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0 INTRODUCTION Seasoning is one of the most important processing technologies prior to manufact ure of wood based products. It is an appropriate technology particularly for the furniture industr y, because it improves the quality of the furniture significantly. It increases physical and mechanical pro perties, dimensional stability, finishing, polishing painting and gluing capacity. It also saves timb er and its products like furniture from bio-deterioration by protecting from fungus and insect attacks. I t, thus, also enhances the service life of furniture. Because of these distinct advantages, a keen inte rest was observed among the owners of the furniture enterprises to have their own seasoning plants . But the individual enterprise is handicapped due to a large investment involved in adopting the tec hnology. This is why they have formed a Forum and have approached KATALYST to get the technical assis tances right from the feasibility study to installation, operation and training to improve th e quality of timber and its products. It aims at strengthening the furniture and sawmill industries. Initial ly, the feasibility aspect will be dealt with and after completion of this first phase, subsequent activiti es will be taken up. With this aim in view, the assignment was undertaken as per specific tasks contained in the Terms of Reference as mentioned in Annex-1. A list of the member enterprises of the Forum , Rokeya Sarani Furniture Development Industries is presented in Annex 2. The furniture enterprises and other organizations visited and personnel met in this respect are shown in Annex-3. A small number of big enterprises are already exporting furniture to different c ountries in a limited form. Some of the members of the Forum are planning to enter into the export are na with their products in the future. But it is a pre-requisite condition to manufacture furni ture from properly seasoned timber in case of export. They are fully aware of this aspect, which wa s evident during the discussion with them. This is another reason for the Mirpur furniture cluster to have its own seasoning plant. 2.0 METHODOLOGICAL APPROACH The study involved an initial discussion with the key personnel of the furniture and sawmill industries in Mirpur zone. The questionnaire survey method was used to know the state of ar t of 19 furniture enterprises comprising 22 members in the target area covering a broad range of a spects. For this, a structured questionnaire was prepared (Annex-4). The collection of reliable info rmation was

attempted through informal and friendly discussion with the entrepreneurs by rem oving their apprehension, misgiving and then convincing the importance of sustainability of the Forum which depends on their unreserved answers. Finally, all data were compiled and the fre quency analysis was performed on relevant information (Annexes: 5-14). Some related organizations we re visited, relevant documents were examined and all pertinent information were collected. F or procurement of wood seasoning kilns and basic woodworking machineries, detailed particulars wer e collected from the local and foreign sources through visits and correspondences. 3.0 FURNITURE INDUSTRY AND WOOD SEASONING PRACTICE 3.1 Furniture industry There is no reliable statistics about the furniture industry in the country. It is estimated that there are about 10,563 furniture enterprises in the country (Anon,1994, Kibria et al 2001) . Many of them, however, may not be in operation now, and some enterprises may have recently bee n established. There are about 200 furniture enterprises in the Mirpur zone, and in the Begum R okeya Sarani Road alone, over 100 such enterprises are located (Karim, 2004), which is the target area of the present study. 3.2.0 Wood seasoning practice It is considered pertinent to highlight the general information about wood seaso ning and then discuss the wood seasoning to fully understand the technology. 3.2.1 General information about seasoning Green timber contains a large amount of moisture content ranging from 50 to abov e 200%1 in its dry weight. Seasoning is removing this moisture by drying timber to a level which is in equilibrium with the atmospheric temperature and relative humidity. In Bangladesh, the average equili brium moisture content is 12 -14%2 and thus timber should be dried to this moisture content ran ge for proper seasoning (Anon, 1978). 3.2.2 Methods of seasoning There are various methods of seasoning of timber. Among them, the most common me thods of seasoning are air drying, kiln drying and solar drying. These are discussed brie fly. Air drying 1 Green timber contains moisture from 50 to 80% in its dry weight 2 In Northern Hemisphere like USA, Canada, EU, etc., the average equilibrium moi sture content is 6-8% 2


The investment on timber remains blocked for a l ong period which is another drawback of this method. Ideally. Some of them are not in operation now (Sattar. 1989). Due to various reasons. In the seasoning kilns there should be means to control these elements. Almost all commercial timbers of the world are seasoned by the kiln dr ying method.000 ft³/annum. lack of appropriate technical knowledge. Kiln drying Kiln drying is seasoning of timber in an enclosed chamber where there is full co ntrol of all the drying elements. 1980). these season ing plants are not fully utilized. But most of them are not now in operation. It is an efficient method. The glazing material is o paque to this radiation and thus it is trapped inside the solar kiln as heat energy. the kiln drying schedules have been developed for the timbers of Bangladesh (Sattar. Th e total capacity of these kilns is about 0. It is thus the most simple and inexpensive method. Prompted by satisfactory performance. (ii) humidification. Timber can be dried to a lower level of moisture content in any time of the year. etc. It depends on natural flow of air. Improper operation of the kilns may lead to serious drying defects resulting in even complete damage of ti mber. ease of operation and economy. But it takes a long time and larger space and is not equally effective throughout the year (Sattar and Ali 1969).71 million ft³/annum. sunshine and rain.Air drying is the seasoning of timber by exposure in the direct sun or under a s hed following proper stacking of timber. because these sol ar kilns have . The blackened sheet inside the solar kiln absorbs the radiati on. but expensive and complicated to both install and operate. The short wave solar radiation is tr ansmitted through the glazing material . each piece of timber in a kiln should be subjected to a uniform flow of air at a predetermined temperature and humidity. For this it is necessary to control the following four essential drying elements: (i) heating. For this. There are 55 conventional seasoning kilns in 20 organizations in the country. 1991). (iii) air circulation and (iv) ventilation. Solar drying Solar drying is drying of timber in a totally enclosed structure which derives i ts energy from the solar radiation with the help of a heat absorber. 1988). heated up and subsequently emits long wave radiation as heat energy. This heat is used for wood seasoning (Sattar. 22 solar ki lns were constructed both by public and private enterprises (Sattar. The tot al seasoning capacity was 36. improper maintenance. such as withd rawal of investment. 1982.

have constructed conventional seasoning kilns for more faster drying. however. and were not reconstructed.completed their 10 years period which is their normal life of duration. In stead. 3 . some of them.

50 18 .45 15.20 14 .2.3.22 14 .19 30.20 25. it may have probably deteriorated further in some c ases.3 Wood seasoning practice Except for some enterprises of Bangladesh Forest Industrial Development Corporat ion (BFIDC) and a few private industries.4 Wood seasoning practice in Mirpur zone The furniture industry is mostly concentrated in Mirpur area where about 200 sma ll to medium scale . of industries Method Range of mc reached Sawn timber Manufactured Seasoning condition Dhaka Chittagong Khulna 30 2 30 4 30 1 Air drying Kiln drying Air drying Kiln drying Air drying Kiln drying 25. Unseasoned timber is thus being used in almost all cases. Table 1 : Result of survey of furniture industries about seasoning Locality No. It is thus necessary to determine the moisture content of sawn timber as well as manufactur ed furniture to know the present condition of seasoning practice.2.35 16. 3.50 18 . The condition of moistu re content (mc) in sawn timbers and manufactured furniture was ascertained.60 22 . The result of three maj or cities is shown below (Table 1). In this respect. a survey was conducted in seven major cities for a study in 1988. there is no wood based industry that possesses facilitie s for timber seasoning (Sattar 1988). The condition of seasoning practice has not improved during this period.20 Partially dried Almost seasoned Partially dried Almost seasoned Partially dried Almost seasoned This survey was undertaken as long as 16 years back.22 14 .24 15.

This plant was constructed about 4 0 years back by the Bangladesh Forest Industries Development Corporation (BFIDC). This is w hy one seasoning kiln can run at a time which has made the plant uneconomic. It caters the needs of its cabinet manufacturing enterprises are clustered in this zone. It is difficult for furni ture enterprises to get their timber seasoned in time. On an average. this plant can season 100 ft³ of pri vate timber per month.400 ft³/month in this area (Table.000 ft³ per month. The capacity of ea ch kiln is 1. it offers seasoning facility to private enterprises on a very limited scale on payment. Except Hatil Complex.2). three member enterprises claim that they get a part of the ir timber seasoned in the BFIDC plant. However. whereas the need of the total seasoned timber for the 200 furniture enter prises is 37. Proper maint enance and overhauling were not done either on the plant itself or on the boiler. All other enterprises mention that they air-dry timber under th e sun or a shed for a 4 . But there is only one seasonin g plant consisting of two compartment type seasoning kilns in the area.

114 301 187 v) vi) Amount used by 200 furniture enterprises in Mirpur cluster (based on average of 22 enterprises) Amount needed for seasoning by these 200 enterprises in Mirpur cluster (based on average of 21 enterprises) 60.period ranging from 15 . The result is pres ented in Table.50 days. Amount of sawn timber and its requirement for seasoning/month Total amount/ month (ft³) Average amount/month (ft³) i) ii) Amount used by 21 enterprises (excluding Hatil Complex) Amount needed for seasoning by 21 enterprises (excluding Hatil Complex) 4.520 230 120 iii) iv) Amount used by all 22 member enterprises (including Hatil Complex) Amount needed for seasoning by these 22 enterprises (including Hatil Complex) 6. 3.3 Demand of seasoned timber The average monthly utilization of sawn timber and demand for seasoning timber h ave been estimated through the survey in the Mirpur furniture cluster.2 : Sawn timber used and requirement for seasoning in Mirpur zone Sl. No. By adopting this practice.9). However. mos t of the enterprises also agree that they cannot achieve proper seasoning. and as such they are looki ng for kiln drying on collective basis (Annex. timbers are partial ly dried and only the surface moisture is removed as is evident from Tables-1.2. This means either unsea soned or partially seasoned timbers are used for making furniture in almost all cases. Table.830 2.622 4.200 37.400 301 187 .

400 ft³/month and maximum for 3. It does not need any seasoning support. Teak is predominan tly the main 5 . These are small to medium sized industries which need a total of 2. 3. Gamar and Garjan are those species. 520 ft³ of timber to be seasoned per month.Hatil Complex.000 ft³/month. This is the estimated total demand of seasoned timber per mo nth.3. provision should be made m inimum for 2. but in actual practice there may be a variation of the needs. four selective timber species are being used by the 22 enterpri ses as shown in Table-3. Thus. In the Mirpur zone. one of the biggest furniture industries in the country.1 Timber species used by furniture enterprises There are about 26 conventional species which are commercially used in the count ry (Annex-15). concern lies with the rest of 21 member furniture enterprises. has three seasoning kilns at its factory site at Kasimpur. So.000 ft³/month. Chapalish. This industry seasons 90% of its monthly requirement o f 2. Teak.

