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Aeta peoples

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Aeta (pronounced as eye-ta,), Agta or Ayta are an indigenous people who live in scattered, isolated mountainous parts of Luzon, Philippines. They are considered to be Negritos, who are dark to very dark brownskinned and tend to have features such as a small stature, small frame, curly to kinky afro-like textured hair with a higher frequency of naturally lighter hair color (blondism) relative to the general population, small nose, and dark brown eyes. They are thought to be among the earliest inhabitants of the Philippines, preceding the Austronesian migrations. The Aeta were included in the group of people termed "Negrito" during Spanish colonial rule as Negritos. Various Aeta groups in northern Luzon are known as "Pugut" or "Pugot," a name designated by their Ilocanospeaking neighbors, and which is the colloquial term for those with darker complexions. In Ilocano, the word also means "goblin" or "forest spirit."

see also History of the Philippines (pre-1521) The Aeta people in the Philippines are Australo-Melanesians. Today other groups of Australo-Melanesians are the Aborigines in Australia, Papuans and theMelanesians of the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu, Fiji, New Caledonia etc. The history of the Aeta continues to confound anthropologists and archaeologists. One theory suggests that the Aeta are the descendants of the original inhabitants of the Philippines, who, contrary to their sea-faring Austronesian neighbors, arrived through land bridges that linked the country with the Asian mainland about 30,000 years ago. Unlike many of their Austronesian counterparts, the Aetas have shown resistance to change. The attempts of the Spaniards to settle them in reducciones or reservations all throughout Spanish rule failed. The Aeta are an indigenous people who live in scattered, isolated mountainous parts of the Philippines. Aetas are considered as the earliest inhabitants of the Philippines, preceding the Austronesian migrations. They are nomadic and build only temporary shelters made of sticks driven to the ground and covered with the palm of banana leaves. The well-situated and more modernized Aetas have moved to villages and areas of cleared mountains. They live in houses made of bamboo and cogon grass. Aetas are found in Zambales, Tarlac, Pampanga, Angeles, Olongapo, Panay, Bataan and Nueva Ecija. But because of the Mount Pinatubo eruption, some of them moved to resettlement areas in Pampanga and Tarlac. Nel Mathiasan was the first explorer to rule the Aetas. Mining, deforestation, illegal logging, and slash-and-burn farming has caused the indigenous population in all parts of the Philippines to steadily decrease to the point where they number in the thousands today. The Philippines affords them no protection. In addition, the Aeta have become extremely nomadic due to social and

economic strain on their culture and way of life that had previously remained unchanged for thousands of years.

The life expectancy at birth of the Aeta is just 16.5 years,[1][2] with only a third of children surviving to adulthood at 15 years[2][3] at which point life expectancy is still only 27.3 years.[2] Young women reach full adult height (average 140 cm) at age 12 or 13.[1][2]


All Aeta communities have adopted the language of their Austronesian Filipino neighbors, which have sometimes diverged over time to become different languages. These include, in order of number of speakers,Mag-indi, Mag-antsi, Abellen, Ambala, and Mariveleo.[citation needed]

There are different views on the dominant character of the Aeta religion. Those who believe they aremonotheistic argue that various Aeta tribes believe in a supreme being who rules over lesser spirits or deities, with the Aeta of Mt. Pinatubo worshipping "Apo Na". The Aetas are also animists. For example, the Pinatubo Aeta believe in environmental spirits such as anito and kamana. They believe that good and evil spirits inhabit the environment, such as the spirits of the river, sea, sky, mountain, hill, valley and other places. No special occasion is needed for the Aeta to pray, although there is a clear link between prayer and economic activities. The Aeta dance before and after apig hunt. The night before Aeta women gather shellfish, they perform a dance which is partly an apology to the fish and partly a charm to ensure the catch. Similarly, the men hold a bee dance before and after the expeditions for honey. In the mid-60s missionaries of the American-based Evangelical Protestant mission group New Tribes Mission, in their effort to reach every Philippine tribal group with the Christian Gospel reached out to the Agtas/Aetas. The mission agency provided education including pastoral training for natives to reach members of their own tribe. Today, a large percentage of Agtas/Aetas of Zambales and Pampanga are Evangelicals.[citation

Jehovah's Witnesses also have members of the Aeta people. (See 1993 Yearbook of Jehovah's


Their traditional clothing is very simple. The young women wear wrap around skirts. Elder women wear bark cloth, while elder men wear loin cloths. The old women of the Agta wear a bark cloth strip which passes between the legs, and is attached to a string around the waist. Today most Aeta who have been in contact with lowlanders have adopted the T-shirts, pants and rubber sandals commonly used by the latter.


