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Submitted For the Partial Fulfillment Of Bachelor of Engineering in Electronics & Communication 2009-10

Submitted to Mr. Jitendra Soni H.O.D. (E&C) P.C.R.T., Bhopal

Under the Guidance of: Mr. Hitesh Chandak Lecturer Department of Electronics & Comm. PCRT, Bhopal.

Submitted by ALOK ANAND EC- IVth SEM (0182 EC 081004)

As the name implies, Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) is a system in which the circuit is closed and all the elements are directly connected. This article introduces the main components and the basic working principle of the Video Content Analysis of Smart CCTV that can go right up to the horizon to make up CCTV systems of varying complexity and faithful surveillance. In recent decades, especially with general crime fears growing in the 1990s and 2000s, public space use of surveillance cameras has taken off, especially in developing countries. Surveillance has become part of everyday life. The compelling arguments for its introduction into public spaces as means of ensuring public safety have led to CCTV cameras perched high above every street corner within towns and cities. The next generation of surveillance, smart CCTV is now being introduced under the guise of routine maintenance and upgrade. In June 2001, one lakh people attending the Super Bowl in Florida had their faces scanned in search of wanted criminals using the same technology. Computerized monitoring of CCTV images is still under development for better quality and faithful surveillance. A human CCTV operator does not have to endlessly look at all the screens, but only at the relevant things or persons which may be a potential threat, hence allowing an operator to observe many CCTV cameras at the same time without overlooking the things which are to be dealt with. These systems do not observe people directly. Instead they track their behaviour by looking for particular types of body movement behavior, or particular types of clothing or baggage. Its virtually impossible to ensure that the operators will be looking at the right cameras at the right time. This technology of Smart CCTV helps them to do so easily.


WHAT'S the difference between a suicide bomber and a cleaner? It sounds like the opening line of a sick joke, but for computer scientists working on intelligent video-surveillance softwares, being able to make that distinction is the key goal.
Closed-circuit television (CCTV) is the use of video cameras to transmit a signal to a specific place, on a limited set of monitors. It differs from broadcast television in that the signal is not openly transmitted, though it may employ point to point wireless links. CCTV is often used for surveillance in areas that may need monitoring such as banks, casinos, airports, military installations, and convenience stores. It is also an important tool of distance education. Smart CCTV is crucial for monitoring and prevention of crime. As Indian investigators trawl through thousands of hours of footage from recent attacks, this system could help prevent further attacks by allowing operators to spend more time looking at things that really matter. The system is currently under trial at the Delhi metro stations. The system uses a Video Content Analysis or VCA, which can detect a range of suspicious behaviors, street crime & potential threats such as persons leaving bags in public places or people acting suspiciously, based on physical parameters such as size, shape, speed, time, movement, density and location of a particular scene and comparing it with the pre selectable surveillance profile. If any parameters are exceeded, the cameras then spring into action and mark or follow closely such unusual occurrences. SMART CCTV is the most developed technology in the history of CCTV, and it is going to revolutionarize the world with its use in video surveillance systems with the introduction of computerized algorithms and identification techniques.

Current CCTV systems can collect masses of data, but little of it is used, says Shaogang Gong, a computer-vision computation researcher at University of London. "What we really need are better TECHNOLOGIES to mine that data," he says. Gong is leading an international team of researchers to develop a next-generation Smart CCTV system, called Samurai, which is capable of identifying and tracking individuals that act suspiciously in crowded public spaces. It uses algorithms to profile people's behaviour, learning about how people usually behave in the environments where it is deployed. It can also take changes in lighting conditions into account, enabling it to track people as they move from one cameras viewing field to other.


The starting point for any CCTV system must be the camera. The camera creates the picture that will be transmitted to the control position. Apart from special designs CCTV cameras are not fitted with a lens. The lens must be provided separately and screwed onto the front of the camera. There is a standard screw thread for CCTV cameras, although there are different types of lens mounts.

Diagram 1 Camera And Lens

Not all lenses have focus and iris adjustment. Most have iris adjustment. Some very wide angle lenses do not have a focus ring. The 'BNC' plug is for connecting the coaxial video cable. Line powered cameras do not have the mains cable. Power is provided via the coaxial cable.