1.) 9. the planks representing 81.4% of the total.1 7 30 21 95. So. 1.00.300 per ft³.6%) iii) 1.3 : Information regarding species.50 15. But it is the thickness of timber which matters for seasoning. Gamar and Garjan are Taka 877.5 b) Price of timber species Average Price/cft (Tk) Price range Min.5 5 20 20 90.4%) (63.9 iii) Gamar (Gmelina arborea) 8. 3. Max i) Teak 1300 1000 1500 ii) Chapalish 877 800 1000 iii) Gamar 785 700 850 iv) Garjan 836 750 900 c) Mostly used thickness of planks Thickness (inch) Percent Sawn timbers are obtained from Own sawmills Other sawmills i) 0.2% 20. 2.5 iv) 1.25. The rest three species of timbers are com paratively costlier timbers than those of other commercial timbers.4 v) 1. 1. It is evident from Table-3 that among the mostly used thi ckness class.2 8 14ii) 1.8%. Table. furniture manufactured from Teak wood is preferred by the customers even with much higher price.25 6.4% and 15. the thickness of 0.8% thickness class fall under priority group whic h needs to be seasoned.00 and 1.00 20. 836 per ft³ respecti vely (Table.75.2 Price and thickness of timbers Teak is the costliest one.timber species representing about 71% among the four timber species.00 and other special thickness. and the rest 18. These thicknesses make 81. different thicknesses that are used by the furniture enterpri ses have been ascertained (Table-3).6 6 30 18 81.4 . 785. Because of its established better quality.3).2% are 1.75 46. Various sizes of timber are used for different products.8 iv) Garjan (Dipterocarpus spp. So.5 inches planks represent 46. while the av erage prices of other three species: Chapalish. and its price averages Taka 1.75 5.2 (36. thickness and price of timbers a) Timber species Average percent Range of percent Frequency of industries Percent i) Teak (Tectona grandis) 70.8 40 85 22 100 ii) Chapalish (Artocarpus chaplasha) 11. the remaini ng 29% is almost equally shared by three species.75.3.

vi) 2.00 4.1 vii) Other thickness 2.2 Total number of enterprises 22 100 6 .

Other conventional kilns have boilers for the production of steam which is used both f or heating and humidification. These are all compartment type steam-heated kilns using gas as energy source for the boiler. These two units will provide 2. gas should be preferr ed to other two sources of energy. Finally. All o f them were requested to submit the price offers according to the specified requirements. Coplan srl has also submitted a quotation for on e set of 550 ft³ capacity seasoning kilns and other relevant accessories (Quotation-3). The addresses of the suppliers and manufacturers were collected from the trade centres of Embassi es/High commissions. Again.400. nine manufacturers/ suppliers responded initially. The capacity of each unit may be 500 ft³ per charge. One Italian manufacturer named. The seco nd alternative energy source is gas which is comparatively cheaper than electricity. the waste wood is obviously the cheapest one. ii) China. 750 ft³. the total costs of construction of two units of seasoning kiln of 500 ft³ capacity have .0 W0OD SEASONING KILNS There are different types of conventional seasoning kilns using different source of energy for heating.1 Quotations of wood seasoning kilns Keeping in mind the above type of seasoning kiln. It is thus convenient to install two units of compartment type seasoning kilns.000 ft³ of seasoned timber per month. iii) Taiwan. Among the three energy sources. and 1250 ft³ capaci ty seasoning kilns. The suppliers from India have offered for 500 ft³. It is always convenient to install a number of small capacity kilns rathe r than a single big kiln. 4. vi) Japan. Some kiln uses electricity for heating and production of steam to humidify the k iln chambers as and when necessary. g as or waste wood. ix) Italy and x) South Africa. v) Indonesia. vii) UK.4. but costli er than waste wood. A large number of foreign manufacturers and suppliers of the follow ing countries were communicated through fax and e-mail : i) India. v iii) Ireland. iv) Korea. Out of these countries. two suppliers from India have submitted the quotatins of wood seasoning kilns with detailed specification s (Quotations: 1-2). specifications were prepared.3. the fuel used for the boiler may either be electricity. Since there will not be waste wood available for the kiln. 550 ft³. It is als o of compartment type kiln using gas in the boiler. From the offers. It is expensive due to consumption of a large amount of electric ity.

Gangotri Impex Aditya Coplan srl 7 . Table.been estimated and a comparative statement is presented in Table-4.4: Comparative statement of two 500 ft³ capacity seasoning kilns as offered by different suppliers/ manufacturer Sl.

840 Total 27.280 28.000 4 a) Taxes & transport from Benapole to Dhaka b) Taxes & transport from Chittagong to Dhaka 2.No.000 60.760 42.000 3.000 50.420 8 Installation & commissioning charge including board & lodging 60.25.000 5 Construction of 2 kiln chambers + boiler room + office room 5.900 28.260 4. The capacity of each kiln is 500 and 750 ft³ per charge. Two boilers of 300 and 500 kg /hour capacity have .000 1.90.760 39.2 Assessment of the quotations 4.65.000 2.1 Technical aspect (a) The Gangotri Impex has quoted for all relevant machineries and components in i ts offer. The full specifications of the machineries and components have also been mentioned (Quota tion-1).75.000 Sub-total 25.000 7.64.780 (without accessories) 3 a) Freight upto Benapole (approx) b) Freight upto Chittagong port (approx) -50.65.360 6 a) Other works & materials b) Computer & printer 50.000 3.760 39.420 7 Water treatment plant -Sub-total 27.000 Items (India) Cost & Freight .300kg/hr :complete set 9.66.640 2 Boiler .Benapole (Taka) Casting Udyog (India): Cost only . 90.Punjab (Taka) (Italy): Cost only (Ex-factory) (Taka) 1 Kiln equipments-fixed type 7.900 29.000 3.400 3.00.

the kiln chambers have to be constructed locally with brick and other materials. The kiln chambers have to be constructed locally with brick and other materials. Since these are fixed type. this offer may be considered as complete one. and so it is difficult to know exactly what they will supply. It has a lso offered one water treatment plant to supply iron-free water to the boiler. So. (b) The second offer is of Aditya Casting Udyog who has quoted for kilns of 500. these are fixed type compartment kilns using gas in the boiler. In this respect. The specification s are not detailed ones. t his offer cannot be termed 8 . Like Gangotri Impex.been offered. 7 50 and 1250 ft³ capacity along with necessary components except the water treating plant (Quotat ion-2).

Further. Without a water treatment plant.35.25 . It is also mentioned in the offer that these kilns are no t suitable for drying Teak wood using gas in the boiler. (c) The Coplan srl has offered a relatively sophisticated type of 500 ft³ capacity s easoning kiln using modular units (Quotation-3). So this offer cannot be accepted.3 Overall evaluation There were initially many responses for supplying seasoning kilns of different t ypes. 4. this offe r cannot also be acceptable one. offers of fixed type compartment kilns have been received.2. the supplier has mentioned that Teak wood cannot be se asoned with this kiln. The price is also higher than that of other remaining offer.900 incl uding a boiler of 300kg/hr (equivalent to 200 psi) capacity and a water treatment plant.3 (b) The offer of Aditya Casting Udyog is not a complete one since it has not quo ted for a water treatment plant. The cost also includes installation and commissioning charge of the supplier (Table-4). but f or export market this type of kiln drying is needed. So. (c) The estimated total cost of Coplan s two kilns is Tk 42. it is the most expensive among the three offers. (b) The total cost of two kilns of Aditya Casting Udyog is estimated at Tk 29. an appro priate seasoning kiln has to be selected. The support of a computer will be taken for monitor ing the progress of drying. it will be difficult for the furnitur e enterprises to operate and maintain these seasoning kilns. Gas will be used for production of steam for humidification. the total cost becomes Tk 31. the price is Tk 25. 3 Though Incoplan s Kiln might not be a good idea if the market is fully complete one.64. Als o.2.42.760 without a water treatment plant. If the cost of a water treatment plant is included from the Gan gotri Impex s offer. 9 . 4. But finally. There is no mention of a water treatment plant in its offer.380 (Table-4).260 including the a pproximate cost of freight from Italy to Chittagong port which was not included in the offer.2 Financial aspect (a) The estimated total cost of two kilns of Gangotri Impex is Tk 27. (a) Incoplan s kiln is sophisticated one and it will need qualified operators.280.19. Among these offers. Technically. It is the costliest among the three offers (Table-4).

Generally.121 31.884 14.91. So.48. It may be mentioned that two seasoning kilns of each 750 ft³ capacity are being installed by a member enterprise at Kashimpur near Savar. In case it cannot have its own land. So. The total costs of construction of two fixed type seasoning kilns of Gangotri Impex have been taken as basis of the cos t of the kilns.539 19. It will be advantageous to the member enterprises to visit the plant and see the performance of this typ e of kilns before purchase.5 inch thick have been calculated for both 500 and 750 ft³ capacity seasoning kilns as shown in Tables. the life of this compartment type seasoning kiln is about 50 years.0 ECONOMIC ASPECTS OF STEAM HEATED KILNS The costs of seasoning per cubic feet of Teak and Chapalish timbers of 1. Items 2 units of 500 ft³ 1.704 .19(a & b).000 ft³ ( 44 charges: 7 days/charge) 28.5-inch timbers 1 Output of seasoned timber per annum 44.55.5(a & b). Its price is also the lowest among the three offers.08. Table-5(a): Seasoning cost of Teak and Chapalish timbers and other economic aspects using two 500 ft³ capacity steam heated seasoning kilns Sl. These fixed type kilns are comparatively simple to inst all and operate. . For the fixed type seasoning kilns.000 ft³ ( 28 charges: 12 days/charge) 2 Total recurring expenditure (land rent + gas + electricity + operation + loading & unloading + water + maintenance) 14.0-inch timbers 2 units of 500 ft³ 1. the superstructure needs to be constructed w ith brick and other materials.98. the seasoning plant preferably be installed in own land. say at least for 10 years. The boiler of 30 0 kg/hour (200 psi) capacity is recommended. Two seasoning kilns of capacity 500 ft³ each using gas as heat energy in the boile r as offered by Gangotri Impex are thus suitable for the furniture enterprises. 5. the offer of Gangotri Impex is acceptable one.789 4 Total cost (recurring exp + interest on total capital investment + depreciation) 19.0 inch and 1. it should be rented for a long term basis.99.(c) The offer of Gangotri Impex is the only one which has fulfilled all requirem ents. The details of the calculation are given in Annexes.556 3 Total capital investment (initial installation + working capital) 30.

4 6 Return on investment 89.4 Tk 71.4 months 56.5 Kiln seasoning cost per ft³ = Total cost/output Tk 44. 3% 7 Pay back period 18.4 % 29.0 months 10 .

