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The economy of India has various sectors and industries under which its entire population works and earn their living. These different sectors and professions have in many ways added to the economic growth of the country. A country is dependent on its working population for its growth, and due to the number of professions and opportunities growing in the various industries, has resulted in the employment of a larger share of population. Some of the well loved industries satisfying the needs of job seekers are Information Technology, lifestyle, fashion, house- hold, communications and media, Medicine, education, hospitality, etc. An industry, which forms a part of all these sectors or in a way the whole economy is dependent on its business for the financial and infrastructural growth of the country is the Import and Export department. Import and Export business has in itself become an industry which employees a countable number of job seekers of the country. The employees doing job in the import and export sector of the country are bound to follow the rules and work according to the following objectives as far as the import of the products is concerned:


The goods imported should be made easily available to the common masses, to help

them improvise and upgrade the technology used for the manufacturing of different products. 2.) 3.) A proper license should be made for the import of products. Substitutions for the imported products should be encouraged to decrease the outflow of

foreign currency 4.) Prohibited goods to be imported in the country, like unprocessed ivory, tallow stout,

animal rennet and the import of wild animals, should not practised. 5.) The products harming the health, hygiene, environmental, and security elements of the

country should not be imported. 6.) The export of India¶s traditional products should be promoted to encourage the inflow of

foreign currency in the country 7.) The laws made by the Indian government as the import and export trading policies

should be followed by the people working in the sector.


Following is a brief of the industries contributing majorly into the country¶s import and export business:

Agriculture Industry: Farming being the basis and the traditional profession of the Indians, country is well loved for the export of many types of rice, tea, sugar, herbs, wheat, etc. all these products are fantastic in demand and appreciated by the foreign customers.

Textile Industry: textile or apparel industry in India has contributed a lot to the import export bank of the country. After agriculture, textile is the second largest industry supporting the export business of India. As studied by the experts, textile industry is surely said to grow in the coming years, from its present 30% contribution in the Indian Export business and thereby proving more jobs in import and export sector.

Home furnishing industry: The goods, having the capability to beautify the house and to really make one feel the essence of home, are exported by Indians in a fantastic way. Also, India is said to be promoting the family culture all over the world, by spreading its ethnic and traditional values.

Indian Jewellery: the traditional jewellery of India, is the dream of every woman. It is said to raise the beauty of the woman and girls all over the world are seen participating in the buy of Indian jewellery.

Chemical Industry: chemical or drug industry contributes 7 % to the total of import export sector in the country. Drugs, medicines, and other health products, forms a major part of the job industry in India, many people are seen employed in the health sector, whether its pharmaceutical, research, or hospitals.

Indian population is said to be the most talented and intelligent workforce all over the globe. Other than the products from the above mentioned industries, export of human workforce from India is practised by all the economies.

The export sector of Indian economy made comprehensive progress over the last decade. The exponential growth of the export sector of Indian economy can be attributed to the liberal Government of India economic policy. Indian exports have an ambitious target of US 160 billion in 2007-08. The achievement came to the Indian exports in the last fiscal despite the odds against the exports, minimizing the gains. In the first two months of 2007-08 exports grew by 20.3%, which was a little lower than the previous year over the same period a year ago. The Government of India latest export policy for the exporters will help in stabilizing the export growth levels attained in the 1st quarter of 2007-2008. Ores and minerals exports grew moderately to 12.9% against 37.4% in 2005-06. Similar trend was also observed in the exports of manufacturing sector. The exports of manufactured goods from India grew moderately by 15% in the first quarter of 2007-2008 as compared to 21.2% in the last fiscal year. High value commodities like engineering goods and rice registered very high growth rate in the 1st quarter of this fiscal against the same period last year. The overall exports suggests that the Indian exports grew considerably across all major exporting destinations. The Indian exports to Pakistan, UAE and Italy showed remarkable growth in the first quarter of the current fiscal year. The astronomical growth of the Indian export sector was led by the following industry y y y y y y y y y

Information Technology Information Technology Enabled Services Telecommunications hardware Electronics and hardware Pharmaceutical and biotechnology products Consumer durables Textiles Construction machinery Power equipment


y y y

Food grains Iron and steel Chemicals and fertilizers

The robust overall growth of export sector of Indian economy led to secondary growth of the following economic parameters y

India's economy grew at 9.3% in quarter April-June and it was driven by manufacturing, construction and services sector and agriculture sector


GDP factor for the first quarter of 2007-08 was at Rs 7,23,132 crore, registering a growth rate of 9.3% over the corresponding quarter of previous year


Exports grew by 18.11% during the 1st quarter of 2007-2008 and the imports shoot up by 34.30% during the same period


India's FOREX reserves (excluding Gold and SDRs) stood at $219.75 billion at the end of July ' 07

y y y y

The annual inflation rate was 4.45% for the week ended July 28, 2007 India's Balance of Payments is expected to remain comfortable Merchandise Exports recorded strong growth According to reports, productivity growth rate of Indian economy is estimated to be around 8% and above until 2020

At this stupendous growth of the export sector of Indian economy, it is expected that India will become the second largest economy in the world after China.