Movable cameras for Smart CCTV

So far all the cameras shown have been fixed with fixed focal length lenses. In many applications the area to be covered would need many fixed cameras. The solution to this is to use cameras fixed to a movable platform. This platform can then be controlled from a remote location. Alternatively the platform may be controllable in both horizontal and vertical planes and is generally known as a pan, tilt unit. A basic system is illustrated in diagram.

Cameras may be used indoors or outdoors. When used outdoors they will always require a protective housing. For indoor use the environment or aesthetic constraints will dictate whether a housing is needed. Systems may contain a combination of both fixed and movable cameras.

CCD CHIP: A CCD (charge couple device) consists of several hundred thousand individual picture elements (pixels) on a tiny 1/2, 1/3, or 1/4" chip. Each pixel responds to light falling on it by storing a tiny charge of electricity. The pixels are arranged on a precise grid, with vertical and horizontal transfer registers carrying the signal to the cameras video processing circuitry. This transfer of signals occurs 60 times per second. The 1/3 chip is the most widely used sensor format these days,, its size is 5.5mm diagonal, 4.4mm horizontal and 3.3mm vertical. The 1/4 chip is recently being used in colour cameras, is 4mm diagonal, 3.2mm horizontal and 2.4mm vertical.

ELECTRONIC SHUTTER: This is one of the major features of the Smart CCTV camera, which is not really a moving shutter, but a clever piece of signal processing. Under low light conditions, the CCD is allowed to gather signals at the shutter speed of 1/60th of a second. Under brighter lighting conditions, the video processing chip

automatically responds by reading the CCD and then controlling the video level. Even at the shutter speed of 1/100000th of a second, the camera is till delivering 60 images per second, but each image is gathered over a much shorter period of time. The end result is a fantastic picture, with no fiddling, no adjustments and best of all, unbelievable reliability.

POWER SOURCE: The cameras work with 24V AC, 20VA to 40VA. The cameras usually have a crew type connection and we dont need to worry about the polarity. This power is usually supplied by an AC adapter and we need to prepare separate power cables for the connection. Unlike 12V dc, this power can be transmitted to longer distances and is proper for the cameras installed outdoors or when we dont have a power outlet near the camera.

OPTICAL SPEED or F-NUMBER: Its how fast a lens collects light and is defined by fnumber like f/1.2, f/2.0 etc. This speed is determined by the focal length and the diameter of the lens. The lower the f number, the more light reaches the camera sensor and the better the video picture. The f numbers are generally marked on the iris rings of the cameras.

WIRELESS TRANSMITTER AND RECEIVER: When its difficult to run a cable to transmit video signals of a camera to a monitor, then we have to consider the wireless transmission systems. But the wireless signal may be attenuated or blocked by heave metal walls, high voltage power lines, microwave equipments and others. Most commercialized wireless systems have 4 to 10 channels; we cant use more than 10 transmitters in one area due to the conflicts of the overlapped channels. But we may use additional wireless receivers as we want as far as they are in range.

SPLITTER: A splitter is a combiner o combine more than one cameras and show them on the monitor screen split into the no. of cameras at the same time. Usually it also has a built in switcher which can display pictures one by one, manually or automatically. We can program the dwelling time of each camera. A splitter is to be connected to a CCTV monitor.

The picture created by the camera needs to be reproduced at the control position. A CCTV monitor is virtually the same as a television receiver except that it does not have the tuning circuits.