60. it is apparent that seasoning cost for 1.5(a) that the initial investment of Tk 27. (Tk 35.2/ ft³.4 months for drying 1.60. i.84.35.e. But for combined seasoning. 5.5-i nch Teak and Chapalish it will be in 56.4/ ft³ + Tk 71.5-inch timbers 1 Output of seasoned timber per annum 66.0-inch Teak and Chapalish timber. If one kiln chamber seasons 1.417 5 Kiln seasoning cost per ft³ = Total cost/output Tk 35.1 Seasoning cost of steam heated kilns From Table-5(a). .000 ft³ ( 28 charges: 12 days/charge) 2 Total recurring expenditure (land rent + gas + electricity + operation + loading & unloading + water + maintenance) 17.5inch timber simultaneously.146 4 Total cost (recurring exp + interest on total capital investment + depreciation) 23.0-inch timber and another kiln ch amber seasons 1.900 for two 500 ft³ kilns will be paid back in 18.4 months.160 35.6 months 21. then the combined seasoning cost will become (Tk 44.9/ ft³.0)months/2 = 37.472 19.6 months 5.4/ ft³ for 500 ft³ capacity seasoning kilns.2 Pay back period of steam heated kilns It is seen from Table. and for 1.4% 7 Pay back period 8.0-inch timbers 2 units of 750 ft³ 1.0 months.0-inch Teak and Chpali sh will be about Tk 44.e. If two 750 ft³ capacity kilns are installed. the pay back pe riod will become (18.19.4+ 56.4/ ft³. i.416 3 Total capital investment (initial installation + working capital) 35. . whereas for 1.4/ ft³)/2 = Tk 57.1 Tk 59. then the combined seasoning cost will be less.2 6 Return on investment 139.1/ ft³ +Tk 59.24. Items 2 units of 750 ft³ 1. in about 3 years.2/ ft³)/2= Tk 47. It may be mentioned here that the lowest current cost of commercial seasoning is Tk 110 per ft³ of BFIDC plant.14.Table-5(b): Seasoning cost of Teak and Chapalish timbers and other economic aspects using two 750 ft³ capacity steam heated seasoning kilns Sl.735 24.5-inch Teak and Chapalish it will be about Tk 71.1 % 52. whereas it is charged at Tk 250 per ft³ in some private wood seasonin g plant.000 ft³ ( 44 charges: 7 days/charge) 42.

11 .

the cost will be increased by 2.3 Increase in cost of furniture due to seasoning There will be increase in cost of production of furniture due to added cost of s easoning of timbers. the combined pay back period will be only (8.0 RELEVANT ASPECTS OF KILN INSTALLATION AND OPERATION 6. So. the increase in cost of production will be only 1.9/ ft³ for 500 ft³ capacity seasoning kilns.If two 750 ft³ kilns are considered. The Forum consists of 22 members who pay Tk 110. 6+21. This fact is w ell demonstrated in the products of Hatil Complex.5%.6)months/2= 15. Now.463. So the total cost of the furniture b ecomes Tk 25. For this. The cost of seasoning this amount of timber will be Tk 463.600 sft which is equivalent to 5 katha of land. I f the same furniture is made from Chapalish. A small office room will also be required for the Kiln operators and Boilermen. 6. the preferable area for the installation of the seasoning plant will be about 3. So. it may take more than 24 months. the cost of production will be about Tk 18. then Tk 463 have to be added to it. If seasonin g cost of Tk 463 is added to it. then the combined seasoning cost will be Tk 57. the total 12 . 5. For these purposes.1 months (Table-5b). Combining all the se requirements. 6. A boiler and a wate r treatment plant will need an additional area of about 600 sft.8% for Teak furniture. An area of about (25 x 25 ) = 625 sft will be required for two fixed type kilns. If the cost of the furniture is Tk 25. After 24 month s.5inch timbers simultaneously. The owners are aware of this attitude of the cu stomers (Annex. they are prepared to pay higher price compared to furniture made from rather unreliable seasoned timber or partially dried timber.0-inch timber is seasoned in one kiln chamber and another kiln c hamber seasons 1.000 per month.10).000.2 Requirement of time to raise fund It is difficult to estimate the time frame for the Forum to raise required amoun t of fund for the plant. Timbers will have to be kept near the kilns for some times prior to and after seasoning. if a furniture like chest of drawer is made from seasoned Teak wood using 8 ft³ wood. there will not be any problem in fetching reasona bly higher price due to increased cost for seasoning.1 Requirement of area of land The requirement of land for both fixed and portable seasoning kilns is not much. It was observed during survey that if the customers are fully convinced that the furniture are made from properly seasoned timber.000. another 800 sft will be needed. it becomes 2025 sft. It is found that if 1.000. If they collect u sual amount of monthly subscription @ Tk 5.


These thicknesses make about 81.8% thickness class fall under the priority group whic h needs to be seasoned. Ideally. Chapalish can be seasoned with minimum time and Teak takes normally one day more than Chapalish timber. But.4 mo nths from the date of receipt of a firm order along with an advance of 40% of the order value.000 for the Indian supplier. then a special kiln drying schedule has to be employed (Sattar. namely Teak. So.3 Seasoning of different species Four timber species. one species of same size of timber should be dried in a single charge i rrespective of using gas or electricity as a source of energy. it is also an ideal condition to season different sizes of timber separately. 1. to and fro expenses from Kolkata and local conveyance plus lodging and boarding. 1980).4 Seasoning of different sizes of timber It is apparent from Table-3 that the thickness of 0. 6.75. but dries a little b it slowly.8%. 6. the total time will be about 5. the planks representing 81. Gamar is a problematic species which is the slowest among the commercial timber species and takes about three times longer than that of Teak and chapalish (Sattar et al . The services for this will be charged which will include per diem for the engineer/technician. For this. 6. But it is learnt that they are planning to raise a large amount of fund at a time from each member so that they can establish a seasoning plant within 9. Garjan does not pose any difficulty.000.6 months. The total expenses may be about Tk 60. if necessary. 2% of the use. The kil n chambers need to be constructed locally. it is possible to season two or three sizes of ti mber together following a appropriate kiln drying schedule. Chapalish.6 Technical support from the supplier The supplier will provide technical support in respect of installation and opera tion of seasoning kilns and other machineries. This can be done after getting the structural design from t he supplier within two months. 6.40.amount will be Tk 26.00 and 1. So. and the rest all other sizes make 18. Like timber species. Gamar and Garjan are used by the me mber enterprises.12 months. If it necessitates drying more than on e species. appropriate ki ln drying schedules have to be developed for the particular type of wood seasoning kilns.5 Time to install a seasoning plant The supplier has mentioned that the machineries will be delivered within 3. 13 . 1991).5 inches plan ks are the mostly used sizes.

iii) There will not be any withdrawal of fund within a year.1. and it is natural that they have conflicting opinions about the management a nd activities. the principal concern lies with its sustainability . For its management. These may even threaten the existence of the forum. They have also stressed the importance on other personal qualities of management personnel in addition to financial dealings (Annex-14). It will be then easier for them to arrange bank loan for installing t he seasoning plant. T he owners of the member enterprises expressed high priority on this aspect during discussion with them.7. the following structure is recommended : 14 . Considering all these. this design is considered for the fo rum.2 Management and operation of the seasoning plant A seasoning plant is meant for drying of sawn timbers up to certain thickness cl ass to a desired 12% moisture content. The steam heated compartment type is comparatively cheaper a nd easier than other modern designs. b) Secretary -1. it should be registered as a limited company with the proper authority. For proper management of the Forum. There are many people in it. But all these need to be handled r ationally with proper management. Within this framework. The management committee of the limited company w ill be responsible for managing the seasoning plant. ii) There will be a meeting in every month with all members. 7.0 MANAGEMENT OF THE FORUM AND THE SEASONING PLANT 7.1 Management of the Forum For any collaborative effort. It is learnt that the members are thinking to raise a large amount of fund at a time from each member so that they can establish a seasoning plant within 9. and c) the rest 20 are general members. All issues regardin g the Forum will be discussed and decision should be taken in the meeting. if there is any shortage of fund. the member enterprises hav e formed a Forum with the following structure: a) Convener . As mentioned earlier.12 months. certain policies have been adopted for its management whi ch are as follows: i) Monthly subscriptions will be collected @ Tk 5. There is no alternative than capable and committed leadership for its success.000 per member. It is equipped with some specialized equipments depending on t he type and design of seasoning kilns.

but it may be around Tk 5. e) The Kiln operator Associate should be Trade Certificate holder in mechanical/ electrical works who has read upto at least class VIII.8. It will be convenient for both the employees and the emp loyer if there is a provision for residential accommodation for at least two persons.000. compressor. Considering the economy of the forum. The Associates will a lso work as Kiln operator and Boilerman. His salary may be fixed up at Tk 3. There will be electric motors. The seasoning plant will run 24-hour a day till the end of seasoning of timber w hich may take 7 15 days. one boiler is needed for the production of stea m which provides both heat and humidification to the kiln. etc which will necessitate an el ectrician. d) The Boilerman Associate should be Trade Certificate holder in boiler works wh o has read upto at least class VIII.2 Qualification. His salary may be fixed up at Tk 4. they can be summoned as and when needed. there will be kiln operators to run the seasoning plant.000 .6. c) The Boilerman should preferably be SSC and Trade Certificate holder in boiler works with some experience in the line.7. the employees have to work on two. b) The Kiln operator cum Electrician should preferably be SSC and Trade Certificate holder in Electrical works and some experience in the line.2.000.000. .1 Personnel4 For this type of seasoning kiln. There will be boiler man for this purpose.5. Above all. salary and other facilities a) The Kiln operator/ Foreman should be at least SSC and Trade Certificate holder i n mechanical works and should have some experience in the line. For this.Four : Occasional 7. the following employees are suggested : a) b) c) d) e) Kiln operator/Foreman -One : Regular Kiln operator/cum Electrician -One : Regular Boilerman -One : Regular Boilerman Associate -One : Regular Kiln operator Associate -One : Regular d) Labourer .2. Then. other electric accessories.000 . His salary may be fixed up at Tk 3.000 6. His salary may be fixed up at Taka 4. can do this job at a time.three shifts basis. one kiln operator and another boilerman. 000. Two emplo yees. His salary may be fixed up according to his experience.

