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An LNB - Low Noise Block (also called an LNC- Low Noise Converter), is used for communications (broadcast) satellite reception. The LNB is usually affixed either in or on the satellite dish .The purpose of the LNB is to utilize the super heterodyne effect; and amplify and convert a wide block (band) of frequencies. This helps compensate the signal loss associated with typical coaxial cable at relatively high frequencies. The term 'low noise' relates to the quality of the 1st stage input amplifier transistor, measured in either called Noise Temperature units, Noise Figure units or Noise Factor units. Both Noise Factor and Noise Figure are easily converted into Noise Temperature units. A lower Noise Temperature rating is always better (i.e. an LNB with a Noise Temperature of 100K is 2x as good as one rated 200K). The term 'Block' refers to the conversion of a higher block of microwave frequencies (received from the satellite- typically in the range 4 GHz to 21 GHz) being downconverted to a lower block range of frequencies for the receiver. The "low-noise" part also indicates that amplification and mixing takes place prior to cable attenuation, in a circuit that requires no power supply or receiver. With the high frequencies that satellites operate at, it is critical that the noise is controlled prior to signal processing. An LNB helps keep the overall sound and picture of satellite TV from becoming greatly degraded, without the need of introducing a much larger dish reflector. For wide-band satellite television carrier reception (generally 27 MHz wide band), the tolerance (accuracy) of the LNB local oscillator frequency needs to be in the range of ±500kHz,. This makes low cost DRO's (dielectric oscillators) feasible.However, for reception of narrow bandwidth carriers (i.e. 16-QAM)- a highly stable, low phase noise dedicated LNB (local) oscillator is required. They typically contain an internal crystal oscillator (or 10 MHz reference from the indoor unit) and a PLL (Phase-Locked Loop) oscillator, and naturally tend to be noticeably more expensive.

LNB Feedhorns (LNBF's)
DBS (Direct Broadcast Satellite) dishes use an LNBF, which matches the antenna's feed horn up with the LNB.Often times, small diplexers are utilized to distribute the resulting IF signal (typically in the 950 MHz to 1450 MHz range) and "piggyback" these signals with same TV cable that carries lower-frequency (terrestrial) television signals from a typical outdoor (terrestrial) antenna.The TV set receiver also has another diplexer that separates the signals.

Universal LNB's
A universal LNB can receive both polarizations and the full range of frequencies in both the Ku and C satellite band. polarizations simultaneously (through 2 different connectors), while other LNB's have either switchable or adjustable polarization. Typical Universal LNB specifications are:
• • • •

Local Oscillator (LO): 9.75 GHz /10.6 GHz Frequency: 10.7 GHz-12.75 GHz Noise Figure (NF): 0.7 dB Polarization: Linear

Standard DBS LNB example:
• • • •

Local Oscillator (LO): 11.25 GHz Frequency: 12.2 GHz-12.7 GHz Noise Figure (NF): 0.7 dB Polarization: Circular

Typical North American C-band LNB specs:
• • •

Local Oscillator (LO): 5.15 GHz Frequency: 3.6-4.2 GHz Noise Figure (NF): 15 to 100 Kelvins (uses Kelvin ratings as opposed to dB rating)

Polarization: Linear ultiple LNB's contained in one package, to allow for multiple receivers (on one dish). A Dual LNB consists of 2 universal LNBs (affixed at a small offset angle in a single housing), and uses only one "F" connector and coaxial cable connection to the converter box. Though also a Dual LNB system, the Monobloc LNB has only one output and only one (satellite) transmission is viewable at a time, as compared to dish systems which have two or more separate LNB's, each connected to separate receivers, in which both transmissions can be simultaneously viewed or recorded. The Monobloc LNB was specifically designed to receive signals from satellites that are spaced very close together. For example, parts of Europe use a Monobloc LNB to receive the Astra 1 (19E) and Hotbird (13E) satellites, eliminating the need for an expensive rotator.

