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The copyright of this report belongs to the author under the terms of the Copyright Act 1987 as qualified by Regulation 4(1) of the Multimedia University Intellectual Property Regulations. Due

acknowledgement shall always be made of the use of any material contained in, or derived from, this report.

ii

DECLARATION

I hereby declare that this work has been done by myself and no portion of the work contained in this report has been submitted in support of any application for any other degree or qualification of this or any other university or institute of learning.

I also declare that pursuant to the provisions of the Copyright Act 1987, I have not engaged in any unauthorised act of copying or reproducing or attempt to copy / reproduce or cause to copy / reproduce or permit the copying / reproducing or the sharing and / or downloading of any copyrighted material or an attempt to do so whether by use of the University’s facilities or outside networks / facilities whether in hard copy or soft copy format, of any material protected under the provisions of sections 3 and 7 of the Act whether for payment or otherwise save as specifically provided for therein. This shall include but not be limited to any lecture notes, course packs, thesis, text books, exam questions, any works of authorship fixed in any tangible medium of expression whether provided by the University or otherwise.

I hereby further declare that in the event of any infringement of the provisions of the Act whether knowingly or unknowingly the University shall not be liable for the same in any manner whatsoever and undertakes to indemnify and keep indemnified the University against all such claims and actions.

Signature: ________________________ Name: Student ID: Date: Salah Mohammed Salah 1041110956 January5th 2011

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DEDICATION

This project is dedicated to my parents For ,Such endless love and support & All my beloved family انحًذ ٔانثُاء هلل انشؤف انشحٛى عهٗ كم َعًّ ٔفضهّ. أٔد اٌ اسصم ْزا يششٔع انحخشج ألغهٗ انثشش ٔالشب انُاس انٗ انمهة أتٙ ٔأيٙ انهزاٌ احاطاَٙ تكم يعاَٙ انحُاٌ ٔانحة ٔتزال كم انحضحٛات نكٙ اجعهى ٔادسس ٔاخحشق حٕاجز انجٓم ٔانظالو .أحثكى تكم يا ايهك يٍ يشاعش ٔاحاصٛش ٔأصال هللا اٌ ال ٚحشيُٙ يُكى ياحٛٛث فأَحى اغهٗ يٍ كم انغال ٔانًال. كًا ال اَضٗ اخٕاَٙ ٔاخٕاجٙ ٔكهٓى اصغش يُٙ عًشا ٔالٕل نٓى ستُا ٕٚفمكى ٔأعذكى تثزل ألصٗ جٓذ٘ نكٙ أٔفش نكى فشصة انعهى ٔانذساصّ ٔانٕلٕف تجاَثكى نححمٛك اْذافكى. ٔاسصم ايحُاَٙ ٔشكش٘ ألخٕانٙ األعزاء ٔاعًايٙ انطٛثٍٛ ٔكم افشاد عائهحٙ انحثٛثّ ٔكم يٍ شجعُٙ ٔاعطاَٙ َصائحّ انمًّٛ ٔكهًاجّ انًحفزِ نهُجاح ٔهللا ٚعُُٛٙ ٔاسد يعشٔفكى ٔصُٛعكى انطٛة ٔاكٌٕ ًَٕرج يششف فٙ لشٚحٙ ٔاصاعذ كم يٍ ٚضعٗ نهعهى. ٔاشكش يانٛزٚا انطٛثّ نكم يالذيث نٙ يٍ جحذٚات فٙ انغشتّ انحٙ جعهحُٙ اكثش اصشاسا نححمٛك انُجاح ٔعهًحُٙ انًشَّٔ فٙ انحفكٛش ٔانحعايم ٔيُححٙ انفشصّ نهحعشف عهٗ اصذلاء اضافٕا نحٛاجٙ تشٚمٓا ٔنًعآَا. ٔاخٛشا, جعجز انكهًات اٌ جعثش عٍ يذٖ انجًٛم ٔانعشفاٌ نهذكحٕس انًححشو: أساس ٚحٛٗ يٍ انعشاق انحثٛة نكم جٕجثٓاجّ َٔصائحّ انًثًشِ ٔاصهٕتّ انًٓزب.

iv

Aaras Y. . How nice to have friends from different cultures and races. I would like to thank all my family members and my friends for their help and moral supports. I really get fruitful experience within years passed in MMU. I managed to learn many things beside my study. it makes my project a wonderful and meaningful memory. Abdullaziz Aljamimi. Not to forget to express my appreciation for my project moderator. I am sincerely grateful to my project supervisor. Mr. I would like to thank heartily Mr. for his continuous guidance. I want to express my deepest appreciation to all of those who have helped me directly or indirectly in the completion of this project v . Chuah Teong . For sharing and caring. who had tried his best to help me in the programming part of this project. Dr. valuable advice and immense effort. this is what I call (Integrity within Diversity)!!! I wish a load of peace and harmony for Malaysia and the World overall.ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to take this opportunity to thank the people who have guided me throughout this project and made this project a success. who pointed out shortcomings in the project and helped increase its standard. Dr. Chuah Teong . Finally.

as a matter of fact an appropriate network design plan can help in minimizing the overall cost. resolution image and the video conferencing the. due to the speedy growth in the internet traffic and the new services such as HD. but due to the high price of the WDM systems or network devices. the WDM technology has a vast impact in the recent years in the telecommunication industry.ABSTRACT With the exponential growth in communications. is minimizing the number of Add-Drop Multiplexers (ADMs). and hence WDM is turning out to be a more cost-effective alternative compared to laying more fibers vi . many researchers have been interested in minimizing the overall network cost. telecommunication companies and corporate are trying to start migrating from the traditional electrical network as their main way of communication within and off their building. one of them is the high building cost. the optical networks have drawbacks. because they are significantly expensive. This is mainly due to the high bandwidth provided. Essentially . Add and drop multiplexers are major cost factor in building WDM networks.this project is an optimization problem. one of the area of interest. however. demand in for high bandwidth has increased greatly. it is costly to build such a networks.

...................6............................. ii DECLARATION ...................... 9 2............................. iv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .........................................4.............................................................................................................................................. 17 2................................................................................................................. 14 2...................2: Wavelength Add/Drop Multiplexer (WADM) ............................................ iii DEDICATION ............................................................................. and Active Switch ............ v ABSTRACT ......................... 12 2............ x List of Figures ..................................4 Project Objectives ..................... 10 2..6 Report Outline ....................2: DWDM: ..................2 The importance of WDM: ................................ 1 1......................... 8 2..5 Methodology ...........................................1 Introduction to optical network: ......................3 Problem statement ...........1 Overview: ....................................................................................................................................... Passive Router........................................... 18 vii .....................................................1-Broadcast-and select (local) optical WDM:......................... vi Table of Contents .................................................................................................................................................3 Definition of WDM:............ 2 1..........................................5: WDM NETWORK CONSTRUCTIONS: .................. 15 2.............................................. 11 2.................................... 7 2........................................................................................ 7 2..4........... 2 1....................................................................1-CWDM: ....5........4 Evolution of WDM Networking: ............4..........................................................................2-Wavelength-Routed WDM Networks: ............................................1: Point-to-Point WDM Systems: ........................................2 Motivation ................ 7 2...............................................................................Passive Star................................6........................................Table of Contents COPYRIGHT ................................................... 14 2..................................6: TYPES OF WDM TECHNOLOGY: ....................................................................5................................................................................................................ 1 1............... xi CHAPTER1: Introduction................................ vii List of Tables................................................................. 3 1........................................................................................................................................................... 6 CHAPTER 2 : WDM Network Overview .............................................3: Fiber and Wavelength Cross connects -.................................. 16 2............................................................... 1 1.................

................1 Single-Hop Grooming in SONET/WDM Rings ....................... 19 2........3...........................2.........2 Multi-Hop Grooming in SONET/WDM Ring ............... 28 3......................................................................................1 Problem Definition ........................................................................................................................... 40 4...... 25 3.....7..........................................................2..... 21 3....3 Illustrative Numerical Example using our Algorithm1 with GUI: .............3 Least congested path routing...4 Bidirectional rings ............2: Traffic grooming in WDM:..............................1.....8 Summary .........................3..............................................................................................5 Summary .......... 33 3........................................ 29 3.................2.2..... 35 4.....................2 Solution Approach .............2 Drawing Model ..................................................................1 Traffic Grooming on SONET ring networks ......... 50 4.....................................3 Static Traffic Grooming ................................................2.................... 20 CHAPTER 3: Literature Review .......................1 Traffic grooming and ADMs minimizing problem ..............................................2 Adaptive routing.................1Basic Methodology ............................................2...3.............................................1: Definition: ................2 Grooming in Interconnected SONET/WDM Rings ............................................................................. 34 CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION OF DATA AND FINDINGS ........ 37 4............................ 37 4....................... 32 3.........4............ 44 4.........................................................4.............. 47 4.. 29 3....... 40 4.. 23 3............................3 Unidirectional rings ................ 19 2.............. 19 2.........3..........3.......... 47 4..... m=1) ..........................................3.......................................................................... 35 4............................................................4......4.......................................................1 Traffic Grooming ........................................1......................................7: Traffic Grooming: ....2 Algorithmic 3 procedures: ........ 40 4........................2.. 30 3.................................................................3 Routing and Wavelength Assignment .......1.................................................... 27 3..1 Problem Formulation of RWA ......7............................................3 Flow chart of Algorithm3 ........................................1Construction Bidirectional circles (Algorithm 3....1......................................4.........................................2.................4 Routing algorithms ... 24 3..........................................3Algorithm I (m=1) ................2 Previous work done on Traffic Grooming ................................................................................. 51 viii .. 35 4..................................... 42 4.................. 21 3....... 47 4................................... 31 3.....2 Algorithmic Approach .........4 Dynamic Traffic Grooming............................................................... 26 3.........4 Illustrative numerical example using our Algorithm3 with GUI: .........................4.................... 29 3.................. Algorithms Parameters: ..................................

................................................................. 68 5...... 57 4.................................................................................1 ADMs Comparison for unidirectional SONET/WDM ring.........................................3 Lower bound of ADMs solution (m>1) ..............................5.................. 65 CHAPTER 5: DISSCUSION ON FINDINGS ...........................................................................................................2 Example 2: ADMs requirement without grooming (m=1) .............................................2.............................................................................. 79 6.3 Analytical Results for Grooming (m>1) ....3...............5 Summary ... 58 4................................ 79 6................ .. 81 Appendix A: LIST OF ACRONYMS . 56 4.....2 Basic Procedures .. 66 5..............................3.......6 Summary .............................................................. 71 5.................................. 75 5...............4 Flow chart ............... 73 5.................... 66 5..........5 Algorithm II with grooming (m>1) ......................................... 78 CHAPTER 6: Conclusions & Recommendations ......................4........................................ 86 Appendix B: Source Code .....5.................................................... 72 5........2..................................................2ADMs Comparison for Bidirectional SONET/WDM ring .................... 67 5..............................................................................4 Saving Percentage due to the proposed Algorithms ....5 Illustrative Example of DLB ....................................................................... 56 4...5..............1 Summary of Objectives Accomplished ........ 80 REFERENCES.......1 Introduction ....................................................................5.............. 69 5.................................. 88 ix ..... 64 4.......................................................................................................2 Recommendations for Future Work ....1 Introduction ...................................................................................................................5.....................................1 Example 1 : Wavelength requirement with no grooming (m=1) ........ 60 4......................2 No Grooming case (m=1) .