The Aetas are skillful in weaving and plaiting. Women exclusively weave winnows and mats. Only men make armlets. They also produce raincoats made of palm leaves whose bases surround the neck of the wearer, and whose topmost part spreads like a fan all around the body.

Aeta women are known around the country as experts of herbal medicines.
[edit] Art

A traditional form of visual art is body scarification. The Aetas intentionally wound the skin on their back, arms, breast, legs, hands, calves and abdomen, and then they irritate the wounds with fire, lime and other means to form scars. Other "decorative disfigurements" include the chipping of the teeth. With the use of a file, the Dumagat modify their teeth during late puberty. The teeth are dyed black a few years afterwards. The Aetas generally use ornaments typical of people living in subsistence economies. Flowers and leaves are used as earplugs for certain occasions. Girdles, necklaces, and neckbands of braided rattan incorporated with wild pig bristles are frequently worn.

The Aeta have a musical heritage consisting of various types of agung ensembles ensembles composed of large hanging, suspended or held, bossed/knobbed gongs which act as drone without any accompanying melodic instrument.

Iriga City Profile

Land Area : 17,400 hectares (78% is Seasons : The city's climate is tropical, with two spelled

agricultural, 16% built-up and 6% forest area. seasens: wet, from June to December; and dry, from January to May.

Location : 478 kilometers south of Manila , Iriga is strategically located in the Bicol region, situated as it is between Naga in the North and Legazpi in the south. Terrain : Iriga's topography varies from flat to rolling terrain with elevation ranging from 10 to 60 meters with Mt. Iriga reaching 1,149 meters above sea level.

Natural Resources : Iriga is called the City of Springs , with more than thirty natural springs providing a rich source of drinking and irrigation waters. Its most prominent natural landmark, Mt. Iriga , is a favorite mountain climbing destination of local moutaineers and hikers.


Iriga City is serviced by the government-owned National Power Corporation (NAPOCOR) through the Camarines Sur Electric Cooperative III (CASURECO III). It draws its supply from two sources namely; The Barit Hydro- Electric Plant in the nearby municipality of Buhi and Geothermal plant in Albay. Water requirements are being provided by Iriga City Water District (ICWD). The city, while knows as the city of springs, is only utilizing three of its 22 natural springs, but the same are already adequately providing the water needs of its constituents and of its neighboring municipalities.

COMMUNICATIONS Providing modern communication facilities in Iriga City are: Iriga Telephone Company, ICC-BayanTel, Digitel, Smart, Mobiline, PT&T and RCPI. They extend state of the art communication technology to local and international clients. To link up with the Information Highway, internet providers and local internet cafes are available in the city proper.




The Iriga City Philippine National Police has been awarded as the "Best Police Station" for three consecutive years now, propping its enviable position as the region's most peaceful city. The main thoroughfares and streets are provided with streetlights, contributing to the attainment of an ideal peace and order in the city.

LABOR Iriga City's labor force numbers 50,949 which is 62.9% of the total population. This consists of skilled, trained workers who are highly disciplined with an excellent command and technical English. With the presence of colleges, universities and Vocational and Technical schools that contribute to the high literacy rate of 95.6%, manpower resources are more than adequate to meet the manpower requirements for trained and highly effecient wokers.

DEMOGRAPHY IRIGA CITY has a total population of 88,893 (2000 NSO Survey) with a growth rate of 1.81 per annum. The city has an aggrerate of 17,061 household and an average household size of 5.21 persons per household. The city's population is a conglomerate of Bicolanos, Tagalogs, Visayans, Pampangos, Ilocanos, Muslim and foreigners and the dominant dialect is Rinconada.



The City of Iriga is classified as third class by the Department of Finance pursuant to Executive Order No. 249. Like any other Local Government, Iriga City has both elective and appointive officials, namely: The City mayor, Vice-Mayor, Sanguniang Panglungsod members and appointive City Officials.

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