehru Birth Centenary Award of the Indian Science Congress (1995). a record by itself. A veteran Parliamentarian whose career stretches over four decades. forward moving India. where he was Leader of the Opposition between 1998 and 2004. Chairperson of various important Standing Committees of Parliament and Leader of the Opposition. An ardent champion of women's empowerment and social equality. ever re-energising itself to meet the challenges of the next 1000 years. India. A critically acclaimed poet. he took charge as Prime Minister of India for the second consecutive term at the head of a new coalition government. and the Wright's Prize for Distinguished Performance at St. the Asia Money Award for Finance Minister of the Year (1993 and 1994). Shri Vajpayee believes in a forward-looking. an erudite politician. He stands for an India anchored in 5000 years of civilisational history.an interest he has nourished over the years and put to skilful use while representing India at various multilateral and bilateral fora. was conferred upon him in recognition of his selfless dedication to his first and only love. Shri Vajpayee's first brush with nationalist politics was in his student days. Singh has also been honoured by a number of other associations including by the Japanese Nihon Keizai Shimbun. 2004) . a strong and prosperous nation confident of its rightful place in the comity of nations. a selfless social worker. 1996 and March 19. the fore-runner of today's Bharatiya Janata Party. In 1994. ever modernising. and his more than half-a-century of service to society and the nation. he has been an active participant in shaping India's post-Independence domestic and foreign policy. Foreign Minister. Shri Vajpayee's rise in public life is a tribute to both his political acumen and Indian democracy. the Padma Vibhushan.June 1. Dr. Shri Vajpayee has been elected to the Lok Sabha (House of the People) nine times and to the Rajya Sabha (House of the States) twice. . As India's Prime Minister. Singh has been a Member of India s Upper House of Parliament (the Rajya Sabha) since 1991. which was cut short in 1951 when he joined the Bharatiya Jana Sangh. Dr. he has emerged as a leader who commands respect for his liberal worldview and commitment to democratic ideals. 1999. Singh has represented India at many international conferences and in several international organizations. He was Prime Minister for a short period in 1996. He is the only Prime Minister since Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru to have become Prime Minister of India with two successive mandates. He has led Indian Delegations to the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in Cyprus (1993) and to the World Conference on Human Rights in Vienna in 1993. he was named India's 'Best Parliamentarian. in the erstwhile princely state of Gwalior (now a part of the Indian State of Madhya Pradesh). John's College in Cambridge (1955). firm in his political convictions.Party (BJP) A man of the masses. 1998 . the National Democratic Alliance. India's second highest civilian honour. Atalji is an eminent national leader. On October 13. A student of political science and law. Atal Bihari Vajpayee (May 16. Over the decades. when he joined the Quit India Movement of 1942 which hastened the end of British colonial rule. Dr. 1996 . Shri Vajpayee had embarked upon a journalist's career.May 22. it was in college that he developed a keen interest in foreign affairs .' The citation read: "True to his name. the leading component of the National Democratic Alliance. In his political career. ever renewing.prominent are India s second highest civilian honour. the Adam Smith Prize of the University of Cambridge (1956).

Member of Parliamentary Standing Committee for External Affairs till April 1996. 1989 to 1991.forceful orator. Delegate . Son of Late Shri Avtar Narain Gujral and Late Smt. 1996.D. Public Accounts Committee. he himself actively participated in the freedom struggle in 1931 and was arrested and severely beaten by the police for organising movement of young children in the Jhelum town. Member of the Capital Plan Monitoring Committee.A.S. Rajya Sabha. Geneva 1995. Shiela Gujral were married on May 26. Leader of the Indian Delegation to UN Session of Human Rights. General Secretary of the Punjab Students Federation. Parliamentary positions held: Leader of the House. General Purposes Committee. Paris 1973. Shri Gujral is M. Shri Gujral belongs to a family of freedom fighters: both his parents participated in the freedom struggle in Punjab. Leader of the Indian Delegation to the UN General Assembly 1990.S. 1972 and 1974. He and Smt.R. (Hons. Member of Parliament 1964 to 1976. 1998) .Party (Janta Dal) Shri Inder Kumar Gujral was sworn in as the 12th Prime Minister of India on Monday. B. Shri Inder Kumar Gujral (April 21.Litt. Srinagar and Delhi. He was born at Jhelum (in undivided Punjab) on 4th December 1919. 1997 . Causa). re-elected to Rajya Sabha in 1992 from Bihar. VicePresident of the New Delhi Municipal council 1959-64. journalist and indeed a multi-faceted personality Atalji articulates the aspirations of the masses his works ever echo total commitment to nationalism. Indian Delegation to UNO 1995 and 1994. 1997. 1977. Standing Committee on External Affairs. Ph. He was the Minister of External Affairs earlier during 1989-1990. He was Ambassador of India to U. Before assuming the office of the Prime Minister of India. Chairman of the official Committee for the Promotion of Urdu (Gujral Committee). Convenor and Spokesman of United Front of the Opposition Parties Conclave at Calcutta. Committee on Rules. 1993 to April 1996. former President of the Institute of Defence Studies & Analysis (IDSA). 1945. Leader of the Indian Delegation to UNESCO Conference on Education and Environment.Inter- .Com. Pushpa Gujral. Other important offices held: Chairman. Member. Shri Gujral was the Minister of External Affairs from June 1. Member. Committee on Subordinate Legislation. Chairman. Leader of the Indian Delegation to the UN Special Session of Economic Development 1990. President Lahore Students Union. Committee on Petitions. Rajya Sabha. & D. In 1942. 1996 and held additional charge of the Ministry of Water Resources from June 28. Indian Council of South Asian Co-operation. At the young age of eleven. Rajya Sabha. the 21st of April. Chairman of Parliamentary Standing Committee on Commerce & Textiles. Rajya Sabha from June 1996. Alternate Leader of the Indian Delegation to the UNESCO Session in 1970. he was jailed during the Quit India Movement.March 19. International delegations: Leader of the Indian Delegation to United Nations General Assembly 1996.. poet and litterateur. (Cabinet Rank) from 1976-1980 and held the following Ministerial positions from 1967-1976: Minister of Communications & Parliamentary Affairs Minister of Information & Broadcasting and Communications Minister of Works & Housing Minister of Information & Broadcasting Minister of Planning. UNESCO Seminar on Man and New Communication Systems.

Jalandhar (Punjab).Parliamentary Union Conference-Bucharest 1995. CoChairman of the Asian Rotary Conference in 1961. as well as theatre. An effective Speaker on the floor of the Assembly. including his seniors.e. Social organisations with which he was associated: President. He earned himself a niche in the minds of people while serving as the President of Anjaneya Co-operative Society and later as a member of Taluk Development Board. Shri Gowda ascended the political rungs gradually. Shri Deve Gowda resigned his membership of the Sixth Assembly on November 22. Chad and Republic of Central Africa 1975. Egypt and Sudan. Hoping to set right the inequalities prevailing in society. he joined the Congress Party in 1953 and remained a member till 1962. His tenure as Irrigation Minister saw the switching on of many irrigation projects.N. the Fifth (1972-77) and the Sixth (1978-83) Assemblies. Shri Deve Gowda utilised this period of .Party (Janta Dal) Shri H. Coming from a middle class agrarian background and exposed to the hardships of farmer s life. and was imprisoned during the days of emergency. Nari Niketan Trust & A. Shri H. Hassan District in Karnataka. 1933 in Haradanahalli village of Holenarasipura taluk. the Fourth (1967-71). he served as the Minister of Public Works and Irrigation. Special Envoy of India to the inaugural of the Republic of Malawi 1966. Shri Deve Gowda plunged into active politics at the early age of 20 when. Special Envoy to Bulgaria 1961. President of Rotary Club of Delhi 1960. 1996 . Holenarasipur constituency sent him to the Assembly for three more consecutive terms i. Deve Gowda. D. Special Envoy of India to Gabon.April 21. won him laurels. Delegate Inter-Parliamentary Union Meeting Canberra (Australia) 1967. Bhutan. He resigned from the Cabinet in 1987 protesting against insufficient allocation of funds for Irrigation. Union Minister in attendance to President of India during State Visits to Sri Lanka. Starting from lower strata of the democratic set-up. a staunch crusader of socio-economic development and an ardent admirer of the rich cultural heritage of India. Gujral Memorial School. His service as the Leader of Opposition in the Assembly. As a member of the Seventh and the Eighth Assembly. Indo-Pak Friendship Society. Cameroon. Canada 19194. Deve Gowda (June 1. he always dreamt of an ideal utopian State. Stockholm 1974. A crusader for freedom and equality. Vice-President of Lok Kalyan Samiti. was born on May 18. A Civil Engineering Diploma holder. 1982. 1997) . Special interests: Shri Gujral has been a writer and commentator on National and International Affairs. When just 28 years old. Congo. D. Delegate Commonwealth Parliamentary Association Conference. after completing his education. Holenarasipura. he earned the wrath of the powers that be at the Centre in 1975-76. the youthful Gowda contested as an Independent and was a runaway success from day one when he first became a member of the Karnataka Legislative Assembly in 1962. Founder President of Delhi Art Theatre. under privileged and oppressed sections of society. Chairman Indian Council of South Asian Co-operation. young Gowda vowed to become a fighter who would take up the cause of poor farmers. from March 1972 to March 1976 and November 1976 to December 1977.. President. he was acclaimed by one and all. Alternate Leader of Indian Delegation to the UN Session on Environment. Co-Chairman Asian Rotary Conference 1961.

