Appropriate and Inappropriate Game Practices As physical educators we are responsible for providing developmentally appropriate activities and

games. We must examine our practices to ensure that our students are receiving appropriate physical education instruction which helps develop children¶s psychomotor, cognitive and affective abilities. There are seven inappropriate elements outlined by Neil F. Williams physical educators should review prior to planning game type activities for learners. (Williams, N.1994, p.1). * Absence of the purported objectives of the activity or game. * Potential to embarrass a student in front of the rest of the class. * Focus on eliminating students from participation. * Overemphasis on and concern about the students having "fun." * Lack of emphasis on teaching motor skills and lifetime physical fitness skills. * Extremely low participation time factors. * Extremely high likelihood for danger, injury, and harm.

Inappropriate Game ± Line Soccer or Sideline soccer Line soccer goes against many of the developmental principles associated with good teaching. This game requires students to line up with two teams facing each other on opposite sides of the court or field. The teacher calls out one or two same numbers that players share on each side. The objective of the game is for the students who are singled out by number, to gain control over the ball and attempt to kick the ball through the wall made up of the other students standing side by side in a line. There are some motor skills associated with line soccer such as taps a ball from foot to foot, shifting weight and balancing the body on the non dribbling foot, while in one location (i.e. not moving) (k-2) (Graham, et al, 2007). In addition students who are called upon to score a goal must use dynamic offensive and defensive skills while kicking the ball with some accuracy. The problems associated with line soccer are the lack of appropriate principles associated with good teaching. The inappropriate elements associated with line soccer include,

The game is very flexible and can be set up to meet the needs of the individual students. ³Teachers organize full sides or large sided games (e. the class of 30 split into two groups of 15 that play against each other) thereby limiting practice opportunities for individual students. there is a potential for bodily harm if a student is expected to stop a ball being kicked directly at one¶s body. cognitive and affective abilities.lack of participation. Cone soccer helps the learners develop motor patterns and cognitive strategies which are important for team work and improving proficiency in dribbling. While having the two cones inside a 10 foot diameter must be consistent. 2007). The objective of the game is to knock down the other team¶s cone and protect your own cone. This can lead to embarrassment or lose of self esteem for those less skilled students. Teammates also work on defensive strategies closing up the open spaces as the other team tries to kick in an open lane knocking down the cone. passing and kicking a ball for accuracy. Appropriate Game ± Cone Soccer Cone soccer is a great alternative to line soccer. ³Teachers organize small games. no participants may enter the circle. for example. Secondly are called upon and spotlighted in front of the whole class to perform well. Cone soccer emphasizes many appropriate teaching practices important to help students develop their psychomotor. 2007). This game is follows highly inappropriate practices.´ (Graham. Brown and Grineski observed that only a small number of players ever interacted with other players or the ball. The field is set up with two cones on opposite sides of the field. Students work cooperatively with teammates passing to each other trying to set up an open kick which will ultimately knock down the opposing team¶s cone. As observed by Brown and Grineski (1992) only a small majority of the students actually get a chance to be involved in kicking the ball. et al.g. Cone soccer can be played with two teams that may have from two to six members. The cone is placed inside a 10 foot diameter circle. Cone soccer can help teachers maintain . et al. the dimensions and size of the field may vary depending upon the number of participant¶s fitness and skill levels of the learners. In addition. two or three children per team that allows numerous practice opportunities for children while allowing them to learn the various aspects the game being taught´ (Graham.

63(1). Recreation & Dance. Williams. (1992). S. (2007). N. References Brown. students will be free to achieve without unnecessary physical fear or self consciousness. 17-19. If teams are formed based on a skill levels that match one another. L. JOPERD--The Journal of Physical Education. When all students are allowed to participate. Holt/Hale. G. Children Moving.a safe learning environment both physically and emotionally making sure students feel protected against ridicule.. . M. 77.. Feb 1994 v65 n2 p. NY.. ³The Physical Education Hall of Fame´. 7th Ed. maximum participation occurs and children are actively engaged and learning.17 (4) Page 1. Graham. Competition in physical education: an educational contradiction? Journal of Physical Education. From Course Documents. embarrassment or when being physically over matched by a much higher skilled performer. A reflective approach to teaching Physical Education. It is important that physical education teachers follow appropriate educational practices and introduce game activities such as cone soccer which provides successful learning opportunities for all students. S. McGraw-Hill. (1994). & Grineski. Parker.

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