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# REFERENCE

CALCULATIONS

OUTPUT

Retaining Wall Design
Input Parameters Retaining Wall Properties Wall Height, h1 = h2 = h3 = H= Base Width, w = Surcharge Load = 18 kN/m2 6 m thickness, t = 1.4 m 3 2.5 2.5 8 m m m m Thickness, t1 = t2 = t3 = 0.3 0.8 1.2 m m m

Material Properties Cover to Reinforcement = Yield Strength of reinforcement = concrete cube strength = Soil/Backfill Properties Unit Weight of Soil, γ = Consol. Act. coefficient, k0 = Active Pressure Coefficient, ka = Water Density = Internal angle of friction, Ф = 1.8 0.50 0.33 10 30 kN/m3 deg. kN/m3 50 420 30 mm N/mm2 N/mm2

Density of concrete, kN/m3 =

24

Fundamentals of Geotechnical Engineering by Height of soil above retaining wall base on Braja M.Das passive side of wall, hp = pg.211 Tab 7.1 Passive Pressure Coefficient, kp = Density of soil on passive side, γp = Allowable Bearing Capacity of native soil = Density of native soil, γnative = Фnative = Width of backfill behing retaining wall,m =

2.9 2.00 20 133 20 0 2

m kN/m3 kN/m2 kN/m3 m

REFERENCE

CALCULATIONS

OUTPUT

the limiting value for kh will be exceeded making the KAE unpractical. where WR = weight of Rankine Wedge + surcharge acting on wall. a value of 0. If 0. a equivalent wedge force (0.548 Limiting factor: kh ≤ (1-kv) . KAE = 0.75 gals.3-42 γ= h= Ф= kv = AASHTO 4th Edition Tab. deg.Earthquake Forces USACE For retaining walls which are able to yield laterally during an earthqauke. In this calculation.5 was used. the Eng.276 Foundation Analysis and Design by J. An estimate of this horizontal force is calculated in the following page.548 kN/m3 m deg. value for kh is 0.4WR of the active wedge.26 x 2. the max.3.26 0 30 0 14. The seismic acceleration for the la romain area is Ss =0. which does not take into account the required scaling factor of 2. In leau of this.11.. earthquake forces can be estimated by including an additional horizontal force on the wall equivalent to 0.276.5 as stipulated by the seismic research unit. deg.4W) will be used to simulate the earthquahe lateral loading on the wall.5. tan(Ф-β) = 0. gals gals deg. Based on the criteria indicated above.2 to 0.Bowles 5th Ed.57 0.pg. deg.26 was used for kh. 645 Alternatively.3-1 kh = θ= δ= β= ψ= KAE = 1.The mononobe okabe earthquake coefficient will not be used.5H. CALCULATIONS Failure wedge will develop at an angle equivalent to 45 + OK REFERENCE OUTPUT .8 8 30 0 0. The driving force must be applied at 0. which exceeds the criteria for kh to be used appropriately for the mononobe okabe equation.Manual calculation of increased earth pressures induced by earthquakes can be 1110-2-2502: approximated by the Mononobe-Okabe formula Engineering and Design of Retaining and Flood Walls pg.

p = Horizontal Force on 1m length of wall.97 71.60 671.4 W R = 209. take moments about point A 2.38 0.Ф/2 = 45 deg.3 3 To determine the restraining moment.22 Weight (kN) kN/m kN kN kN kN 2 Level Arm (m) Restoring Moment (kNm) wall base backfill 24 24 18 5. Pp = Component Density (kN/m3) Volume (m3) 71.6 1.Hk = Horiszontal force due to surcharge loads along 1m length of wall = Total horiz.83 kN Active Earth Pressure. W R = 452.4 A 0.60 1.8 2.9 8.2 4.92 604.5 0. Pah = Passive Pressure on wall.66 m Total weight of soil in wedge.40 1014.00 1.59 kN Surcharge Load = 71.5 .60 201.4 37.99 kN 0.96 168.5 0 1.99 287.99 359. Extent of failure wedge away from backside of wall = 5.90 kN 169.66 2050.2 6 m Total width of footing = REFERENCE CALCULATIONS OUTPUT (a) Check for Stability (Sliding) Factor of SafetySLIDING = µN + Pp > 1.30 N= 2 141.force on 1m length of wall.20 3.8 1275.

