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# 1

VISCOSITY of LIQUIDS
Einstein suggested that :
B
D B T k =
where : B = mobility of liquid particle
D = diffusion coefficient
Since diffusion is an activated process, AG* (minimum activation energy)
must be supplied to the system. Fluidity is thermally activated. Moreover,
fluidity is the inverse of viscosity :
*
exp
G
A
R T
q
| | A
=
|
\ . where :
q : viscosity (Poise)
T : temperature (K)
A : constant
R : gas constant (cal deg
÷1
mol
÷1
)
AG* : viscosity activation energy (cal mol
÷1
)
Albert Einstein
1879-1955
The most realistic approach for determining the “A” is the
Eyring Theory :
N
o
: Avogadro number (6.023 × 10
23
g mol
÷1
)
V
m
: molar volume
h : Planck constant (6.624 × 10
÷27
g cm
2
s
÷1
)
Since AG* cannot be determined directly:
m
o
V
h N
A ~
AG* = 3.8 R T
b.p.
may be used for rough approximations.
After some re-arrangements 
|
|
.
|

\
| ×
=
÷
T
T
V
p b
m
. .
3
8 . 3
exp
10 4
q
For molecular liquids where bonding forces are Van der Waals type :
AG* ~ 0.41 AE
evaporation
However, these two equations are not valid for liquid metals, polymers,
and chain-like molecules.
1776-1856 Max Ludwig Planck
1858-1947
2
H
2
O
3
LAMINAR FLOW
We have defined the term “fluid flow” as the flow of parallel plates, creating a
velocity profile, caused by the shear stress applied to the fluid.
This velocity profile is defined as “THE REASON” or “THE POTENTIAL” of the
momentum transfer from one plate to another.
In this section, we will derive ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for the
momentum transfer in specific flows, such as: flow between parallel plates, flow
in an open channel, flow on an inclined plane, flow in a tube, etc.
These derivations will utilize the concepts of viscosity and momentum balance
to aid you to derive even more complex formulae.
MOMENTUM BALANCE
Momentum balance is applied to a small control volume of the fluid in order to
develop a differential equation, describing the whole flow system.
Solutions of these differential equations, when fitted to the physical restrictions
(boundary conditions), turn into algebraic relations which can be used to determine
the engineering characteristics of the system.
These solutions present the velocity distributions, from which the characteristics
can be developed such as, the shear stress on the fluid-solid interface.
4
0
system the
on acting
Forces
OUT
Momentum
of Rate
IN
Momentum
of Rate
=
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
¿
Momentum enters into a system either due to the
• viscosity, or
• general fluid motion.
Forces affecting the balance are pressure and/or gravitational forces.
Momentum balance is in fact, a balance of forces.
We will be interested in RATE of MOMENTUM (both getting into and coming out
of system).
The units of momentum: ML/t, rate of momentum: ML/t
2
(M: mass, L: distance, t: time).
FLOW BETWEEN PARALLEL PLATES
“fully developed flow region”
V
x
5
Due to the Viscosity:
Rate of momentum IN............................(L W) o
yx
|
y
(through the surface at y)
Rate of momentum OUT.........................(L W) o
yx
|
y+Ay
(through the surface at y+Ay)
Due to the Fluid Motion:
Rate of momentum IN...........................(W Ay V
x
) µ V
x
|
x=0
(through the surface at x = 0)
Rate of momentum OUT.........................(W Ay V
x
) µ V
x
|
x=L
(through the surface at x = L)
Pressure force acting on the fluid at x = 0 ........... Ay W P
o
x = L ........... Ay W P
L
MOMENTUM BALANCE
Since the momentum rates, in & out of the system, due to the fluid
motion, are equal to each other;
Dividing both sides by (L W Ay) and taking the limit when Ay goes to zero,
gives:
L
P P
dy
d
L o
÷
=
yx
o
differential equation.
Boundary conditions can be determined on the axis line (y=0) and on the
plate walls (y = o):
B.C. # 1 at y = 0 o
yx
= 0
B.C. # 2 at y = o V
x
= 0
yx y yx y+Δy 0 L
( ) | ( ) | ( ) 0 LW LW W P P o o ÷ + ÷ =
6
Shear stress distribution is therefore;
y
L
P P
L o
yx
÷
= o
( )
L
P P
y V
L o
X
÷
÷ =
2 2
o
q 2
1
and the velocity profile equation (parabolic) for a Newtonian fluid is:
L
P P
V
L o
X
÷
=
2q
o
2
max
L
P P
dy V V
L o
y
X
X
÷
= =
}

3
1
2
q
o
o
o
0 =
Other properties of the system can be easily derived as:
Maximum velocity:
Average velocity:
Volumetric Flowrate:
3
0 L
2
3
W P P
Q
L
o
q
÷
=
7
FLOW in an OPEN CHANNEL
“fully developed flow region”
2 2
x a
a g
x
P
A + A
A
=
A
A µ
Similar to the case of parallel plates:
For the most general case, where: Ax >> Aa:
Δx
ρ g Δa
dy
V d
η =
|
|
.
|