..... 18 Table 4.. ......1 Algorithm 1 Results ...... 46 Table 4...2 Some values of ADMs obtained from Algo1 and Algo3 ..................1 Numerical results of wavelengths comparison ..................................4 Unidirectional SONET/WDM ring with different grooming ratio ......2 Gantt chart for Part 2 ............... 75 x ....................... 59 Table 4.....................................1 Brief Comparison between CWDM and DWDM [10] .........................1 Gantt chart for Part 1 ..... 5 Table 2.................. 70 Table 5....... number of ADMs......... 4 Table 1.............................................................. and m. ...........................List of Tables Table 1...............................................................3 comparison between different N...2 Algorithm 3 Results............5 Bidirectional SONET/WDM ring with different grooming ratio ..................................... ... 65 Table 5................................................................... 64 Table 4.. 55 Table 4....3 Finding the appropriate DLB value ................................... 68 Table 5......

41 Figure 4........[11] ..[11] ... 26 Figure 3.................................................................................List of Figures Figure 2.....................2 Basic Methodology ................... 24 Figure 3..........................................................6(c): 4 x 4 active switch (four wavelengths) ...4. 9 Figure 2. 41 Figure 4.... ........................................................................................................(b) Two possible configurations to support the traffic requests in Fig 15(a) ......2 Wavelength Division Multiplexing [6]........... 46 xi ........................................................................................ 42 Figure 4...4............................... 24 Figure 3.......................................................................................................................(a) SONET/WDM network .................... 27 Figure 4...................... 39 Figure 4..................................... 44 Figure 4.........5 sample interconnected-ring network topology and simplified architectures of the junction node..............4 A four-channel point-to-point WDM transmission system with amplifiers ............................................. Error! Bookmark not defined........................ [7] .. 15 Figure 2..............(c) WDM ring network with optical bypass ......................... 9 Figure 2......... (m=1) .................................................................(a) construct circle with GUI ........................................................3........... 111 Figure 2.... ....1 WDM signal with multiple signal wavelengths [4]………………….............................7 A passive-star-based local optical WDM network ............. 16 Figure 2..... 25 Figure 3.............3..6 (b): 4 x 4 passive routers (four wavelengths) .........................................8 A wavelength-routed (wide-area) optical WDM network ...................6 (a): 4 x 4 passive stars ......................5 Flow chart of Algorithm1 .........3 Evolution of WDM. 132 Figure 2..................................1 Add-Drop Multiplexers ............................8 Figure 2..1 Traffic Grooming ................ 133 Figure 2............ 45 Figure 4.........................4.............. 38 Figure 4.........................................2 Node architectures in a SONET/WDM ring network..................................9 shows the wavelength’s spacing in CWDM technology..................3 Basic Methodology using GUI .... (a) GUI of drawing demo ..... 14 Figure 2............................... ..... 17 Figure 3.........5 A Wavelengths Add/Drop Multiplexer (WADM). (c) output results of Algo1.........6................................................................. (b) Number of circles constructed due to node1 (egress node).................. 35 Figure 4..........6................0 Figure 2.......................10 The wavelength’s spacing in DWDM technology............................ 143 Figure 2........... 45 Figure 4........................... 221 Figure 3...........4 SONET/WDM ring with/without a hub node................................. (b) Sampled ring network...............6....

...... 62 Figure 4....9....................... 53 Figure 4...................................... 53 Figure 4............................................................. 61 Figure 4........... 10................9 (d) Results from Algorithm3 (N=10).... 69 Figure 5.........8.. 54 Figure 4.......... ............... (b) Construct circle with 4 clockwise connections ......................... 50 Figure 4.......7.......................... 77 xii .................. 74 Figure 5........................ (a) Construct a circle with 2 clockwise connections....(a) Algorithm II basic flow chart.....11...................... 71 Figure 5.................................... 52 Figure 4............................. ......11................ (b) End of Algo3 flow chart.9...........................8. .. 48 Figure 4......11.............1 Wavelength requirement for unidirectional and bidirectional ring .. 64 Figure 5.......Figure 4... ............................................................... ......... ........ ........... 15...... 5.............4 The lower bound of the number of ADMs needed for Bidirectional ring with m=1..........(g) Results from Algorithm3 (N=12)....... 76 Figure 5.................. 52 Figure 4...................... . ...........(e) End flow chart of the function FindM() and AlgoII.. 48 Figure 4......2 Number of ADMs obtained from Algo1 and Algo3............................. 10..................11...... 63 Figure 4.. (a) Construct circles when N is even (S=N/2) ........9.. 57 Figure 4................... 5..5 Saving percentage in ADMs for unidirectional ring. (a) Flow chart of Algorithm3...................... (b) FindM() flow chart.............9.................................... (c) Full bidirectional ring network constructed by Algorithm3... 55 Figure 4.........................(e) Construct circle with 4 clockwise connections s=N\4.......................................6 Saving percentage in ADMs for bidirectional ring.... (b) Construct circles when N is even (1<=s<=N/4)................ 51 Figure 4...7......9........... 15..(d) FindM() flow chart continues….............................................. (f) Full bidirectional ring network constructed by Algorithm3 (s=N/4) 54 Figure 4.........10 AlgorithmII general GUI..... .........(c) FindM() flow chart continues….... .........11..... 60 Figure 4........................................3 The lower bound of the number of ADMs needed for Unidirectional ring with m=1.9........................... 73 Figure 5.

there has been a significant research activity on the traffic grooming problem.2 Motivation Optical Networks are quite a new technology but its emergence provides a lot of advantages such as meeting the high demands for higher bandwidth.CHAPTER1: Introduction 1. 1. 1 . Optical networks.1 Overview: Current era requires a new technology which would be able to handle the bandwidth hungry services. a network upgrade based on WDM technology is the favored choice for service providers. one important aspects of interest is minimizing the cost of the network. that can be achieved through different techniques. data browsing in the World Wide Web. in particular. so the next-generation of optical networks is characterized with high bandwidth with the rapid growth of traffic. These ADMs are quite expensive. and video-on-demand services. revenue generation and lesser operational time. it is the solution for the current high demands of traffic. one ADM is needed for each wavelength at every node to perform traffic add/drop on that wavelength. Over the last decades. such as minimizing the numbers of add-drop multiplexers (ADMs) used in the network. wavelength division multiplexing technique. such as multimedia conferencing. since building such networks can be a cost-effective. therefore network’s overall cost could be minimized by minimizing these end line equipments. has become the most promising networking choice to meet ever-increasing demands on bandwidth since the emergence of bandwidth intensive communication or computing applications.

so by using appropriate traffic grooming and wavelength assignment which is defined as the intelligent allocation of the demands onto available wavelength such that the number of ADMs is minimized. Fortunately. To understand the traffic grooming It is important to understand the concept of traffic grooming. in addition this is helping the services providers in utilizing the network resources. such as the switching central office. which will directly minimized the cost of the network. and types of WDM.4 Project Objectives The project’s objectives are: Study the WDM technology To know the technology basic structure. this results in cost-effective WDM network. Traffic grooming and wavelength assignment are an effective mechanism to reduce the numbers of needed ADMs. the cost of electronic add-drop multiplexers (ADMs) are absolutely high.3 Problem statement The principle consideration of network performance is limited by processing capability of the network’s electronics elements. that will help in spreading the technology to support the high demand for the customers satisfaction as well as for the service providers revenue generation. evolution. I have realized the importance of WDM technology and its advantages as mentioned above. which gave me a massive motivation towards this project.WDM is the basic technology of optical networking which allows an optical fiber to carry traffic on multiple channels by assigning to each channel a unique wavelength in which the corresponding traffic is transmitted. this technology can be used in the working environment for many company attaches. 1. As well as. 2 . where a high bandwidth is required to carry the traffic demands over a single fiber optic. 1.

The chronological methodology of how this project was carried out is shown below: Literature reviews on optical network and WDM technology: including network types and their elements. in the second trimester. Presentation part 1. 3 . discussed about the literature reviews. During the first trimester. history and future. to find an optimal cost solution for the network. how to develop the algorithm to achieve the objectives of this project. since more knowledge is needed to know how to analyze it. some design model were examined and stimulated to have some experimental result on that designs. an extensive research on the previous work related to this project. Analyze the numerical result Compare and analyze the result extensively. then a deep and extensive analysis were done. A study on Traffic Grooming was done. 1.5 Methodology This project is considered as my final year project. Analyzing the past researches. the constraints. It consists of two parts which must be done within two semesters of the university studying plan. to know the parameters. Project documentation and writing. To suggest an algorithm to minimize the number of ADMs This is the essential object of this project. in order to conclude this report and suggest some recommendation for the future work. Testing and implementing the algorithms which were developed Adjusting and improving the performance of the algorithms. Research for possible solutions to minimize ADMs more practically.

1 Gantt chart for Part 1 4 . WEEK NUMBERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1H 2H 3H 4H Discussion on the topic with supervisor Literature review on background theory Analyzing past researches Presentation part one Table 1.TASKS Choosing the topic.

TASKS Part one review Development of the algorithm Research improved results Discussion on idea with supervisor Report writing Report submission Presentation part two on solutions for WEEK NUMBERS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1H 2H 3H 4H Table1. 2 Gantt chart for Part 2 5 .

and types of WDM network as well as traffic grooming.1. which used to minimize the ADMs. A further elaboration for the problem of routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) and different types of routing techniques were presented.6 Report Outline The organization of the rest of this report is as follows: Chapter 2 focuses on background. and the developed algorithms. Chapter 5 is the beating of excitation to my report. and shows relations between the parameters of the algorithms. 6 . Chapter 4 is my main framework. evolution. or minimizing the overall cost of the network. it discusses the findings and the numerical results. Some basic structure of the SONET and WDM network’s nodes are discussed as well. Besides that. which all presented in term of graphs and data is analyzed. which concludes the report with a summary of the work done and suggests a number of recommendations for future work that assist in developing the algorithms which minimizes the number of ADMs. Finally my sixth chapter. which is extensively described the problem in details. architecture. and some suggested solutions to minimize the number of the needed ADMs. the findings and tables of results are introduced with different suggested models. Chapter 3 explains the previous work done on Traffic Grooming.

grooming. and wavelength based service which is used to satisfy increasing bandwidth demands of today’s applications.CHAPTER 2 : WDM Network Overview This chapter will show a brief introduction of optical network and have a good description about WDM and its evolution. structure as well as traffic grooming. 2. Internet and other digital services. live TV. through section 2. Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI).1 Introduction to optical network: Optical networks are high-capacity networks based on optical technologies and components that provide routing.8. and types.2 The importance of WDM: Wavelength division multiplexing is one of the important enabling technologies for optical networking. Second Generation Optical Networks. structure. definition. Wavelength Routing Networks. It partitions the optical bandwidth into a large number of channels as well as allows multiple data streams to be transferred along the same fiber simultaneously. 7 . Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM). multimedia interaction. all about WDM network: importance. music transferring. Synchronous Optical Network/Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SONET/SDH). Then section 2.6.7 is regarding traffic grooming and finally the summary in section 2. Optical Networking Components. Optical network definition is presented in section 2. evolution.1. 2.2 until section 2. [1] Optical networks can be basically categorized as [2]: First Generation Optical Networks. such as video.(The heart of optical network).