The import sector of Indian economy is one of the most important sector of India's economic health. The performance of the import sector of Indian economy determines the Export policy of India and most importantly the export import policy of India. Further, it is one of the most important part of the India's foreign trade policy. The current EXIM policy of India covers policy statements for the period covering 2002 to 2007. The basic laws that governs the import sector of Indian economy are as follows y

Imports shall be free, except in cases where they are regulated by the provisions of this Policy or any other law for the time being in force



The item wise import policy shall be, as specified in published and notified by Director General of Foreign Trade, as amended from time to time


Every importer shall comply with the provisions of the Foreign Trade (Development and Regulation) Act, 1992, the Rules and Orders made thereunder, the provisions of this Policy and the terms and conditions of any license / certificate / permission granted to him, as well as provisions of any other law for the time being in force


All imported goods shall also be subject to domestic Laws, Rules, Orders, Regulations, technical specifications, environmental and safety norms as applicable to domestically produced goods


No import of rough diamonds shall be permitted unless the shipment parcel is accompanied by Kimberley Process Certificate required under the procedure specified by the Gem & Jewelery Export Promotion Council


Duty credit allowed for import of capital goods, spare parts, office equipment, office furniture and consumables that are importable under ITC (HS). Such imports covers all items of the service sector


The Customs Act of India governs the process of levying of tariffs on imports and frames the rules and it also specifies the tariffs rates and provides for the imposition of anti-dumping and compensation charges

y y

Tariff rates, excise duties, regulatory duties are revised in each annual budget of India Total duties on imports now consist of basic duty which ranges from zero to 65% plus additional or countervailing duties

y y

On manufactured "luxury" items, total import taxes may amount to whooping 150% Import duties are product specific and can be revised in mid-year

The latest export import policy of India have led to growth of India's Import on the following lines -

The Government of India latest export policy for the exporters will help in stabilizing the export growth levels attained in the 1st quarter of 2007-2008. The Indian imports shoot up by 34.30% during the 1st quarter of 2007-2008. Today, India ranks second in the manufacture of small passenger car segment. It is the worlds largest producer of generic pharmaceutical and

its Information Technology sector is registering three figure growth consistently. Moreover, it is the most preferred destination for business process outsourcing. The world's knowledge process outsourcing business is valued at US$ 15 billion out of which US$ 12.5 billion worth of business is expected to be outsourced to India alone by 2010. According to reports, productivity growth rate of Indian economy is estimated to be around 8% and above until 2020.

Agriculture Industry - India's financial system is different from others, with farming being its foundation. India exports a huge hunk from its agriculture stock, and various stuffs are heartily valued in the international bazaar. A few goods that reach out to international audience directly from nations farms are Sugar, Tea, Spices, Wheat, Rice, Tobacco, etc. Textile and Apparel Industry - Apparel industry has a unique place in India's export import data bank. After agriculture, textile industry sees India possibly, as the 2nd largest center of exporting to other country. If reviews are to be believed, Indian textile trade creates about 30% of the total exports! Specialist orate that keeping in view the constantly increasing demand of Indian textile and apparel industry, the position of this sector is bound to raise. Chemical Industry - Chemical trade makes a most important part of the Indian economy, contributing around 7% of the Indian GDP. India is inextricably connected with major chemical manufacturing, then whether it deals with chemical drugs used in medicines, toiletries and soap, dyes and paints or varied types of pesticides. These progression and accomplishments have forced India to take added proposal in the field and hold the competition directly. Home Furnishing goods - Manufacturing of home products like tapestry, curtains, linen, cushions, etc., is not a single country's stance. India on the other hand leads the field by designing excellent textile items that speak their worth. The knitting, weaving and spinning structure of these house-hold furnishing goods showcase India's ethnic and artistic design model that has made an extraordinary place around the world. India earns a good-looking


amount with the export and manufacture of Table Linen, Bed Linen, Curtains, Toilet and Kitchen Linen, Carpet and Floor Coverings, and other clothing accessories. Indian Jewelry - Indian jewelry region is completely attributed to the ancient Indian society and civilization. The outstanding gems and jewels that India has under its lap, clubbed with the astonishing artwork, makes it renowned in the international market. India trade jewelry and gems to U.S, UAE, U.K, Hong Kong, Singapore, Belgium, among others nations.

There has been an upsurge of companies that provide competitive intelligence reports on export import data India, as this has become an integral part of international business. This export import India data is assembled, arranged and standardized on the basis of shipping bills and import bills and then made available to the companies registered members on the web. This increases the credibility of the firms and enables the businessmen to have a transparent insight in the database. Traders find India the most embattled market place as it's a vastly populated region and discover an enormous international business here. The possibility of cottage and small scale industries is also elevated. India is well-known for its spices and such spices are in huge demand in the overseas nations. Exporters or Importers get a good approaching on the trade bazaar with a comprehensive import export data portal to help them. Export import data India offers trade data, updates about the market movements and its rates including details of products and companies so that the information is exchanged effortlessly and ensures smooth functioning of dealing, all the way through the day and night across all nations. Fast access to any sort of export import data India through various portals makes international business a child's play. Merchants are competing with each other to get space in Indian marketplace for here products are sold at realistic prices unlike other nations where it's very expensive. Resultant of this is boost in the figure of import export data to provide the requirements of Indian manufacturers. Such export import India data will keep you informed with the newest offers or trends of


services and products of suppliers and manufacturers as well as Indian service contributors besides buyers from other nations. The world wide web provides direct Access to import export data giving the Indian supplier continuous and huge business opportunities. It provides the international buyers of Indian products a list of the best exporters available in India and also to locate new exporters. It provides the Indian exporter with plenty of options to export merchandise at the best value. Also, the buyers get to know cultural designs from genuine manufacturers and are able to avoid middlemen. This export import data is useful in analyzing a company's investments and its international value; moreover it gives a true and fair access to its foreign trade data.