This. Shri Gowda successfully brought about a peaceful solution to the issue. but assertive and effective.forced rest to enrich his knowledge through exhaustive reading. he has proved to be one of the most ardent supporters of liberalisation with a human face. and put aside his bitter feuds with political rivals. no stranger to the fickleness of political fortunes. He earned respect for his forthright espousal of the plight of farmers. Before his political initiation. But Shri Gowda s big chance came after the rout of Congress (O) in the 1971 Lok Sabha elections. helped him mould his personality and perspective. He made friends in Karnataka and Delhi. the couple have four sons and two daughters. He is therefore. Ever a workaholic.especially of farmers . The seven years that he spent as an Independent helped him observe party politics from outside. Shri Gowda himself tasting defeat for the first time in his career losing in both constituencies he contested. 1994 he assumed office as the 14th Chief Minister of Karnataka. His tours to European and Middle Eastern countries were a testimony to his achievements as a dedicated politician. He then contested as a candidate from Ramanagar Assembly constituency and won by a thumping majority. Devamma. Born to Shri Dodde Gowda and Smt. The defeat lent a sharper edge to his pursuit to regain lost honour and power. He emerged the leader of a truncated opposition hit by the Indira Gandhi wave. Affectionately called the 'son of the soil' (dharti ke lal). Elected to Parliament from Hassan Lok Sabha constituency in 1991. His re-election in 1967 gave him more confidence and in 1969 when the Congress split. He was the driving force behind the Janata Dal's rise to power in the State in 1994. It was a ground that belonged to the minority community and was the butt of political controversy. One of the sons is an MLA in . Since the 70s. He also earned a name for practising and upholding the prestige and dignity and Parliament and its institutions. Chennamma. Married to Smt. He was a much more seasoned and determined person when he emerged out of his confinement. is the politics of the people and he is happy when he is surrounded by people and is doing something for them. and the interaction between him and other stalwarts of Indian politics who were also jailed during that period. Shri Gowda toured Switzerland and attended the Forum of International Economists.to the forefront. Shri Gowda is known for giving patient hearing to all shades of opinions and is equally at home with the elite when they come calling. friends as well as foes have been commenting on his singular pre-occupation with politics and its processes. His politics. He was elected as the leader of the Janata Dal Legislative Party and on December 11. says Shri Gowda. which brought in the much needed foreign investment to the State. proved his business acumen. in Parliament. which was in power in Karnataka then. a profile that is low. His political acumen was tested again when he brought the Idgah Maidan issue at Hubli to the forefront. Shri Deve Gowda is proud of his simple agricultural background. and spurred him to re-examine his own style of politics. His tour to Singapore. In 1989. His prolonged experience in active politics and his strong base at the grassroots level enabled him to plunge straightway into the task of tackling many problems faced by the State. Shri Gowda had been a contractor taking up minor works. he was instrumental in bringing the problems of the State . In January 1995. Shri Gowda is a person with a life style that is simple. his group of the Janata Party fared poorly in Karnataka winning just 2 of the 222 Assembly seats it contested. Shri Deve Gowda became the President of Janta party twice at State level and President of State Janata Dal in 1994. he was always seen engrossed with books and periodicals in the legislature library. he joined the Congress (O) headed by Shri Nijalingappa.

he was Minister for External Affairs from January 14. Being an agriculturist and an advocate. 1975-76. Madras. writing poems in Telugu and Hindi and keeping abreast of literature in general. 1967 and Education. Telugu translation of late Shri Hari Narayan Apte's famous Marathi Novel. Vice-President. More recently. 1982 and 1983 were eventful years for India and its foreign policy. West Germany. Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. 1984 to December 31. The leadership of the Third Front (a group of regional parties and Non-Congress and Non-BJP combine) leading to Prime Ministership came to Shri Gowda without him seriously aspiring for it. 1921 at Karimnagar. a Hindi translation of late Shri Viswanatha Satyanarayana's famous Telegu Novel 'Veyi Padagalu' published by Jnanpith. Bombay University and the Nagpur University. Law and Endowments.K. Public Accounts Committee. Shri Rao has shown keen personal interest in international economic issues and personally led the Indian delegation to the Conference of the Group of 77 on ECDC at Caracas. Chairman. writing fiction and political commentary. Shri P. 1996) . Dakshin Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha.V. In the shadow of the Gulf war the Non-aligned Movement asked India to host the Seventh Summit. He lectured at Universities in the U.S. Lok Sabha 1977-84 and was elected to Eighth Lok Sabha from Ramtek in December. He translated other famous works from Marathi to Telugu and from Telugu to Hindi. Shri Rao also Chaired Bhartiya Vidya Bhavan's Andhra Centre. 1984. 1968-71. Narasimha Rao (June 21. 1978-79 he participated in a Conference on South Asia convened by the School of Asian and African Studies. His special interest lies in Indian philosophy and culture. 1996 to be sworn in as the 11th Prime Minister of India. 1957-77. 1971-73. During the period when he was Minister of External Affairs. P. Narasimha Rao . Italy and Egypt in 1974. Minister of Home Affairs from July 19. Member. V. General Secretary. 1968-74. Narasimha Rao was born on June 28. published by Central Sahitya Academy. Andhra Pradesh. A widower. 1984 to September 25. cinema and theatre. in May 1981. Government of Andhra Pradesh.Party (Congress[I]) Son of Shri P. 1985. He was also Member. Switzerland. London University. He chaired the III Conference of UNIDO at New Delhi in January 1980. he joined politics and held some important portfolios. He was the Chief Minister. 1984 and the Minister of Defence from December 31.A.. Andhra Pradesh. and published many articles in different magazines mostly under a pen name.May 16. and West Germany on political matters and allied subjects. Health and Medicine. Shri P. He was the Minister of Law and Information. A man of many interests. from 1972. 1964-67. Shri Deve Gowda resigned as the Chief Minister of Karnataka on May 30. Hyderabad. This also meant India assuming the Chair of the Movement and Smt. He also chaired a meeting of the Group of 77 at New York in March 1980.Karnataka and another one was elected to the Lok Sabha. within a few days of assuming charge. Indira Gandhi becoming its Chairperson. As Chairman. 1985. "Pan Lakshat Kon gheto".V. 1991. his role at the Conference of Foreign Ministers of Non-aligned Countries in February 1981 earned him wide appreciation. Narasimha Rao is the father of three sons and five daughters. 1980 to July 18. he likes music. Ranga Rao.V. 1984. Telugu Academy. He then assumed charge as Minister of Human Resource Development on September 25. All India Congress Committee. Shri P. Shri Rao successfully brought to bear his scholarly background and rich political and administrative experience on the field of international diplomacy. learning languages. He has successfully published 'SahasraPhan'. 1962-64. 'Abala Jeevitam'. As Minister of External Affairs he travelled extensively to U. He studied in Osmania University.