The composite signal is demultiplexed at the receiver end and then each unique wavelength is retrieved. each remains a separate data signal and non-effected by other signals on the fiber. [3] A network improvement based on WDM technology is the favored choice for service providers since WDM is cost-effective. WDM architecture concept is simply based on transmitting multiple signals. the fiber bandwidth is divided into multiple channels. Using WDM.Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) offers the promise to satisfy the requirements of bandwidth for internet infrastructure.3 Definition of WDM: Wavelength Division Multiplexing (WDM) technology multiplexes many separate optical signals into a combined signal that is transported over a single fiber. As a result. and specific data rate tailored to the speed of electronic devices.1 WDM signal with multiple signal wavelengths [4] 2. flexible and scalable technology for increasing capacity of a fiber network. every signal with a different wavelength instead of transmitting a single signal on a single wavelength. [5] 8 . each operating at a given wavelength. [3] Figure 2. many service provider and enterprise corporations are turning to wave division multiplexing technology. and provide a scalable solution for supporting bandwidth needs of future applications in both local and wide areas.

2. such as synchronous optical network (SONET) leads to fully exploit the important bandwidth of optical fiber by combine multiple wavelengths over a single fiber. a massive fiber bandwidth over a terabit per second is available in each fiber.2 Wavelength Division Multiplexing [6] Deployment of WDM technology over different optical networks.Figure 2.3 Evolution of WDM. As a result. [7] 9 .4 Evolution of WDM Networking: Figure 2.

1: Point-to-Point WDM Systems: WDM is the most technology being deployed by several telecommunication industries for point to point communication.4) where a WDM multiplexer combines four independent data streams.5 Gbps) to OC-192 (10 Gbps) via three possible solutions [8]: Installation or burial of additional terminating equipment and fibers (the “multifiber” solution) A four-channel “WDM solution” (see FIG.4.2. Figure 2. The relative costs of upgrading the transmission capacity of a point-to-point transmission link from OC-48 (2. and send them on a fiber. so WDM is turning out to be a cost-effective alternative compared to laying more on fibers. 10 .2. this progressively increasing demand on communication bandwidth forced service providers to increase the deployment of point-to-point WDM systems. and OC-192. and a demultiplexer at the fiber’s receiving end separates out these data streams. each on unique wavelength. Due to the growing demand for higher bandwidth by end users. a “higher-electronic-speed” solution.4: A four-channel point-to-point WDM transmission system with amplifiers.

2: Wavelength Add/Drop Multiplexer (WADM) Wavelength Add/Drop Multiplexer (WADM) or sometimes called as optical add-drop multiplexer (OADM) is the key component for WDM systems to select and route different channels.4.2. it is an optical telecommunications device that is able to add or drop individual wavelengths without separating all wavelengths. Figure 2. 11 . Precisely. it is an used device used in wavelength-division multiplexing systems for multiplexing and routing different channels without conversion of wavelength into electrical format [8].5 A Wavelengths Add/Drop Multiplexer (WADM).

These devices fall under three categories [8]: Passive star: is a ``broadcast'' device. and it can support N^2 simultaneous connections through itself just like the passive router. It is also used to build local WDM networks. the passive router has found as a multiplexing (mux)/demultiplexing (demux) device. we need suitable fiber interconnection devices.Passive Star.4.2. It is used for constructing wide-area wavelength routed networks. so a signal that is inserted on a given wavelength from an input fiber port will have its power equally divided among all output ports. and Active Switch In order to obtain a “network” of multi-wavelength fiber links. Passive router: can perform separate routing for each of the incident wavelengths on an input fiber to the same wavelength on separated output fibers.3: Fiber and Wavelength Cross connects -. Passive Router. Active switch: this switch allows wavelength reuse. Mainly. 12 .

6. (a): 4 x 4 passive stars Figure 2. (b): 4 x 4 passive routers (four wavelengths) 13 .Figure2.6.

5: WDM NETWORK CONSTRUCTIONS: 2.6. so the information stream is received. (c): 4 x 4 active switch (four wavelengths) No doubt to predict that WDM is here to stay! WDM standardization efforts. a local WDM optical network can be constructed by connecting network nodes via two-way fibers to a passive star as shown in figure 2.Figure 2. to set up a standard set of wavelengths to facilitate WDM equipment interoperability. and then each stream’s power signal is equally split and forwarded to all of the nodes on their receiver fibers. The star combines optically all information streams from multiple sources. [8]. An optical information stream is produced when a node sends its transmission to the star on one available wavelength using a laser. The received node is tuned to only one of the wavelengths. For example.5. 2. are currently in progress under the watch of the International Telecommunications. for instances. [8] 14 .7.1-Broadcast-and select (local) optical WDM: This type of construction results when WDM network shares a common transmission medium and employs a simple broadcasting mechanism for transmitting and receiving optical signals between network nodes .

The network node is a combination of an end-user and its corresponding switch.7 A passive-star-based local optical WDM network One advantage of this type of network lies in its simplicity and broadcasting capability. it needs a large number of wavelengths because the wavelengths can’t be reused. it basically consists of an optical switching fabric. As shown in the figure below.5. However. both connected via fiber links to form an arbitrary physical topology where every end user is connected by a fiber link. [8] 15 . comprising “active switches”. 2.2-Wavelength-Routed WDM Networks: This type of network employs wavelength routing to transfer data traffic.Figure 2.

6: TYPES OF WDM TECHNOLOGY: 16 .[8] 2. A lightpath is a direct optical transmission channel between two nodes in a network and may pass more than one fiber link.6. lightpath has been established between several nodes.and node H with node G on wavelength (ƛ1).and 7 route the lightpath among them. Furthermore.8 A wavelength-routed (wide-area) optical WDM network Lightpath is the fundamental mechanism of communication in a wavelength routed network. such as node A with node C on wavelength channel ( ƛ1) where active switches 1. if two or more lightpaths are traversing the same fiber link.Figure 2. they must be on different channels to prevent interference with each other. node B with node F on wavelength (ƛ2). In the upper figure.

9 shows the wavelength’s spacing in CWDM technology.[9].1-CWDM: It is a robust technology increases fiber capacity in 4. or 16 increments. 2. typically it is used for short-distance application.[11] The main purpose of CWDM is short-range communication.WDM comes into flavors: Coarse Wavelength Division Multiplexing (CWDM) and Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM). It uses a wide spectrum to create 16 channels at 2.[10] 17 .6. it limits maximum propagation distance.5Gbps by increasing the channel spacing between wavelengths on the fiber where the spacing is about 10 to 20nm as shown in the following figure: Figure 2. 8. On the other hand.

Have a look to the figure below: Figure 2. the performance has been improved dramatically.[10].2. and therefore higher numbers.6.10 The wavelength’s spacing in DWDM technology. and channel spacing has shrunk from 500GHz to 50GHz and less.2: DWDM: The higher numbers of wavelengths has lead to what we call “Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing”. 18 . In fact. It briefly described as a set of optical channels. DWDM is characterized by its narrow spectrum which can pack 16 0r more channels and decreasing the wavelength spacing to about 1-2 nm .DWDM systems typically provide 1-44 channels of capacity. In the few short years of WDM deployment. channel count has risen up to 80-160 channels.[9]. the capacity of systems will grow as technologies advance that allow closer spacing.[10].[11] DWDM will continue to provide the bandwidth for large amounts of data and long-range communication. of wavelengths packed tightly together.[9]. each is using different wavelength but single fiber is shared among them.

so this data can be delivered over several channels using multiple wavelengths simultaneously. is essentially earmarked and shifted in all optical channels where the light path is formed between a pair of network nodes of optical channels.7. Improvement of capacity utilization. The main objective of grooming is to minimize the numbers of electronic add-drop multiplexers (ADMs) required. 2. Increase in the number of utilizable routing possibilities.2: Traffic grooming in WDM: Data in WDM networks. Decompose the problem into easier sub-problems to solve it simply. the outcomes of grooming efforts include [13]: Circuits’ channels and time-slot assignments able to be changed. It has a variety of meanings but shortly.1: Definition: Traffic grooming issue becomes central in network’s design. it is the process of packing low-rate traffic streams to higher speed streams which considered as a single entity to meet the goals of network design such as cost minimization. Elimination of wavelength continuity and distinct channel in some circuits. traffic grooming is an important concern for next generation optical WDM networks to cost-effectively perform end to end automatic provisioning. [12] Absolutely.CWDM Defined by wavelengths Short-range communications Uses wide-range frequencies Light signal isn't amplified Wavelengths spread far apart Wavelength drift is possible DWDM Defined by frequencies Long-haul transmissions Narrow frequencies Signal amplification maybe used Tightly packed wavelengths Precision lasers required to keep channels on target Table 2.1 Brief Comparison between CWDM and DWDM [10] 2. [14] 19 . As well as.7: Traffic Grooming: 2.7.

such as high definition videos. basic structure and how rapidly the traffic demands have grown in the recent decades. this ADM is necessary at a node if it has data to be transmitted to or received from another network counterpart. should use an electronic add-drop multiplexers (ADMs) which employed to multiplex or combine low rate traffic streams onto individual wavelengths with higher rates. networks upgrade based on WDM technology had gone through some level on inventions such as Point-to-Point WDM Systems. and how it can be optimized in different ways. with different network constructions such as Broadcast-and select optical WDM and Wavelength-Routed WDM Networks. As we know. traffic grooming in this network can be defined as allocation of subwavelength tributaries onto full wavelength channels which results in very efficient utilization of network resources.Basically. [16] 2. 20 . the WDM technology was introduced to support the high bandwidth which satisfies the customers’ demand. In addition. one of the major factors is the cost factor. Wavelength Add/Drop Multiplexer and fiber interconnection devices. we can efficiently utilize the network capacity by packing several flows from multiple network connections with subwavelength into the same lightpath. video conferences.[15] To enhance traffic grooming. and image resolution. each node of WDM ring. Service providers have faced different challenges in launching the optical WDM network projects. It also has shown how the users’ population has increased and required larger bandwidth to satisfy their services usage.8 Summary This chapter has touched the concept of optical network and the WDM technology with its historical evolution. hence many researchers have been focusing in the cost of many optical network systems by using traffic grooming technology. For instance.

which practically called light-path.1.1 Traffic Grooming Telecommunication networks recently have faced large increase in traffic demands. [19] Additionally. where this high bandwidth can be split across multiple WDM on a single fiber link. 3. this led to the traffic grooming in networks. the main breakthrough was in implementing optical wavelength division multiplexing network. in WDM each wavelength can be viewed as channel that provides an optical connections between two nodes. which refers to grouping low rate traffic streams into higher speed streams. after that routing and wavelength assignments is presented in section 3. traffic grooming is thus defined as the intelligent allocation of the demand onto available wavelength such that the network cost is minimized. routing algorithms are shown in details in section 3. routing and wavelength assignments.4. other [17]: Grooming simply combines multiple low rate traffic into one channel. which can be considered as single entities [20]. Nonetheless RWA has deficiencies in term of efficient utilization of network resources. in order to meet network design goals. In brevity. routing and wavelength assignment which are interrelated to each 21 . this chapter provides a deep and wide literature review on the traffic grooming in section 3. this process referred to as a routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) problem.5. the chapter is concluded with a brief summary in section 3. then previous work done on traffic Grooming was discussed in section 3. As we know.3.CHAPTER 3: Literature Review One of the essential considerations in designing WDM networks is traffic grooming. in the end. GRWA comprises of three sub-problems that are grooming (grouping). telecommunication carriers adopted a technique that can efficiently group the low speed traffic streams into high capacity channels.2. This efficient technique named as RWA problem with grooming (GRWA). then this light-path needs to be routed and assigned a wavelength.