The Indian export business has been growing steadily for the past several decades. Indian exporters have succeeded in taking the export business to an international level. Factors Contributing To the Growth of Export Sector Several factors have contributed to the growth of export business in India. The growth of Small and Medium enterprises is one of the most important factors that have led to an increase in the export of the country. Most of the Indian exporters include the SME sectors which have grown tremendously during the past several years. Some of the most important and profitable sectors in the export business include textiles, chemicals, telecommunication hardware, food grains, iron and steel, consumer durables and electronics. India is second largest exporter in the world next to China. Another important factor that has led to the acceleration of exports is the online business to business web portals. The use of business directory by the Small and Medium enterprises has led to a global exposure of products and services. Today Indian exporters can easily find markets for their products through online portals. The small enterprises found it difficult to reach the target audience but with the use of the b2b directories, these industries are able to showcase different products and services in the global markets, make better and faster transactions and have an in depth knowledge about market situations.


Indian exporters have a healthy competition with neighbouring countries which has further led to the growth of export sector in the country. The government has created new opportunities by introducing several policies to augment the export sector. By the year 1990, government introduced liberal policies to boost the export business in India. The introduction of various trade policies have led to a substantial flow of foreign currency. Some of the Important Export Products The Indian exporters maintain cordial trade relations with neighbouring countries. Majority of the commodities produced in the country are exported to foreign countries. Some of the most important and notable commodities include:

Iron and steel: India is the leading exporter of iron and steel to different countries all over the world.


Leather products: leather products like shoes, bags and belts are exported to different countries on large basis. It is one of the most profitable sectors of the Indian economy.


Textiles: another sector that contributes to the GDP of the country is the textile industry.


Chemicals and pharmaceuticals: India is the leading exporter of various chemicals and pharmaceuticals. The export of petroleum has also increased during the past several years.


Ready-made garments: Indian exporters are well known for their ready-made products in the international markets. Indian dresses and fabrics have immense appreciation all over the world.


Jewellery: Indian jewellery has craved a niche in the global markets with its unique blend of traditional and contemporary styles.


Dairy products: a leading exporter of milk products and eggs, the current census show a considerable increase in the export of dairy products.

The growth of SMEs and the use of business directory have led to a notable growth of the export sector of the country in many ways. Today the country is a leading exporter of many commodities in the international market.


With the influence of globalization and continuous expansion of free market, the export import industry in India has been gaining momentum. The international businesses of the nation i.e. export and import has been increasing rapidly. Our merchandize exports have crossed the magic figure of 0 billion and the annual growth rate is 23%. India offers various Jobs in export and import industry as it grows exponentially. High revenues and large number of professionals are associated with this exciting industry. This sector offers jobs for freshers as well as experienced candidates given they possess the right qualification and skill set. A degree in merchandising or other allied fields of Export import industry is the basic qualification required to enter this exciting sector. There are various institutions across India that offer courses in this field like IIFT; DSE, DU; IIEM, Bangalore; NIEM, Chennai; IICT, Lucknow; Punjab University, Chandigarh; University of Madras, Chennai and Gujarat University, Ahemdabad. Along with the degree, the candidate should have excellent communication skills, aptitude for business, ability to persuade and a confident personality. Knowledge of foreign language serves as an added advantage. Export import is a wide field that may offer numerous kinds of job profiles to its professionals. Production, invoicing, packing, transport and shipping, marketing and documentation are some of the various tasks involved in the industry. Professionals in this field can work in export units, buying houses or the international business division of various multinational companies. There are a large number of companies related to merchandising and export import in India that are hiring in the present times. Export Import jobs offer good financial and professional growth across all job profiles in all companies. Some of the job profiles for freshers include (a) Import Export Assistant, (b) Export Assistant, (c) Assistant Merchandisers, (d) Import/ Export Coordinator, (e) Import/ Export Compliance Assistant, (f) Import/ Export Compliance Analyst, (g) Import/ Export Data Entry Clerk, (h) Sales Air Import/ Export Agent and many others. Other Import Export Jobs are for Merchandisers, Assistant Managers, Market Representatives, Fabric and Sourcing Manager, Pattern Masters, Production Managers, Merchandise Consultants, Logistics Executives,


Customs and Excise Executives, Export Officers, Filling Clerks, Shipping Executives, Visual Merchandisers, Quality Controller and various others. The economic needs of the country, effective use of foreign exchange and industrial as well as consumer requirements are the main factors that influence our import policy. There are no quantitative restrictions on imports of capital goods and intermediates-new or second hand. . Exports in many sectors have surpassed the expectations as project goods exports grew at an overwhelming rate of 173%. A growth surpassing 50% was recorded in exports of nonferrous metals, computer software (in physical form), guar gum meal, rice, pulses and dairy products. Commodities like cosmetics and toiletries, iron-ore, man-made staple fibers, coffee, processed food and transport equipment grew at the rate more than 25% i.e. above the average.The export-import industry of India is growing at a fast pace while opening various employment avenues. The relaxation in Export-Import policies and duties is one of the major drivers for the progress of the sector. There are plenty of job opportunities in this industry after the global economic slowdown made an exit from the country. India¶s export growth had fallen sharply as a result of recession hitting its economy in the year 2008. Even though our economy depends hugely on domestic products, the contribution of exports has been significant. Nevertheless, the export import industry has started picking up quickly and is on a recovery path today. It has been generating plenty of jobs for qualified and skilled professionals across all areas.