State Praja Socialist Party. His diary. top bodies of the Indian National Congress. He joined the Indian National Congress in January 1965. State Praja Socialist Party. he was elected Joint Secretary of the U. Ballia. in a farmer s family in village Ibrahimpatti in District Ballia. Pakistan. Iran. On September 25.R. a weekly published from Delhi in 1969. He had the privilege of having been associated very closely with Acharya Narendra Dev. Uttar Pradesh.S. in an effort to resolve the Palestian Liberation Organisation. Shri Rao was associated actively with the Commonwealth Heads of Government in New Delhi and with the Action Group set up by the meeting on the question of Cyprus. In his capacity as Minister of External Affairs.. Tanzania and Guyana. Vietnam. written in Hindi while undergoing imprisonment . Shri Chandra Sekhar was among the few individuals in the then ruling party who was imprisoned during the Emergency. Bangladesh. U. 1927. He was President of the Janata Party from 1977 to 1988.presided over meetings of Foreign Ministers of Non-aligned Nations on the eve of the New Delhi Summit and also at the United Nations both in 1982. In this context. During the Emergency (June 1975 to March 1977) YOUNG INDIAN had to be closed down. He soon became a focal point of dissent within the Congress Party. on November 5. 1975.. at the initiative of the Movement. 1990 . when India was asked to host the Summit and the following year when.P. Shri Narasimha Rao has chaired on behalf of India a number of Joint Commissions including those with the U. he was arrested under Maintenance of Internal Security Act inspite of the fact that he was a member of the Central Election Committee and Working Committee. He is the Chairman of its Editorial Advisory Board. After his Master s Degree in Political Science from Allahabad University (195051).1985 he took over as Minister of Human Resource Development. Shri Narasimha Rao took over as Home Minister on July 19. He came to be as 'Young Turk' leader for his conviction. In 1962. As a Member of Parliament he made a mark by taking keen interest in espousing the cause of the downtrodden and pleading for policies for rapid social change. 1984 to September 25. Appointed Minister of Defence from December 31.. This propelled him more towards Shri Jayaprakash Narayan and his idealist view of life during the turbulant days of 1973-75. 1991) Party (Janta Dal[S]) Shri Chandra Shekhar was born on July 1. 1984. In 1967 he was elected General Secretary of the Congress Parliamentary Party. Within a year.S. Shri Chandra Shekhar was attracted to politics from his student days and was known as a fire-brand idealist with revolutionary fervour. 1984. He was re-appointed to this post. It resumed regular publication in February 1989. He has always rejected the politics of power and opted for the politics of commitment to democratic values and social change.P.A. When Emergency was declared on June 25. In 1955-56 he took over as General Secretary of the U. He was elected Secretary of the District Praja Socialist Party. he was elected to the Rajya Sabha from Uttar Pradesh. with the additional charge of the Ministry of Planning. Shri Rao was also the Leader of the Special Non-aligned Mission that visited countries in West Asia in November 1983. Its editorial had the distinction of being among the most quoted ones of the time. 1985. he came in conflict with the centres of power. he joined the Socialist Movement. courage and integrity in the fight against vested interested. when he attacked the disproportionate growth of monopoly houses with State patronage.June 21. He founded and edited YOUNG INDIAN. informal consultations amongst Heads of State and Government from diverse nations across the world were held at New York. Shri Chandra Shekhar (November 10.S. Shri Chandra Sekhar has always stood against politics of personalities and has favoured politics of ideology and social change.

1980-June 14. 1984 he became the Union Finance Minister. 1983. Rajiv Gandhi (October 31. he was the proud founder of Gopal Vidyalaya. 1980.June 28.Party(Janta Dal) Born on June 25. Member Legislative Assembly. Congress Legislative Party. was later published under the title 'Meri Jail Diary'. Madhya Pradesh. on September 1. His mother. He vacated the latter.November 10. Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha). was eight years older when she first became Prime Minister in 1966. He was the member of All India Congress Committee. He actively participated in Bhoodan movement in 1957 and donated a well-established farm in village Pasna.1983. Karnataka. The Padayatra was undertaken to renew rapport with the masses and to understand their pressing problems.December 2. He was the President of the Students Union at Udai Pratap College. Legislative Council. the directly elected house of the Indian Parliament. He was educated at Allahabad and Poona Universities. Executive Body. 1931 at Allahabad. 1983 to June 25. as soon as mourning for his slain mother was over. 1981-July 16. 1989) . Such an impressive start as the leader of 700 million Indians would have been remarkable under any circumstance. Shri Gandhi received the biggest mandate in the nation's history. June 15.during the Emergency period. the Congress. 1984 he was elected President. 1983. 1989 . Allahabad University. Uttar Pradesh. A scholarly man.Party (Congress[I]) At 40. and the adjoining Maharajganj constituency in Bihar. January 3-July 26. In that election. 1955 and has two sons. Uttar Pradesh Congress Committee and on December 31. He has established about fifteen Bharat Yatra Centres in various parts of the country including Kerala. 1990) . Uttar Pradesh. Rajiv Gandhi was the youngest Prime Minister of India. 1984 . October 1974-November 1976. Allahabad University Students Union. was 58 when he started the long innings of 17 years as free India's first Prime Minister. As the harbinger of a generational change in the country. He was the Member of Parliament (Rajya Sabha) in July 16. Shri V. Indira Gandhi. Union State Minister of Commerce. 1971-74.P. Tamil Nadu. A well-known compilation of his writings is 'Dynamics of Social Change'. Shri Chandra Shekhar undertook a marathon walk (Padayatra) through the country from Kanyakumari in the deep South to Rajghat (Samadhi of Mahatma Gandhi) in New Delhi covering a distance of nearly 4260 kms from January 6. Intermediate College. His illustrious grandfather. What makes it even more unique is that Shri Gandhi was a late . 1969-71 and Legislative Assembly. Allahabad. He ordered elections to the Lok Sabha. Member. he also held additional charge of the Department of Supply in February 15. Uttar Pradesh 1969-71. 197071. Smt. Mr. He was the Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh. November 21. District Allahabad. Singh (December 2. Singh is the son of Raja Bahadur Ram Gopal Singh. Shri V. In 1989 he successfully contested both from his home constituency. Member of Parliament (Lok Sabha). Uttar Pradesh and Haryana to train social and political workers for mass education and grassroot work in backward pockets of the country. Jawaharlal Nehru. Union Deputy Minister of Commerce. got a much higher proportion of the popular vote than in the preceding seven elections and captured a record 401 seats out of 508.1980. Maharashtra. 1983. Varanasi in 1947-48 and was the Vice-President. Pt. June 9. Sita Kumari on June 25. November 1976-March 1977. He was married to Smt. Koraon. Mr. He has been a Member of Parliament since 1962 except for a brief period from 1984 to 1989. Gujarat. 1982. He was the Whip.1981. As a Union Minister of Commerce in January 29. Ballia. P.1983. perhaps even one of the youngest elected heads of Government in the world.