CCTV Monitor


Its the peripheral of the CCTV system whose basic work and function is to record the pictures and videos being taken by the camera systems. Previously, large sized VCR recording magnetic tapes were used, but nowadays with the advancement in technology and production of small storage elements, the data is being stored in memory cards and hard disks, available in a range of memory capacity having 120GB up to 720GB. Its programmed using the JAVA features and is the most important part of any Video Surveillance System. DVR records video pictures digitally on a Hard disk drive (HDD). This HDD usually built in, has capacity of 250GB, 320GB, up to 1.5TB to store the records. We can program the picture resolution and recording speed(how many frames per second) according to the application; real time or lapse recording also available. Overwriting the oldest pictures is programmable. Recordings are kept for several purposes. Firstly, the primary purpose for which they were created (e.g. to monitor a facility). Secondly, they need to be preserved for a reasonable amount of time to recover any evidence of other important activity they might document (e.g. a group of people passing a facility the night a crime was committed). Finally, the recordings may be evaluated for historical, research or other long-term information of value they may contain (e.g. samples kept to help understand trends for a business or community). Recordings are more commonly stored using hard disk drives in place of video cassette recorders. The quality of digital recordings is subject to compression ratios, images stored per second, image size and duration of image retention before being overwritten. Different digital video recorders use different compression standards and varying compression ratios.



The basic CCTV installation is shown in diagram 5 where the camera is mains powered as is the monitor. A coaxial cable carries the video signal from the camera to the monitor. This arrangement allows for a great deal more flexibility in designing complex systems. When more than one camera is required, then a video switcher must be included as shown in diagram. Using this switcher any camera may be selected to be held on the screen or it can be set to sequence in turn through all the cameras. Usually the time that each camera is shown may be adjusted by a control knob. With this arrangement the pictures shown during play back will be according to the way in which the switcher was set up when recording. That is, if it was set to sequence then the same views will be displayed on the monitor. There is no control over what can be displayed.



The first CCTV cameras used in public spaces were crude, conspicuous, low definition black and white systems without the ability to zoom or pan. Modern CCTV cameras use small high definition colour cameras that can not only focus to resolve minute detail, but by linking the control of the cameras to a computer, objects can be tracked semi-automatically. The technology that enable this is often referred to as VCA (Video Content Analysis), and is currently being developed by a large number of technological companies around the world. The current technology which has been named SMART CCTV, enables the systems to recognize if a moving object is a walking person, a crawling person or a vehicle. It can also determine the color of the object. The technology claims to be able to identify people by their biometrics.

A problem for this type of system is that it have been "oversold", meaning that poorly working systems have been sold which has undermined the trust for the technology. The technique will for instance not work well in large crowds, and the oversold feature of "unattended luggage detection" for airports have severe problems with determining whether or not a piece of luggage is really unattended. What the system can do is basically identifying where a person is, how he is moving and whether he is a person or for instance a car. Based on this information the system developers implement features such as blurring faces or "virtual walls" that block the sight of a camera where it is not allowed to film. It is also possible to provide the system with rules, such as for example "sound the alarm whenever a person is walking close to that fence" or in a museum "set off an alarm if a painting is taken down from the wall".

VCA can also be used for forensics after the film has been made. It is then possible to search for certain actions within the recorded video. For example if you know a criminal is driving a yellow car, you can set the system to search for yellow cars and the system will provide you with a list of all the times where there is a yellow car visible in the picture. These conditions can be made more precise by searching for "a person moving around in a certain area for a suspicious amount of time", for example if someone is standing around an ATM machine without using it. Maintenance of CCTV systems is important in case forensic examination is necessary after a crime has been committed.