2.3 Practical training on operation 4 This number of personnel is not required to run the kiln drying.7. The owner can run it with less number of people efficiently 15 .

then an alternative option may be considered. Maintenance of t hese machineries will involve mechanical. The cost of constr uction of two 200 ft³ capacity solar kiln is estimated at Tk 160. It may also be mentioned here that solar kilns can be constructed using all local materials (Sattar.2.2) that commercial solar kilns were installed by public and private enterprises because of good performance. solar seasoning is that option. a thorough practical training need to be imparted to all of them. 7. These guidelines should be followed properly. 8. It has been discussed earlier (Section 3. but will not have experience on kiln operation. The Kiln operators and Assiciates are also required to be trained on boiler operation.000 (Annex. 8.5-inch Teak/Chapalish timbers has also been estimated. Once they are accustomed to these. other employee should be able to do the job properly.2.0 ALTERNATIVE OPTION FOR STEAM HEATED SEASONING 8.These employees will have basic vocational training on specific fields. in the absence of some one. It is also expected that the manufacturer will provide some in itial maintenance training. electrical and boiler works for which one of them will be ab le to perform the particular job. So. The cost of seasonin g of 1.0-inch and 1. easy operation an d low cost of construction.1991). there will be no problem to d o the regular maintenance work. For the interim peri od. 16 .4 Maintenance of machineries The operational and maintenance guidelines will be provided by the manufacturers for the seasoning kilns and boiler. It means.1 Solar seasoning It is already mentioned that the members of the Forum are very keen to establish a seasoning plant for seasoning timbers.20). But if it takes a long time to raise the required amount of fund for the steam heated kilns. The details of the calculation are shown in Annex-21. It is presented in Tabl e-6.2 Economic aspects of solar seasoning The most advantage of the solar kiln is its economic aspects.

It may be mentioned that th e life of a solar kiln is 10 years. it is the ch eapest one. More interesting is its pay back period.4 Tk 52.7% 144.900 105. it takes about double time during the winter and pre-/post.0-inch timber and Tk 52 for 1.00 0 for two solar kilns can be paid back in only 6. No.winter periods (Sattar 1994). Normally. solar kiln absorbs whatever solar radiation available. 9. but ver y slowly.600 101. solar drying is very lucrative. So. During rainy season. But its only drawback is its drying time compar ed to conventional steam heated drying. and dries timber.400 ft³ (12 charges: 28 days/ charge) 2 Total recurring expenditure (land rent+ electricity+ operation+ loading & unloading) 111.708 5 Solar seasoning cost/ ft³ = Total cost/output Tk 37.600 ft³ 18 charges: (18 days/charge) 2.0 6 Return on investment (%) 281. but the main mac hineries include . 1987.inch thick Timber of 1.5-inch timber.3 months months 8.6: Seasoning cost of Teak and Chapalish timbers and other economic aspects using 200 ft³ capacity solar kilns Sl. The cost of seasoning per ft³ is only Tk 37. This is why the average drying time is long. 1991). Particulars Timber of 1.5inch thick 1 Output of seasoned timber per annum 3. There are various types of them. It is found that the investment of Tk 160.3 Other aspects of solar seasoning From the past experience it is found that solar drying is technically sound and economically viable technology (Sattar.If the economic aspects are considered.0% 6 Pay back period 4. Table.3 months for combined drying.0 WOODWORKING MACHINERIES Woodworking machineries are used for preparing the sawn planks into different sh apes and sizes prior to manufacture products.706 124. It takes a long time to fully season the timber round the y ear.940 3 Total capital investment (initial investment+ working capital) 107.4 for 1.0.485 4 Total cost (recurring exp+ interest on total capital investment + depreciation) 134.

planer. circular saw. Each machine has 17 . etc. turning lathe. router . moulder. mortiser. jointer. rip saw.

its own specific function. These are included in the compara tive statement. These are as follows : 1) Circular saw. none of these are suitable one. They were requested to submi t the quotations in respect of these machineries within the scheduled time. but finally the following local and foreign suppliers/manufacturer have submitted qu otations : a) Galaxy Electro Power Ltd. The local s uppliers as well as foreign suppliers and manufacturers were contacted.8). Ahmedabad has quote d for four basic wood working machineries (Quotation. So. Dhaka has quoted dif ferent woodworking machineries (Quotation-5). The offer of circular saw is included in the comparison. b) Abedin Equipment Ltd. d) Luna Enterprise. 91 Nawabpur Road. c) Aziz Machinery & Tools. B-52 Kemal Ataturk Avenue.6). and as such are not included in the comparative statement. Initially there were man y responses. All these are available from the ready s tock. Except one model of circular saw .4). one of Japan and another of Italy made various machineries (Quotations. e) One leading manufacturer from India. 2) Thickness planer. The Forum has fund constraint at this initial stage and thus cannot afford to pr ocure all of them involving quite a substantial amount of money. others are also small tools. These are included in the comparative statement.1 Quotations of woodworking machineries The specifications of these four types of machineries were prepared. heavy duty machineries are needed. 119. and are not meant for heavy works. these machines are used for making furniture and related products in medium to big furniture enterprises. Dhaka has quoted for different comb ined woodworking machineries (Quotation. namely Gangotri Impex has quoted for some machiner ies (Quotation9). For collective use. Dhaka has submitted two pri ce lists.200 Nawabpur Road. 3) Jointer and 4) Moulder 9. . So. f) Another supplier from India. The relevant machineries are included. These are available from the ready sto ck. 64 Nawabpur Road. These are included in the comparison. namely Jai Industries . These are s mall woodworking tools suitable for the individual purposes or small individual enterprises. So. Banani. their acquisition of machiner ies is considered to be restricted to basic ones. Dhaka has submitted a quotation of four ba sic woodworking machineries (Quotation.7).

18 .

000 Tk 70.9.947 (Model J-601) 3. Table-7 contains the comparative statement.020 (Model J-601 Tk 119. complete (Heavy duty) --Tk 97. 5 HP. Table.000 Size-36 x19 Tk 57.880 (Model J-535H) 2 Thickness planer 18 . complete (Heavy duty) --Tk 92.38 HP (Germany) -Tk 65.2 Assessment of the quotations A comparative statement of all the woodworking machineries has been prepared in order to assess them.240 Model J-504H .7: Comparative statement of quotations of woodworking machineries Sl Type of machineries Abedin Equipments (Dhaka) Aziz Machinery (Dhaka) Luna Enterprise (Dhaka Jai Industries (India) Gangotri Impex (India) Total cost Total cost Total cost Total cost Benapole (from ready (from (import from (C&F + (C&F + stock) ready stock) India) taxes+ cost upto Dhaka) taxes+ cost upto Dhaka) 1. Circular saw Work table size 36 X24 5 HP (Heavy duty) Tk 40.000 2.000 Tk 74. Moulder 3 HP.

420 5. this machine will allow different technicians to work simultaneously w ith their works without waiting for other to finish his work.000 Tk 2.1 Technical aspect The enterprises of the Forum need heavy duty type basic woodworking machineries.000 (ModelML392E) --7. 3 HP. Jointer/ Surface planer 18 . (China) -Tk 2.20.000 Tk 66. With these specifications in mind.4. 3HP (China) -Tk 65. Unli ke combined machines. 2 HP (ModelJ-116) Sub-total Tk 3. Moulder. Planer & Jointer 12 .000 (ModelMJ300A) --9.118) --Tk 68.595 10 . 1. A single machine of each type should perform single function at a time continuously. Combined woodworking m/c : Circular saw. Combined woodworking m/c : Circular saw.000 (ModelML393C --6.280 Tk 80. Moulder.2. 19 . the mac hineries have been evaluated. Scorer & Mortiser. Mortiser.68. Thickness/ Surface planer.22. Thickness/Surface planer. complete (Model J.5HP -Tk 140.

c) The local supplier named.000. d) The local supplier. Abedin Equipments has offered for different machineries (Qu otation. The individual enterprise may consider this one. these machines are not suitable for large scale commercial application. Thus.a) The local supplier. Tk 65.e.7). Jai Industries has quoted for the circular saw. mortiser.000 by Abedin Equipm ents. Two relevant machines may be considered.2. Galaxy Electro Power Ltd . The total cost is Tk 3. These are made of Italy and Japan (Quotation-4). but the individual enterprise m ay consider for its use. the machine of the lowest price. 9. But these are small proto-types and suitable for individual or very small enterprises. but not suita ble for the Forum.38 HP capacity.6). All of these are heavy duty type machines an d meet the requirements of the Forum. su rface planer. has quoted for some woodworking machin eries (Quotation. Like other sets.5). These are all good quality machineries of German made. Jai Industries. These are also very small portable type equipments. one medium sized circular saw has been shown in the compar ison.000. has quoted for four machineries which are needed by the Forum(Quotation. including some woodworking machineries.8). is not heavy duty type (Table-7). moulder . e) One Indian manufacturer. i. Gangotri Impex . These are not suitable for the Forum.9).22.000 (Table-7). thickn ess planer. (c) The prices of machineries of Luna Enterprise are higher compared to those of Indian supplier. These are made in China.20. The quality of these machineries cannot be adequately judge d since no detailed specifications have been provided. 20 . f) Another Indian supplier. Thus. Aziz Machinery& Tools has submitted a quotation for t he combined woodworking machineries which consist of from circular saw. However. none of these meet the requirements of the Forum. thickness planer. (b) The price of each set of combined machines offered by Aziz Machinery ranges from Tk 2. moulder and jointer (Quotation. These are not as per requirements of the Forum. This is of 2.. b) The local supplier.000 to Tk 65. has supplied two price lists of d ifferent kinds of tools and machineries. scorer and planer to jointer (Quotation.2 Economic aspect (a) The price of one circular saw has been quoted for Tk 40. Luna Enterprise .

The pay back period of the initial investment is.3 months. then the land should be rented for a long term basis. The cost of these machineries ha s been detailed in Annex-22. the tender submitted by Jai industrie s .420 inclusive of taxes and transportation upto Dhaka (Table-7). Kolkat a. A water treatment plant should be procured along with the kilns to supply iron-fre e water to the boiler. The machineries have met the technical requirements and also offered the lowest price. The initial investment of Tk 160.19. 10. 5-katha land should preferably be owned by the F orum. The total price of these four machineries is Tk 2. (e) Gangotri Impex has mentioned the price of one Thickness planer as Tk 1. 20B Nimtala Ghat Street.2. India may be considered for purchase by the Forum. 9. The price of a lower capacity Jointer (2 HP) has also been offered higher price than that of Jai Industries (Table-7). 2. 68.3 Overall evaluation Considering technical and economic aspects. Ahmedabad.020 f or this machine. then alternative option should be considered. the following recommendations have been made for the Forum of furniture enterprises.000 will be paid back in only 6. It is recommended that at least two solar kilns of 200 ft³ c apacity be constructed. These are heavy duty machines. India ar e recommended to be purchased. Jai Industries has quoted Tk 74. Ahmedabad. at least for 10 years.0 RECOMMENDATIONS Based on the feasibility study. If it is not possible. (c) If it takes a long time to raise sufficient fund for the steam heated kilns. and are suitable for simultaneous running for the member enterprises of the Forum. less than three years. Thus. however. 21 . (b) For these fixed type kilns. India be accepted.94 7 which is exactly the same type and model of Jai Industries. the quotation submitted by Gangotri Impex. Thes e are heavy duty and are meant for continuous use. The basic woodworking machineries quoted by Jai Industries. Rokeya Sarani Furniture Development Industries : 1(a) Two compartment type seasoning kilns of 500 ft³ each using gas in the boiler be installed.(d) Jai Industries has offered the lowest prices for all basic machineries.