where Indira Gandhi served as the Prime Minister's hostess. he had met Sonia Maino. an Italian who was studying English. They were married in New Delhi in 1968.P. No wonder then. then besieged by many internal and external challenges. 1944. Shri Gandhi travelled tirelessly from one part of the country to the other. Shri Gandhi was at home in the world of high technology. All these qualities came to the fore later in far more testing and trying times. And. Rajiv Gandhi spent his early childhood with his grandfather in the Teen Murti House. was to propel it into the twenty-first century. when India hosted the Asian Games. Shri Rajiv Gandhi was born on August 20. he passed the entrance examination to the Delhi Flying Club. as well as modern music.becoming both Prime Minister and Congress President . They stayed in Smt. He was just three when India became independent and his grandfather became Prime Minister. For no one could have ascended to power . caused by his brother's death.and reluctant entrant into politics even though he belonged to an intensely political family that had served India for four generations . But his brother Sanjay's death in an air crash in 1980 changed that. but later bowed to their logic. not works on philosophy. the domestic national carrier. and earned a reputation as a fearless and hard-working Parliamentarian. the commitment made years earlier to build the stadia and other infrastructure was fulfilled. became an M. politics or history. . dignity and restraint. but soon shifted to the Imperial College (London). as went on to admit later. At the same time. A modern-minded. covering a distance equal to one and a half times the earth's circumference. According to his classmates. In November 1982.both during the freedom struggle and afterwards. Shri Gandhi went to Trinity College. Pressures on Shri Gandhi to enter politics and help his mother. He won the by-election to the Parliament. He briefly went to school at Welham Prep in Dehra Dun but soon moved to the residential Doon School in the Himalayan foothills. he started streamlining and energising the party organisation with equal diligence. his bookshelves were lined with volumes on science and engineering. as he repeatedly said. from Amethi in U. He liked Western and Hindustani classical. While at Cambridge. as General Secretary of the Congress.. After leaving school. His parents moved to New Delhi from Lucknow. that on returning home from England. and went to the obtain a commercial pilot's licence. He did a course in mechanical engineering. During the month long election campaign. however. But he bore the awesome burden of personal grief and national responsibility with remarkable poise.in more tragic and tormenting circumstances than Shri Gandhi did in the wake of his mother's brutal assassination on 31 October. had a pride of place in his interests. Soon. His greatest passion. He really was not interested in 'mugging for his exams'. one of his main objectives.P. His father. besides preserving India's unity. Sanjay. in Bombay. decisive but undemonstrative man. Feroze Gandhi. Music. Theirs was a very private life despite the surrounding din and bustle of political activity. Indira Gandhi's residence in New Delhi with their two children. Cambridge. Other interests included photography and amateur radio. He resisted these pressures at first. It was clear that politics did not interest him as a career. grew. was flying. 1984. There he made many lifelong friendships and was also joined by his younger brother. however. he became a pilot with Indian Airlines. Rahul and Priyanka. speaking at 250 meetings in as many places and meeting millions face to face. In fulfilling this challenging task. he first displayed his flair for quiet efficiency and smooth coordination. Shri Gandhi was entrusted with the task of getting all the work completed on time and ensuring that the games themselves were conducted without any hitches or flaws.

Gupta s Ministry he was Minister for Home and Agriculture (1960).P. 1979) . were drastically reduced. Information etc. Sucheta Kripalani s Ministry. Gupta s Ministry he was Minister for Home and Agriculture (1960). Busar High School and passed his matriculation examination.January 14. 'Co-operative Farming Xrayed'. He was educated St. In Shri C. 1979 . Shri Morarji Desai (March 24. Redemption Bill 1939. 1970.B.P. 1962 and 1967. Shri Charan Singh served Uttar Pradesh in various capacities and won a reputation as a hard taskmaster who would not tolerate inefficiency.July 28. Later he took over as the Minister for Revenue and Agriculture in the Cabinet of Dr. He shifted to Meerut in 1929 and later joined the Congress. A gifted parliamentarian and a pragmatist. he set up practice at Ghaziabad. He was the author of several books and pamphlets. Chaudhary Charan Singh led a simple life and spent his spare time reading and writing. However.Shri Charan Singh (July 28. As Chief Minister he was instrumental in bringing about the Land Holding Act 1960 which was aimed at lowering the ceiling on land holdings to make it uniform throughout the State.P. Shri Charan Singh served as Minister for Agriculture and Forests (1962-63) in Smt. which brought great relief to rural debtors. A dedicated public worker and staunch believer in social justice. He graduated in science in 1923.. He was the chief architect of land reforms in U. Shri Charan Singh is known for his eloquence and courage of conviction. Also trained in law. Shri Charan Singh s strength stemmed essentially from the confidence he enjoyed among millions of peasants. and represented the constituency in 1946. From his childhood. 1896 in Bhadeli village. He gave up the Department of Agriculture in 1965 and assumed charge of the Local Selfgovernment department in 1966. he took a leading part in formulation and finalisation of the Dept. Shri Charan Singh served as Minister for Agriculture and Forests (1962-63) in Smt. Sampurnanand in 1952. He was first elected to the U. He gave up the Department of Agriculture in 1965 and assumed charge of the Local Self-government department in 1966. Justice. young Morarji learnt from his father the value of hard work and truthfulness under all circumstances.P. he became the Chief Minister of U. for the second time in February 1970 with the support of the Congress Party. His father was a school teacher and a strict disciplinarian. 'Peasant Proprietorship or Land to the Workers' and 'Prevention of Division of Holdings Below a Certain Minimum'. Legislative Assembly in 1937 from Chhatrauli. 1977 . including 'Abolition of Zamindari'. and did his post-graduation from Agra University in 1925. he served as a Deputy Collector for twelve . Sucheta Kripalani s Ministry. nepotism and corruption in administration. he was appointed Cabinet Minister in the State and given charge of the Departments of Justice and Information. Few political leaders in the country could match Shri Charan Singh in their command of popular will at the grass-roots level. After graduating from the Wilson Civil Service of the then Bombay Province in 1918. In June 1951.B. 1980) . President s Rule was imposed in the State on October 2. When he resigned in April 1959. in a middle class peasant family. After the Congress split. Medical and Public Health. He became Parliamentary Secretary in Pandit Govind Ballabh Pant s Government in 1946 and worked in various departments such as Revenue. he was holding charge of the Department of Revenue and Transport. now in the Bulsar district of Gujarat. 1952. In Shri C.Party (Janta Party) Shri Morarji Desai was born on February 29. It was also at his initiative that the salaries and other privileges enjoyed by Ministers in U.Party(Janta Party) Shri Charan Singh was born in 1902 at Noorpur in Meerut district of Uttar Pradesh. 'India s Poverty and its Solution'.

When the Congress Party split in 1969. In 1930. 1942 at the time of the Quit India Movement. he went on an indefinite fast on the question of holding elections to the Gujarat Assembly which had been dissolved. His long and varied experienced of public life stood him in good stead in his task.G. In 1963. He continued to take a leading part the opposition. he implemented the legislation with an unswerving sincerity earning wide reputation for his administration in Bombay. problems relating to family occupied a subordinate position'. According to him. He brought curbs on extravagant living of the privileged section of society. He became a Member of the All India Congress Committee in 1931 and was Secretary of the Gujarat Pradesh Congress Committee untill 1937. The Congress Ministries went out of office in 1939 in protest against India involvement in the World War without the consent of the people. Agriculture. As a result of his fast. he became the Minister for Home and Revenue in Bombay. pursuaded him to become Chairman of the Administrative Reforms Commission for restructuring the administrative system. Indira Gandhi s cabinet as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister in charge of Finance. Shri Desai joined Smt. Later. 1958. In this. 1956. In order to meet the needs of defense and development. the talk of socialism will not have much meaning. Shri Desai was imprisoned thrice during the freedom struggle. having lost his confidence in the British sense of justice. elections were held in June. In July. when India was in the midst of the freedom struggle launched by Mahatma Gandhi. Shri Desai. Shri Desai translated into action what he had professed in matters of economic planning and fiscal administration. After the elections to the State Assemblies in 1946. Shri Desai gave concrete expression to his anxiety by enacting progressive legislations to ameliorate to the hardships of peasants and tenants. Shri Desai s Government was far ahead of any other State in the country. After the reorganisation of the States. It was a hard decision to take but Shri Desai felt that 'when it was a question of the independence of the country. he took the Finance portfolio on March 22. During his tenure. released in October. While Shri Desai conceded that the Prime Minister has the prerogative to change the portfolios of colleagues. Gandhi took away the Finance portfolio from him. In 1967. Shri Desai remained with the Organisation Congress. Kher in the then Bombay Province. who succeeded Pt. he became the Chief Minister of Bombay. 1969. He kept deficit financing very low by enforcing financial discipline. 1941 and detained again in August. he raised large revenues. felt he had no alternative but to resign as Deputy Prime Minister of India. In 1952. He was released in 1945. And what was more. He was re-elected to Parliament in 1971. Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri. Smt. In police administration. therefore. decided to resign from Government service and to plunge into the struggle. Nehru as Prime Minister.years. In 1975. The . he pulled down the barrier between the people and the police. he felt that his self-respect had been hurt as even the common courtesy of consulting him had not shown by Smt. He. Forest and Co-operatives in the Ministry headed by Shri B. Shri Desai launched a number of far-reaching reforms in land revenue by providing security tenancy rights leading to the land to the tiller proposition. unless the poor and the under privileged living in villages and towns enjoy a decent standard of life. reduced wasteful expenditure and promoted austerity in Government expenditure on administration. When the first Congress Government assumed office in 1937 Shri Desai became Minister for Revenue. he resigned from the Union Cabinet under the Kamraj Plan. Shri Desai was detained in the individual Satyagraha launched by Mahatma Gandhi. 1975. Shri Desai joined the Union Cabinet as Minister for Commerce and Industry on November 14. Gandhi. and the police administration was made more responsive to the needs of the people in the protection of life and property.