India & ASEAN Trade Relations The partnership between India and Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN) countries is a decade old. The ASEAN countries comprise of Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam. The best part being, trade between both India and ASEAN has been developing at a swift pace. India reportedly is the sectoral dialogue partner of ASEAN since 1992. However, at the fifth ASEAN summit in Bangkok in 1995, India assumed the status of a full dialogue partner on popular demand. In fact India and ASEAN have been organizing summit level meetings on an annual basis since 2002.


In additions, Free Trade Agreement (FTA) was inked by India and ASEAN countries in August 2009 in Bangkok.The Union Minister of Commerce and Industry, Mr Anand Sharma, signed the ASEAN-India Free Trade Agreement in Goods with ASEAN economic Ministers for common economic gains.As per ASEAN-INDIA FTA, the ASEAN member countries and India will do away with at least 80 percent of import tariffs between 2013 and 2016, commencing from January 1, 2010. Also, tariffs on sensitive products will be brought down by 5 per cent in 2016, while tariffs will remain as it is for around 489 items of sensitive products. Trade ASEAN is India's 4th largest trading partner after the EU, US and China. Indo-ASEAN trade relations have been scaling up at a compounded annual growth rate of 27 percent since 2000. In 2007-08, the trade stood at US$38.37 billion. In the last financial year, it was over US$ 40 billion. By 2010 India and ASEAN plan to achieve an ambitious target of US$ 50 billion. Singapore India and Singapore enjoy good trade relations. Besides, the country is considered to be a getaway to ASEAN and china. The signing of the Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agreement in 2005 has provided a fresh impetus to trade relations between the two nations. The Singapore companies to a greater extent have started engaging themselves in infrastructure and real estate projects in India and even have been looking forward to associate with logistics and communication sector, healthcare, education and training, retail and the automotive sectors. They are also embarking onto developmental and planning projects like roads, ports, airports, power and telecom sector. India's major exports to Singapore Crudes, Parts & Accessories Of Automatic Data Processing Machines, Automatic Data Processing Input And Output Units, Motor Spirit Refined Premium Leaded, Styrene, Automatic Data Processing Storage Units, Other Monolithic Integrated Circuits, P-Xylene, Monolithic Digital Integrated Circuits, Radio Transmission Apparatus with Reception Apparatus. India's major imports from Singapore

Non-Industrial Diamonds Worked, Topped Crudes, Motor Spirit Refined Premium Leaded, Aluminium Unwrought, Benzene, Articles Of Jewellery Of Other Precious Metal Whether Or not Plated Or Clad With Precious Metal, Other Medicaments Packed For Retail Sale, Parts Of Boring Or Sinking Machinery, Static Converters, Other Medical Surgical Dental Or Veterinary Instruments & Appliances Malaysia India-Malaysia trade relations have witnessed exponential growth since 1991. Malaysia's largest trading partner is India, while Malaysia is India's second largest trading partner in the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN). India's major exports to Malaysia: Meat and meat preparations, sugar, rice (other than basmati), wheat, fresh vegetables and fruits, cotton yarn, RMG cotton and accessories, primary and semi-finished iron, made-ups, fabrics, machinery and instruments, electronic goods and metal manufactures. India's major Imports from Malaysia: Crude Petroleum, Palm Oil, Electronic & Electrical products, Chemicals & Chemical products and Petroleum products. Myanmar The bilateral trade between India and Myanmar is likely to clock $1 billion in 2009-10, up from $951 million in 2008-09. India's imports from Myanmar: While teak, timber, maize and pulses India's major exports to Myanmar: Steel, cement, fertiliser and pharmaceuticals Indonesia India and Indonesia are considered as Asia's largest democracies. However, it is only after a gap of five years both the countries came together for trade relations. The last time both the countries entered into a trade relationship was in 1950s. Right through 2009, both countries got engaged in putting up numerous seminars, exhibitions, festivals and top visits to build bilateral relations. In 2008-09 India exported goods worth US$ 1.82 billion to Indonesia. India's major exports to Indonesia - organic chemicals, mineral fuels and ships and boats. India and Indonesia have entered into a memorandum of understanding (MoU) for collaboration in the field of agriculture and allied sectors.