as compared to a quartz crystal resonator or oscillator. . as far as the LNB is concerned. except that it has 8 independent outputs.k.e. Tolerances vary by as much as +/. LNB's can generally supply (up to) 16 outputs for separate dwellings or Digiboxes. and 22kHz on/off switching respectively. as each receiver has independent control of band and polarization via 13v. leaving the other 2 LNB outputs for either 2 standard Digiboxes or to one additional Sky Plus Digibox. A DRO is relatively unstable. 27 MHz band) even a 2 MHz error can successfully be received. distribution system (for apartment complexes). Though actually taller than it is wide. LNB's that are used for satellite TV reception contain DRO's (dielectric resonator stabilized local oscillators). OCTO LNB's An OCTO LNB is the same as above. and 17v. dishes that are wider than they are tall require a special LNB.Quad Universal LNB (a. This LNB is primarily deployed in the Sky Digiboxes (with 2 LNB inputs and internal hard disks for recording one program while you're watching another).250 kHz to 2 MHz (Ku band). Quad-Output LNB) The Quad Universal LNB can accommodate four separate receivers. which is a 'pellet' of material that resonates at the required frequency. However. The 4 outputs of the Quattro Universal LNB are: • • • • Low band horizontal polarization High band horizontal polarization Low band vertical polarization High band vertical polarization As a general rule of thumb.a. Quattro Universal LNB's This is a 4-output LNB. which includes the extremes of the full operating range. specifically designed for use as a "head end" I.F. an offset focus dish appears circular. any standard (universal) LNB will work with any circular (prime focus) dish or offset focus dish. Because most TV carriers are quite bandwidth-wide (i. Two LNB outputs would go to one "Sky Plus" Digibox.

as oxidation and corrosion occur rapidly. then you point the LNB towards the ground (say at a temperature of approximately 300K). Efficiently weather-proofing the outdoor connector is critical. to 19v. be aware that the electrical antenna contacts between the BUC chassis and LNB are often times difficult to navigate. pointing the meter to outer space reads 100K (K is short for Kelvin. LNBs that fail on a particular polarization (or particular frequency band). range) is cable line-fed to the LNB. This. LNB Supply Power The DC supply (typically in the 13v. The meter reading will directly correspond to the noise temperature of the LNB. for example. and it is often times possible to alter the polarization by changing this voltage. the noise temperature contribution from the surroundings becomes negligible. . High resistance will cause the LNB to switch permanently into the low voltage state. The center pin (of the F connector plug) should stick out ~ 2mm. over time. Both the outer and inner conductors must make solid electrical contact. and lead to overall signal deterioration system. to roughly 400K (100K +300K). By pointing the LNB up at outer space (clear sky). in turn. number of mA's provided by the manufacturer). away from the threaded surrounding ring. the noise power meter reading should go up accordingly. Testing an LNB • • • • Check the ammeter drawing the DC current from the power supply (approx. which measures absolute temperature). Do be extremely cautious. and 'earth loop' currents may also propose a problem.Though PLL LNB's are typically more expensive. may only do so at certain temperatures. A satellite finder power meter is also helpful. Poor quality (or corroded) F type connections are the most typical cause of concern. the advantage of deploying an external reference PLL LNB is that constant temperature stability is much easier to maintain. If. it is entirely possible to become severely shocked in discovering 50 Hz or 60 Hz AC Mains currents on the outer conductors. As a matter of fact. The quality and smoothing of the DC supplies used for the LNB's is also of great importance. directly relates to signal degradation.