Solar kiln for seasoning of timber in Bangladesh. 7 pp 10. Personal communication. 4. Chittagong. Sarker. 10 pp 9. Bulletin No. M. 1994. A.G. Bangladesh: 13-1-12 12. B. M. Sattar. M. 119 pp 6. Chittagong. and Ali. Bull.O.. M. S. 10 pp 4. Y. 2004. M. S. Sattar. M. BFRI. of Forest Science. Sattar. M. A. 1980. 6. Bano Biggyan Patrika. RAS/86/048. S. Res. A. Sattar. GOB. French : 327-332 15. 1991. Renewable Energy(England). Survey report on cottage industries of Bangladesh.A. C. Sarkar. 1983. Paris. In: South Asia workshops on sawmill productivity improvement. Properties and uses of teak wood. Timber Phy sics Series. Forest Economics Division. Paris Furniture. Sattar. Bano Biggyan Patrika.A. Bangladesh Standard and Testing Institute.. A. Maximum permissible moisture content in timbers for making different products. 17 (1&2) : 80-88 13. Forsetdale News. BFRI. A. M. 8 (Wood Seasoning Series). Dhaka.20 01.1969. 0 REFERENCES 1. 17. D. APFIDG. 16 (1&2) : 30-42 11. In : 10th Wor ld Forestry Congress.. 11 pp 8. 1982. A. 65 pp 2. Sattar. Bulletin 4. Anon. Bangladesh Jour. Karim. Kiln drying schedules for indigenous timbers of Bangladesh. 20 (1&2) : 49-54 16. Kiln drying studies on 1 ¼ -inch timber species of Bangladesh. 11 (2) : 41-50 14. Prospects of wood seasoning in Bangladesh. Bulletin No. and Islam. A. 5(1) : 457-464. Dhaka 5. M. M. 8. and Talukdar. Construction and operation of solar kilns for seasoning timber in Bangladesh. M. 1987. 1991. Inst. A. BFRI. Chittagong. Wood Seasoning Series. Chittagong.11. M. 1980. Inst. M. Comparative studies on wood seasoning with a special referen ce to solar drying. Sattar. Major energy saving by use of solar timber drying in deve loping countries. M. 1988b. Sattar. For. Lumber stacking and drying. Bull. Sattar. A. 1991. Y. M.B. Seasoning of timber by using solar energy. Mirpur. 1989. and Talukdar. For. A.. A. 2(1): 29-42 7.A. Sattar.. A. . Forest Statistics of Bangladesh. Chittagong. BSCIC. 1978. Chittagong. RERIC International Energy Jour. Kibria. Res. Anon. Sattar. 10 pp 3. 1988a. Kiln drying of gamar (Gmelina arborea) using varying sticker thickness and drying schedule. Sattar. (Thailand). Ali. Air drying studies on 1" and 2" garjan timber ..

Physical and mechanical properties and uses of timbers of Bangladesh. 1998.Sattar. Sattar. A. M. Booklet. and Bhattacharjee. 65 pp 22 . Bangladesh Forest Research Institute. 64 pp 18. Swedish Agency for Development and Cooperation. 2002. Review of marketing of wood in Bangladesh. M. K. Intercooperai on. Chittagong . D. A.

It is very important that seasoning plant be a sustainable one despite the fact that the en trepreneurs are enthusiastic and find it profitable. Background KATALYST is mandated to enhance the private sector in Bangladesh by improving th e capacity of the private sector to ameliorate its growth and competitiveness. T hey have already formed a Forum and have started to raise fund for this purpose. increased service life and oth er favourable properties. training and other relevant aspects of interest to improve the quality of timber and its products. Because of these distinct advantages. there is a growing interest to adopt this technology. but the individual enterprise is handicapped due to a large investment involved in adopting the technology. Objectives 1. As a result. Seasoning is consi dered to be a vitally essential technology for the furniture industries. The assignment aims at strengthening the furniture and sawmill industries in this respect. a vision workshop was organized by the Industry and Rural Services component of KATALYST where a tremendous enthusiasm was observed among the owner s of furniture and sawmill industries to have seasoning plants on collective basis. subsequent activities will be taken up. KATALYST o perates in several products and business service sectors of which furniture sector is one.ANNEX . and approached K ATALYST to offer the technical assistances right from the feasibility study to installation. B. either unseasone d or partially seasoned timbers are used for making end products in almost all cases. Study the feasibility of installation of seasoning kilns through collective effo rt of the owners of . Accurate information on demand and supply s ide would be proper indicators for this purpose. t he feasibility aspect will be dealt with and after completion of this first phase.1 TERMS OF REFERENCE (TOR) A. oper ation. Business-like i nterventions are needed to lead to a sustainable result without negative side effects. But the most importa nt processing technology like seasoning is lacking in that area. Initially. because it enhances the quali ty of the products by imparting improved physico-mechanical properties. The furniture industry is mostly concentrated in Mirpur area where about 400 sma ll to medium scale furniture and sawmill industries are clustered in one zone. As a part of the activities.

operate and maintain a seasoning kiln? 23 .the furniture industries at Mirpur area. Collect detailed information about the seasoning kilns from local and foreign so urces with specific information on the following aspects : What the different price-ranges offered by the suppliers for seasoning kilns of different capacity? Hong long it may take to install a seasoning kiln starting from placing an order for a kiln? How many people are required to run. the feasibility must cover answer to th e following questions along with other related issues : What is the current demand? How the demand is met at present? What would be the approximate increase in cost if seasoning is done? Are the entrepreneurs ready to bear the cost? Would it be profitable enough for the manufacturers to use seasoned timber? What should be appropriate capacity of seasoning kiln to satisfy the collective demand? What if there are different types of timber or different sizes of planks? How long it may take to season to season a particular amount of planks? What may be a feasible type of kiln.electric. gas-fueled or solar? What would be a preferable area for the installation of a seasoning plant? What would be a dependable management and maintenance structure for the seasoning kiln? 2.

The right type. 4. Details of the works Tentative dates No. C.Will the supplier provide any technical support in installation/ operation and maintenance of the plant? What might be the best offer from the dealers? 3. and then proper specifications for seasoning k ilns and woodworking machinery will be finalized. Collect detailed information about basic woodworking machinery from local and fo reign sources. Assessment of the needs of the furniture and sawmill industries in respect of seasoning kilns and basic woodworking machinery . planning and discussion 2.12 Aug 2004 14-17Aug 2004 4 4 6.3 Aug 2004 2 3. D.7 Aug 2004 2 5 Visit and interview with different types of furniture and sawmill industries at Mirpur and consult the key persons to collect requisite information 9. the consultant will work directly with them for the communication in the cluster. The mechanism and operation of different types of existing seasoning kilns at Sa var/ and Chittagong (BFRI and BFIDC complex) will be demonstrated to the members of the F orum (i. Details of manufacturers and suppliers of the seasoning kilns and basic woodworking machinery foreign sources like India/China/Taiwan/Korea/Indonesia/other through visit to local agents and correspondences. Designing one set of interview guidelines for the furniture and sawmill industries and for the suppliers of seasoning kiln 6. sawmillers and furniture manufacturers will be consulted. jointer. thickness planer and moulder) will be collected fro m both local and through exposure visits. 2. Work Plan Activity No. Formation of a core team. of days 1 Initial day-long discussion session with the key actors 25 July 2004 1 2. size and specifications of the seasoning kilns and basic woodwor king machinery required for the Mirpur area will be identified. A 4.5 member team will be formed comprising the representatives of the entrepre neurs. circular saw. 5. Representative furniture and sawmill industries will be visited at Mirpur and key timber traders. Methodology and Activities 1.e. 3.

Collection of detailed information about the kilns and machinery from local and foreign sources through visits and correspondences 11-16Sep 2004 18-20Sep 2004 6 3 10 Collect relevant information of gas-fired seasoning kiln from Hatil Complex at Savar/ Kashimpur 23 Sep 2004 1 11.21-24Aug 2004 4 7 Testing the adequacy of the existing drying method adopted by the furniture industries 29-30Aug 2004 2 8. Collect relevant information. particulars and photographs of different types of seasoning kilns (electric. gas and solar heated) from BFRI and BFIDC at Chittagong 7. Identification of the proper specifications based on the needs and capability of the industries 25-28Sep 2004 4 12 Preparation of the final report covering the total activities/ works 10-12 Oct 2004 3 Total 37 24 .9 Sep 2004 3 9.

Mainur Rahman 613/1.E. Jalilur Rahman 494. Alamgir Prodhan 495/5. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Mirpur 5 Dhaka Furniture Mr. M. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Main Road. No. Mirpur 12 Hazrat Shah Paran Furniture Mr.2 Rokeya Sarani Furniture Development Industries (RSFDI) Sl. West Kafrul. M. Begum Rokeya Sarani. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. M. Islam Salim 618. Mirpur 11 Mamata Furniture (2 members) Mr. Nurul Islam 604. Mirpur 9 Decorus Furniture Mr. Tofazzol 20//2/A. Mirpur 13 Dorian Furniture Mr. size. Jalilur Rahman 494. M. Mirpur 10 Furniture Garden Mr. Mirpur 7 Sandwip Complex Mr. Azazur Rahman Shuva . West Kafrul.West kafrul. Mirpur 8 Bhai Bhai Furniture Mr. North Kazipara. North Kazipara. Habibur Rahman 218/6. M. S. Selim H. Rokeya Sarani Road. Kazipara. Monipur. Kazipara. M. Kazipara. Kazipara. West Kafrul. North Kazipara. A. M. Awal Plot # 13. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Mirpur 2 Paris Furniture Mr. Mirpur 4 Hatil Complex Mr. M. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. price and origin of the machinery. Fazlul Hoque 615. Aminul Islam 205/5. Quamrul Huda Convenor 218/6. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Mirpur 3 Rangamati Complex ( 2 members) Mr. Member enterprises Owner Address 1 Crystal Meubles Furniture Shop Mr. M. M. Mirpur 6 Shital Complex Mr. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Bazlul Karim Secretary 607. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Mirpur 14 Shawdagar Complex Mr. East Monipur. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. N. Mesbahuddin 220. Mirpur 16 Furnitech Furniture Mr. M. Mirpur 15 Rawshon Complex Mr. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Kazipara. Rahman 1243. Deliverables Deliverable Due date for submission The final report will contain details of survey findings on feasibility of the seasoning plant and also include type. and recommendation of proper specifications of seasoning kilns and basic woodworking machinery for the Forum 20 Oct 2005 Meeting minutes After each meeting on weekly basis ANNEX. North Kazipara.