Nagpur. not even the Prime Minister". He seldom allowed his principles to be subordinated to the exigencies of the situation. 1966 . Even in the most trying circumstances. Charles of Prague.S. She was conferred Honorary doctoral degree by a host of Universities such as Andhra. A. 1980 . Jamia Milia. Jawaharlal Nehru. and worked in riot-affected areas of Delhi in 1947 under Gandhiji's guidance. Shri Desai was arrested and detained on June 26. Pupils' Own School.C. Bristol. 1977. Shri Desai and Gujraben were married in 1911. Gandhi s election to the Lok Sabha null and void. Smt. Planning Commission. Indira Gandhi (January 24. he stood by his convictions. Poona.October 31.Janata Front formed by the four opposition parties and Independents supported by it.I. Government of India.. He was kept in solitary confinement and was released on January 18. Being academically inclined. Of their five children. and from January 1980 was Chairperson.. Vikram. As he himself observed. Smt. National Integration Council of A. 1958. when Emergency was declared. Congress Working Committee and Central Election of the party in 1955. Smt. Shantiniketan and Somerville College. truth was an article of faith and not an expediency. Geneva. 1975. Ecole Internationale. For him. he was repeatedly said "should be above the law of the land". 1977 and January 14. He was later unanimously elected as Leader of the Janata Party in Parliament and was sworn in as the Prime Minister of India on March 24. a little before the decision to hold elections to the Lok Sabha was announced. Indira Gandhi was actively involved in the freedom struggle. El Salvador of Buenos Aires. Indira Gandhi was the daughter of Pt.C. Smt. President.R. Bangalore.C. As Prime Minister. 1942 and had two sons. Central Parliamentary Board of Congress. Punjab. President. Oxford. Concurrently. 1980. and Indian National Congress from January 1978.March 24. Then she held the highest office as the Prime Minister of India from January 1966 to March 1977 and again from January 14. From 1966-1977 she was the President of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. 1977. 1977 for the Sixth Lok Sabha. Vishwa Bharati. After the judgement of the Allahabad High Court declaring Smt. Shri Desai felt that in keeping with democratic principles. Indian National Congress. 1984) Party(Congress & Congress[I]) Born on November 19. 1956 and Women's Dept. 1917 in an illustrious family. Shri Desai was keen that the people of India must be helped to become fearless to an extent where even if the highest in the land commits a wrong. Member. Oxford. Bex (Switzerland). 1959-60. one daughter and a son are surviving. Baghdad and the U. Gandhiwas a Member. Chairperson. He campaigned vigorously throughout th length and e breadth of the country and was largely instrumental in achieving the re-sounding victory of the Janata Party in the General Elections held in March. All India Youth Congress. Agra. Waseda of Tokyo.I. and Chairperson.S. She got married to Feroze Gandhi on March 26. She held the additional charge of the Ministry of . "No one. From 1964 to 66 she was the Minister for Information and Broadcasting. Moscow State. Smt. In her early childhood she founded the Bal Charkha Sangh and in 1930. she studied at Ecole Nouvelle. Shri Desai was himself selected to the Lok Sabha from the Surat Constituency in Gujarat. 'one should act in life according to truth and one s faith'. Hindi Salahkar Samiti. secured an absolute majority in the new House. the 'Vanar Sena' of children to help the Congress party during the Non-Cooperation Movement. Mauritius. Badminton School. and Minister for Space from June 1972 to March 1977. With an impressive academic background she also got the Citation of Distinction from the Columbia University. she was the Minister for Atomic Energy from September 1967 to March 1977. Gandhi should have submitted her resignation.C. the humblest should be able to point it out to him. She was imprisoned in September 1942. Poona and Bombay. Gurukul.

Board of Trustees of Kamala Nehru Memorial Hospital. Bal Sahyog.) and Medak (Andhra Pradesh). and Ministry of Defence from January 1980.External Affairs from September 5. in 1971 she was the most admired person of the world and Diploma of Honour was conferred by the Argentine Society in 1971 for the Protection of Animals. Bulgaria. She was also a Member. Mexican Academy Award for Liberation of Bangladesh 1972.S. January 1980. President. Foreign Students Association in India. 1969 to June 26. 1953. August 1964February 1967. Belgium. Smt. some of which are: President. Kamala Nehru Vidyalaya. Member. Bolivia. Sahitya Vachaspati (Hindi) by Nagari Pracharini Sabha. She was the recipient of Bharat Ratna. She was Chancellor Visva Bharati University. 1972. China. Executive Board of UNESCO. 1973. Delhi University Court. Vice-President. New Delhi in 1954. Swaraj Bhavan Trust. not separated into compartments or labeled under different heads. 1976. After having held such important positions. 1960-64. Chairperson. Ministry of Finance from July 16. 1960. She chose to retain the Medak seat and relinquished the Rae Bareli seat. Indian Delegation to UNESCO. 1967 to February 14. Indian Council for Child Welfare. Member. Chairperson. International Council of Child Welfare. Founder and President. Central Social Welfare Board. Algeria. Indira Gandhi was associated with a large number of organisations and institutions. Allahabad. . 1969. Argentina. 1962. Vice Chairperson. Trustee. Founder and Chairperson. U. 1970. or even reading about an unfamiliar subject. German Democratic Republic. New Delhi in 1955. Ministry of Home Affairs from June 1970 to November 1973. for two consecutive years in 1967 and 1968 was the woman most admired by the French according to a poll by the French Institute of Public Opinion. Brazil. where activities and interests are different facets of the whole. She had many achievements to her credit. Gandhi Smarak Nidhi and Kasturba Gandhi Memorial Trust. FAO. She found recreationin whatever she did and equal relaxation in being close to nature. Fifth Lok Sabha 1971-77. Islbella d'Este Award of Italy for outstanding work in diplomacy. Member.S. paid official visits to many countries such as: Afghanistan. Patron. Burma. Chairperson. she also became a Member. Bhutan. 2nd Annual Medal. Member. Egypt. Indian Society of International Law. National Defence Council 1962. Australia.A. Nehru Memorial Museum and Library Society and Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Fund. in physical activities like hiking in the mountains. Interested in a wide array of subjects. 1953-57.A. The Years of Endeavour 1969-72. Bal Bhavan Board and Children's National Museum. in different forms of art. she viewed life as an integrated process. Citizen's Central Council 1962. Rajya Sabha. Bangladesh. Patron. Chile. Executive Committee of National Defence Fund. Canada. Dakshina Bharat Hindi Prachar Sabha. She was elected to the Seventh Lok Sabha from Rae Bareli (U. and Sixth Lok Sabha during November-December 1978. Yale University's Howland Memorial Prize. 1960-64. India (London) 1975. National Integration Council. Ministry of Information & Broadcasting from March 1971 for a while. Himalayan Mountaineering Institute. She also received Mothers' Award. Her famous publications are The Years of Challenge 1966-69. Fourth Lok Sabha 1967-71. She travelled widely in India and all over the world.P. Inde (Lausanne) 1979 and numerous other collection of speeches and writings. Patron-in-chief. France. Jawaharlal Nehru University and North-Eastern University 1966-77. Czechoslovakia. She was chosen as the leader of the Congress Parliamentary Party in 1967-77 and for the Congress Parliamentary Party from January 1980. Indian Council for Affairs.. and Sangeet Natak Academy 1965-74. According to a special Gallup Poll Survey in U. Austria. Life-Patron.