Thailand Mutual trade between the two countries clocked US$4.11 billion in 2007-08 as opposed to US$ 3.18 billion in 2006-07. In between April-December 2008-09 India exported goods worth US$ 1.44 billion to Thailand. The sectors in India that have seen Thai investment in the areas of hotel & tourism, food processing, trading and chemicals. India- Thailand is targeting US$ 10 billion bilateral trade in 2010. Vietnam The bilateral trade between the two countries remains "modest", with the trade balance being in India's favour. Bilateral trade clocked US$ 1.77 billion in 2007-08 from US$ 1.14 billion in 2006-07. From April-December 2008-09, India's exports to Vietnam was worth almost US$ 1.13 billion. India's major imports from Vietnam: Pepper, rubber, computer hardware and electronic products, cinnamon bark and spices, and garments and textile products. The key areas where Indian exports could make an impact in the Vietnamese market include information technology (IT) and IT training, agro and food processing, railways, energy and alternate energy, veterinary manufacturing plant, tea processing machinery, textile machinery, and power transmission and generation. Philippines The trade between India and Philippines was worth US$ 823.69 million in 2007-08. During the period between April-December 2008-09, India exported goods worth US$574.22 million to Philippines. India' major exports to Philippines: Frozen buffalo meat; rubber and articles thereof; oil seeds and olea etc.; vehicles; iron and steel; residues and waste from food industries; tobacco; pharmaceutical products. India's major imports from Philippines: Electrical and electronic machinery and equipment; iron and steel; machinery; vehicles; auto components, newsprint paper and paperboard; animal or vegetable fats and oils; organic chemicals. Cambodia In 2007-08, the trade between the two countries stood at US$56.32 billion in 2007-08. IN April-December 2008-09, India exported goods worth US$ 35.94 million. India's major exports to Cambodia - pharmaceuticals, coffee, tea, spices and cotton.

Higher Support for Market and Product Diversification
1. Additional benefit of 2% bonus, over and above the existing benefits of 5% / 2% under Focus Product Scheme, allowed for about 135 existing products, which have suffered due to recession in exports. Major sectors include all Handicrafts items, Silk Carpets, Toys and Sports Goods (all of which were earlier eligible for 5% benefits); Leather Products and Leather Footwear, Handloom Products and Engineering Items including Bicycle parts and Grinding Media Balls (all of which were earlier eligible for 2% benefit). 2. 256 new products added under FPS (at 8 digit level), which shall be entitled for benefits @ 2% of FOB value of exports to all markets. Major Sectors / Product Groups are Engineering, Electronics, Rubber & Rubber Products, Other Oil Meals, Finished Leather, Packaged Coconut Water and Coconut Shell worked items. 3. Instant Tea and CSNL Cardinol included for benefits under VKGUY @ 5% of FOB value of exports. 4. Nearly 300 products (at 8 digit level) from the readymade garment sector incentivised under MLFPS for further 6 months from October, 2010 to march, 2011 for exports to 27 EU countries.

Support for Technological up-gradation 5. Zero duty EPCG scheme, introduced in August 2009 and valid for only two years upto 31.3.2011, has been extended by one more year till 31.3.2012. In addition, to give a boost to technological up-gradation for additional sectors as well, the benefit of the scheme has been expanded to cover paper & paperboard and articles thereof, ceramic products, refractories, glass & glassware, rubber & articles thereof, Plywood and allied products, marine products, sports goods and toys and additional engineering products.

6. Additional Towns of Export Excellence (TEEs) announced viz. Barmer (Rajasthan) for Handicrafts; Bhiwandi (Maharashtra) for Textiles; and Agra (Uttar Pradesh) for Leather Products.

Benefit and flexibility to Status Holders: 7. Status Holders contribute to a substantial part of our exports. To support them to upgrade their technology, 1% Status Holder Incentive Scheme (SHIS) introduced in August 2009 and valid for only two years upto 31.3.2011, has been extended by one more year for 2011-12 exports. In addition, to give a boost to technological upgradation for additional sectors as well, the benefit of the scheme has been expanded to cover chemical & Allied products, paper, paperboard and articles thereof, ceramic products, refractories, glass & glassware, rubber & articles thereof, plywood and allied products, electronics products, sports goods and toys and additional engineering products. 8. Additional flexibility provided for transferability of Duty Credit Scrips being issued to Status Holders under paragraph 3.13.4 of FTP under VKGUY scheme by allowing transfer of scrip for import of cold chain equipments to unit(s) in the Food Park.

Stability / Continuity of the Foreign Trade Policy: 9. The popular and exporter friendly Duty Entitlement Passbook (DEPB) scheme has been extended beyond 31.12.2010 till 30.06.2011. 10. Availability of concessional Export Credit:

Interest subvention of 2% for pre-shipment credit for export sectors namely, Handloom, Handicraft, Carpet and SMEs for all export sectors, have been allowed till 31.3.2011 in the budget 2010-11. This facility has now been extended to a number of additional products pertaining to sectors like Engineering, leather, textiles, Jute. 11. Advance Authorization for Annual Requirement shall also be exempted from payment of anti-dumping & Safeguard duty in line with the underlying principle that goods and services should be exported and not the taxes and levies.


Procedural Simplification and Reduction of Transaction Cost: 12. Exporters shall now have the flexibility to get a high value EPCG authorisation by filing their EPCG application on Annual basis, without the need to file the application for individual capital goods from time to time. It will reduce transaction time and cost. 13. Exporters shall now have the flexibility to Club Advance authorisation with Advance Authorisation for Annual Requirement for the purpose of account closure. 14. To impart flexibility to exporters and to facilitate smooth clearance of consignments, a Single customs notification for the two variants of Advance Authorization scheme namely advance authorisation for physical exports & deemed exports shall be issued. It will also eliminate the ambiguity in clubbing of such exports. 15. Adhoc Norms ratified under Advance Authorisation scheme shall henceforth apply to all cases for the same export product upto one year not only prospectively but also retrospectively. 16. Clarification on the availability of 4% SAD refund benefit, as given by DOR in terms of customs Notification No. 102/2007, only to trader importers, to be also extended to manufacturers, who sell the imported items like traders. 17. Chartered Engineer Certificate for Advance Authorisation on self declared basis, has been dispenced with. This will reduce documentation and the transaction cost.