In crowds the system is limited to finding anomalies, for instance a person moving in the opposite direction to the crowd, which might be a case in airports where passengers are only supposed to walk in one direction out of a plane, or in a subway where people are not supposed to exit through the entrances. Termed the Samurai Project, and funded under the auspices of the EC, the new program would detect suspicious behavior in real time by monitoring a vast network of cameras. Feedback from system operators would help Samurai determine which behavior was abnormal, and which acceptable. The software is capable of tracking objects and people across several different camera views even under lighting changes (as when someone moves indoors). If ultimately successful, the project will go a long way to improving the usefulness of CCTV networks, allowing for intelligent, adaptive, and fast security surveillance. Samurai is indicative of a wider trend towards intelligent surveillance. Project Indect (funded by the EU) is looking to pour over online digital information, and software like Vitamin D Video is bringing smart video filtering to the private sector. We are likely to see a marked improvement in what passive elements, like cameras, are capable of when guided by learning software. Over the next few years transportation hubs, military bases, and other government run facilities will have the means to secure themselves against terrorist attacks. Just as importantly, intelligent software packages are likely to provide measured response suggestions for security personnel, so that someone suspected of graffiti wouldnt be targeted in the same way as someone suspected of planting an improvised explosive device. Eventually, smart surveillance could allow those behind the cameras unprecedented insight into what all of us are doing, and possibly thinking. There are so many security camera filtering programs (both publicly and privately funded) that it may be hard to see what makes Samurai unique. First,its name is one of the most convoluted acronyms Ive seen recently: Suspicious and Abnormal behavior Monitoring Using a netwoRk of cAmeras for sItuational awareness enhancement. More importantly, Samurai will work with a variety of sensors (not just CCTV cameras) including mobile wearable audio and video recorders (attached to security teams) to enhance observation. It will focus on real-time images to and provide constant context-based data to said security personnel. System operators can also train Samurai using feedback so that it does not provide false alarms every time a custodian adjusts a trash can or a toddler throws a tantrum. If a threat is identified Samurai can track it through multiple camera POVs and lighting levels, relying on shapes and movement patterns to identify people.


Future generations will have to become more comfortable with observation if they continue to fight against terrorism, drug trafficking, and random acts of violence. Undoubtedly, the boundaries of government or private intrusion into individual privacy will be the subject of an ongoing (and loud) debate.

VCA also has the ability to position people on a map by calculating their position from the images. It is then possible to link many cameras and track people through a building, this can also be done for forensic purposes where a person can be tracked between cameras without anyone having to analyze many hours of film. Currently the cameras have a hard time identifying individuals, but if connected to a key-card system it can find out the identities of people.

There is also a significant difference in where the VCA technology is placed, either the data is being processed within the cameras (on the edge) or by a centralized server. Both technologies have their pros and cons. The implementation of Automatic Number Plate Recognition produces a potential source of information on the location of persons or groups. CCTV critics see the most disturbing extension to this technology as the recognition of faces from high-definition CCTV images. This could determine a person's identity without alerting him that his identity is being checked and logged. The systems can check many thousands of faces in a database in under a second. This type of system has been proposed to compare faces at airports and seaports with those of suspected terrorists or other undesirable entrants. Computerized monitoring of CCTV images is under development, so that a human CCTV operator does not have to endlessly look at all the screens, allowing an operator to observe many more CCTV cameras. These systems do not observe people directly. Instead they track their behaviour by looking for particular types of body movement behavior, or particular types of clothing or baggage.

The theory behind this is that in public spaces people behave in predictable ways. People who are not part of the 'crowd', for example car thieves, do not behave in the same way. The computer can identify their movements, and alert the operator that they are acting out of the ordinary. Recently in the latter part of 2006, news reports on UK television brought to light newly developed technology that uses microphones in conjunction with CCTV.


If a person is observed to be shouting in an aggressive manner (e.g., provoking a fight), the camera can automatically zoom in and pinpoint the individual and alert a camera operator. Of course this then lead to the discussion that the technology can also be used to spy and record private conversations from a reasonable distance (about 100 metres or about 330 feet). The same type of system can track identified individuals as they move through the area covered by CCTV. Such applications have been introduced in the early 2000s, mainly in the USA, France, Israel and Australia. With software tools, the system is able to develop three-dimensional models of an area, and to track and monitor the movement of objects within it.


There are four million CCTV cameras in India but most of them are useless for fighting crime. Cameras watch us on buses, trains and at airports but their effect on reducing crime have been negligible. Thats because they simply record huge amounts of film and virtually none of it is ever viewed. It just gets put on a disc and stored and never looked at again unless the police want to check it while investigating a crime. But a new generation of CCTV cameras is being tested which will not only film you but assess and analyze everything you are doing. They make an assessment of your age, gender, the colour of your clothes and other factors to assess whether you are at risk. Instead of watching a bank of screens security analysts will just need to watch three or four which the computer has highlighted for them to watch in "real time. We will have to look at the only things that are relevant.

"We aim to develop a system which will make crime-free buses, trains, stations and airports a reality."