Sri Lanka. He resigned his post as Minister for Railways because he felt responsible for a railway accident in which . Shastri was the bachelor s degree awarded to him by the Vidya Peeth but has stuck in the minds of the people as part of his name. Syria. took her three children to her father s house and settled down there. Indonesia. It was in the fire of this struggle that his steel was tempered and he grew into maturity. The symbolic gesture set the whole country ablaze. When the Congress came to power after Independence. Nanhe. He was sent to live with an uncle in Varanasi so that he could go to high school. Minister for Transport and Communications. walked many miles to school without shoes. Mexico. He was greatly impressed by Mahatma Gandhi s denunciation of Indian Princes for their support of British rule in India. The decision shattered his mother s hopes. Tanzania. Romania. he came under the influence of the greatest intellectuals. He was growing in stature constantly. But Lal Bahadur had made up his mind. Zimbabwe and United Nations Headquarters. Netherlands.Party(Congress) Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri was born on October 2. the sterling worth of the apparently meek and unassuming Lal Bahadur Shastri had already been recognised by the leader of the national struggle.January 11. 1964 .. Switzerland. Guyana. Minister for Commerce and Industry. Nepal. In 1930. The family could not dissuade him from what they thought was a disastrous course of action. but the process that was end day to catapult him to the national stage had already begun in his mind. Trinidad and Tobago. Malaysia. As he grew up..Federal Republic of Germany. When the Congress Government was formed in 1946.R. the United Kingdom. still in her twenties. Oman. Lal Bahadur Shastri threw himself into the struggle for freedom with feverish energy. His capacity for hard work and his efficiency became a byeword in Uttar Pradesh. Hungary. He decided at once to give up his studies in response to the Mahatma s call. New Zealand. Kenya. U. Venezuela. He moved to New Delhi in 1951 and held several portfolios in the Union Cabinet . 1966) . U. Nigeria. and nationalists of the country. Lal Bahadur Shastri (June 9. Thailand.Minister for Railways. Uruguay. Lal Bahadur Shastri joined the Kashi Vidya Peeth in Varanasi. Home Minister. There. and during Nehru s illness Minister without portfolio.A. for behind his soft exterior was the firmness of a rock.. Japan. U. a small railway town seven miles from Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh. His father was a school teacher who died when Lal Bahadur Shastri was only a year and half old. Yugoslavia. this 'little dynamo of a man' was called upon to play a constructive role in the governance of the country.S. His mother. Lal Bahadur Sashtri was only eleven at the time. He was appointed Parliamentary Secretary in his home State of Uttar Pradesh and soon rose to the position of Home Minister.S. Singapore. Lal Bahadur Shastri was sixteen when Gandhiji called upon his countrymen to join the NonCooperation Movement.A. He led many defiant campaigns and spent a total of seven years in British jails. Sweden. All those who were close to him knew that he would never change his mind once it was made up. Iraq. Jamaica. Poland.S. even when the streets burned in the summer s heat. Mauritius. Lal Bahadur s small town schooling was not remarkable in any way but he had a happy enough childhood despite the poverty that dogged him. Lal Bahadur Shastri became more and more interested in the country s struggle for freedom from foreign yoke. or 'little one' as he was called at home. Mahatma Gandhi marched to the sea beach at Dandi and broke the imperial salt law. Italy. 1901 at Mughalsarai. Iran.E. one of the many national institutions set up in defiance of the British rule. Zambia.

Bombay Housing Board. as Labour Minister of the Bombay Government (1946-50). Switzerland. . he become Secretary of the Ahmedabad Textile Labour Association in which he worked until 1946. he joined the Planning Commission as its Vice-Chairman. In March 1950. He said he was accepting the resignation because it would set an example in constitutional propriety and not because Lal Bahadur Shastri was in any way responsible for what had happened. he was appointed Planning Minister in the Union Government. he was a man of the people who understood their language. France. In the course of this period. Belgium and England to study labour and housing conditions in those countries. 1966). Hindustan Mazdoor Sevak Sangh. In 1922. He was largely instrumental in organising the Indian National Trade Union Congress and later became its President. I think I am internally not so weak. in accents profoundly reminiscent of his Master." he once said. Kasturba Memorial Trust. The then Prime Minister. and Chairman." In between his Ministerial assignments. In addition. Nehru. He was elected to the House of the People from Bombay in the general elections of 1952 and was re-appointed Minister for Planning Irrigation and Power. Later. Pt. 1964 and January 11. 1964 . 1957 and 1962 were in a very large measure the result of his complete identification with the cause and his organisational genius. and again from 1942 to 44. Humble. "Hard work is equal to prayer.many lives were lost. Shri Gulzarilal Nanda was educated at Lahore. Lal Bahadur Shastri was deeply influenced by the political teachings of Mahatma Gandhi. "Perhaps due to my being small in size and soft of tongue. Though not physically strong. Lal Bahadur Shastri represented the best in Indian culture.January 24. Secretary. he was also given charge of the portfolios of Irrigation and Power. he successfully piloted the Labour Disputes Bill in the State Assembly. He worked on the 'The Freedom of Association Committee' appointed by the Conference and visited Sweden. Shri Gulzarilal Nanda (May 27. He was also a Member of the National Planning Committee. He served as Trustee. In 1947. He was also a man of vision who led the country towards progress. 1898. More than thirty years of dedicated service were behind Lal Bahadur Shastri. tolerant. he continued to lavish his organising abilities on the affairs of the Congress Party. He joined the Non-Cooperation Movement the same year. The unprecedented gesture was greatly appreciated by Parliament and the country. 1966 . in Sialkot (Punjab). he came to be known as a man of great integrity and competence. In the direct tradition of Mahatma Gandhi. people are apt to believe that I am not able to be very firm. Agra and Allahabad. Lal Bahadur Shastri said. extolled Lal Bahadur Shastri s integrity and high ideals. The landslide successes of the Party in the General Elections of 1952. He was imprisoned for Satyagraha in 1932. Shri Nanda was elected to the Bombay Legislative Assembly in 1937 and was Parliamentary Secretary (Labour and Excise) to the Government of Bombay from 1937 to 1939. he went to Geneva as a Government delegate to the International Labour Conference. with great inner strength and resoluteness. In September the following year. speaking in Parliament on the incident. He led the Indian Delegation to the Plan Consultative Committee held at Singapore in 1955. He worked as a research scholar on labour problems at the University of Allahabad (19201921) and became Professor of Economics at the National College (Bombay) in 1921. Replying to the long debate on the Railway accident.Party (Congress) Born on July 4.June 9.