EDI Initiatives: 18. To reduce the transaction cost and time, the scope and domain of EDI is endeavoured to be continuously broadened. To remove redundancy of repeated submissions of RCMC, an µe-RCMC¶ initiative has been commenced. Under this, the Export Promotion Councils would upload the RCMC data of their members on DGFT¶s website only once, thus reducing the procedural burden of repeated submissions and associated cost and time. 19. Facility of a data preparation module for Advance Authorization and Export Promotion Capital Good (EPCG) has been provided on an offline mode, which would reduce the need of continuous online interaction for long and address the connectivity and server response issues significantly.

20. In order to provide wider choice to the users and enlarge access for online filing, additional licenced certifying authorities for digital signatures and banks for electronic fund transfer (EFT) operations have been included in the gamut of EDI operations. 21. The online message exchange for Annual Advance Authorization and Duty Free Import Authorization (DFIA) shall also be made operational with Customs w.e.f. 1.12.2010.

Leather Sector: 22. Leather sector shall be allowed re-export of unsold imported raw hides and skins and semi-finished leather from Public bonded warehouses, without payment of any export duty. This will facilitate the logistics for establishment of such warehouses and easy access to raw material for the leather sector. 23. Finished Leather export shall be entitled for Duty Credit Scrip @ 2% under FPS. 24. Additional 2% bonus benefits over and above the existing benefits under Focus Product Scheme would significantly benefit the Leather Sector.

Handloom sector: 25. Duty free import of specified trimmings, embellishments etc. shall be available on Handloom made-ups exports @ 5% of FOB value of exports. 26. Additional 2% bonus benefits over and above the existing benefits under Focus Product Scheme would significantly benefit the Handloom Sector.

Textiles sector: 27. Duty free import of specified trimmings, embellishment etc shall be available @ 3% on exports of polyester made-ups in line with the facility available to sectors like Textiles & Leather. It will promote export of products such as micro cloth, which has become popular in home textiles. 28. Readymade Garment sector granted enhanced support under MLFPS for a period of further 6 months from October, 2010 to March, 2011 for exports to 27 EU countries.


Gems & Jewellery sector: 29. The list of items allowed for duty free import by Gems & Jewellery sector has been expanded by Inclusion of additional items such as Tags and labels, Security censor on card, Staple wire, Poly bag. This will reduce the cost of the product to some extent.

Handicraft Sector: 30. The facility of duty free import of tools under Duty Free Import scrips for Handicraft sector shall be made operational. 31. Additional 2% bonus benefits over and above the existing benefits under Focus Product Scheme will significantly benefit the Handicrafts and Silk Carpets sectors.

Service sector: 32. Scrips issued under Served From India Scheme (SFIS) can now be used for payment of duty on import of Vehicles, which are in the nature of professional equipment.

Agriculture and Plantation: 33. Instant Tea and CSNL Cardinol included for benefits under VKGUY @ 5% of FOB value of exports. 34. Oil Meals (Cotton, rape seed, groundnut), Castor Oil derivatives, Packed Coconut Water and Coconut Shell worked items shall be entitled for benefits @ 2% of FOB value of exports to all markets under FPS.

Engineering and Electronics: 35. Additional 2% bonus benefits over and above the existing benefits under Focus Product Scheme will significantly benefit Bicycle parts and Grinding Media Balls exporters. 36. Additional items of Engineering, namely, Pipes & Tubes, Electric Generating Sets, Cast Articles of Iron & Steel, Ferro Manganese and Ferro Silicon shall now be entitled for benefit @ 2% under FPS.


37. A number of Engineering items namely, Machine Tools, Compressors, Iron & Steel Structures including Transmission Towers and Scaffolding, LPG Cylinders, Ductile Tubes & Pipes shall now be entitled for benefits @ 2% of FOB value of exports to all markets under FPS instead of their exports to specific markets under MLFPS earlier. 38. Telecom Equipments, Colour TVs, Audio Systems, Optical Media, Semi-conductors, Capacitors, Resistors, PCBs, LEDs, Conductors, Desktops and Notebooks shall now be entitled for benefits @ 2% of FOB value of exports to all markets under FPS instead of their exports to limited market under MLFPS earlier.

Toys and Sports goods: 39. Additional 2% bonus benefits over and above the existing benefits under Focus Product Scheme will significantly benefit the Toys and Sports Goods Sector. 40. Benefits under Zero duty EPCG and SHIS schemes will significantly promote technological upgradation of Toys and Sports Goods sectors.



The directional pattern of India's trade has changed during the decade. Trade with the top 16 trading partners increased by over 3.6 percentage points since 2003-04 to 58.9 percentage share of total in 2007-08. The share of the United States, the largest trading partner, declined by 1.5 percentage points to 10.1 per cent in 2007-08, while that of the United Kingdom and Belgium declined by 1.6 and 2 percentage points, respectively (Table 6.26). The share of China, the second largest partner in 2007-08 increased to 9.2 per cent in 2007-08 from 4.9 per cent in 2003-04. China became the largest trading partner of India in April-February 2008 with trade share of the United States falling drastically by 2 percentage points compared to 2007-08 With rising POL prices resulting in higher import values and India's rising exports of refined POL products, the United Arab Emirates (UAE) and Saudi Arabia have emerged as the third and fourth largest trading partners of India. In 2008-09 (April- February), the share of UAE, Hong Kong, Korea Republic, Belgium, Indonesia, South Africa and Brazil has increased.


