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ACIDS, BASES AND BUFFERS HW MS

1.

C6H5OH(aq) + OH (aq)
C6H5O (aq) + H2O(l)
acid 1base 2
base 1
acid 2 (1)
1
[1]

2.

+

(i)
(ii)

H /proton donor (1)

1

partially dissociates/ionises (1)

1
[2]

3.

(i)
completely dissociates/ionised (1)
proton donor (1)
(ii)

NO3 (1)

2

1
[3]

4.

HCl and CH3COOH have same number of moles/
+

release same number of moles H /
1 mole of each acid produce ½ mol of H2 (1)
+

+

[H ] in CH3COOH < [H ] in HCl/
CH3COOH is a weaker acid than HCl (ora) (1)
Mg + 2HCl → MgCl2 + H2 (1)
Mg + 2CH3COOH → (CH3COO)2Mg + H2 (1)
or
+
2+
Mg + 2H → Mg + H2 (1)(1)

4
[4]

5.

(i)
(ii)

+

Ka = [C6H5O (aq)] [H (aq)] / [C6H5OH(aq)] (1)

1

Mr C6H5OH = 94 (1)
–3

[C6H5OH(aq)] 4.7/94 = 0.050 mol dm (1)
–10

+

2

–3

1.3 × 10 ≈ [H (aq)] / 0.050 mol dm (1) (‘=’ sign is acceptable)
+
–10
–6
–3
[H ] = √{(1.3 × 10 ) × (0.050) } = 2.55 × 10 mol dm (1)
–6
pH = –log[H+] = –log 2.55 × 10 = 5.59 (1)
+

+

3 marks: [H ]; pH expression ; calc of pH from [H ]

5
[6]

6.

(a)
(b)

strength of acid/extent of dissociation/ionisation (1)
(i)
acid 1

H2SO3(aq) + CH3COOH(aq)
base 2 (1)
base 1

1

+

HSO3 (aq) + CH3COOH2 (aq)
acid 2 (1)
2

1 mark for labels on each side of equation
(ii)

CH3COOH is the stronger acid/
Ka CH3COOH is greater/
CH3COOH is more acidic ORA (1)

Paddington Academy

1

pH = –log[H ] (1) (or with values).80 (1) (iv) 3 (1. Could be awarded below = –log 0.55 × 10 −3 ) 2 = 0. [H ] = √(Ka × [CH3COOH]) / –5 √(1.045) (1) + –4 –3 [H ] = 8.067 × 10 4 –5 2 moles of Ca(OH)2 = = 5.+ C6H5OH(aq) + CH3COOH(aq) (c) – C6H5OH2 (aq) + CH3COO (aq) (1) 2 + For HCl. (a) (ii) (b) (i) + Ionic product (1) 1 – Kw = [H (aq)] [OH (aq)] (1) state symbols not needed 1 5 × 10 −3 × 21.60 × 10 ) = 3.81/2.75 × 10 = 3.75 × 10 mol dm (1) –4 pH = –log 8.06 (1) (accept 3.1) 5 [10] 7.136 × 10 mol dm (1) –3 –3 –3 2 marks for 4.54 × 10 mol dm (no factor of 4) 3 . (a) + partial dissociation: HCOOH – H + HCOO (1) 1 –3 (b) (i) pH = –log (1.058/3.55 × 10 ) = 2.35 (1) (accept 1.045 = 1.015 Percentage dissociating = = 10.015 Ka = [HCOOH(aq)] (1) –4 –3 = 1.70 × 10 × 0.3 % / 10% (1) 1 (working not required) [8] 8.3) + For CH3COOH.34 × 10 mol (1) –5 concentration of Ca(OH)2 = 40 × 5.60 × 10 (mol dm )(1) –4 pKa = –log Ka = –log (1.27 × 10 / 8.34 × 10 –3 –3 = 2.55 ×10 −3 ) × 100 0.067 × 10 mol (1) 1.35 –4 1000 moles of HCl = = 1.8 (1) + [H ] deals with negative indices over a very wide range/ pH makes numbers manageable /removes very small numbers (1) 2 (ii) [ H + (aq)][HCOO − (aq)] [HCOOH(aq)] Ka = (1) (state symbols not needed) 1 (iii) [H + (aq)] 2 (1.