he visited China too. He took keen interest in the Sinn Fein Movement in Ireland. The same year. He was later called to the Bar from Inner Temple.May 27. He toured Italy. he was inevitably drawn into the struggle for independence. Even as a student. He was twice imprisoned in connection with the Non-Cooperation Movement of 1920-22. as Deputy Chairman of the Planning Commission. 1928 he attended the All-Party Congress and was one of the signatories to the Nehru Report on Indian Constitutional Reform. he was sworn in as Prime Minister following the death of Shri Lal Bahadur Shastri at Tashkent. Nehru became the General Secretary of the All India Congress Committee in September 1923. He was Union Minister for Labour and Employment in 1962 and 1963 and Minister for Home Affairs from 1963 to 1966. Shri Nanda was elected to the Lok Sabha in the 1957 general elections. he attended the Bankipore Congress as a delegate. where complete independence for the country was adopted as the goal. Pt. he flew to Switzerland to see his ailing wife and visited London in February-March. He initiated the Congress Forum for Socialist Action in 1962. In 1912. He completed his 'Autobiography' in Almora Jail on February 14. Just before the court-break of the Second World War. He also attended the tenth anniversary celebrations of the October Socialist Revolution in Moscow in 1927. After release. Pt. England. he had been interested in the struggle of all nations who suffered under foreign domination. While leading a procession against the Simon commission. Earlier. 1936. he was a sworn in as Prime Minister of India on May 27. at the Madras Congress. Nehru was elected President of the Lahore Session of the Indian National Congress. Belgium. 1889.and the International Labour Conference held at Geneva in 1959. he went to England and after two years at Harrow. He was re-elected to the Lok Sabha in the 1962 general elections from Sabarkantha Constituency in Gujarat. In India. On August 29. and was appointed Union Minister for Labour and Employment and Planning and. 1935. He visited the Federal Republic of Germany Yugoslavia and Austria in 1959. At the age of fifteen. he was lathi-charged in Lucknow in 1928. He organised the first Kisan March in Pratapgarh District of Uttar Pradesh in 1920. He received his early education at home under private tutors. In 1916 he had his first meeting with Mahatma Gandhi and felt immensely inspired by him. Following the death of Pt. Again on January 11. . he also founded the 'Independence for India League'. and became its General Secretary. 1966. He also visited Spain in July 1938. in 1926. joined Cambridge University where he took his tripos in Natural Sciences. later. Nehru. named after his father Shri Motilal Nehru. 1947 .Party (Congress) Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru was born in Allabahad on November 14. 1964. Allahabad in 1919. and became Secretary of the Home Rule League. which advocated complete severance of the British connection with India. when the country was in the throws of Civil War. Germany and Russia in 1926. He returned to India in 1912 and plunged straight into politics. 1964 ). Switzerland. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru (August 15. he attended the Congress of Oppressed Nationalities in Brussels as an official delegate of the Indian National Congress. In 1929. Nehru had been instrumental in committing the Congress to the goal of Independence. In Belgium. He was imprisoned several times during 1930-35 in connection with the Salt Satyagraha and other movements launched by the Congress.

senior most judge of SC. Post. In all. This was his longest and also his last detention.On October 31. The Supreme Court of India inquires all disputes regarding President's election. If he is not available then Chief Justice of the Supreme Court. 1992.C. Nehru was arrested for offering individual Satyagraha to protest against India's forced participation in war. Nehru toured South East Asia. He was elected President of the Congress for the fourth time on July 6. the Vice-President acts as President. 1940 Pt. Impeachment (Article 61) The President can be impeached only on the ground of violation of Constitution (This impeachment . Vice-President. Elegibility to Contest Election for the President He/She must be a citizen of India. After his release in January 1945. he suffered imprisonment nine times. the expression "States" inckudes the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union Territory of Pondicherry. if not then senior most judge of the Supreme Court shall act as the Persident of India. And as per the Article 57 there is no upper limit on the no. Giri is the only person who won the election as an independent candidate in 1969. Completed 35 yrs of age Eligible to be a member of Lok Sabha Must not hold any Govt. President of India The president of India is the executive head of State and First Citizen of India. On August 7. Govornor of any State. he organized legal defence for those officers and men of the INA charged with treason. 1942 Pt.C. V. The total voting strength of the parliament is equal to the total voting strength of all state asemblies together.1942 he was arrested along with other leaders and taken to Ahmednagar Fort. session in Bombay. Election ProcessThe president of India indirectly elected through "Electoral College" consisting of Elected members of both the Houses of Parliament & elected members of the Legisletive Assemblies of the states. He/She can give resigation to Vice President before his/her full term. On August 8. Nehru moved the historic 'Quit India' resolution at the A. of times a person can become President. According to the 70th Amendment Act. Minister of Union or State) Working Terms An elected president is elegible to hold his/her office for the 5yrs term. He was released along with the other leaders in December 1941.I. The 42nd amendment to the Constitution has made it obligatory on the part of the President to accept the advice of the Council of Ministers. The executive powers vested in the President are to be exercised on the advice of the council of Ministers responsible to the parliament. or in absence of Chief Justice. Pt. resignation or removal. After electing the president takes OATH in presence of Chief Justice of India. except (President. And Neelam Sanjeeva Reddy was elected unopposed as no one else filed nomination for the post of the President in 1977. In Presidential elections history V. The election is to be held within 6 month of the vacancy. 1946 and again for three more terms from 1951 to 1954. In March 1946. In case the office falls vacant due to the death.

The impeachment procedure can be initiated in either House of the Parliament. At this time President has the right to defend himself either in person or through his lawyer. The charge must come in the form of a proposal which must be signed at least one-fourth of the total membership of that house. After the charges are framed by one house. Sends ambassadors and receives diplomats. Appoint the Chief Justice and judges of Supreme Court and High Court Diplomatic Power Represents country in international forums. He/She can make advances out of the Contingency Fund of India to meet any unforseen expenditure. ministers. the other house passes the resolution by not less than two-third majority of that House. Emergency Power The President can promulgate 3 types of Emergencies: (i)National Emergency (Article 352). Commissioner or Administrator. Before the resolution could be passed. He/ She directly administers the Union Territories through the Lt. the other House investigates them. Chief Justice and judges of Supreme Court and High Courts. the President stands impeached from his office from the date on which the motion is so passed. the matter will be referred to the other House. No demand for a grant can be made except on his recommendation. whether with respect to a Bill pending in the Parliament or . (iii)Financial Emergency Legislative Powers Addresses the first session after general elections and at the commencement of the first session of each year. If after the investigation. Chief Election Comissioner and other members of Election Commission. Financial Power All money bills can originate in Parliament only on recommendadation of President. Ambassadors etc. If after the notice. Military Power He is the Supreme Commander of the Defense Forces in India. Attorney General. reprieve. (ii)State Emergency (President Rule Article 356). International treaties and agreements are concluded on his behalf. Appoints Finance Commission (after every 5yrs) that recommends distribution of taxes between Union and State Govts. Judicial Power The President's pardoninf power comprises a group of analogous powers like pardon. Navy and Air Force. respite and communication. Governor. Comptroller and Auditor General. Can send messages to both the Houses. a fourteen days notice must be given to the President. Appoints Chiefs of Army. Declares wars and concludes peace subject to the approval of the Parliament. remission. Governors. Members of Finance Commission.procedure called Quasi-judicial procedure). chairman and members of UPSC. the House passes the resolution by a majority of not less than two-third membership of that House. Powers of President Executive Power Appoints PM.

maintains and periodically updates the Electoral Roll. CHIFE ELECTION COMMISSIONERS OF INDIA Sukumar Sen 21 March 1950-19 December 1958 K. The Commission decides most matters by consensus but in case of any dissension. and looks after the counting of votes and the declaration of results. registers political parties. including candidates funding.The Election Commission is responsible for the conduct of elections to parliament and state legislatures and to the offices of the President and Vice-President..K. Can enact laws through ordinance when the parliament is in recess (Article 123). Nominate 12 members of Rajya Sabha. Nominates 2 members of Anglo-Indian community in Lok Sabha if they haven't recieved adequate representation. The Election Commission prepares. the majority view prevails.P. It also facilitates the coverage of the election process by the media. Originally a Chief Election Commissioner ran the commission. At present. All this is done to ensure that elections can take place in an orderly and fair manner. Sundaram 20 December 1958-30 September 1967 S. These ordinances must be passed by parliament within 6 weeks of reassembly. His/Her prior recommendation or permission is needed to introduce certain types of Bills boundaries of a State. The Election Commission was established in accordance with the Constitution on 25th January 1950. but first in 1989 and later again in 1993 two additional Election Commissioners were appointed. supervises the nomination of candidates. Election Comission in India . Can address both the houses jointly or separately.otherwise. monitors the election campaign. a Money Bill etc.Chief Election Commisioners of India An independent Election Commission has been established under the Constitution in order to carry out and regulate the holding of elections in India.V. Sen Verma 1 October 1967-30 September 1972 . which shows who is entitled to vote. Chief Election Commissioner can be removed from office only by parliamentary impeachment. there are two Election Commissioners appointed by the President. Can summon and prorogue the sessions of the 2 houses & can dissolve Lok Sabha. He/She can appoint any member of the Lok Sabha to preside over its procedings when both the offices of Speaker and the Deputy Speaker fall vacant simultaneously. organises the polling booths where voting takes place.