Though India had a large overall trade deficit, it had a trade surplus with the United States, UAE, United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Belgium, Italy and Brazil in 2007-08. During 2008-09 (April-February), India had a trade surplus with US, UK, Singapore, Brazil and Hong Kong with a sharp decline in the case of Hong Kong.

The largest trade deficits were with Saudi Arabia and China as indicated by the export-import ratio (Table 6.26). One notable feature is the stabilization of India's export-import ratio at above 2 per cent with Brazil. In terms of export destination, the United States continued to be the principal destination accounting for 12.0 per cent of India's total exports in 2008-09 (April-February), followed by UAE (10.8 per cent), China (5.1 per cent), Singapore (4.8 per cent), Hong Kong (3.7 per cent) and U.K. (3.6 per cent). Region-wise, over half of India's exports were to Asia (including ASEAN), up from around 40 per cent in 2001-02. During

2008-09 (April-February), exports to Asia (including ASEAN) grew by 6.9 per cent, to Europe by 10.2 per cent and to the United States by (-) 1.6 per cent. India's merchandise exports to South Asian countries declined by 5.2 per cent. In 2008-09 (April-February), Asia and ASEAN continued to be the major source of India's imports accounting for 61.7 per cent of total imports. Country-wise, imports from UAE and China recorded high growth of 39.1 per cent and 13.3 per cent respectively. Growth of imports from EU-27 (with a share of 13.5 per cent) was at 12.3 per cent and from North America (with a share of 6.7 per cent) at 27.0 per cent. A comparison of the commodity-wise growth of major exports to the United States, the European Union and other countries in the last year's Economic Survey had clearly shown the possible effect of a U.S. slowdown on India's exports in 2006-07 and the first half of 200708. Though the manufactured sector is the dominant sector in India's exports to all destinations, India's export basket to the United States is more dominated by manufactures compared to European Union and more so with respect to Others. Primary products have a share of 6.6 per cent, 7.8 per cent and 18.4 per cent in India's export basket to the United States, European Union and Others respectively in 2008-09 (April-February). The share of petroleum, crude & products was low at 0.9 per cent in India's export basket to U.S. while it had a share of 11.5 per cent and 21.5 per cent in India's export basket to EU and Others. Table 6.12 clearly shows that the U.S. slowdown which had affected India's exports in 200607 and 2007-08 worsened in 2008-09 (April-February) due to the global recession originating in the United States resulting in negative growth of India's exports to the United States at ()1.6 per cent. In the case of EU and Other countries, India's export growth was robust in 2007-08, but in 2008-09 (April-February), the slowdown is visible on India's export growth, with export growth to EU and Other countries at 11.5 per cent and 6.6 per cent respectively. Unlike in 2007- 08, the impact of global recession on India's exports to the United States was mainly in manufactured goods, while primary products including agricultural products performed well though ores and minerals showed negative growth. In the case of EU and Others, the impact was more marked in the case of primary products than manufactures. India's export growth of textiles to the United States which had started decelerating in 200607 and turned slightly negative in 2007-08 continued this trend even during 2008-09 (April23

February). In the case of India's exports to EU, textile exports growth which had decelerated in 2006-07 had actually picked up in 2007-08, but again decelerated to 0.9 per cent in 200809 (April-February). In the case of Others, textile export growth accelerated in 2006-07 and 2007-08 but decelerated slightly in 2008-09. Gems and jewellery sector was worst hit by the recent global recession. Gems and jewellery exports of India to the United States in 2008-09 (April-February) were highly negative at (-)18.5 per cent, while it was slightly negative in the case of India's exports to EU and decelerated to single digit in the case of India's exports to others. In 2008-09 (April-February), engineering goods export growth was robust in all the three markets. chemicals and related product export growth was reasonably good to U.S. and EU markets despite the deceleration, while it was low in the case of others. Leather and leather manufactures exports of India showed varied performance, with acceleration to 14.3 per cent to U.S. after a negative growth for the past few years. It decelerated sharply to EU market to 3.8 per cent and showed negative growth in Others. Handicrafts including carpet handmade which has been showing negative export performance in the U.S. market in the last few years, turned highly negative in the first nine months of 2008-09. In the EU market it was negative only in 2007-08 and in 2008-09 (April-December). In the Others also it turned highly negative in 2008-09 (April-February) after a buoyant performance in 2007-08. Thus the impact of the global recession was more marked in the case of India's exports to U.S. than EU and Others particularly in sectors like textiles, gems and jewellery, handicrafts including carpets and ores and minerals. Engineering goods and chemicals and related products exports which were not affected till 2008-09 (April-February) registered negative growth in JanuaryMarch 2009 as per the latest data on imports from India of some countries like China and the United States. For example, China's imports from India for the above period of inorganic and organic chemicals registered (-)8.3 per cent and (-)29 per cent growth respectively, while machinery and electrical machinery registered (-)13 per cent and (-)0.4 per cent growth respectively. In the United States, imports from India's major items under chemicals like pharmaceuticals registered negative growth of (-)49 per cent though organic chemicals showed a small positive growth of 5 per cent. Major engineering items imported from India by U.S. like machinery other than electrical and electrical machinery registered growths of (24

)7 per cent and 1 per cent respectively. While iron and steel products grew by only 9 per cent, iron and steel registered negative growth of (-)68 per cent.