g.4. carbonate and CO2 (1) accept: metal more reactive than Pb and H2 balanced equation to match chemical added (1) (c) 3 Mr(Lidocaine) = 236 (1) -3 –4 Moles Novocaine = 100 × 10 /236 = 4.27 = 11.7 (1) 3 + ecf is possible for pH mark providing that the [H ] – value has been derived from Kw/[OH ] st If pOH method is used.85 × 10 ) = 11. pH = 11. pOH = 2. -–3 Commonest mistake will be to not double OH and to use 2.24 × 10 (1) –4 Concentration of Novocaine = 4.27.4 × 10 mol dm (1) Kw − + [H (aq)] = [OH (aq)] = 1.78 484 % yield = = 91.0847/0.13 from dividing by 2: worth 2 marks (d) 8 (1) 1 [9] 9. AND other lone pairs.78 mol/484 g (1) 3.59 = –0.4 × 10 −3 = 1.59 mol dm (1) pH = –log 4. nd pH = 14 – 2.7 × 10 = 5. (aq) for H2S (1) 2 amount I2 reacted = 1.44 mol (1) theoretical amount HI produced = 3.7 × 10 This gives ecf answer of 11.66 (1) 2 [7] 10.89 mol / HI formed = 3.0 × 10 −14 5. worth 2 marks.0848/0.43/11.24 × 10 × (1000/5) –3 = 0.58/4.73/11.(c) – –3 –3 –3 [OH ] = 2 × 2.44 × 100 440 × 100 or 3. (ii) (iii) (i) I2(aq) + H2S(g) → 2HI(aq) + S(s) species and balance (1) state symbols: accept (s) for I2. (b) (i) (ii) 1 C13H18O2 (1) any chemical that reacts to produce gas: e.85 × 10–12 mol dm–3 (1) –12 pH = –log (1. (a) (i) (+)1 (1) 1 (ii) N N O N N O o r Look for atoms bonded together.44 × 1000 –3 750 [HI] = = 4.085 mol dm (1) Paddington Academy 3 3 . would get 1 mark.73 gets 2 mark.0 % (1) 3 3.

(d) 3.93 × 10 or 1.175 x 22.394 – (1.74 mass C = 12 × 44.5 × mol NaOH –3 –3 or 1.929375 × 10 ) 3 –3 –2 amount of A in 250 cm = 10 × 1.020 + 0.102 g / 0. 1 mark for O Na on either or both phenol groups.82/1.02 0.102 = 5 : 6 / 10 : 12/ ratio C : H = 12 ratio CO2 : H2O = 5 : 3 / 10 : 6 (1) mass O = 1.051 mol (1) 2 1.93 × 10 mol A has a mass of 2. O -N + a O -N + a C 2H( C 2 )H4 C 3H / NaOH /Na (1) weak acid/base pair mixture formed (1) 2 On structure.85875 x 10 ) 3 amount of A in 25.93 × 10 (1) –2 1.02 g / 3.93 × 10 (1) (calc: 1.74 moles CO2 = 44 = 0.102) = 0.394 g eugenol and Mr = 164.918 = 0. [2] .0 cm = 0. amount of NaOH in titration = 0.0850 : 0.0 = 1.085 mol (1) 2 mass H = 18 × 0.93 × 10 = 146 g mol (1) (or Mr of A is 146) Therefore A is adipic acid / HOOC(CH2)4COOH (1) 5 [5] 12.82 g –2 –1 molar mass of A = 2.272 g / using 1.918 moles H2O = 18 = 0. shows that 1 molecule contains 2 atoms of O (1) ∴ molecular formula = C10H12O2 (1) 2 1 [13] 11.102 : 1 = 0.86 × 10 (1) (calc: 3.05/1000 –3 –3 or 3.