\
|
2
2
Boundary conditions:
# 1: V
y
= 0 when y = 0
# 2: dV/dy = 0 when y = a
0 < y < a
( )
2
2 y ay
x
a
V
x
÷
A
A
=
2
g
q
µ
meaning that the velocity profile is parabolic and the maximum velocity
being reached at the liquid surface.
Taking the integral gives:
8
FLOW on an INCLINED PLANE
Due to the Viscosity:
Rate of momentum IN.............................(L W) o
xz
|
x
(through the surface at x)
Rate of momentum OUT.........................(L W) o
xz
|
x+Ax
(through the surface at x+Ax)
Due to the Fluid Motion:
Rate of momentum IN.............................(W Ax V
z
) µ V
z
|
z=0
(through the surface at z = 0)
Rate of momentum OUT.........................(W Ax V
z
) µ V
z
|
z=L
(through the surface at z = L)
Gravitational force acting on the fluid..........(L Ax W) µ g cos |
MOMENTUM BALANCE
9
Substituting all these terms in Momentum Balance equation:
L W o
xz
|
x
÷ L W o
xz
|
x+Ax
+ (W Ax µ) ( V
z
2
|
z=0
÷ V
z
2
|
z=L
)
+ L Ax W µ g cos | = 0
Since we are in a region where V
z
is not affected by the entrance & exit
point disturbances, it is independent of z. Thus, 3rd and 4th terms cancel
each other.
Dividing both sides by (L W Ax) and taking the limit when Ax goes to zero,
gives:
| µ
o o
cos lim
0
g
x
x
xz
x x
xz
x
=
A
÷
A +
÷ A
| µ
o
cos g
dx
d
xz
=
1
cos C x g
xz
+ = | µ o
Taking the integral gives:
“Momentum Flux Equation”
(defining shear stress distribution)
The integral constant C
1
can be eliminated by solving at the
boundary condition # 1: o
xz
= 0 at x = 0.
| µ o cos x g
xz
=
If the fluid is Newtonian,
then:
dx
z
dV
xz
q o ÷ =
solving simultaneously:
x
g
dx
dV
z

cos
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
q
| µ
10
Taking the integral gives:
2
2
2
C x
g
V
z
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =

cos
q
| µ
The integral constant C
2
can be eliminated by solving at another
boundary condition # 2: V
z
= 0 at x = o, which gives:
2
2
cos
o
q
| µ

2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
g
C
substituting this back:
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
2
2 o q
| o µ x g
V
z
1

cos
“Velocity Profile Equation”
Other properties of the system can be easily derived as:
Maximum velocity:
Average velocity:
Volumetric Flowrate:
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
q
| o µ

cos
2
2
max
g
V
z
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
}
=
q
| o µ
o
o
3
cos

1
0 x
2
g
dx V V
z
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
q
| o µ
o
3
cos

3
W g
W V Q
v
Coming up next... Problem... (about Copper Smelting ?!...)
11
Problem: In copper smelting operations, slag is passed over matte in
order to recover all the copper it contains. Process is carried out in
reverberatory furnaces of 80 ft long and 30 ft wide.
If the slag layer flows with a volumetric rate of 80 ft
3
/h over a stationary
matte phase (a major ! simplification) calculate:
a) the velocity distribution profile within the 2 ft high slag layer, and
b) percentage of the slag that remains in the furnace twice the mean
residence time or longer.
Solution: Since the flow is laminar,
( )
|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
q
| o µ
o
3
cos

3
W g
W V Q
v
gives the volumetric flow rate. Arranging this equation and multiplying
both sides with 3/2 results in:
2
3

3
cos

2
3
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
· q
| o µ
o
g
W
Q
Thus,
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
2
3
o o
x
W
Q
V
z
1

Substituting numerical values:
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
× ×
×
=
÷ 2 1 3
4
1
ft 2 ft 30 2
h ft 80 3 x
V
z
2
2
4
1 2
2 2
x x
V
z
÷ =
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
finally,
where, x is the distance (ft) from the top and V
z
is the velocity of that point.
Right side of this equation
|
|
.
|

\
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
2
2
2 o q
| o µ x g
V
z
1

cos
equals to the first term of
2
3

3
cos

2
3
2
|
|
.
|

\
|
=
· q
| o µ
o
g
W
Q
12
This portion remains in the
furnace > 2u.
SLAG
Matte
x = 0
x = o
x = x' V
z
= V
ave
/2
b) “Mean residence time” ÷
where L is the furnace length (ft), and O is the “mean residence time” (h).
Thus, the portion of the slag that remains in the furnace for 2O,
corresponds to the slag layer between x = x' and x = o.
x' is the point where V
z
= V
ave
/2 .
ave
V
L
= O
o ·
=
W
Q
V
ave
Since
1
h ft
3
2
2 30
80

2
1
÷
=
|
.
|

\
|
·
=
z
V at x = x'
2
2
2
x
V
z
÷ =
Substituting this V
z
value back into the velocity profile equation:
gives x = 1.63 feet (from the top)
therefore,
The ratio is ÷ (2 – 1.63) / 2 = 18.5 %
SLAG
Matte
x = 0
x = 2
x