Wavelength assignment is the processes of assign incoming commodities to occupy an available wavelength channel for information transmits and receives. 22 . We indicate a source-destination node pair with traffic demand as a “commodity”. in order to meet network design goals such as cost optimization. Figure 3 . traffic grooming is receiving an extensive research attention. Routing assignment performs allocating the route of light-path to each traffic flow in a provided set of commodities. which are not necessarily independent [18]: Determining the virtual topology that consists of light paths routing the light paths over the physical topology Performing wavelength assignment to the light paths routing the traffic on the virtual topology Traffic-adaptive has become the key technology WDM networks. and some of these researches indicate that all of these sub-problems of traffic grooming are proven to be NP-hard [18].1 Traffic Grooming Furthermore. traffic grooming is usually divided into four sub-problems.

WDM divides the optical spectrum into coarser units. Using TDM. bundling of multiple fibers into a cable or use multiple fibers within a network link. For instance. Dynamic statistical multiplexing or packet-division multiplexing (PDM) – provides “virtual circuit” service in an IP/MPLS over WDM network architecture. called wavebands. The bandwidth of a WDM channel is shared between multiple IP traffic streams (virtual circuits). 23 .3. it has received many research activities. Frequency-division multiplexing (FDM) – partitions the available frequency spectrum into a set of independent channels. Time-division multiplexing (TDM) – divides the bandwidth’s time domain into repeated time-slots of fixed length.2 Previous work done on Traffic Grooming The problem of designing WDM networks has been considered deeply as the WDM systems start being deployed commercially. In order to save network cost and to improve network performance there are different multiplexing techniques can be used for traffic grooming in different domains of optical WDM networks [21]: Space-division multiplexing (SDM) – partitions the physical space to increase the transmission bandwidth. which are further divided into wavelength channels. Due to the importance of traffic grooming problem in designing WDM network. The use of FDM within an optical network is termed (dense) wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM or WDM) which enables a given fiber to carry traffic on many distinct wavelengths. multiple signals can share a given wavelength if they are non-overlapping in time.

24 . even though a lot of traffic is only bypassing an intermediate node.3.g.2. N=48. this will lead the construction of the network to a very high building cost since we will need a large number of ADMs at every network node. WDM is mainly used as a point-to-point transmission technology. with the advancement of WDM. In a SONET network.1 Traffic Grooming on SONET ring networks Today’s physical layer network infrastructure is mostly built around synchronous optical network (SONET) ring because of high capacity and inherent reliability. it is possible for a node to bypass most of wavelength channels optically without the need for local ADMs at each wavelength and only drop the wavelengths carrying the traffic destined to the node [18]. Each ADM has the ability to separate a high rate SONET signal into lower rate components. electronic add-drop multiplexers (ADMs) are used to add/drop traffic at intermediate nodes to/from the high-speed channels [21]. the SONET system’s hierarchical TDM schemes allow a high-speed OC-N channel to carry multiple OCM channels (where M is smaller than or equal to N). where many wavelengths are supported and each wavelength in such a SONET/WDM network is operated at OC-N line rate. a single fiber can support over a hundred wavelengths simultaneously.. The ratio of N and the smallest value of M carried by the network is called “grooming ratio”. e. which is constructed using fiber ( one or two) pairs used in order to provide protection to connect SONET add drop multiplexers (ADM). WDM has the ability to support multiple SONET rings on a single fiber pair. with the new optical devices such as optical add-drop multiplexers (O-ADM) (wavelength add-drop multiplexers (W-ADM)). one ADM is needed for each wavelength at every node to execute traffic add/drop on that particular wavelength.

the traffic on a wavelength cannot be switched to other wavelengths unless there is a wavelength converter at the network’s nodes. so OC-M low-speed connections are groomed on to OC-N wavelength channels where the traffic demand should be satisfied and the network design optimized by minimizing the total needed number of ADMs. however.(a) SONET/WDM network 25 . [21] & [22] [23] Figure 3.1.1 Single-Hop Grooming in SONET/WDM Rings In single-hop nodes within a logical ring communicate with each other straightforwardly.2.2 Node architectures in a SONET/WDM ring network 3.Figure 3.3.

[21] 3.2. in this type of architecture traffic from one wavelength/time-slot can be switched to any other wavelength/time-slot at the hub node. and it can support two OC-M low-speed traffic requests in TDM fashion. i.(a). (b) illustrates this configuration. Figure 3. wavelength 2 (red) can be optically bypassed at node 2.Figure 3. shows a possible configuration. N = 2M.(b) show an example in which. 8 ADMs are used in the network.3. the capacity of each wavelength is OC-N. Assume that the SONET ring is also unidirectional (clockwise).3. in order to support all of the traffic requests. Figures 3.1. Each node is also equipped with an O-ADM (not shown in the figures).(a) shows a SONET/WDM ring network with 6 unidirectional connection requests.3. By interchanging the connections (1. where the hub node is the node at which the DXC installed as in node 3 in 26 .(a) and 3.3. minimizing the number of ADMs can be achieved.(b).3) and (2.3.2 Multi-Hop Grooming in SONET/WDM Ring In Multi-Hop network architecture there are some nodes equipped with Digital Cross connects (DXCs). [21] Figures 3. Figure 3.3).3(b). which results in one ADM savings at node 2.(b) Two possible configurations to support the traffic requests in Fig 15(a). by carefully grooming traffic in the SONET/WDM rings..e.

figure 3.4, a conversion from optical to electronic at the hub node is required for the traffic since there is a wavelength/time-slot exchange occurs, this grooming approach is called multi-hop grooming. [21] & [23]

Figure 3.4 SONET/WDM ring with/without a hub node The point-to-point WDM ring network (PPWDM ring) is a network type where there is a DXC at every node.

3.2.2 Grooming in Interconnected SONET/WDM Rings Numerous numbers of researchers have extended their studies of traffic grooming in SONET/WDM, to include the interconnected-ring topology, since most of today’s backbone networks are built up from a combination of interconnected-ring [18].

27

Service providers required the assistance of researchers on extending the traffic grooming study from a single -ring to the interconnected-ring topology which helped them in designing their networks. [21] Figure 3.5 illustrates an interconnected SONET/WDM ring network with various architectures can be used at the junction node to interconnect the two SONET rings [21].

Figure 3.5 Sample interconnected-ring network topology and simplified architectures of the junction node.

**3.2.3 Static Traffic Grooming
**

Static traffic, also known as permanent traffic, assumes that the whole set of light-path demands is known in advance, and it will not alter with time [18], and the problem is then to set up light-paths for these light-path demands in a global fashion while minimizing network resources such as the number of wavelengths [39] or the number of fibers in the network [32]. Alternatively, one may attempt to set up as many of these demands as possible for a given fixed number of wavelengths per fiber-link [33].

28

**3.2.4 Dynamic Traffic Grooming
**

Dynamic traffic presumes that the light-path demands arrive in the network one by one, and it will change with time [32]. Two types of dynamic traffic can be distinguished: scheduled light-path demands (SLDs) and random light-path demands (RLDs) [31] [34] [35]. Scheduled light-path demands are connection requests for which the setup and tear-down dates are known in advance [36]. Conversely, random light-path demands are characterized by random arrival and life duration processes [37] [38].

**3.3 Routing and Wavelength Assignment
**

As mentioned previously, the problem of routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) is critically important for maximizing the efficiency of the network, the RWA problem is to raise the number of established connections, in this problem we need to select a suitable path and wavelength among all the possible choices for each connection so that no two paths sharing a link are assigned the same wavelength, each connection request must be given a route and wavelength. The wavelength must be consistent for the entire path, unless the usage of wavelength converters is assumed. Two connections requests can share the same optical link, provided a different wavelength is used [24] [30].

3.3.1 Problem Formulation of RWA The Routing and Wavelength Assignment (RWA) problem is defined as follows: Given a network topology and a set of light-path demands to be set up and given a constraint on the number of wavelengths, we need to determine the paths and the wavelengths that should be assigned to the light-path demands (traffic connection or traffic demand) so that a certain optimality criterion (performance metric) is achieved [18]

29

these studies often set the light-bath establishment problem as an integer linear program (ILP) with the objective to minimize the resources required to establish the given set of light-path demands[29]. Traffic assumptions generally fall into one of the following three categories: static.2 Solution Approach RWA problem is well known for NP-complete characteristics [18]. 30 . hence an alternative approach is used. by which the RWA is separated into two sub-problem and consider it disjointedly. Light-path demands blocking probability also called throughput which is defined as the ratio between the number of blocked light-path requests and the total number of light-path demands arrived or given [26]. which is the search and the assignment of available wavelength to path selected from routing sub-problem [30].3. Number of fiber resources handled at the routing nodes (fiber cost). Numerous studies have investigated the routing and wavelength assignment problem. incremental. the second sub-problem is wavelength assignment.The RWA algorithms available in the literature differ in their performance metrics and traffic assumption: the performance metrics used generally fall under one of the following three categories: Number of wavelengths required to set up the arrived or given set of lightpath demands [25] [18]. first sub-problem is the routing sub-problem which is the selection of the link to complete the traffic request subject to the resource availability. 3. and dynamic [27] [28]. Sometimes it is only possible to solve small networks.

Typically this path is computed ahead of time using a shortest path algorithm. Among these approaches. If more than one wavelength is available. the routing and wavelength assignment may be processed within two separate steps. If none is free on this fixed route. In this section. Approaches to solve the routing sub-problem can be broadly classified into four types: Fixed Routing (FR). In order to minimize the blocking in fixed routing networks. a wavelength selection algorithm can be used to select the best wavelength. such as Dijkstra's Algorithm [24]. 3. Alternate routing offers a trade-off between complexity and performance [46].1.3. Adaptive Routing (AR) and Least Congested Path Routing (LCR) [41] [42] [44] [45]. the same fixed route for a given source and destination pair is always used. there may be insufficient network resources to set up a light-path.4 Routing algorithms As explained earlier. the network will attempt to establish a light-path along the fixed path [43]. A fixed routing approach is easy to implement and has a short set up time. in which a single fixed path is predetermined for each source-destination pair. while at the same time attempting to minimize the blocking for future connections.1 Fixed routing Fixed routing is the simplest algorithm. Thus. If resources along the fixed path are in use. When a Light-path Demand (LD) is to be set up. future connection requests will be blocked even though other paths may exist. we give brief descriptions of the main algorithms proposed in the literature for the routing. however. it is very limited in terms of routing options and may lead to a high level of blocking. the objective is to choose a path which maximizes the probability of setting up a given connection. in which case the connection request will be blocked. then the LD is blocked. It checks whether some wavelength is free on all the links on the path. Fixed Alternate Routing (FAR). fixed routing is the simplest while adaptive routing yields the best performance. the predetermined paths need to be selected in a manner which 31 .4.