Export diversification In 2007, India had a global export share of 1 per cent or more in 44 out of a total of 99 commodities at two digit HS level, but a significant share of 5 per cent or more only in eight items (as in 2006). Only one of these items, namely cotton had an increase in global share by 1.11 per cent point or more in 2007 over 2006. Four items lost global shares which include silk; carpets and other textiles floor coverings; other made textile articles, sets, worn clothing, etc; and coffee, tea, mate and spices. In the remaining 36 items 15 items lost their share in 2007 over 2006 (Table 6.27). Though India has been diversifying its exports, there is plenty of scope to diversify into sectors where global demand is high and increasing (Box 6.10). Countries closely integrated with the global trading system have joined the process of exporting dynamic products by continuously restructuring their production bases with efficiency, improved productivity and constantly improving their global share in exports.










Want to start your own career free from the hassles of the everyday grind? If you are tired of working for other people, and you think that you can make a better living on your own, then what you need to consider is finding the right products to sell. With the Internet opening up the export-import trade, you now have the opportunity to take your business global and make it into something that is truly worthwhile. It's the new economy. Instead of worrying about whether a large corporation is going to eliminate your job, you are in control of your destiny. For any import export business to take off, you need to find trade partners. One good place to look is India. Following are five distinct advantages of the export-import trade in India: Cheaper merchandise: India is home to many cheaper products that can be imported at a fair price and sold with nice profit margins. By the same token, India may have need for products in your home country that can prove profitable. In order to get the scoop on the export-import India trade you should start with your country's embassy within India's borders. They will have tons of great information to get you off to a healthy start. They will also help you locate reputable suppliers with which you can establish trade. Growing reputation in the global business community: India has one of the fastest growing economies. The cost of living is extremely low, but at the same time, many jobs are being sent to them on account of the lower wages they require. This means that as India's economy picks up, so, too, will opportunity within your own land to establish a healthy and profitable import-export relationship. Healthy relations with most of the world: While tensions are quite strained between a number of powerful countries in this world, India maintains a relatively jovial relationship with most everyone that it has dealings with. In fact, relations currently range from indifferent to incredibly positive. In other words, it's a country with few (if any) enemies. That makes them a great source for the import-export trade. Opportunity to provide unique product for your customers or clients: Indian culture is definitely "in." That means cultural products sell extremely well in other countries. No better time than the present to capitalize!


Limitless networking opportunities: As India's business opportunities continue to grow, the networking possibilities that will result from it are undoubtedly beneficial to anyone looking to establish a healthy export-import India trade business. This can lead to greater revenue in the present and the future. The export-import India trade is one of the most lucrative of all current global business opportunities. In addition to this, the import-export trade is one of the best ideas for any enterprising businessman looking to set out on his own. Do your homework, establish contacts, and start selling today


Trade, being a harbinger to the new era, is always an essential part to the humankind development. Foundation of any trade starts from Import Export Data, which provides vital information to the traders about the latest state of market and its crowd. Foreign Trade is enhancing exponentially thus import export data plays a crucial role for the traders especially in the developing countries like India. These data are actually the records of past trade precisely predicting the future commerce. It helps in enhancing the chances of quality trade and better relationships in trade. Before time, it was a tough job to maintain the records of past trade and gathering any past or present information of any product or company. A new concept, thus, was formulated into existence with a key support of technology of maintaining records, which termed as Import. In the case of India, according to an investigation/research Indian Export Import Data can contact more than 149.58 Million records online covering trade with over 200 countries in the globe and represents transactions of over 2,00,000 Indian Exporters Importers. As per the online data, these Data provides organizations and traders a complete contact and control to current and historical trade data. Organizations now use some of the best technology to handle this database and records to give desired results (mainly in RDBMS format). Now the traders can get these records from anywhere in this world at any time with the wide variety of information and statistics. Many websites in the internet world facilities access to such database and maintain them. Notion of maintaining such export import data leads to the quality business. Export Data enables merchants to discover some of the best companies and area whom business requirement can be fulfilled by their products. Similarly, Import Data helps in determining purchasing volumes, purchasing patterns and techniques and bygone purchases. Import Data also opens a new door to the foreign relationships and knowing the best products to be imported without fakes and flaws. It aids to identify top International Importers of market who import the types of products one manufacture, market, and sell. Export import data gives merchants an insight into the present state of business in the country in a particular industry and the future prospect in the country. The market contains a wide array of goods like sporting goods, clocks, electronic games, radio, garments, tools, house wares. All exports and imports depend on the need of customers thus giving rise to requirement of export data if product needs to be sent to a particular country or import export data if goods need to be imported to market.

Books 1. Philip D. Locklin, Economics of Transportation, 7th edition (Homewood, IL; Richard D. Irwin, Inc., 1972), p. 844. 2. James H. Martin, James M. Daley, and Henry B. Burdg, "Buying Influences and Perceptions of Transportation Services," Industrial Marketing Management, 17.4 (November 1988), pp. 305-314. 3. Fred N. Kerlinger, Foundations of Behavioral Research, 3rd edition (Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich College Publishers, 1986), p. 29.

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