most testers and meters draw off of low amperage battery power. Keep in mind. If all channels are present.neither will indicate to you whether frequencies are missing. ~70cm diameter). if you have a large dish. Any non linearity problem (with the high power satellite) will become clearly discernible. and bearing in mind that not all receivers work correctly with all LNB's will go a long way in aiding your trouble-shooting endeavors. testing an LNB is to hook it up to the desired dish (aligning the dish and LNB) and connect it to a satellite receiver. or the dish (due to distortion. warpage. Alternatively. however. the cable and the receiver). Good old-fashioned process of elimination (by swapping the dish. Missing channels can also be due to a faulty of the cable. quite rapidly.e. and perform the exact same test again. If the battery can not supply enough current to the LNB.e. receiver. then the LNB should get you by for at least a while. it is wise to measure the composite output power of the LNB (using a power meter) and compare this with the -1 dB compression point supplied by the manufacturer. as continuously blowing up LNB's can get cost-prohibitive. . or misalignment). then the overall 20 dB increase in signal strength (being fed into the LNB) may be ample enough to overload some of the internal transistor amplifier stages. and an expensive satellite finder meter can let you target specific frequencies. this problem. Lastly. Because this is not always obvious. ~7m diameter).If you're attempting to replace an LNB in a VSAT system. take note and wait until there is a temperature variance of ~40 to 50 degrees higher or lower (Fahrenheit). you can do an antenna pattern test (on both a high power and a low power satellite). you may need to invest in a special LNB (low gain or high power output level). that the reverse is not necessarily true. and aim it at a satellite with signals intended for small dish antennas (i. it'll ultimately give you a false reading. Overloading an LNB If you have a very large dish (i. If it continues to work through a net temperature swing of at least 40 degrees. Also bear in mind that while a cheap satellite finder meter will give you the average strength of all frequencies. be sure to check the both the supply voltage and the transmit reject filter.

IFL (Intra-Facility Link) refers to a cable which runs between two facilities. The IDU is connected to the ODU (Out-Door-Unit) by the IFL (Intra-Facility-Link). IFL cable is often a shielded coaxial cable terminated with BNC connectors. the IDU usually consists of a satellite receiver which is connected to a television. . IDU (In-Door Unit) refers to the set of satellite equipment which is placed inside the building. or C band. Ku. The ODU typically includes: • • • The satellite dish The BUC (Block Up Convertor) The LNB (Low Noise Block) The ODU is connected to the IDU (In-Door-Unit) by the IFL (Intra-Facility-Link). In consumer satellite Internet applications. the term IFL refers to the cable which connects the ODU (Out-DoorUnit) with the IDU (In-Door-Unit). IDU(indoor unit) In consumer satellite television applications. BUC(BLOCK UP CONVERTER) A BUC (Block Up-Converter) takes an L-band input and transmits it upstream to the satellite on Ka.ODU (out door unit) ODU (Out-Door Unit) refers to the set of satellite equipment which is placed outside of the building. In satellite usage. while a high power C-band BUC can transmit with as much as 200 watts. IFL Cable Generically. the IDU usually consists if a satellite modem which is connected to a computer or a router. A low power Ka band BUC can transmit with as little as 2 watts. BUC's are rated according to their output power.

3 . C-Band uses 3. DOWN LINK FREQUENCIES Downlink is the signal path from a satellite towards the earth. The lower frequencies used by C Band perform better under adverse weather conditions than the Ku band or Ka band frequencies.7 GHz Ka Band 18.The BUC is sometimes referred to as the TXB (Transmission Block).425Ghz for uplink.2 GHz UP LINK Frequencies Uplink is the signal path from an earth station to a satellite. The opposite of downlink is uplink.5 GHz Ka Band 27.425 GHz Ku Band 14 . Downlink is the signal path from the satellite toward the earth.14.12.7 . Downlink Frequencies Satellite Band Downlink Frequency C Band 3. .5 .4. Uplink is the signal path from an earth station towards the satellite.7-4.7 . The opposite of uplink is downlink.6.925-6.20.925 . Uplink Frequencies Satellite Band Uplink Frequency C Band 5.2GHz for downlink and 5.31 GHz C BAND C Band is the original frequency allocation for communications satellites.2 GHz Ku Band 11.