when a new LD is to be set up for a source destination pair.1. the source node attempts to find a connection on each of the paths.4. this state information is dynamic and is updated whenever a connection is established or torn down. thus. instead of having just one fixed route for a given source and destination pair. it chooses the best path (based on some cost criterion) among all the possible paths. it has better performance than the FR algorithm as a choice among multiple shortest paths has to be done. the performance of the algorithm is not the best achievable [40]. Fixed Path Routing and Fixed Alternate Routing are both not quality aware. it has also the advantage of simplicity and shorter connection set-up time. the connection demand will become blocked even though other paths may exist. several routes are stored. 3.2Fixed alternate routing Fixed alternate routing [45] is an extension of fixed path routing. while this approach is very simple.2 Adaptive routing Adaptive routing algorithm also called unconstrained routing algorithm [48]. The probes can be sent in a serial or parallel fashion. by exploring 32 . For each connection request. If multiple paths are available. Adaptive routing does not predetermine the candidate paths for any node pair. Although this algorithm is slightly more complex than the FR algorithm. most of the research in RWA is presently taking place in Adaptive algorithms [24].4. Add to that. For these reasons. If all of the paths fail. only one of them would be utilized [43]. As a result.[47] 3. the candidate paths for a node pair may not include all the possible paths.balances the load evenly across the network links. However. the major issue with both fixed path routing and fixed alternate routing is that neither algorithm takes into account the current state of the network. the performance is usually not sufficient. then the connection is blocked. Instead it keeps up to date the network state information. If the predetermined paths are not available. It is expected to achieve better performance than the FR and FAR algorithms.

the algorithm has longer setup times than the FR and FAR algorithms.4.all possible paths. this algorithm is more suitable for centralized implementation and less amenable to distributed implementation.3 Least congested path routing Least congested path routing [44] selects the path with least congestion among the possible paths connecting a source node and a destination node in the network. if more than one path has the same cost. Take in mind. however. a wavelength assignment algorithm is then employed to select the wavelength(s). routing decisions tend to be less optimal than in the case of global information [43]. by selecting the least congested path. Generally the greater the number of free wavelengths. In order to select the optimal path. the less congested is the path. In spite of this merit. The congestion of a path is usually determined from the number of free wavelengths available on the entire path. Since this algorithm is based on alternate routing. such as wavelength availability on links. it has been 33 . a least-cost routing algorithm is then executed to find the least cost path. Once the path is chosen. 3. then the path with shorter hop count is preferred. the algorithm tries to keep as many path-free wavelengths as possible in order to help satisfying many of future LDs. [44] The performance of this algorithm is expected to be better than the FR and FAR algorithms. the advantage of using local information is that the nodes do not have to retain large amount of state information. it attempts to increase the acceptance rate of connection requests [43]. The cost of a path is determined by the wavelength availability (congestion) along the path. a cost is assigned to each link in the network based on present network state information. it results in better performance than the FR and FAR algorithms. Additionally. [40] A number of adaptive routing schemes that do exist which rely on local information rather than global information. since the AR algorithm considers all possible paths.

34 . its performance is expected to be poorer than the that of the AR algorithm. the problem of routing and wavelength assignment (RWA) is critically important for maximizing the efficiency of the network. Adaptive Routing (AR) and Least Congested Path Routing (LCR). Fixed Alternate Routing (FAR). routing and wavelength assignments are essential considerations in designing WDM networks.5 Summary Traffic grooming. in order to save network cost and to improve network performance there are different multiplexing techniques can be used for traffic grooming in different domains of optical WDM networks Moreover.shown in [42] that LCR performs much better than fixed and fixed-alternate routing.[40] 3. approaches to solve the routing sub-problem can be broadly classified into four types: Fixed Routing (FR).

and dynamic circuit provisioning (based on dynamic traffic demand).2. Algorithms overview is shown in section 4.Besides that. with the advent of WDM. Section 4. and also Bidirectional ring with Algorithm3 is shown in section 4.CHAPTER 4: PRESENTATION OF DATA AND FINDINGS Throughout this chapter.1 Problem Definition Throughout this chapter.6.[21] 4. Algorithm II is shown in section 4.Then..4. one ADM is needed for each wavelength at every node to perform traffic add or drop at each of its endpoints of that exact wavelength. topology design (based on static traffic demand).1 Traffic grooming and ADMs minimizing problem Traffic grooming is a common theme around which our entire work is focused. we propose the developed algorithms for traffic grooming and wavelength assignments which are used to reduce the number of ADMs and also the number of wavelengths. 4. However.1 shows the problem definition. It is obvious in a SONET/WDM ring network. We then present a restricted versions of the problem that will be studied in depth. a single fiber can support over a hundred wavelengths simultaneously.as though traffic grooming is essentially an optimization problem. which refers to various problems. the number of used ADMs can be dramatically reduced by appropriate traffic grooming and using wavelength ADMs (WADMs).3.[18] 35 . we define the problem of traffic grooming as well as the wavelength assignment for networks.1.5 and then we end this chapter with brief summary in section 4. The cost of the network relays on Add-Drop Multiplexers (ADMs) which is simply defined as an electronic device which is installed at an intermediate point on a transmission line in order to enable new signals to come in and existing signals to go out. such as network planning. Unidirectional ring case with Algorithm1 is shown in section 4.

has achieved noticeable reduction in the needed number of ADMs at every node since WADM capable of bypassing a lot of traffic at intermediate node. As well as. various studies and researchers have found that. This problem is not desirable in metroarea and enterprise networks where there are few users sharing the system cost. new optical components has emerged such as optical add-drop multiplexer (O-ADM) (or wavelength add-drop multiplexing (W-ADM)). with careful analyzing of the network needed resources and utilizing these resources with the appropriate network design planning . For instance. [14] Furthermore. if a network is not properly designed.[22] 36 .1 Add-Drop Multiplexers Recently. we can obtained large reduction in the network cost.Figure 4. [18] On the other hand. employing wavelength routing at each node by using a WADM which able to add (and drop) only the wavelengths carrying traffic originated from (and destined to) a node. the overall number of ADMs can be further minimized in different ways. then both will share single ADM instead of two ADMs. more ADMs may be needed to carry the same amount of traffic.As a result. if two traffic connections (traffic required) are assigned into the same wavelength.

which wavelengths should be dropped at a local node and how many ADMs are needed at a particular node? [18] 4. By using a minimum number of wavelengths. for a given low-speed set of traffic demands. circle construction and circle grooming. We have adopted similar strategy on [49] and [51]. 4. we consider the static traffic pattern in SONET/WDM rings. which low-speed demands should be groomed together. to propose near-optimal solution algorithms for traffic grooming and wavelength assignment to minimize both the number of wavelengths and the number of ADMs.2 Algorithmic Approach The whole problem of traffic grooming is NP-complete which turns out to be integer linear programming (ILP). especially for massive network size. how wavelength assignment can be used to minimize ADM cost for a given topology and routing. Which wavelengths should be used to carry the traffic.2. under both of uniform and non-uniform traffic (optional). this proposed approach has two main phases called. However. We have considered Matlab software to perform our basic simulation with the wonderful use of graphic user interface (GUI). the saving in ADMs due to traffic grooming and wavelength routing are significant. where each circle consists of multiple 37 . where the traffic from one node to another may require a fraction of the total bandwidth of one wavelength. we will consider the uniform traffic pattern. First phase is to construct as few circles as possible to include all available connections with an egress node.1Basic Methodology To our best knowledge. minimizing the Number of ADMs will rise up some issues which are. our heuristic algorithms are based on the scheduling algorithms which describe the problem of traffic grooming and wavelength assignment. Here.Traffic grooming in SONET/WDM rings makes a fruitful contribution to reduce the number of ADMs. The generality of this approach is the validity to be applied in unidirectional or bidirectional rings having an arbitrary number of nodes and also grooming ratio (factor).Hence.

this will help to improve the network performance. (No traffic grooming (m=1)) Algorithm II: Grooming circles (m>1) Figure 4.nonoverlapping connections as to minimize the number of wavelengths (W). Second phase. another heuristic algorithm is used to groom up to (m) circles onto a wavelength (W=C/m) ring while trying to overlap as many as possible end nodes belonging to different circles which will result in small number of ADMs. so we reduce the number of wavelengths by suitably filling each wavelength. (No traffic grooming (m=1)) Algorithm 1: construct circles.[49] The distinguished merit of this work is that.2 Basic Methodology 38 . Uniform Traffic Grooming Unidirectional SONET\ WDM rings Bidirectional SONET/ WDM rings Drawing Model Algorithm 3: construct circles when N is even. we bundle all connections (h) from one node to another into a superconnection which is then assigned to one wavelength.In short words. the wavelength assignment has largely accomplished during circle construction phase where wavelength assignment actually consists in distributing connections on different wavelength without contention. once the circles are constructed.

39 .3 Basic GUI describes our methodology.Generally. our main framework is represented using Graphic user interface (GUI) in MATLAB. which is shown in this figure Figure 4.

m: grooming ratio segment: indicates the connection between node i and node j.(a). number of wavelengths to carry the demanded traffic. numbers of ADMs to perform wavelength’s adding and dropping at a specific node. We designed this demonstration by graphic user interface (GUI) as shown in figure 4.4.4.1. Algorithms Parameters: These algorithms focus on the WDM ring networks with egress (all –from-one) traffic. traffic grooming ratio (factor). a number of nodes for such a network.3.2 Drawing Model This model illustrates a humble SONET/WDM ring network drawing with arbitrary number of nodes . 40 .wavelengths and network rang to handle the traffic requests in the WDM ring network.traffic required. as well as.3 Unidirectional rings 4. number of connections.3. List of parameters: N: Number of nodes in the network. W: Number of wavelengths Wmin: Minimum number of wavelengths. C: Total number of circles formed (capacity). in which an unidirectional traffic is considered. it enables us to select any node in the ring network to bypass it optically. D: Total number of ADMs. 4.

(b) Sampled ring network. node two (white color) assumed to be bypassed. Then.4. where the user is required to choose which node to be bypassed for each wavelength in the ring network.4. node 41 . we improved this drawing model for the case of optically bypass.(a) GUI of drawing demo For example.Figure 4. Figure 4. For example. this network will look as following figure below. if we key in six nodes to construct the ring network with optional range’s value. and in the second wavelength (red line). in the first wavelength (black line). and the traffic will be carried onto two wavelengths.

five is considered as bypassed. the simplest case where the traffic from one node to another requires the full bandwidth of a wavelength. also how many numbers wavelengths (W) to be used. In this case. and thus help to simplify both problems and obtain efficient solutions. this algorithm performs circuit construction without grooming consideration (m=1) in unidirectional SONET/WDM ring.3Algorithm I (m=1) As mentioned previously within the basic methodology. The bypassed node will have different color from others. Then. so we obtain the following figure: Figure 4. [49]& [50] 4. (c) WDM ring network with optical bypass 4. Moreover. each node needs to 42 . our approach can effectively separate wavelength assignment from traffic grooming. after the circles had been already constructed. these circles suitably feed into various wavelengths which results in the minimum number of (Wmin) wavelengths too.1 Algorithmic1 procedures: As we know. For example.3.3. it has been absolutely determined that the connections in each circle will be assigned the same wavelength.4. This is can be done by combining multiple connections having common end nodes to form the minimum number of circles that are needed to support all requested connections of uniform traffic.3.