Azad 613/1. Mirpur 25 . Mirpur 17 Aleef Furniture (2 members) Mr.622. K. Kazipara. A. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Kazipara.

Selim H. Mirpur 3 Mr. Personnel Enterprises/ organizations Address (a) Furniture Enterprises 1 Mr. Mirpur 19 Khaleda Furniture Mr. Tofazzol Proprietor Hazrat Shah Paran Furniture 20/d/2/A. Mirpur 4 Mr. West Kafrul. Khair Molla 586/2. M. Alam Director Ya Rab Complex 217/1. M. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Mirpur ANNEX 3 Enterprises/ organizations visited and personnel met Sl. Mainur Rahman Proprietor Sandwip Complex 613/1 North Kazipara. Mirpur 7 Mr. A. Mirpur 6 Mr. M. Solaiman Proprietor The National Furniture 315. M. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Mirpur 11 Mr. Jalilur Rahman Director Business Dev. North Kazipara. Mirpur 12 Mr. Quamrul Huda Proprietor Crystal Meubles Furniture Shop 218/6. Mirpur 9 Mr. K. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. M. M. M. North Kazipara. M. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Bazlul Karim Managing Directir Paris Furniture 607. North Kazipara.18 Madina Furniture Mr. Israil Miah Director Bhai Bhai Furniture 494. Mirpur 10 Mr. Sheorapara. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. M. N.Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Habibur Rahman Proprietor Mamata Furniture 218/6. A. West Kafrul. Mirpur 2 Mr. East Monipur. Mirpur . M. Kazipara. Mirpur 5 Mr. East Monipur. Hakim Sarkar 50. Rahman Managing Director Hatil Complex 1243. Sheorapara. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Begum Rokeya Sarani. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. M.West Kafrul. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. M. Rangamati Complex 494. Mirpur 8 Mr. Akhtar Khan Proprietor Furniture Express 632. Fazlul Hoque Proprietor Decorus Furniture 615. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road.Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Kazipara. West Kafrul. S.

Aminul Islam Proprietor Dorian Furniture 205/5. Azazur Rahman Proprietor Furnitech Furniture 622. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Begum 26 . Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. M. Mesbahuddin Proprietor Furniture Garden 220. Shahjahan Kabir Director Business Dev Modern Furniture Complex 6. A. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Alam Proprietor Woodman Furniture 1038. Nurul Islam Proprietor Shawdagar Complex 604. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Islam Salim Proprietor Rawshon Complex 618. Kazipara. Mirpur 21 Mr. M. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Arifur Rahman Proprietor Vienna Furniture 752/1. Mirpur 15 Mr. Mirpur 18 Mr. Mirpur19 Mr. Mirpur 17 Mr. M. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. M. Kazipara. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Sheorapara. North Kazipara. Zahirul Islam Baghdad Furniture 752. Azad Proprietor Aleef Furniture 613/1. Mirpur 14 Mr. Mirpur 20 Mr. Kazipara.13 Mr. Mirpur 22 Mr. M. Sheorapara. Mirpur 16 Mr. N. K. Kazipara. Kazipara. Sheorapara. West Kafrul.

Latif . A. S. Rafiqul Islam Proprietor Mr. M. S. M.23 23 25 26 29 (b) 30 31 32 33 34 35 (c) 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Proprietor Mr. Ashraful Haque Director Dr. M. M. Hakim Sarkar Proprietor Mr. Siddiqur Rahman Proprietor Mr.M Jahurul Hoque Proprietor Mr. M. Kader Proprietor Mr. M. B. Abu Bakar Siddique Proprietor Mr. S. Rahman Proprietor Sawmills/ Timber traders Mr. A. Khair Molla Proprietor Mr. M. M. A. S. M. M. N.H. Khaleque Division Head Mr. Aminul Islam Director Mr. M. A Awal Proprietor Mr. A. A. A. Nazrul Islam Division Head Mr. Siddiqui Division Head Dr. Rahman Asst General Manager Mr. A. Nurul Islam Proprietor Other organizations Dr.

Manager. M. Mirpur 49.2. Senpara. Mirpur Plot # 13. Mirpur Sholashahar. Sheorapara. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Chittagong do do do Cabinet Manufacturing Plant. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Mirpur ?. Marketing Madina Furniture Long Life Furniture Khaleda Furniture Dhaka Furniture Shital Complex Sonali Timber Trade Sawmill Al Makka Sawmill Nesarabad Timber Popular Timber Traders National Timber Complex Uzzal Timber Bangladesh Forest Research Institute do do do Bangladesh Forest Industries Development Corporation do do do do Rokeya Sarani Road. Mirpur 152. Monipur. M. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Rokeya Sarani Road. Nurul Alam Sikdar Manager. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Shakil Ahmed Asst General Manager Mr. Senpara. Mirpur ? Senpara Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Production Mr. Mirpur 168. Sheorapara. Mirpur 167. Section. Main Road. Mirpur doBFIDC Complex. Mirpur ? Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Saiful Islam Asst General Manager Mr. Kazipara. Mirpur 586/2. Sheorapara. Senpara. Mirpur 495/5. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Begum Rokeya Sarani Road. Mirpur 50. Kalurghat . Rokeya Sarani Road. Senpara.

Do do 27 .

4 QUESTIONNAIRE REGARDING FURNITURE INDUSTRY IN MIRPUR ZONE 1. mention % of the total : i) Mention the country of origin : Myanmar/ Malaysia/ Nepal/Bhutan/ Indonesia/ Singapore/ Nigeria/ Other (mention) : (Tick) 28 . a) b) c) d) e) 2. Gamar- Garjan-. MACHINERY a) Mention the major machinery and equipments : b) Mention the origin of the machinery/equipments : Local/ Foreign (India/ China / UK/ Germany/ Italy/ Other (mention ) : (Tick) c) If foreign products. RAW MATERIALS a) What type of raw materials are used ? : Sawn timber/ Plywood/ Particle board : (Tick) -% b) ): c) of sawn timber used : Name the major timber species: Teak/ Chapalish/ Gamar/ Garjan/ Other (mention Tick) Price of sawn timber/cft: (Tk): Teak.. Other (mention) d) Why the particular timber species are used ? : Easy availability/Cheaper/ Bet ter quality/ Preferred by the customers/ Other (mention) : (Tick) e) Mention the total amount of sawn timber used per month (in cft) : f) Indicate the amount of sawn timber actually be for seasoning (cft) : g) From what sources timbers are procured ? : Local market /Imported/ Both : (Ti ck) h) If imported. a) b) c) GENERAL INFORMATION Name of the industry : Address : Year of establishment : Owner/designation : Phone/e-mail address : TYPE OF INDUSTRY Fully mechanized/ Semi-mechanized/ Manual : (Tick) Medium/ Small/ Other : (Tick) Total number of employees : 3.ANNEX. Chapalish.. how these were procured? : Local market/ Imported : (Tic k) 4.


75/ 2. 00/ 1.00 : (Tick) b) What are the sizes used mostly ? : c) How these sizes are obtained ? : Converted from logs/squares in own sawmill/ In other sawmill/ Purchased required sizes from local market/ Purchased sizes from foreig n market: (Tick) 6.75/ 1.5. PROCESSING TECHNOLOGY a) What processing technology is adopted for timber prior to manufacture of product s ? : Seasoning/ Chemical treating / Other (mention)/ None : (Tick) b) If seasoning technology is adopted. do you think it is due to the followi ng one or more reasons? : (Tick) -Lack of seasoning facility -Unable to install own seasoning plant -Increased seasoning cost involved -Lack of technical knowledge -Don t know about seasoning -Other (mention) : d) Do you know t hat the quality of timber and its products can be improved through seasoning? : Yes/ No : (Tick) e) Are you confident that better price and market can be fetched if products are made from seasoned timber? : Yes/ No : (Tick) f) Do you know that customers are increasingly interested in purchasing products manufactured from seasoned timber? : Yes/ No : (Tick) g) If yes. what method is used ? Kiln drying/ Air dryin g/ Solar drying : (Tick) -Do you think that your adopted method is adequate for proper seasoning ?Yes/ No : (Tick) c) If you are not adopting proper seasoning .50/ 0. mention the percent of customers who are interested even with reasona bly higher cost : (%) .50/ 1.25/ 1. SIZES OF TIMBER used a) Mention the sizes of timber which are commonly used (in inch) ? : 0.

g ) are yes. f. in case of export ? : Yes/ No : (Tick) h) If ( d. e. will you be interested in adopting the seasoning t echnology presently/ in the future? : Yes/ No : (Tick) 29 .g) Do you know that it is pre-requisite condition to manufacture products from seas oned timber.

is there any planning for export in the future ? : Yes/ No : (Tick) f) Mention the problems /bottlenecks for not exporting the products presently: (i) Technical : (ii) Financial : (iii) Policy level : (iv) Other : 8. if any : -% of the total products : d) Name the products which are imported. mention the reason : c) Mention the total foreign designs used (%) : d) How the foreign designs were obtained : Catalogues/ Foreign visit/ Imported item s/ / Other (mention) : (Tick) e) Are you interested in developing/obtaining improved designs ? : Yes/ No : (Ti ck) 30 . will you be ready to bear the additional cost involved in seasoning? :Yes/ No: (Tick) 7. if any : -% of the total products : e) If not exporting now.i) If yes. MANUFACTURED PRODUCTS a) Name the major products : b) In what markets these are sold ? : Local market/ Foreign market/ Both : (Tick) c) Name the products which are exported. DESIGN OF PRODUCTS a) What designs of products are used : Local /Foreign/ Both : (Tick) b) If any foreign design is used.

COST OF PRODUCTS a) Mention the approximate cost of the manufactured products per month (in lakh) : (Optional) 10. trainin g.9. operation and developing proper seasoning schedules (ii) Training. operation and developing seasoning schedules (iii) Operation and developing proper seasoning schedules (iv) Only training of the operators (v) Only developing seasoning schedules (vi) None of these c) You have formed a forum specifically for installing a seasoning plant on collabo rative basis. installation. do you need further technical assista nce ?: Yes/ No : (Tick) b) If yes. what is your idea about ? (i) Management of the forum to run it on sustainable basis : (ii) Management of the seasoning plants to run it on sustainable basis : 31 . what specific assistance are needed ? : (Tick) (i) Full guidance/technical assistances including procurement. SUGGESTIONS/ FURTHER NEEDS a) After completion of the feasibility study.