725 GHz 5.C Band Variants Slight variations of C Band frequencies are approved for use in various parts of the world.850 .725 GHz 6.000 GHz .4.6.725 GHz 6.975 . C Band Variants Slight variations of C Band frequencies are approved for use in various parts of the world.4.400 .200 GHz . C-Band uses 3.700 .850 .025 GHz 6.4.725 . Band Extended C Band Super Extended C-Band INSAT C-Band Palapa C-Band Russian C-Band LMI C-Band TX Frequency 5.6.150 GHz 3.025 GHz RX Frequency 3.725 GHz 5.700 .4.800 GHz 3.7-4.4.650 .4.425 GHz 5.425 .925-6.4.700 GHz 3.975 .400 .200 GHz 4.4.850 .6.625 . GHz 3.7250 .6.500 .625 .200 GHz 3.500 .025 GHz RX Frequency 3.3.700 GHz 3.475 GHz 5.850 .425 GHz 5.425Ghz for uplink. The lower frequencies used by C Band perform better under adverse weather conditions than the Ku band or Ka band frequencies.025 GHz 6.6.400 .7.475 GHz .4.2GHz for downlink and 5.7250 .800 GHz 3.200 GHz 4.425 . Band Extended C Band Super Extended C-Band INSAT C-Band Palapa C-Band Russian C-Band LMI C-Band TX Frequency 5.400 .4.000 GHz C Band is the original frequency allocation for communications satellites.

It is also used extensively in satellite systems. The users transmit in rapid succession. This allows multiple stations to share the same transmission medium (e. Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) and iDEN. radio frequency channel) while using only the part of its bandwidth they require. In the case of the uplink from a mobile phone to a base station this becomes particularly difficult because the mobile phone can move around and vary the timing advance required to make its transmission match the gap in transmission from its peers. For usage of Dynamic TDMA packet mode communication. It allows several users to share the same frequency channel by dividing the signal into different timeslots.C Band Dishes C Band requires the use of a large dish. Because C Band dishes are so much larger than Ku and Ka Band dishes. TDMA is used in the digital 2G cellular systems such as Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). the free encyclopedia Jump to: navigation. . there are multiple transmitters. and combat-net radio systems. a C Band dish is sometimes referred to in friendly jest as a BUD (Big Ugly Dish). with the special point that instead of having one transmitter connected to one receiver. TDMA is a type of Time-division multiplexing. one after the other. search This article is about the medium access technology. and in the Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications (DECT) standard for portable phones. Time division multiple access (TDMA) is a channel access method for shared medium (usually radio) networks. Time division multiple access From Wikipedia.g. depending upon signal strength. see below. The name "TDMA" is also commonly used in the United States to refer to D-AMPS. C Band dishes vary between 3' and 9' across. TDMA frame structure showing a data stream divided into frames and those frames divided into timeslots. each using his own timeslot. IS-136. which is a mobile telephone standard that uses TDMA to control channel access. usually 6' across.

there will be no time delay and this will succeed. D-AMPS. This compensates for propagation delay as the speed of radio waves is the same as light (finite). Initial synchronization of a phone requires even more care. GSM combines TDMA with Frequency Hopping and wideband transmission to reduce interference. Before a mobile transmits there is no way to actually know the offset required. this minimizes common types of interference. the mobile network adjusts the timing advance to synchronize the transmission. and PHS are examples of TDMA cellular systems. with the notable exception of IS-95. the synchronization of the mobile phones is achieved by sending timing advance commands from the base station which instructs the mobile phone to transmit earlier and by how much. For this reason. GSM. but there is a guard interval at the end of each timeslot. If. as received from the network. The mobile phone is not allowed to transmit for its entire timeslot. an entire timeslot has to be dedicated to mobiles attempting to contact the network (known as the RACH in GSM). If the mobile is located next to the base station. In the GSM system. however. The mobile attempts to broadcast at the beginning of the timeslot.Contents • • • • • • 1 TDMA features 2 TDMA in 2G cellular systems 3 TDMA in 3G Cellular Systems 4 Comparison with other multiple-access schemes 5 Dynamic TDMA 6 See also TDMA features • • • • • • • • • Shares single carrier frequency with multiple users Non-continuous transmission makes handoff simpler Slots can be assigned on demand in dynamic TDMA Less stringent power control than CDMA due to reduced intra cell interference Higher synchronization overhead than CDMA Advanced equalization is necessary for high data rates Cell breathing (borrowing resources from adjacent cells) is more complicated than in CDMA Frequency/slot allocation complexity Pulsating power envelop: Interference with other devices TDMA in 2G cellular systems Most 2G cellular systems. the time delay will mean the mobile's broadcast arrives at the very end of . As the transmission moves into the guard period. are based around TDMA. the mobile phone is at just less than 35km from the base station. PDC.