38 kNm 119.10 m 1.p2.5 Factor of SafetyOVERTURNING = Factor of SafetyOVERTURNING = (c ) Check for Bearing Pressures Factor of SafetyBEARING = Allowable Bearing Pressure Maximum Bearing Pressure > 3 σ max = N/A .58 2.6e/B ) 1.14 ultimate conditions > 1. 6000mm long piles is approximately 145kN (refer to geotechnical investigative report).32 (gravel/sand/crush rock base) serviceability conditions > 1.90 m Y= 5.99 kNm 17.71 m 355.09 serviceability conditions > 1. REFERENCE CALCULATIONS OUTPUT Reinforcement Design Wall.p1. σmin = Pressue.09 1.00 248.x = x = ( Mr -Mo ) / N = B/6 = e < B/6 Pressure. σmax = Pressure.0 PASS PASS Factor of SafetySLIDING = Factor of SafetySLIDING = Frictional resisting force = 754. p3. ( 1 + 6e/B ) e = B/2 .Pah µ = Tan Ф = 0.09 kN Sliding force= 359. σ mid = 1. drilled piles will be used to support the wall.0 PASS PASS > 1.5 2.86 serviceability conditions Since the factor maximum bearing pressure is greater than the allowable bearing capacity of the soil.5 ultimate conditions > 1.00 m kN/m2 kN/m2 kN/m2 σ min = N/A . The axial capacity of 400mm diameter.96 kN (b) Check for Overturning Factor of SafetyOVERTURNING = Restoring Moment Overturning Moment Taking moments about the base at point A Restoring Moment = Overturning Moment= 2050.51 0. ( 1 .Bottom 1/3 Assume vertical bars = 20 mm .

d = Reinforced Concrete Design by W.10 740 = 0.95 0. 7.86 kN kNm mm 0.5 1918.H.30 kNm 1140 mm 287. d = M bd2 fcu la = As = 633.79 kN kN kN kN M 2 bd fcu la = As = = 0. Pg.77 mm 2 Provide T20 @ 100mm c/c = 2 3140 mm Minimum reinforcement for temperature crack control 2 As(min) = 1560 mm Provide T20 @ 200 longitudinally = Middle 1/3 of wall Assume vertical bars = 20 mm 379. Bungey.99 209.0385 1570 (longitudinal bars) mm2 Total horizontal force on wall = Maximum Moment = Effective depth.83 569.0492 2880. Mosely & J.93 kN Total horizontal force on wall = . 4th Ed. 161 Fig.97 71.25 mm 2 2510 mm Provide T20 @ 125mm c/c = Minimum reinforcement for temperature crack control 2 As(min) = 1040 mm Provide T20 @ 300mm c/c = 2 1050 mm REFERENCE CALCULATIONS OUTPUT Top 1/3 of wall Assume vertical bars = 20 mm 189.Horizontal force due to earth pressure= Horizontal force due to surcharge = Horizontal force due to earthquake load= Total horizontal force on wall = Maximum Moment = Effective depth.87 2 2691.H.

00 mm M bd2 fcu la = As = = 0.00 mm d = 1340.93 240 = 0.09 kNm assume bars size = 20.96 mm 0. d = M bd2 fcu la = As = 189.88 kNm mm 0.1099 2461.0123 Minimum reinforcement for temperature crack control 2 As(min) = 1820 mm Provide T20 @150 longitudinally = 2090 mm2 .12 mm 2 Provide T20 @ 125mm c/c = 2 2510 mm Minimum reinforcement for temperature crack control 2 mm As(min) = 390 Provide T12 @200 longitudinally = 566 mm 2 Heel Taking moments about the centreline of stem for the vertical loads and pressures M = 661.Maximum Moment = Effective depth.86 2 1569.