Max i) Teak 1300 1000 1500 ii) Chapalish 877 800 1000 iii) Gamar 785 700 850 iv) Garjan 836 750 900 .ANNEX. Type of timber species Av.8 iv) Garjan 9.5 ii) Medium 12 54.2 100 Total number of industries 22 100 b) Size if industries : i) Big1 4. Percent Min.5 ii) Semi-mechanized 6 27.6 63.5 2 10 b). Max. No. Particulars Frequency Percent Cumulative percent a) Nature of industries: i) Mechanized 1 4.7 10 20 iii) Particle board 8.8 41 100 22 100 ii) Chapalish 11.4 100 d) Place of procurement of machinery i) Local ii) Foreign Total number of industries using machinery 3 7 10 30 70 100 30 100 ANNEX 6 Information regarding raw materials.6 8 20 18 81.1 iii) Small 9 40.5 4.5 iii) Gamar 8. Percent Range of use Frequency of industries Percent i) Teak 70.5 4.8 iii) Manual 15 68.8 70 90 ii) Plywood 10.3 31.5 General information about the member furniture enterprises at Mirpur area Sl.6 iii) Both hand/ machine 8 36.5 6 30 21 95.1 9 30 22 100 c) Price of timber species Average Range Price/cft (Tk) Min.6 59. particularly timbers used by the furniture enterprises Sl.9 100 Total number of industries 22 100 c) Type of machinery : i) Fully mechanized0 0 0 ii) Only hand tools 14 63. a) i) Sawn timber 80. Type of raw material Average Range No.

32 .

2 20. No.25 1. No.7 Information about thickness of timber mostly used and how these are obtained Sl.ANNEX . Mostly used thickness of planks (inch) Percent Timbers are obtained from Own sawmill Other sawmill i) ii) iii) iv) v) vi) vii) 0.4 5. Why these particular timbers are used Frequency Percent a) i) Easy available ii) Cheaper iii) Better quality iv) Preferred by customers Total industries 22 0 22 22 22 100 0 100 100 100 b) Amount of sawn timber and its requirement for seasoning/month Average amount (cft) i) Total amount used .50 1.00 Other thickness Total industries : 22 46.2 100 8 14 (36.8 Information regarding reason/s and amount of use of these timbers Sl.00 1.1 2.2 6.75 2.75 1.4 4.6%) ANNEX.4%) (63.5 15.

No.2 18. Type of technology Frequency Percent Cumulative percent a) i) Seasoning ii) Chemical treatment iii) Other (Improper seasoning) Total industries 4 18 22 18.9 Information about the processing technology used by the enterprises Sl.ii) Amount needed for seasoning iii) Source of procurement Total industries (excluding one big industry.2 18.2 100 c) How they assess their method of seasoning Proper Inadequate Don t know Comments Total industries : 22 4 18 33 .2 0 81.Hatil Complex) 230 120 Local 21 ANNEX.2 100 b) What method seasoning Frequency Percent Cumulative percent i) Kiln seasoning ii) Solar seasoning iii) Air seasoning Total industries 4 0 18 22 18.2 81.8 100 18.8 100 18.

5) 1 (4.5) 1 (4.10 Specific reasons for not adopting seasoning and awareness about it Sl. 2. Products : i) Usual furniture items ii) Usual items with some special ones Marketing : i) Local market ii) Foreign market iii) Both markets Planning for export : i) Presently ii) In the future Total number of industries 22 2 22 0 0 0 20 22 100 9.5) ii) Unable to install own seasoning kiln 21 (95.0 100 0 0 0 90.5) 1 (4.5) iv) Lack of technical knowledge 21(95.Customers are increasingly interested 22(100) 0 -Customers are interested even with higher cost iii) Are the industries ready to : 22(53) 0 . replied Yes (%) No (%) 1.5) v) Don t know about seasoning 0 22 Total number industries 22 (100) 2. i) Lack of seasoning facility 21 (95.12 Problems/ bottlenecks hindering the present export potentials .11 Information regarding manufactured products Sl.5) iii) Increased seasoning cost 1 (4. No. No.5) 21(95.ANNEX .Bear the cost for seasoning kiln/s 22(100) 0 Total number of industries 22(100) ANNEX. i) Do they know/ think that by seasoning -Quality of timber and products can be increased 22(100) 0 -Better price can be fetched ii) Do they know/ think that : 22(100) 0 . Manufactured products/Marketing/Planning Frequency Percent 1. Reasons for not adopting proper seasoning method a No.9 100 ANNEX. of ind. 3.

Technical : i) Lack of woodworking machinery ii) Lack of seasoning facility iii) Cannot cope up with local demand Financial : i) Financially not so solvent to expand and modernize the factory Policy : i) Not declared as an industry like garment industry ii) Bank loan not given without mortgaging any land Other : i) Not allotted any govt. plot like cottage industry Total number of industries 21 21 1 21 21 21 21 22 95.Sl.5 95. 4.5 95. 3.5 4. No. Different aspects/ bottleneck Frequency Percent 1.5 24 95.5 100 34 . 2.5 95.

No.2 10 .5 8 -Increase subscription.13 Needs of the furniture industries regarding installation of seasoning plant Sl.ANNEX .6 12 -Arrange bank loan after forming Ltd Co.None of these Total number of industries 22 22 ----100 ----ANNEX .6 7 -Subscription be regular 10 45. 4 18. operation and developing drying schedules -Training. operation and developing drying schedules -Operation and developing drying schedules -Only training of the operators -Only developing drying schedules . No.0 Total number of industries 22 100 35 .4 5 -Monthly regular meeting 18 81.6 11 -Three trusted members for financial operation 3 13.10% extra seasoning charge be paid 3 13.7 2 -Appoint technical staff for the plant 4 18.8 4 -Consultant will suggest the structure 11 50. -Full guidance including procurement. training. installation. 6. 2.8 6 -Decision after taking consent of each member 3 13. Type of suggestions offered by the key actors Frequency Percent (a) 1 -Run through a management committee/ council 22 100 2 -Select active and capable persons 14 63. Type of specific assistance needed Frequency Percent 1. 5. 4.6 3 -Select sincere and honest persons 11 50 4 -Select sincere and committed persons 8 36.2 Total number of industries 22 100 Suggestions offered by the key actors for the Plant (b) 1 -Run by a separate set of staff and supervised directly by the Forum 5 22.2 3 -Appoint a set of employees and train them properly 7 31.14 Suggestions regarding management of the Forum and the seasoning plant to make them sustainable Sl. if necessary 4 18.2 9 -Financial transaction be fair and transparent 4 18.6 14 -Target installation within 9-12 months 4 18. 3.2 13 -No withdrawal of fund within 12 months 3 13.

Goda Vitex peduncularis do Construction. do Construction. Garjan Dipterocarpus spp. do Construction. other 2. Champa Michelia champaca do Furniture. construction 6. construction. other 11. construction. other 18. cabinets. other 12. other 20 Mahogany Swentonia mahogoni Rajshahi region Furniture. other 36 . other 15. other 14. Passur Xylocarpus mollocensis do Construction. Jarul Legerstroemia speciosa do Industrial. other 16. Mango Mangifera indica do Furniture. light work. other 5. Sal Shorea robusta do Construction. other 25 Jam Syzygium cumini do Furniture. other 3. light work.ANNEX . construction. Batna Quercus sp. sleepers. other 17. Dhakijam Syzygium grandis do Construction. other 10. Chapalish Artocarpus chaplasha do Furniture. packing 19. Telsur Hopea odorata do Construction. cabinets. Kankra Brugera conjugata do Construction. work 23 Sissoo Dalbergia sissoo do Construction. Gamar Gmelina arborea do Furniture. Sundri Heriteria fomes Mangrove Construction. sp. other 4. Gewa Exocaria agalocha do Newsprint. packing 22 Babla Acacia nilotica North-west Machine formats. Chickrassi Chickrassia tabularis do Furniture. Raintree Samanea saman All regions Furniture. doors/frames. construction 21 Silkorai Albizia procera All regions Matches. packing. other 8 Civit Swintonia floribunda do Plywood. boat 26 Kanthal Artocarpus heterophylllu do Furniture. Teak Tectona grandis Hill forests Furniture.hardboard. other 13. other 24 Tentul Tamarindus indica All regions Construction. other 7. Common name Scientific name Occurance Major uses 1. other 8.15 Major commercial wood species with their origin and major uses Sl No.

860 © Pipeline from boiler to 2 kilns US $ 1.280 Tk Sub-total -Tk 2.2 Nos. top damper.82.860 4 (a) Chimney MS self/Guy wire supported US $ 2.32. etc.051 = Tk 6. etc (without kiln chambers) *US $ 5.038 = Tk 16.620 Sub-total US $ 3. motor.240 (b) Insulated door .00. India Sl.50. heating batteries.060 (b) Interconnectivity from boiler to 2 kilns US $ 581 = Tk 34.521 = Tk 91.140 3 (a) Boiler (Model BSPG-3) Complete package US $ 11.280 5 Construction of 2 kiln chambersCivil works & other costs (approx.93.381 = Tk 1.82. electrical.227 = Tk 1. US $ 869 = Tk 52.00. materials.000 Tk 2.260 Sub-total US $28. Particulars CFR Benapole Taxes and transport charge from Benapole to Dhaka. etc US $ 3. pipe line.42.16(a) Estimated cost of construction of two 500 cft capacity steam heated seasoning ki lns as quoted by Gangotri Impex.000 Sub-total --Tk 22.227 = Tk 1.280 6 Water treatment plant Complete with booster pump.620 Tk 1.local --Tk 5. No.000 . etc Total cost 1(a) Kiln equipments Complete with 2 sets of blower fans.527x 2 = Tk 6.).860 (b) Interconnectivity ducting from fan to chimney US $ 581 = Tk 34. excluding civil work.63.ANNEX.

000 Sub-total Tk 26.35.000 Grand total Tk 27.7 Other civil works. etc. local --Tk 50.75.900 * 1 US $ = Tk 60 37 . electric.900 8 Installation & commissioning charge Including board & lodging Tk 60.