Time Division duplexing and multiple access schemes are available in 3G form. . and China's TD-SCDMA. This allows safe inter frequency handovers. For the rest of the time. Exceptions to this include the DECT and PHS micro-cellular systems. whereas UTRA TDD-LCR provides some interoperability with the forthcoming Chinese 3G standard. The incoming packets are compared for quality. the mobile can carry out measurements on the network. this limitation can be overcome. and the best one is selected. A major advantage of TDMA is that the radio part of the mobile only needs to listen and broadcast for its own timeslot. CDMA's "cell breathing" characteristic. can often negate this advantage during peak periods. not supported at all in IS-95 and supported through complex system additions in Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS). TDMA is combined with CDMA and Time Division Duplexing in two standard UMTS UTRA modes. the combination is referred to as FDMA/TDMA/FDD. This in turn allows for co-existence of microcell layers with macrocell layers. the mobile will be instructed to broadcast its messages starting nearly a whole timeslot earlier than would be expected otherwise. TDMA is usually used alongside Frequency-division multiple access (FDMA) and Frequency division duplex (FDD). where different time slots are allocated for the base station and handsets on the same frequency. where a terminal on the boundary of two congested cells will be unable to receive a clear signal. UTRA TDD-HCR is used most commonly by UMTS-TDD to provide Internet access. something which is difficult in CDMA systems. rather than limitations of power. This is the case in both GSM and IS-136 for example. While the most popular form of the UMTS 3G GSM system uses CDMA instead of TDMA. a type of "same-frequency handover". Comparison with other multiple-access schemes In radio systems. sometimes combined with CDMA to take advantage of the benefits of both technologies. However. if the mobile is beyond the 35 km cell range in GSM. By changing the synchronization between the uplink and downlink at the base station. that limits the range of a GSM cell to 35 kilometers when no special extension techniques are used. and UTRA TDD-LCR (better known as TD-SCDMA). In that case. which use Time Division duplexing. UMTS-TDD UMTS variant. more than one handset may share a single time slot. UTRA TDD-HCR (better known as TD-CDMA). detecting surrounding transmitters on different frequencies. then the RACH will arrive in a neighboring timeslot and be ignored. a mobile phone to be in communication with up to 6 base stations simultaneously. In each mode.the timeslot. TDMA in 3G Cellular Systems Most major 3G systems are primarily based upon CDMA. however. Finally. It is this feature.

because as they move further from the base station. IEEE 802.TDD) . TD-SCDMA See also • • • Channel access methods Time-division multiplex (TDM) Duplex (telecommunications) (FDD. Another disadvantage is that the "dead time" between timeslots limits the potential bandwidth of a TDMA channel. Handsets that are moving will need to constantly adjust their timings to ensure their transmission is received at precisely the right time. though in practice the power levels required to receive and transmit over distances greater than the supported range would be mostly impractical anyway. their signal will take longer to arrive. based on the traffic demand of each data stream. Dynamic TDMA Multiplex techniques Circuit mode — for constant bandwidth TDM | FDM | WDM | Polarization multiplexing | Spatial multiplexing (MIMO) Statistical multiplexing — for variable bandwidth Packet mode | Dynamic TDM | FHSS | DSSS | OFDMA Related topics Channel access methods | Media Access Control discuss edit In dynamic time division multiple access.16a WiMax Bluetooth The Packet radio multiple access (PRMA) method for combined circuit switched voice communication and packet data. Dynamic TDMA is used in • • • • • HIPERLAN/2 broadband radio access network.A disadvantage of TDMA systems is that they create interference at a frequency which is directly connected to the timeslot length. . a scheduling algorithm dynamically reserves a variable number of timeslots in each frame to variable bit-rate data streams. This is the irritating buzz which can sometimes be heard if a GSM phone is left next to a radio or speakers. This also means that the major TDMA systems have hard limits on cell sizes in terms of range. These are implemented in part because of the difficulty ensuring that different terminals transmit at exactly the times required.