=1.63
2 – 1.63
2

caused by the shear stress applied to the fluid. In this section. flow on an inclined plane. Copyright © 2011 Cüneyt Arslan.LAMINAR FLOW We have defined the term “fluid flow” as the flow of parallel plates. etc. we will derive ordinary differential equations (ODEs) for the momentum transfer in specific flows. This velocity profile is defined as “THE REASON” or “THE POTENTIAL” of the momentum transfer from one plate to another. flow in an open channel. creating a velocity profile. 3 . Copyright © 2011 Cüneyt Arslan. flow in a tube. from which the characteristics can be developed such as. These derivations will utilize the concepts of viscosity and momentum balance to aid you to derive even more complex formulae. when fitted to the physical restrictions (boundary conditions). turn into algebraic relations which can be used to determine the engineering characteristics of the system. All rights reserved. the shear stress on the fluid-solid interface. describing the whole flow system. These solutions present the velocity distributions. Solutions of these differential equations. MOMENTUM BALANCE Momentum balance is applied to a small control volume of the fluid in order to develop a differential equation. such as: flow between parallel plates. All rights reserved.

..(L W) (through the surface at y) Rate of momentum OUT.................. are equal to each other........C................ due to the fluid motion... y W Po x = L .... # 1 B....... in & out of the system...(L W) (through the surface at y+y) Due to the Fluid Motion: Rate of momentum IN.  Po  PL L Boundary conditions can be determined on the axis line (y=0) and on the plate walls (y = ): B..C.................. All rights reserved............MOMENTUM BALANCE Due to the Viscosity: Rate of momentum IN.. at y = 0 at y = yx = 0 Vx = 0  5 ............ gives: d yx dy differential equation..(W y Vx) (through the surface at x = L) yx|y yx|y+y   Vx|x=0 Vx|x=L Pressure force acting on the fluid Copyright © 2011 Cüneyt Arslan...... # 2 Copyright © 2011 Cüneyt Arslan.......(W y Vx) (through the surface at x = 0) Rate of momentum OUT.... y W PL Since the momentum rates... ( L W ) yx |y  ( L W ) yx |y+Δy  W ( P0  PL )  0 Dividing both sides by (L W y) and taking the limit when y goes to zero. at x = 0 ....... All rights reserved....

Other properties of the system can be easily derived as: Maximum velocity: VX max  2 Po  PL  2 L 1  Average velocity:  2 Po  PL V X   VX dy   y =0 3 L Q 2 W  3 P0  PL 3  L Volumetric Flowrate: Copyright © 2011 Cüneyt Arslan. 6 . All rights reserved.Shear stress distribution is therefore. All rights reserved.  yx  Po  PL y L and the velocity profile equation (parabolic) for a Newtonian fluid is: VX  P P 1 2   y2 o L 2 L   Copyright © 2011 Cüneyt Arslan.

7 . All rights reserved. Similar to the case of parallel plates: P  x  d 2V η  dy 2  Boundary conditions: # 1: # 2: Vy = 0 dV/dy = 0 when when  g a a 2  x 2  ρ g Δa   Δx  y=0 y=a For the most general case. where: x >> a: 0<y<a Taking the integral gives: Vx   g a 2ay  y 2  2  x meaning that the velocity profile is parabolic and the maximum velocity being reached at the liquid surface. Copyright © 2011 Cüneyt Arslan. All rights reserved.FLOW in an OPEN CHANNEL “fully developed flow region” Copyright © 2011 Cüneyt Arslan.

...................(L x W) Copyright © 2011 Cüneyt Arslan......(W x Vz)  Vz|z=0 (through the surface at z = 0) Rate of momentum OUT....(L W) (through the surface at x+x) Due to the Fluid Motion: xz|x xz|x+x Rate of momentum IN.  g cos  8 ............... MOMENTUM BALANCE Due to the Viscosity: Rate of momentum IN...... All rights reserved.........FLOW on an INCLINED PLANE Copyright © 2011 Cüneyt Arslan..........................................................(L W) (through the surface at x) Rate of momentum OUT.(W x Vz)  Vz|z=L (through the surface at z = L) Gravitational force acting on the fluid... All rights reserved.

it is independent of z. 9 .   xz   g x cos  If the fluid is Newtonian.Substituting all these terms in Momentum Balance equation: LW xz|x  L W xz|x+x + (W x ) ( Vz2|z=0  Vz2|z=L ) + L x W  g cos =0 Since we are in a region where Vz is not affected by the entrance & exit point disturbances. 3rd and 4th terms cancel each other. then: solving simultaneously:  xz   dV z dx   g cos   dVz x     dx    Copyright © 2011 Cüneyt Arslan. Dividing both sides by (L W x) and taking the limit when x goes to zero. gives: lim x0  xz x  x   xz x x   g cos  d xz   g cos  dx Copyright © 2011 Cüneyt Arslan. Thus. All rights reserved. All rights reserved. Taking the integral gives:  xz   g x cos   C1 “Momentum Flux Equation” (defining shear stress distribution) The integral constant C1 can be eliminated by solving at the boundary condition # 1: xz = 0 at x = 0.