after all. Gill 12 December 1996-13 June 2001 J. lobby groups) and provides dynamics of interaction among those institutions and bases for political norms and rules that govern their functions. Peri Sastri 1 January 1986-25 November 1990 Smt V. Constitution and the Law.S. Arising from disagreements between the Parliament and the Supreme Court or under pressure from political interest groups and compulsions of a modernizing society or the process of change within the society. a set of institutions.30 April 2009 Navin Chawla 2 May 2009 INDIAN POLITY QUESTIONS Indian Political System Unlike the American and British political systems which have existed in their current form for centuries.B. Krishna Murthy 8 February 2004-15 May 2005 B.S. the constitution of India is a much-amended national document. Trivedi 18 June 1982-31 December 1985 R. it consists of the members of a social organisation (group) who are in power but also of interdependent components and peripheries of the milieu with which it interacts.K. say. Seshan 12 December 1990-11 December 1996 M. interest groups (such as poli-tical parties. Lyngdoh 14 June 2001-7 February 2004 T. Gopalaswamy 8 February 2006 .Dr Nagendra Singh 1 October 1972-6 February 1973 T. the Indian political system is recent and dates from India¶s Independence from Britain in 1947 and proclamation of India¶s Constitution in 1950. Tandon 16 May 2005-07 February 2006 N. Foremost.M.S. The last 104th amendment enforcing OBC reservations was carried in 2006.L. A political system is. .S. Shakdhar 18 June 1977-17 June 1982 R.N. trade unions. In contrast to the constitution of Japan that has seen no amendments. each constitutional amendment has had implications for India¶s politicosocial system.V. Swaminathan 7 February 1973-17 June 1977 S. Rama Devi 26 November 1990-11 December 1990 T.

If there is a conflict which cannot be resolved even by the joint committee of the two houses. The Rajya Sabha or the Council of States too is partly modelled on the British House of Lords or Upper House of Parliament but India¶s federal system of government has many features similar to federalism as practiced by the United States. the most important element of India¶s political system. as far as practicable. The President can declare a state of emergency which enables the Lok Sabha to extend its life beyond the normal five-year term. The upper house in the Indian political system is the Rajya Sabha or Council of States which has up to 250 members. Pratibha Patil. The method of election followed by legislatures is µsingle transferable vote¶. Currently.Theoretically. encourage and warn´ the elected government on constitutional matters. 12 of which are nomi-nated by the President for their accomplishment in art. The maximum strength of the House provided by the Constitution is 552 that includes up to 530 members to represent the States. is the Lower House of the Indian Parliament. modelled on the British House of Commons. a joint sitting of the two houses is held. literature. President¶s role becomes pivotal. Uttar Pradesh has 31 members. it is not subject to dissolution. around 4. and like the British monarch is expected to ³advise. The Lok Sabha. ought to ensure the maintaining of order and harmony in the society and provide institutions for addressing grievances and complaints of citizens at large. Canada and Australia. The Prime Minister has to be a member of either House or get elected within six months if not a member at the time of appointment. 20 members to represent the Union Territories and two members of the Anglo-Indian Community nominated by the President. In the case of conflicting legislation. The ratio between the number of seats allotted to each State and the population of the State. 13 elected from the Territories. in times of crisis such as a hung Parliament. The Indian Presidency has recently attracted special attention because for the first time a woman. except in the area of Money Bill where the Lok Sabha has overriding powers. science. certain constituencies are reserved for candidates from scheduled castes and scheduled tribes. with one-third of the members seeking election every two years. the size of the house is 545²made up of 530 elected from the States. if sound. Uttar Pradesh with 80 members has the largest number of Lok Sabha members. Three states have only one representative each. The President can return a Parliamentary Bill once for reconsideration and. or social services. The Head of State in India is the President. The remainder of the house²currently comprising 238 members²is elected indirectly by the state and territorial legislatures in proportion to the unit¶s population.500 members of the national parliament and state legislators are eligible to vote in the election of the President. occupies it. it is solved by . is composed of representatives of the people directly elected on the basis of adult suffrage. mostly a ceremonial position derived from the concept of constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom. a political system is regarded as the way a government makes policy and organizes administration. being the most populous among all Indian states. The head of the government is the Prime Minister. The two houses share legislative powers. Unlike the Lok Sabha. is kept the same for all States. The Rajya Sabha meets in continuous session. A political system. if that community is not adequately represented in the House. The Ministers are then appointed by the President on the recommendation of the Prime Minister. and two nominated from the Anglo-Indian community. The Lok Sabha or House of the People. Term of office is six years. As members of an electoral college. appointed by the President on nomination or election by the majority party or coalition of political parties in the Lok Sabha.

the Italian-born Sonia Gandhi Congress President but more powerful than the Prime Minister. where the will of the Lok Sabha. India has been changing from a highly centralized. The other major political party in India is the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). his grandson Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi . Unfortunately. The Indian political system was expected to produce accountable governments. which is twice as large as Rajya Sabha. privatisation. is based on the principal of checks and balances of power and has a strong and independent judiciary with the Supreme Court as the highest judicial authority in civil. All this has not happened and as Galbraith¶s put it. foreign investment. As a result. and her son Rahul Gandhi. India is big and highly diverse. Indian demo-cracy is a functioning anarchy. his daughter Prime Minister Indira Gandhi. then had 13 parties in the coalition but currently has nine. criminal and constitutional cases. The Indian National Congress (INC) since its inception in 1885²and its successor² has been a dominant political party in India. head of a 16-party coalition called UPA (United Progressive Front). Though not mentioned in the Constitution. conscientious ruling elites and democratically aware citizens. Indian democracy finds itself reduced to the ballot box. the Indian political system has been unable to incorporate the multiple stakeholders of the complex Indian society even though it has lent stability and continuity to Indian democracy. Currently. . political parties are a most vital element of the Indian political system. Demographically and geographically. there are governments and administrative set-ups in 28 States and seven Union Territories. Formed in 1980. it has competed for power and for considerable period governed the country either as the largest party in Parliament or. A constitution can provide only a framework. The Indian Political System. currently Rajiv¶s widow. Besides the Central government. it campaigned for Indian independence from Britain. Until 1947. one political party-dominated system to an increasingly discrete polity with regional parties pulling in different directions. The BJP-led the National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government between 19982004. it followed policies of moderate socialism. like the USA¶s. it operates a federal system of government.vote in a joint session of the Parliament. India¶s first Prime Minister for 17 years. Likewise. A peculiar feature of Congress Party is its one-family leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru. after sixty years of Indepen-dence. mixed economy but now supports deregulation. Political norms have been declining and politics in India is much rougher and much more corrupt than in the democracies of Europe and North America. Member Parliament being projected as a future Prime Minister. our experiment with demo-cracy is in peril. as currently. planned. Originally socialistic. Judiciary and bureaucracy are steeped in corruption. it is its institutions that infuse life into a democracy. vote banks and populism. National Democratic Alliance (NDA) founded in 1998. and from non-alignment it has shifted to proAmerican foreign policy. it champions the socio-religious cultural values of the country¶s Hindu majority and advocates strong national defence. almost always prevails. Since independence.