Broadcast of audio and video are available as add-on options. It can maintain user sessions for an extended period of time in the event of any failure at the hub or VSAT sites. each assigned to specific regions or applications of the network. many remote locations with end-user terminals and optional voice equipment can be connected through VSATs to a centralized processing center (hub) or to other remote locations through the hub. The FTDMA system supports a variety of data protocols and applications as well as voice. There is one backbone link between every VSAT and the hub. IP Advantage and Direct PC networks. SCPC. or Hub A number of VSAT .This RFT is shared by FTDMA . FTDMA provides reliable connectivity between the VSAT sites and the hub through a backbone satellite channels. The hub is connected to the customer's host computer and voice systems either directly or through dedicated communications links. data broadcast and voice communications. FTDMA hub shares the already operational RFT. In a typical FTDMA network. Hub Protocol Processors (HPPs) to interface with the users's host. which serves as a data link channel between the hub and the VSAT.FTDMA NETWORK The FTDMA VSAT system is a private communication network designed for bi-directional traffic that includes interactive transactions. Hub Voice Processors(HVPs) to interface with the . batch file transfers. providing central host-to-remoter terminal and remoter terminal-to-remote terminal connectivity. located at the customer's remote sites Ku.The backbone protocol guarantees order and delivery of data. which provide the transmission medium interconnecting the Hub and VSATs. The star topology of a FTDMA Network is well-suited for use in configurations where corporate headquarters or data centers communicate with hundreds or thousands of geographically dispersed locations.The baseband is modular in design : Hub satellite Processors (HSPs) to control transmission through the satellite. The central location may have several host computers and voice systems. The hub consists of baseband equipment and an RFT. A FTDMA network consists of the following components: • • • A Master Earth Station and control facility.

It also permits easy incorporation of new features. An additional advantage is achieved by using L-band frequency receivers (LNB) for the straight forward reception of business TV and high-quality audio at each remote terminal. . this access schema offers a more efficient usage of space segment. Do not use a conductive tool. The modular hub design allows each customer's network to be sized cost effectively to meet existing and future needs. The FTDMA features a unique and patented two-dimensional satellite access scheme. as well as independent sizing of host ports. Hub Station . such as a screwdriver or paper clip. HPA. which combines the TDMA slotted ALOHA and FDMA techniques. A remote site consists of a small outdoor antenna (1.2 meters) a lowpower outdoor unit (ODU) and an indoor unit(IDU). It also simplifies the remote site hardware and reduces its cost.user's voice equipment and an advanced Object -Oriented Network Management System(NMS). high throughput and higher reliability due to a greater immunity to inter-carrier interference. Occasional high traffic sites are automatically off-loaded from the shared resources and have dedicated frequency channels allotted to them. FTDMA USERS MANUAL This equipment contains electrostatic sensitive devices. to set the position of the option switches.1 System Description The FTDMA two way network is an interactive satellite point-to-multipoint. Compared to other TDMA VSAT systems. Remote terminals burst in randomly-selected frequency channels at each transmission. The system utilizes a television receive only (TVRO) technology by using mass produced Low Noise Blocks (LNB) on the VSAT receipt channel . star architecture. Up converters & Down-converters. better response time.Incorporation of mass-produced TVRO LNB increases the reliability of the system in comparison to proprietarily designed and manufactured low-noise converters.The Hub site includes three major Subsystems: a) RF Equipment: Antenna. data communication network. Data Communication & Satellite Equipment Architecture: The Hub Station is connected in a Star configuration to all Remote FTDMA VSATs providing communication to the end user termi-nals. and inbound and outbound bandwidths. LNA. Introduction 1.