it combines two connection (i . one ADM for the source and the other for the destination of the connection. s). Hereupon . hence the total number of circle constructed is C=N (N-1) /2 …………………. from (i to j) and vice versa ) with complementary strides.where node j is (s) hops away from node i and j= (i+s) mod N. N-s) in one circle using insideloop (i . which result in the minimum number of wavelengths as Wmin=C=N (N-1)/2………………. if we have 6 nodes. so the total number of ADMs is D=2. The following steps will aid our algorithm1 explanation: 1. Additionally. (2) In case of no grooming it is well know C=Wmin . immediately we assign them arbitrarily into the available wavelengths such that.Wmin= N (N-1)……………….establish one connection to every other node for a total number of connections [N (N-1)] from all nodes in the ring network (i. (s) and (N-s) to form a full circle.Once the circles are formed.[49] 2. 4. (3) 5.g.Practically.N) function and then call the function RahalNetworkDrawing1 to draw the segment (connections) .such this connection will have a stride of s.Since there are at least two ADMs on each wavelength carrying at least one connection.Let the number of nodes in the ring network ranges from (1) to (N-1) and the connection from node (i) to another node (j) represented as (i . place the results in the GUI. then the total number of connections is 30). 3. This will result in a large number of wavelengths and add-drop multiplexers. 43 .. this algorithm combines two connections share the same end nodes (e. so we try to minimize the number of wavelengths needed to establish all this connections.e.Finally. (1) (when m=1) which is already minimized.s) and (i +s. one wavelength to each circle.

and D in the GUI.3. (W) and (ADMs) (D) No i>N-1 Yes Increment (i) Place the output results of C.W. N-s) in one circle s>N-i Yes No s=s+1 Call plotting function (Rahal Network Drawing 1) to plot the connections Update the Number of circles (C) . End Figure 4.s) and (i+s.3.2 Algorithm1 flow chart Start Take the number of Nodes (N) i=1 s=1 Combine (i.4.3 Illustrative Numerical Example using our Algorithm1 with GUI: First.5 Flow chart of Algorithm1 4. and the user entered N=8 as the shown below: 44 . let’s require from the user to key in the number of nodes to build up the network.3.

6.then node 2 and so on. we click on Create Circle button and start to draw the ring network and consider every node as an egress node until all of the circles that include all connections are constructed such as considering node 1 as an egress node in the figure 4.(b) Number of circles constructed due to node1 (egress node). (a) Construct circle with GUI Second. Figure 4.(b).Figure 4. 45 .6.6.

minimum number of wavelengths (Wmin). Wmin and D. According to our given equations. (c). (m=1) The following table shows some of the date represented.(c) Output results of Algo1. Figure 4. Last.1 Algorithm 1 Results 46 . when we choose various numbers of nodes (N) and the corresponding result of total number of circles (C).6.6. N 7 8 9 12 15 20 25 C 21 28 36 66 105 190 300 Wmin 21 28 36 66 105 190 300 D 42 56 72 132 210 380 600 Table 4. as verified in our algorithm1 output as shown in figure 4. we determine the C. C =8x7/2=28. also D=56. and total number of ADMs (D). and Wmin=28.

4. clockwise connections and counter-clockwise connection. the D is doubled of C which is actually equal to the number of connections N (N-1). and then this large number of D will be minimized by AlgorithmII as it will described later.1Construction Bidirectional circles (Algorithm 3. Note that. however. We will adopt same approach on [49].4 Bidirectional rings Under this section. even if. so more wavelengths and ADMs are obtained compared to grooming Algorithm II which will be described later. to construct full circles in bidirectional ring where it combines up to four clockwise non-overlapping connections. for even N ……………(4) 47 . this algorithm is used to combine either two or four clockwise connection with two complementary strides (s) and (N/2 –s) to construct bidirectional circles with the shortest path. so the bandwidth of one wavelength can fully utilized. the C and Wmin are equal.4. so the minimum number of wavelengths and circles required will be: C=Wmin= (N^2)/8. when m=1. one wavelength is assigned to the circle.As we can observe from the table above.2 Algorithmic 3 procedures: In our approach which is based for number of even nodes (N). a bidirectional SONET/WDM ring employing our proposed algorithms behaves as a fully optical ring when no grooming is employed. 4. Then. We have two types of connections. m=1) This algorithm is focused on circle construction in bidirectional ring network. we will focus on clockwise connections only. and ADMs compared to algorithm1which used in the unidirectional ring network. which yields in a significant lower numbers of circles. we consider uniform traffic in bidirectional rings where the shortest path (having the least number of hops) routing is assumed. wavelengths.4. for arbitrary number of (N). 4.

(i+s.N/2-s) in one circle.7. Generally. Figure 4. As shown in figure 4. N/4). algorithm3 will 48 . we combine (i.(b) Construct circles when N is even (1<=s<=N/4) Step 3: stride (s) with value ranges from 1 to N-2/4 . Moreover.In addition.Wmin= N (N-1) which is inefficient in bidirectional ring. (N/4+i . Figure 4. we will get less number of ADMs than that obtained in Algorithm1 in unidirectional case. jump to step3 to combine the rest of the connections until include all of them. the procedures are similar to algorithm1 but special steps are proposed such as the following: Step1: When s= N/2.(a). two connections only with same strides are combined to form a circle. (a) Construct circles when N is even (s=N/2) Step2 -: When s= N/4. N/2) and (N/2+i.Next.N/4) in one circle as shown in figure 4.(b) . continue with step3 .7. (N/2+i.7.we start to combine (i .s) and (N/2+i+s. N/2 -s). N/2) in one circle.s).(N/2+i. Then. N/4) and (3N/4+i . four clockwise connections (solid lines) are combined to one circle such as combination of (i. from unidirectional rings we obtain D= 2.7. At the end of this algorithm.N\4).

each wavelength carries two to four connections. we will obtain tighter number of ADMs than unidirectional ring which is Total number of ADMs (D) = N (N-1)/2………………. As we know in bidirectional ring.continue constructing the circles until covering all connections and get the total number of circles as: C = N^2/8=Wmin…………………………(5) Step4: Finding the total number of ADMs. so at least one ADM is needed to establish a connection with assuming that the other end of this connection is always shared with another connection. 49 .(6) Finally: Place the results in the GUI. As a result.

(a) Flow chart of Algorithm3 50 .8.N/2) & (N/2 +i.3 Flow chart of Algorithm3 Sart Take (N) i=1 Combine (i.4.4. N) In one circle Call RahalNetworkDrawing1 for plotting Update C & W Place values of C&W in the GUI No i>(N-2)/4 +1 Yes No (N/4)=0 Yes i=1 Increment (i) Combine (i.N/4).W Place values of C&W in the GUI i>(N-2)/4 +1 No Increment i Yes Figure 4. N/4) Call RahalNetworkDrawing1 Update C. (N/ 2+i.N/4) . (N/4 +i .N/4) and (3N/4 + i.

and let’s say N=10 was entered . the following supporting figures enhance our algorithm execution: 51 .(i+s. N/2 -s) Call RahalNetworkDrawing 1 for plotting Update C&W Place W. s) and (N/2 + i +s .our algorithm will start to draw the connections and start combining two connections only in a circle. let’s require from the user to key in the number of nodes(N) to build up the network.C in GUI No i>N/2 Yes Increment i Calculate ADM Place the result in GUI END Figure 4.s).4 Illustrative numerical example using our Algorithm3 with GUI: Case 1: when s=N/2 First.i=1 Combine (i.8.(b) End of Algo3 flow chart 4. (N/2 + i.Next .4. N/2 – s). then combining four connections in a circle until covering all of the connections demanded. For more illustration.

9.(a) Construct a circle with 2 clockwise connections.Figure 4. Figure 4. .(b) Construct circle with 4 clockwise connections. 52 .9.

9. Case2: when s=N\4 53 . Finally. and D in the GUI as below: Figure 4. we show the obtained values of C.(c) Full bidirectional ring network constructed by Algorithm3.Figure 4. Wmin .9.(d) Results from Algorithm3 (N=10).

9.First.(f) Full bidirectional ring network constructed by Algorithm3 (s=N/4) 54 . Figure 4. if we require from the user to key in the number of nodes as N=12.(e) Construct circle with 4 clockwise connections s=N\4. More illustration in the following figures: Figure 4.9. then our algorithm will start combine 4 connections in a circle.

12.Finally. 55 . The following table shows data represented for various numbers of nodes (N) and their corresponding values of C. and 20 N 10 12 14 16 18 20 C 13 18 25 32 41 50 Wmin 13 18 25 32 41 50 D 45 66 91 120 153 190 Table 4.2 Algorithm 3 Results. Wmin. Let N= 10.9. and D in the GUI as below: Figure 4. Wmin .18.14. and D.(g) Results from Algorithm3 (N=12).16. we show the obtained values of C.

g. It is clear that any algorithms that grooms many circles onto each wavelength will use the lower bound of wavelength where (WLB= C/m).1 Introduction Basically. sixteen OC-3 into one OC-48 ring).10. DLB: Lower bound on D(Minimum number of ADMs) Wt: Number of wavelengths (Wt=Wmin). DLB: lower bound of D. the required number of ADMs for a particular wavelength is equivalent to the number of “end nodes” involved.4. in order to minimize the number of ADMs. predetermined value mw: is array with the number of actual circles groomed in each wavelength ( ƛw) w: wavelength index d(mw): minimum number of ADMs needed on each wavelength. as a result. we will try to achieve our main objectives such as examine lower bound of ADMs (DLB) and lower bound of wavelengths (WLB) when m>1. For this algorithm.5 Algorithm II with grooming (m>1) 4. Briefly. tempDLB: the total minimum number of ADMs required on each wavelength. Throughout this section. After fitting the tributaries onto a circle.OC-48). Moreover. where C is the minimum number of circles result from Algorithm1 or Algorithm3 and m is the grooming ratio. OC-3) of the total bandwidth of wavelength (i. The role of grooming is to group carefully as many circles as possible up to (m) circles onto each wavelength (e. The general GUI for this algorithm is as shown in figure 4. then Algo II performs grouping of the circles. thus this heuristic attempts to match as many end nodes as possible when grouping the circles. we supposed that the traffic from one node to another is expressed as a number of connections each requiring a base bandwidth (i. 56 . and then enjoy the results.5.e.e. the user only required to enter the suitable appropriate grooming ratio (m). this algorithm will introduce new variables such as [51]: tempC: Number of circles groomed so far. the number of ADMs and wavelengths are reduced..

this algorithm is proposed to determine a reasonably lower bound on the number of ADMs when (m) circles can be groomed onto each wavelength.to obtain the number of circles groomed so far is tempC = Additionally. We try to determine all (mk’s) values with w+1≤k≤Wt at time (mw) for a given wavelength index (w).] 57 . to determine (mw) in a wavelength index descending order such as it finds (mw). Our heuristic provides a procedure on whose basis the optimal solution can be obtained.and so on. one circle at least needs to be groomed onto wavelengths with index from 1 to (w-1). then( mw-1) .10 AlgorithmII general GUI.5. without loss of generality. 4.Figure 4. However.2 Basic Procedures Our approach borrows some ideas from [51]. so the maximum number of possible circles that could be groomed onto (ƛw) is [C-tempC-(w-1). we could assume that 1≤m1≤m2≤m3≤……≤mw ≤m since the assignment of the wavelength can be arbitrary. We call the function FindM () recursively. The basic idea is as follows This approach would require examining all possible values of (m w) for every wavelength.

we assume the minimum number of ADMs needed (ƛw) wavelength as d(mw).3 till Wt (C= Second. obtaining the lower bound on D (DLB) is our main objective of this algorithm when grooming is employed. these steps are explained in details as follow: First. This can be derived with two main steps which are: I. and hence we have to determine the upper bound of circles to be groomed onto each wavelength (w) as the minimum of upper bound of the circles groomed on the wavelength (w+1) or (C-tempC-w+1) such as. let’s assume that (mw) is the actual number of circles groomed onto particular wavelength (ƛw) where 1≤w≤Wt. the calculation of corresponding number of ADMs required (tempDLB) is explained in next section 4. some circles (C-tempC) left ungrouped.5. C will be calculated as the summation of (mw) from w=1.3 Lower bound of ADMs solution (m>1) No doubt. Mmax= ceil (min([U (C-tempC(w)-w+1)]) and mw=Mmax . Furthermore. so they will be allocated onto (w)wavelength as long as it is not the last wavelength where x=ceil((C-tempC(w))/w):Mmax and (x=mw(w)) . this way has limited the possible values of every mw as well as the number of examined solution by the algorithm At last.Therefore.Hence. in order to get (mw) circles on every (ƛw). Third. FindM (w-1) is called to determine possible values of every m w-1 . Determination of a reasonable DLB.5. 4. For any given values of C. find an optimal solution {mw} that gives the minimum tempDLB. for any given value of mw. on other words.3. for every {mw} solution obtained.2. II. Wt and m. According to our assumption mw ≤mw+1. Moreover. and U is the upper bound on the number of circles which is updated to Um (w+1). we require to have ) on each 58 .