227 = Tk 1.260 Sub-total US $32.000 Sub-total --Tk 25. motor.620 Sub-total US $ 3. No.Civil works & other costs (approx.000 7 Other civil works.422 5 Construction of 2 kiln chambers. etc US $ 3. electrical. etc (without kiln chambers) *US $ 6.10.422 6 Water treatment plant Complete with booster pump.16(b) Estimated cost of construction of two 750 ft³ capacity steam heated seasoning kiln s as quoted by Gangotri Impex. US $ 869 = Tk 52.79.860 (b) Interconnectivity ducting from fan to chimney US $ 581 = Tk 34.local --Tk 50. materials.120 (b) Insulated door 2 Nos.521 = Tk 91. heating batteries.000 Sub-total Tk .220 (b) Interconnectivity from boiler to 2 kilns US $ 581 = Tk 34.93.140 3 (a) Boiler (Model BSPG-3) Complete package US $ 12. India Sl.42. electric.45.320 Tk 19.000 Tk 2. excluding civil work.local --Tk 6.).860 4 (a) Chimney MS self/Guy wire supported US $ 2. Particulars CFR Benapole Taxes and transport charge from Benapole to Dhaka.860 © Pipeline from boiler to 2 kilns US $ 1.30. .93.987 = Tk 7.45.93. etc Total cost 1(a) Kiln equipments Complete with 2 sets of blower fans.00.751x 2 = Tk 8. top damper.422 = Tk 19.30.Tk 2.227 = Tk 1.ANNEX.381 = Tk 1. pipe line. etc.45. etc.620 Sub-total .620 Tk 1.

19.79.042 8 Installation & commissioning charge Including board & lodging Tk 60.042 * 1 US $ = Tk 60 38 .30.000 Grand total Tk 30.

840 30. No.420 5 Freight for the kilns and boiler (Italy to Chittagong port) 2.ANNEX.880 3 Inverter for the kiln 3.99.114 3. Italy Sl. electrical & others materials & works -3.000 6 Installation & commissioning charge Including board & lodging Tk 60.000 Total 42.513 3.358 2.000 9 Installation & test by the supplier + Board & lodging 5.000 Taxes & transport from Chittagong to Dhaka -3.360 Tk 2.01. India Sl.30.780 Sub-total 29.000 7 Masonary.000 2 Boiler.17 Estimated cost of construction of two 500 ft³ capacity fixed type seasoning kilns as offered by Aditya Casting Udyog.760 Tk 2.000 Total Tk 27.33.458 4 Boiler (without electrical hydraulic & connections) 5.000 6 Electrical.260 . complete set US $ 14990 Tk 8.000 1.64.000 8 Computer and printer - 4 Construction of 2 kiln chambers + boiler room+ office room Tk 7.25.400 3 Freight charge from Punjab to Benapole (not included).000 Tk 29.20.280 2 Control room 1.approx US $ 834 Tk 50.25.888 23. Particulars *Price: US $ Price : Taka 1 Kiln with necessary equipments (ex-factory): 550 cft x 2 38. pump.18 Estimated cost of two steam heated seasoning kilns of 500 ft³ capacity as offered by Incoplan srl. etc Total cost 1 Kiln equipments US $ 16106 Tk 9.000 5 Other works & materials Tk 50. etc -90. hydraulic connections. No.00.760 * US $ = Taka 60 ANNEX. Particulars Cost only -Punjab Taxes and transport charge from Benapole to Dhaka.66.

225 US$* = 1 Euro = Taka 60 39 .= 1.

000 ft³ ( 28 charges: 12 days/charge) 2 Recurring expenditure per annum a) Land rent (Tk 30. etc b) Working capital (¼ of the total recurring expenditure) 27.00 20. Items 2 units of 500 ft³ 1.48.880 2.880 m³ for 27.35.400 1.5-inch timbers @ Tk 4.900 3.528 units for 1.000/month) b) Fuel : Gas (25 m³/hr: kw for 22 hrs/day: 50.5-inch timbers 1 Output of seasoned timber per annum 44.62.000 50.789 4 Economic aspects a) Recurring expenditure per annum b) Interest on the total capital investment .19(a) Details of cost of seasoning of Teak and Chapalish timber using 500 ft³ capacity steam heated kilns based on Gangotri Impex offer Sl.000 6.832 units for 1.0-inch &120.556 3 Capital investment a) Initial installation :Kiln chamber.98.876 26. 2 Associates) f) Water g) Maintenance (Taka) 3.ANNEX.5/.04.54.889 Total capital investment 30. 1 Boilerman. equipment.121 31.5-inch @ Tk 5/unit) c) Electricity (2.884 14.800 1.000 5.34.960 m³ for 1.000 20.00 Total recurring expenditure 14.900 3.unit d) Loading and unloading (8 man-day/charge @ Tk 120/labour) e) Operation 2 Operators.0-inch & 31. .35.240 2. boiler. water treatment plant.000 ft³ ( 44 charges: 7 days/charge) 28.08.0-inch timbers 2 units of 500 ft³ 1.000 (Taka) 3.244 42.

539 44.4 Tk 19.4 % Profit x 100 Investment = 29.91.430 54.4 months 56.55.3 % 7 Pay back period 18.48.000 ft³ = Tk 44.(@ 14%) c) Depreciation (on initial investment @ 2%) 14.718 14.000 ft³ = Tk 71.53.0 months 40 .51.4 6 Return on investment (assuming seasoning charge of Tk 100/ ft³)* Profit x 100 Investment = 89.718 Total expenditure 19.55.937 54.99.704 28.539 19.704 5 Kiln seasoning cost per ft³ Tk 19.556 4.884 4.99.

360 2.416 3 Capital investment a) Initial installation :Kiln chamber.60. etc b) Working capital (¼ of the total recurring expenditure) 30.000 (Taka) 3.19(b) Details of cost of seasoning of Teak and Chapalish timber using 750 ft³ capacity steam heated kilns based on Gangotri Impex offer Sl.472 19.528 units for 1.000 20.000 ft³ ( 44 charges: 7 days/charge) 42.5-inch timbers 1 Output of seasoned timber per annum 66.19.344 m³ for 1.88.000 70.5-inch @ Tk 5/unit ) c) Electricity (3 kw for 22 hrs/day: 40.104 Total capital investment 35.0-inch & 31.232 m³ for 1.376 40.5-inch timbers @ Tk 4.ANNEX.720 2. Items 2 units of 750 ft³ 1.00 20.000 ft³ ( 28 charges: 12 days/charge) 2 Recurring expenditure per annum a) Land rent (Tk 30.000 8.160 35.60.320 2.160 1.146 4 Economic aspects a) Recurring expenditure per annum b) Interest on the total capital investment .952 63.0-inch & 169.000/month) b) Fuel : Gas (35 m³/hr: 155.79.656 units for 1.60.unit d) Loading and unloading (12 man-day/charge @ Tk 120/labour) e) Operation 2 Operators.76.0-inch timbers 2 units of 750 ft³ 1. 2 Associates) f) Water g) Maintenance (Taka) 3.81. water treatment plant.042 4. equipment.99. boiler.40. 1 Boilerman.5/.042 4.000 7.00 Total recurring expenditure 17.82. .60.118 30.88.

(@ 14%) c) Depreciation (on initial investment @ 2%) 17,60,472 4,92,682 61,581 19,24,416 4,98,420 61,581 Total expenditure 23,14,735 24,84,417 5 Kiln seasoning cost per ft³ Tk 23,14,735 66,000 ft³ = Tk 35.1 Tk 24,84,417 42,000 ft³ = Tk 59.2 6 Return on investment (assuming seasoning charge of Tk 100/ ft³)* Profit x 100 Investment = 139.1% Profit x 100 Investment = 52.4 % 7 Pay back period 8.5 months 19.5 months 41

ANNEX- 20 Estimated cost of construction of one 200 ft³ capacity solar seasoning kiln based on BFRI design Sl. Items Materials Cost(Taka) 1 Swan timber for the superstructure 35 cft, garjan 29,000 2 Plywood for partition wall 6 pieces, 3-ply 2,000 3 Glass sheet : 5 mm for roof Glass sheet : 3 mm for walls 140 sft 240 sft 5,800 5,200 4 Blower fan, Aluminium, 24 dia 2 sets 14,000 5 Motor, 1 HP, 600- 700 rpm 2 Nos. 8,000 6 Carpenter and helpers (10 + 12) Nos. 3,200 7 Masonary work: making 6-inch high floor 13ft x 17ft x 0.5ft 8,000 8 Corrugated iron sheet, enamel paint, etc -4,800 Total 80,000 ANNEX 21 Details of cost of seasoning of Teak and Chapalish using two 200 ft³ solar kilns Sl. No. Items Size/quantity/other Timber of 1.0inch thick Timber of 1.5inch thick 1 Output of seasoned timber per annum -3,600 cft 18 charges: (18days/charge) 2,400 cft (12 charges: 28 days/ charge) Recurring expenditure/annum a) Land rent b) Fuel c) Electricity for blower fans d) Loading-unloading of timber e) Operation of the kiln f) Water g) Maintenance Tk 5,000/month 5,000 units@4.5/unit 6 manday/charge 6 manday/charge -Tk 60,000 22,500 12,960 16,200

-Tk 60,000 22,500 8,640 10,800 -Total recurring expenditure 111,660 101,940 3 Capital investment a) Initial investment b) Working capital (¼ of total recurring exp.) 80,000 27,900 80,000 25,485 Total of capital expenditure 107,900 105,485 4 Economic aspects a) Recurring expenditure/annum b) Interest on total capital investment c) Depreciation on initial invest 14% @ 10% 111,660 15,106 8,000 101,940 14,768 8,000 Total expenditure 134,766 124,708 5 Solar seasoning cost/cft Total cost output Tk 134,766 3,600 cft = Tk 37.4 Tk 124,708 2,400 cft = Tk 52 .0 6 Return on investment (%) (assuming seasoning charge of Tk 100/cft) Profit x 100 Investment 281% 144% 7 Payback period 4.3 months 8.3 months 42

starter and V-belts US $ 815 . complete with motor. etc from Benapole to Mirpur (approx.000 Tk 57.520 = Tk 7.880 2 Thickness Planer Model J-601 18 .240 4 Jointer /Surface planer Model J-118 18 Heavy duty.720 = Tk 7. starter and V-belts US $ 975 =Tk 58.500 Us $ 142 =Tk 8. 18 raise and fall tilting.) Total cost 1 Circular Saw Machine Model J-535H Heavy Duty. starter and V-belts US $ 720 =Tk 43. complete with 3HP.ANNEX. complete with 5HP.000 Tk 74.22 Details of cost of woodworking machineries and other particulars of Jai Industri es Sl.000 Tk 70.680 = Tk 7. Description of the machine Price one unit each Sea freight plus terminal handling charge from Ahmedabad to Benapole Taxes & transport. 3 phase electric motor.200 US $ 128 = Tk 7. complete with 3 HP 3 phase electric motor.504H Heavy duty.020 3 Moulder Model J.520 US $ 112 = Tk 6. 3 phase electric motor. starter & V-belts US $ 942 =Tk 56.

420 1 US $ = Taka 60 43 .000 Tk268.280 Total US$ 3.000 Tk 66.120 US $ 555 Tk 33.380 = Tk 7.900 US $ 173 = Tk 10.=Tk 48.300 Tk 28.452 Tk 207.