8 kbps. X.3. Rs-232 Selectable for DCE or DTE Data Rate: Up to 64 kbps Protocol: Selectable per port : 1. Hub Protocol processor & Network Management System.25/X.3 Technical Specification:- Data Communication Number of user ports : 4 Rs 232 points for X. Synchronous X. synchronous (outbound) Transmitted data: 9.29 Data Rate Received Data: Up to 256 kbps.b) Base band Equip ment : Hub Satellite Processor.oriented terminals.25 Compatibility: X.6.4. selectable at the Hub Installation Port Number 1. X. when DIP switch 1 is set to ON Interface: V.28 (RS-232) . CCITT (RS 232) 2.24/V. 38. 1. service providers host etc. Asynchronous: PAD functionality 2.28. (Inbound) synchronous.2 Two Way VSAT IDU Description : The Two way VSAT IDU is the indoor Unit at each of the remote sites.oriented terminals or file transfer . 76. Remote FTDMA VSAT: The VSAT consists of two modules: the Out Door Unit (ODU) & the Two way Vsat indoor unit (IDU).28 One RJ-45 port for LAN Interface User Interface: 1. LAN Port (10 Base T) Interface Type: 1. c) Host Computers: Local & remote end user's hosts .25 Selection at Hub 2. It connects the user Terminal Ports to the Hub through the Outdoor Unit (ODU) & the satellite link. X.25. 19. Ethernet: TCP/IP X. End User Terminal: Transaction . 1.2.

8 Cm.6 kbps Terminal compatibility: VT 100 Physical Height: 07.0 Cm. Upconverter & Power Amplifier .0 Cm. Width: 30.Data Rate: 9.Upconverter and Power Amplifier for the transmit signal. . . Weight: 04.4 Outdoor Unit Description: The ODU is comprised of the following components.Orthomode transducer (OMT) for connecting the up converter transmitter & LNB receiver to the antenna feed. .3 Kg. 1.VSAT antenna. . It is converted to Ku-Band & amplified & then coupled to the antenna via the OMT. .Low noise block converter (LNB) for the receive signal.The input to the upconverter is an L-Band signal. The ODU is connected with two interconnecting cables for transmit & receive only paths to the IDU. in the frequency range of 950 to 1750 MHz coupled through a coax cable from the IDU. Depth: 04.

95-11. The L-Band signal is coupled to the IDU through a 75 ohm coax cable. set the power switch at the rear panel to off. Orthomode Transducer : The OMT separates the transmit signal from the received signal by taking advantage of their different polarization & frequency. .9 or 1. It converts the Ku-Band signal received from the satellite into an L-Band signal in the frequency range of 950 . then set the power switch to ON. The supplied according to the system specifications. The power indicator should light.1 Power-on and Power-off Procedures Power-on : Connect the power cable to the power connector socket. ODU Specifications RF Input frequency (to LNB) : 10.< 250 W 2.E .N .< 5V Frequency .220 + 10%V P .70 GHz RF Output frequency (for ODU) : 14.E . one for the LNB & one for the ODU transmitter. Power-off : To turn the Two Way VSAT IDU off.Low-Noise Block Converter (LNB) : A standard L-Band LNB is used as part of the ODU.1750 MHz.50 GHz LNB Output frequency : 950-1750 MHz Upconverter input frequency : 950-1750 MHz Operating temperature range : -40 C to 60 C Supply voltage : 20 V DC DC Power feed : The DC power is generated inside the Two way VSAT indoor unit & is transferred to the ODU through two coax cables. Power requirement P .2 meter (3 or 4 feet).220 + 10%V N . Typically the KU Band antenna size is 0.50 + 1% Hz Power Consumption .00-14.

2. After successful completion of the self test. assuming that the VSAT is a part of a live satellite network. 2. Pushbutton: Scrolls the diagnostics and BACKWARD statistics display backwards. When the VSAT detects a signal in the scanned range. 3. all DIP switches on the back panel are off). Usually... 7. looking for a valid outbound signal (transmitted from the hub). where xxx is a signed number that monitors the scanning process (this number changes rapidly as the scanning goes on). alphanumeric Selftest Installation. and correctly configured. The green RECEIVER LOCK LED that indicates receiver lock is turned on. It goes out of lock within a few seconds if the OUTBOUND ID is not detected in the demodulated received signal. when the RF input level is marginal. and the VSAT begins scanning its RF input. Pushbutton Scrolls the diagnostics and FORWARD statistics display forward. 4. . 5. the receiver is locked. After power on. the VSAT goes through a self test routine. 16 characters 1. with packets transmitted under achieved through the link.3 VSAT OPERATION This section describes the basic VSAT operations after power on. 1. Two lines. Now all three green LEDs are turned off. the VSAT indicates a low RF level. the LCD reads SELFTEST .Functions of VSAT front panel display. Display mode of operation per line. LED indicator: LED is ON when power mains is POWER available. the LCD goes blank and then displays REMOTE IS READY. the VSAT does not lock. 2. when this happens.LCD display Transmit CW or normal operation with information as described below. controls & indicators Refer figure 5 for front panel display. and still locks on the outbound signal. the LCD displays check IFL (Low) M.2 1. LED indicator: LED is ON when the L-band RECEIVER LOCK receiver locks to the carrier from the hub. pushbutton Together with the second push button. 6.the display can be scrolled backwards and forwards. If the input level is too low. LED indicator: LED is ON when a link is ON LINE established through the satellite.button. wait. If the scanning process is OK. running in a normal operation mode (that is. The LCD displays No outbound ID. but sometimes. Diagnostics and statistics while in normal operation. 4. During this phase the POWER LED is on. LED indicator: LED is ON each time a burst is TRANSMIT sent inbound (each active timeslot) 2. the top line of the LCD displays IFL OK M and the bottom line displays SCANNING xxx %. 3. and all three green LEDs are turned on.