≥ mw ,as well as, in order to make the d(mw) as the minimum number of ADMs on (ƛw) as intended, we supposed to have

< mw. Depend on this observation, we can obtain a unique value for any given (mw).Hence = n (n-1)/2 ≥ (mw), where n is the

number of end nodes (or ADMs) for the purpose of practical calculation. For instance, let mw =10, then A (A-1)/2 ≥ 10, How we are going to find d (mw)????? If we start with A=10, then according to A (A-1)/2, we get (45) which is hugely larger than ( mw=10) . Next, proceed with smaller values until get the suitable one that verifies our conditions.

A 9 8 7 6 5 4

Results 36 so large 22 - - 21 -15 10=(mw=10) 6 smaller than mw=10

Table 4.3

Finding the appropriate DLB value .

As we can see, d(mw)= 5 is the appropriate value, that’s mean ,at least five ADMs are needed to groom ten circles on the same wavelength.. Accordingly, for a given set of (mw), where w=1,2,3,……,W, which we refer to it as a solution denoted by {mw},so we can obtain a distinctive d(mw) for each (ƛw), so the total minimum number of ADMs required could be calculated as tempDLB =

59

Lastly, the solution {mw} that results in the minimum tempDLB among all possible solution is called optimal solution .Hereafter, we set DLB to be equal to the corresponding minimum tempDLB and the best solution with the lowest tempDLB found is recorded .

4.5.4 Flow chart

Start

Take Number of circles and number of ADMs

Define global variables: Wt, C, DLB, tempc, m, mw

Take in grooming ratio

Define initial DLB to large value

Initialize global factor of mw This function will be in a separated flow chart Call find M(w)

End

Figure 1.11(a) Algorithm II basic flow chart.

60

Now FindM () Flow Chart

Start

Take wavelength (w)

Define global variables Wt, C, DLB, tempC, m, mw

No

Set w = Wt

Yes

K=w+1

tempC=0

TempC = tempC+mw(k)

Upper bound = grooming ratio U=m

K=K+1

No

K>Wt Yes Upper bound (U)=mw+1

Figure 4.11.(b) FindM() flow chart.

61

(c) FindM() flow chart continues…..11. (C-tempC-w+1)) mw= lower bound of circles Find M(w-1) recursive call Increment mw mw=mw+1 mw>Mmax No Yes End Figure 4. 62 .No w>1 Yes Set upper bound of circle groomed onto a wavelength as Mmax= min(U.

11. 63 ...tempC tempDLB = 0 k=1 n=mw(k) continue No (n(n-1))/ 2>mw(k) Yes n=n-1 This part to find d(m(k)) No (n(n-1))/2 = mw(k) Yes No n=n-1 (n(n-1))/2<mw(k) d(mw(k))=n Yes d(mw(k))=n+1 TempDLB = TempDLB + d(mw(k)) k>Wt Yes No k=k+1 Figure 4.(d) FindM() flow chart continues….mw=C .

WLB = C/m. We will introduce some represented tabled data to show the reduction of number of ADMs with grooming and no grooming. 4. then the lower bound of D is N 8 9 12 17 20 25 C 28 36 66 136 190 300 Wmin 28 36 66 136 190 300 D(m=1) 56 72 132 272 380 600 WLB(m=2) 14 18 33 68 95 150 DLB(m=2) 42 54 99 204 285 450 DLB(m=4) 28 36 66 136 190 300 Table 4.11.(e) End flow chart of the function FindM() and AlgoII.4 Unidirectional SONET/WDM ring with different grooming ratio 64 . After circles are constructed. we choose an arbitrary grooming ratio and obtained (DLB).5.No DLB>TempDLB Yes DLB = tempDLB Show results End Figure 4.5 Illustrative Example of DLB .

AlgorithmII is proposed to examine how grooming the circles onto different wavelength can effectively reduce the number of ADMs as well as minimize the number of wavelengths. 65 . network cost is dominated by Add-Drop Multiplexers (ADMs). the reduction in the number of ADMs when grooming ratio (m=2) is about 25%. tables and results were presented. Algorithm1 and Algorithm3 are employed to construct a minimal number of circles in both unidirectional rings and bidirectional rings with even (N). N C Wmin D(m=1) WLB (m=2) DLB (m=2) 12 27 38 48 75 DLB (m=5) 8 16 20 28 40 8 12 14 16 20 8 18 25 32 50 8 18 25 32 50 28 66 91 120 190 4 9 13 16 25 Table 4. Hence. After the circles are constructed.As we can notice from the table above. hence the number of the needed ADMs should be minimized to reduce the network cost. all of the related data such as the flowcharts. when (m=4) is about 50%. The following figure represents the results for DLB and WLB when employing various grooming ratio for bidirectional ring .5 Bidirectional SONET/WDM ring with different grooming ratio 4. In this chapter. As we know.6 Summary The suggested algorithms were developed in such a way that it is useful for traffic grooming and wavelength assignment under uniform traffic in both unidirectional and bidirectional SONET/WDM ring. and when we increase m we can obtain more reduction in ADMs number.

In section 5. At the end. the chapter is concluded with a summary in section 5.3 shows deep analytical results when grooming is employed for both rings as well as extensively comparison of ADMs for every ring. such as this type of network is common in different access networks.4. brief introduction then section 5.1 Introduction The network construction is built up based on the egress node. 66 . saving percentage is discussed. we show the correlation between the algorithms and the recorded results in a very effective manner and provide numerical values and represent them in useful graphs to capture the main points. These algorithms illustrate how we could construct SONET/WDM rings network for both unidirectional and bidirectional without grooming technique. In order to have a good base of comparison between them. 5. Moreover.1. no grooming case (m=1).CHAPTER 5: DISSCUSION ON FINDINGS This chapter concerns about our developed algorithms and represents the numerical results yield. In this section.5. section 5. AlgoII will groom the constructed circles and provide better results. we have two types of algorithms with no grooming implementation which are Algo1 and Algo3. Then. where all the traffic is directed from one node.2. where the number of wavelengths and ADMs are compared for unidirectional and bidirectional rings with no grooming supported by an illustrative example. In section 5.

3. we have a network with 6 nodes (N= 1. 5. Furthermore. 4. Besides that. More to the point. which is equal to (N-1).5. Although we have not yet employ grooming. so this network contains five traffic connections to be carried from node one to the other node (1-2.two more ADMs and one more wavelength are required . therefore five ADMs are needed at these node . Applying our Algorithms strategy will result in significant improvement in minimizing the cost of network by reducing the number of ADMs used on each wavelength at every node. if we have unidirectional ring egress node.as a result . 2.also at each node ( 2 . 1-3. 1-5 and 1-6). we have to add one more connection from 6 to 1. however.2 No Grooming case (m=1) For more elaboration. will combine multiple connections in one circle and assign this circle onto a wavelength. it is clear that the number of ADMs is directly proportional to the required number of wavelength. As mentioned earlier. Moreover. 3. let’s assume that.we will get W=N and ADMs= 2xN.at the end . thus we need five wavelengths to carry these five connections. so overall we need five ADMs at the egress node 1. each wavelength needs an ADM to add these traffic.totally we need ten ADMs for this network which can be expressed as. we assumed that one wavelength is assigned to carry a single traffic connection. 6) for an egress node (node number 1). since we have five traffic connections to be added to the five wavelengths. 4. and 6) there will be one wavelength dropped.5. but we already manage to get minimal number of wavelengths compared to the previous technique. the number of the required wavelengths is huge and wavelength is not utilized efficiently. the number of required ADMs at the egress node (node 1) is five. 67 . 1-4. Total ADMs = 2x (N-1). Algo1which used for unidirectional ring.

25. 30. 24. For example. 68 .40.50.1 Example 1 : Wavelength requirement with no grooming (m=1) In the case of no grooming.. 35. 40 for unidirectional ring and N= 20. we assume 10≤N≤50. it is clear that C=W. for this arbitrary number of nodes we find the required number of wavelengths according to the equations given in 1&2.1 Numerical results of wavelengths comparison . 35. we have C=W= N (N-1)/2…………………. Unidirectional ring N 20 25 30 35 40 44 50 W 190 300 435 595 780 946 1225 Bidirectional ring (N even) N 20 24 30 36 40 44 50 W 50 72 113 162 200 242 313 Table 5. where C LB=WLB =N^2/8 for even N………………………………………. and for an arbitrary number of node (N) in unidirectional ring. if we choose N= 20.5. 30.2.45. combination can be up to 4 clockwise connections and results in minimum number of circles and wavelengths. (2) Let’s have a comparison of wavelengths requirement in SONET/WDM rings for both unidirectional ring and bidirectional ring with no traffic grooming. (1) As stated by Algo3. By default.

whenever grooming is absent.2. unidirectional ring requires huge number of wavelengths compared to bidirectional ring. 5.Further illustration is shown in Figure 5. In this example. minimizing the number of ADMs in the network will reduce the cost. The absence of grooming techniques and wavelength assignment. Clearly. Generally.1 Wavelength requirement for unidirectional and bidirectional ring As we can observe from the figure. we study the case of ADMs with no grooming for both unidirectional and bidirectional rings and how algorithm1 and algorithm3 obtained the number of ADMs . the number of ADMs is drastically increased. one for every end node involved within the circle. each circle needs 2 ADMs. It is clear that.In the case of Algo1.2 Example 2: ADMs requirement without grooming (m=1) A large part of the network cost is in the electronics multiplexing equipment such as ADMs. where all the number of nodes (even and odd) and their corresponding wavelengths when (m=1) are represented Figure 5. bidirectional ring has fewer strongly makes a sensible improvement in terms of wavelength used.1. the 69 .

since Alg3 combines up to 4 connections in one circle.ADMs 45 190 300 595 946 1225 Table 5. then assign this circle to one wavelength . the number of ADMs in bidirectional ring is tighter than unidirectional ring.ADMs 90 380 600 1190 1892 2450 Bi.then we find the number of ADMs for both ring directions as stated in equations 3&4.this means. (3) On the other hand. 4 If we use the same number of nodes 10≤N≤50 . each wavelength will carry two to four connections which assists to get lower number of ADMs as follows: DBi= N (N-1)/2 …………………………………………. N 10 20 25 35 44 50 Uni..2 Some values of ADMs obtained from Algo1 and Algo3 70 .number of ADMs required on each full circle is equal to the number of connections in the circle as DUni= N (N-1)…………………………….

