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software, is a collection of computer programs and related data that provide the instructions for telling a computer what to do and how to do it In other words software is a set of programs, procedures, algorithms and its documentation. software "cannot be touched" .Software is also sometimes used in a more narrow sense, meaning application software only. Application software includes end-user applications of computers such as video games etc.

Today, software takes on a dual role. It is a product and, at the same time, the vehicle for delivering a product. As a product, software is information transformer producing, managing, acquiring, modifying, displaying, or transmitting information that can be as simple as a single bit or as complex as a multimedia presentation. As the vehicle used to deliver the product, software acts as the basis for the control of the computer (operating systems), the communication of information (networks), and the creation and control of other programs (software tools and environments).

The software: provides good product with useful information transforms the data so that it can be more useful in a local context manages business information to enhance competitiveness provides a gateway to worldwide networks like internet The role of computer software has undergone significant change over a time span of little more than 50 years. Software is a logical related rather than a physical system. So that the software have distinct characteristics but the hardware is not so, it is only the peripherals or devices or components software evolution pattern=where||why||what||when||how||by whom where Quality engineer why Error What GUI When component test

failure rate drops to a steady-state level for some period of time.So. buttons and layouts etc. And if analysed in the terms of Objected oriented programming refer to the checkboxes. Consider the failure rate as a function of time for hardware. the two activities are fundamentally different. Figure :Relationship between failure rate and time for hardware . Although some similarities exist between software development and hardware manufacture. In the recent trend the main aim is t rely on the reusable components. however. stated simply. drop down menus. and many other environmental factors. As time passes. The reusability values are determined in the software. the hardware begins to wear out. The relationship is called the bathtub curve. vibration . 2: Software does not wear out The figure shows the relationship between failure rate and time. high quality is achieved through good design. the failure rate rises again as hardware components suffer from affects of dust. Both the activities are dependent on people. but the manufacturing phase for hardware can introduce quality problems that are or easily corrected for software. it is not manufactured in the Classical Sense. In both the activities. temperature .These two activities require the construction of a "product" but the approaches are different. but the relationship between people is totally varying.How Rewrite By whom Engineer CHANGING NATURE OF SOFTWARE The following are the attributes of a good software--1: Software is developed or engineered. indicates that hardware failure rates early in its life. Software costs are concentrated in engineering which means that software projects cannot be managed as if they were manufacturing.

When a hardware component wears out. RESUABILITY According to the IEEE standard reusability is defined as the degree to which the software module or the other work product can be used in more than one computing program or software System. These subroutine libraries reused well-defined algorithms in an effective manner but had a limited domain of application and not extended algorithm only but included data structure too. Modern reusable components encapsulate both data and the processing applied to the data. the implication is clear software doesn't wear out.Software is not affected by the environmental factors that cause hardware to Wear out. the minimum failure rate level begins to rise²the software is deteriorating due to change. Slowly. enabling the software engineer to create new applications from reusable parts. The software failure indicates an error in design or in the process through which design as translated into machine executable code. It acts as an source code that can be used again to add new functionalities with slight or no modifications. we built scientific subroutine libraries that were reusable in a broad array of engineering and scientific applications.. Therefore. most software continues to be custom built A software component should be designed and implemented so that it can be reused in many different programs. Before the curve can return to the original steady-state failure rate. Reduces the processing Risk 3. In the 1960s. The advantages of Reusability are--1. System development is made faster . Increases software reliability 2. the failure rate curve for software should take the form of the ³idealized curve´ like a zigzag form. But it does deteriorate. it is replaced by a spare part unlike the software spare parts. This Reusability enables to create new applications for the software engineers. In theory. therefore. software maintenance involves more complexity than hardware maintenance Figure : Idealized and actual failure curves for software 3: Although the industry is moving toward component-based assembly. However.

Engineering and scientific software: Engineering and scientific software have been characterized by many algorithms. system simulation. 4. Start 2. Applications in this area restructure existing data in a way that facilitates business operations or management decision making. business software applications also encompass interactive computing. 2. Testing 9. Other systems applications such as operating system components. dashboard displays.Business software: The largest single software application area is Business information processing. Examples are compilers. and braking systems.System software: A collection of programs written to service other programs are called system software. analyzes and controls real-world events as they occur is called real time. Applications range from astronomy to volcanology. Confirmation SOFTWARE APPLICATIONS The various categories of software applications are: 1. It is used to control products and systems for the consumer and industrial markets. drivers etc process largely indeterminate data. A control/output component that responds to the external environment. 3. and a monitoring component that coordinates all other components so that real-time response can be maintained. Undestand 7. Identify 4. Embedded software can perform very limited such as keypad control for a microwave oven or provide significant function and control capability like digital functions in an automobile such as fuel control.However. Define 3.Steps involved in the Reusability process are ---1. Find 6. In addition to that conventional data processing application. modern applications within the engineering and scientific area are moving away from conventional numerical algorithms. 5. Elements of real-time software include a data gathering component that collects and formats information from an external environment. and file management utilities. editors. .Real-time software: Software that monitors. Selection 5. Incorporate 8. Computer-aided design. and other interactive applications have begun to take on real-time and system software characteristics. A analysis component that transforms information as required by the application.Embedded software: Embedded software resides in read-only memory.

computer graphics.Artificial intelligence software. also called knowledge based systems. The sample applications are word processing.Expert systems.Personal computer software. multimedia. In essence. theorem proving and game playing is representative of applications within this category. Perl. Artificial intelligence software makes use of non numerical algorithms to solve complex problems that are not willing to computation . The Web pages retrieved by a browser are software that incorporates executable instructions like HTML. and database access.Web-based software. . database management. entertainment.6. 7. The personal computer software is playing major role in the software market. artificial neural networks. the network becomes a massive computer providing an almost unlimited software resource that can be accessed by anyone with a modem. personal and business financial applications. pattern recognition like image and voice. external network. spreadsheets. or Java and data may be in the form of hypertext and a variety of visual and audio formats. 8.