T (Time) is a counter (its value is xxx) that increases approximately every second. The top line monitors the number of retries. it issues a software download request (often called a "boot request") to the hub. (The VSAT goes on line using EPROM software. this should be BER <1. 6. This is an indication for a transmission of a request to go on line. In a normal network. At the end of a successful download. . When a valid outbound signal is acquired. This number can vary because of the retry process. it displays T xxx N yyy. N (Next) is a random number (yyy) that indicates the time for the next boot request transmission. higher . the TRANSMIT LED should blink to indicate a boot request transmission. * If there is a download on the outbound.and then the TRANSMIT LED blinks. 7. If an answer is not received. and 25 is the maximum retry number.. If the VSAT is programmed (in the installation process) to Link establish enabled (which is the normal situation in American standard networks) it waits a random interval . and the process is repeated until an outbound signal with a correct ID is acquired. This screen monitors the progress of the download process.. You may use the up and down arrow buttons on the front panel to scan through different LCD screens. If the request is correctly received at the hub. If the ID is not found. you can reach a down load monitor screen by pressing the "down" button once. where xxxx is the number o download packets received by the VSAT. where xx is the number of the current retry. From the BER screen. the display should read lnit R tables . the VSAT returns to scanning mode. the bottom line displays DL xxxx. If the download is in process. the RECEIVER LOCK LED turns off.normally less than one minute .wait. After the VSAT successfully goes on line (and assuming no FLASH MEMORY option). permission is transmitted on the outbound signal and the ON LINE LED on the front panel turns on. N then increases to a new.0 X 10 . but the normal run time software is received from the hub or from the flash memory). A download usually takes about 4500 packets. and after a few more seconds. the LCD displays the estimated BER of the inbound signal.It displays R xx of 25. for the next retry. 9. After a random number of seconds (usually less than a minute). 8. the VSAT continues to transmit this message at random intervals.with clear sky conditions. After 25 unsuccessful attempts (transmitted messages) to get a download. the LCD freezes.5. this number continuously increases. the TRANSMIT LED blinks. the VSAT resets The bottom line has two modes of display: * If there is no download on the outbound. random number. When T (xxx) reaches N (yyy). The VSAT searches for an ID on the outbound signal.

steps 10 and 11 take place. and after it is completed.10. steps 2 through 9 are replaced by the local download process. and if this is correctly received by the hub. the process is much simpler: The EPROM software loads the flash memory software. 11. the VSAT resets. You can verify this by stepping through the LCD screens. displaying the software version. and the ON LINE LED will lights up. . After a random interval (less than a minute) the VSAT transmits a request to go on line. 12. These screens were not available before the successful download. Since the tables are also stored on board. At this time. When flash memory is available on board. an acknowledge is sent on the outbound. and the VSAT goes on line with the run-time software. the LCD displays the REMOTE IS READY message again. and is ready for normal operation. port condition and so on. not the EPROM software. in the flash memory. After a few seconds more. the VSAT is running the runtime software. and the VSAT repeats the scanning and outbound acquiring sequence as described previously.