2. Initially. We can see clearly the huge number of ADMs used in this type of networks. Whenever more connections are combined and share the same wavelength.2 Number of ADMs obtained from Algo1 and Algo3.Figure5. we noticed that the number of ADMs is quite large. some numerical results of ADMs (D) are represented with their corresponding lower bounds. which will cause a very high network building cost and we target to restrict ADMs in minimum number. we will compare the numerical 71 . 5.3 Analytical Results for Grooming (m>1) In the previous shown analysis. the number of ADMs for unidirectional ring is twice than bidirectional ring which is so costly to build up a network. we will obtain significantly fewer numbers of ADMs. Obviously from figure 5. however. in this section.

then the number of ADMs results from Algorithm1 is D= 90 with no grooming as well as the number of circles constructed is W=C= 45. All of these numerical results is shown on the GUI output. let N= 10. 15 and compare them with no grooming (m=1). then WLB = 3 and DLB =18 and so on. Figure (5. the number of node on the unidirectional ring for grooming and no grooming cases. and if m=10 then WLB = 5 and DLB =25.4. we plot the number of ADMs vs.3. the number of nodes on unidirectional ring with m= 5. For instance. Plotted in the figure are the lower bounds of ADMs (DLB) obtained from AlgoII for every value of m. if we choose m= 5 then WLB =9 and lower bound of D (DLB) = 36.results for ADMs with grooming and with no grooming. also if m=15. Algorithm II attempts to minimize the number of ADMs and wavelengths obtained from Algo1 and Algo3. 5. For the case when N=10. where WLB can be evaluated as C/m. we are required to select suitable arbitrary grooming ratio in order to specify the lower bound of wavelengths to be used.As we move further to employ grooming using Algorithm II. In Figure 5. 10. let’s assume the effective number of nodes considered is 5≤N≤20 and we compare the number of ADMs obtained from Algo1 (m=1) and Algo II (m>1).1 ADMs Comparison for unidirectional SONET/WDM ring. 72 . First.3) we plot the number of ADMs vs.

10. 15). and m=15( DLB =78). 15. Have an insight for N=20. initially when m=1. m=10 (DLB =95) .Figure 5. First. which is so much compared to m=5 (DLB =152) .3 The lower bound of the number of ADMs needed for Unidirectional ring with m=1. These values of ADMs are definitely the lower bounds obtained from Algorithm II and grooming ratio is very important factor to get minimum number of ADMs.4) we plot the number of ADMs vs. on the contrary. the number of node on the bidirectional ring for both cases of grooming and no grooming.3. As one can see from the figures. when grooming mechanism is employed (m=5. the number of ADMs is absolutely very large. 5. number of ADMs (D= 380). we obtain lesser numbers of ADMs which will effectively reduce the cost of ADMs which often makes up a significant portion of the total cost for a WDM/SONET ring. let’s assume the 73 .2ADMs Comparison for Bidirectional SONET/WDM ring In Figure (5. 10. 5. when no grooming (m=1).

74 . we obtain significantly less numbers of DLB compared to previous algorithms. and W obtained from Algo3 are less than those obtained from Algo1 due to bidirectional connections and ability to combine up to four connections in one circle. 10. the number of ADMs is very large but still less than those obtained from Algo1 . when m=5. D= 153 from Algo3 which is already halved the D results from Algo1.3. we obtained DLB = 36. Plotted in the figure are the lower bounds of ADMs (DLB) obtained from AlgoII for every value of m. 10 and 15. Figure 5.effective number of nodes even and odd. 25.Moreover. C. and 18 respectively. with N=18. For instances. 5. Figure (5. 15). the number of nodes on unidirectional ring with m= 5. 10. when grooming mechanism is employed (m=5. 15.1 for unidirectional ring with consideration of the initial values of D. is ranged as 5≤N≤20 and we compare the number of ADMs obtained from Algo3 (m=1) and Algo II (m>1) This section is similar to the pervious section 5. 10. As one can observe from the figure.4) we plot the number of ADMs vs. 15 and compare them with no grooming (m=1).4 The lower bound of the number of ADMs needed for Bidirectional ring with m=1. on the contrary. when no grooming (m=1).

develop a heuristic algorithm that can produce good 5.4 Saving Percentage due to the proposed Algorithms Clearly. by performing these heuristic algorithms. to verify our optimality for our solutions.3. we have proven the number of ADMs required is minimized and we did show the lower bounds as well. we can clearly see how the grooming ratio would affect the minimum number of ADMs needed. However. 75 . where Without Grooming = N x WLB and WLB =N x (N-1)/2/m.D Number of ADMs(DLB) Unidirectional N Ring 18 20 Bidirectional Ring 18 20 m=1 306 380 153 190 m=5 124 152 36 40 m=10 80 95 25 25 m=15 66 78 18 23 Table 5.3 comparison between different N. In addition. For instance. number of ADMs. Before closing this section 5. as the grooming ratio (m) increased from 1 to 5. the number of ADMs decreased to less than half of the initial value. We can easily show the saving percentage (P) on the number of ADMs due to the proposed traffic grooming algorithms for both unidirectional and bidirectional ring. we provide a tighter lower bound on the minimum number of ADMs required as well as we solutions. the analytical solutions provide us with valuable insight. The saving percentage (P) can be calculated as P = Without Grooming – DLB /without Grooming. we could at least obtain good bounds on optimal solutions. based on comparing the optimal solutions for the two cases. and m. As we can see.

76 . and grooming ratio selected as m = 2. Figure 5. 6.5 and 5.5 Saving percentage in ADMs for unidirectional ring. and 18. The number of nodes ranged from 5 to 25.6 show the saving percentage for both unidirectional and bidirectional ring respectively vs. the number of Nodes.Figure 5. 10. 14.

For example. the saving percentage is still functioned. it is noticeable that as N keeps increasing. 70% for unidirectional and 40% for bidirectional. the saving percentage decreases because of more circles need to be groomed onto each wavelength . m=10 gives P= 66%.6. 77 . we obtain different value of saving percentage depend on the grooming ratio used. so more ADMs are involved .Even when m= 18. the percentage keeps increasing as well and then gradually saturates.Figure 5. whereas for bidirectional ring the saving percentage as high as 78% when m=2 and N=25. the saving percentage can be as high as 88%. In unidirectional ring.6 saving percentage in ADMs for bidirectional ring Observation feedback From the figures one can observe that as m increases for a fixed N. when N=15 in unidirectional ring. m=14 gives P=58% and m=18 gives P=51% as approximated from the plot 5. Furthermore. m=6 gives P= 73%. such as m= 2 gives P= 80%.

based on the proposed algorithms results and analysis. we suggested algorithms to resolve these issues. It is time now to proceed to future work and recommendations for further analysis for any possible improvements. 78 . The proposed algorithms strived to obtain the targeted results . This implies that the objectives of this project were accomplished where the overall network’s cost is minimized.5.5 Summary We have considered the problem of traffic grooming and wavelength assignment.Our demonstrated results reveal that we achieved the lower bound of ADMs as well the wavelengths.

This chapter summarizes the objectives achieved in this project in the next section 6. our proposed algorithm performs very well in reducing the number of ADMs besides minimizing the number of wavelengths as well. An efficient traffic grooming algorithm has been developed for both unidirectional and bidirectional rings in such a way the lower bounds on the number of ADMs required are established.1 Summary of Objectives Accomplished All people aimed the success.2. thus the service provider and customer can interchange satisfaction and make this advance technology provided for the public. which are significantly expensive . a comprehensive study was done on various approaches to solve the optical network’s cost optimization employing traffic grooming technique. 79 . the main intention of this project was to minimize the total cost of the WDM networks by minimizing the number of ADMs. The results show that the proposed algorithm achieved very good savings. On the other hand.1. while in this project the success choose me. more important. there was also an algorithm which was developed and tested in different models. 6. the analysis of the records have shown a positive results and good optimal solutions. Recommendations for improvements and future work will be presented in section 6.CHAPTER 6: Conclusions & Recommendations In this report.The building cost of such a network could be optimized by attaining the minimal number of ADMs.

However. there are a number of improvements recommended for future work on the application. The developed was implemented. but without providing any real time connection only theoretically. Hence. on the order of tens of Gigabits in big demands . provides a high bandwidth. such as division of circles constructed by grooming ratio to obtain the lower bound of minimum number of wavelength needs to be improved. the number of circles constructed or groomed and number of nodes. hence more research should be concentrating on the heuristic solutions where a more practical solution can be provided to obtain better outcomes. Some of these improvements that can be added are: Running this algorithm on more practical topologies : This will show a better practical performance to avoid practical limitation. Finding a dynamic relationship between the parameter of this algorithm: The number of wavelengths. more study and research on WDM network design goals such as cost optimization as well as the network elements need to be done in order to use the least number of higher layer components when building such a network. Analyzing the ratio between grooming ratio and the required connections : This may lead an improvement in the suggested algorithms. being able to provide this feature in the future of this project will be brilliant. 80 .6. grooming ratio.2 Recommendations for Future Work As the WDM is an attractive technology. In addition. It was already known that the problem of minimizing this cost is NP-Complete for path networks.

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Appendix A: LIST OF ACRONYMS No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Acronyms WDM LAN PC TDM ADM WADM DSL IP MPLS SDM FDM CWDM Description Wavelength Division Multiplexed Local Area Network Personal Computer Time Division Multiplexed Add/Drop Multiplexer Wavelength Add/Drop Multiplexer Digital Subscriber Line Internet Protocol Multiprotocol Label Switching Space-Division Multiplexing Frequency-Division Multiplexing Coarse Multiplexing Dense Multiplexing Packet-Division Multiplexing NP-Complete Routing and Wavelength Assignment Integer Linear Program Scheduled Light-path Demand Random Light-path Demand Fixed Routing Fixed Alternate Routing Adaptive Routing Least Congested Path Routing Light-path Demand Service Level Agreement Wavelength-Division Wavelength Division 13 14 15 16 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 DWDM PDM NP-C RWA ILP SLD RLD FR FAR AR LCR LD SLA 86 .

27 28 29 30 31 32 GUI Algo1 Algo 3 Algo II MMU FOE Graphic User Interface Algorithm 1 Algorithm 3 Algorithm II Multimedia University Faculty Of Engineering 87 .

clf RahalNetworkDrawing1(N.segment.'b') RahalNetworkDrawing1 to draw the segment % call the function %call the function insideloop to create the segment ****************************************************************** ***** sum= sum+ size(segment.'NumberOfNodes'). % read the content of the textfield to N figure sum=0.'String')).1). % Intialize the number of connection for i=1:N-1 % construct N-1 circles k=1.N) between the nodes.Appendix B: Source Code Algorithm1 code ************************************************ function Algorithm1() % define Number of circles and Number of ADM as a global variable for % General Use with another functions global NumofCircles NumberofADMs clc % Clear the Screen hh=findobj(0. segment= InsideLoop(i.% Find the Object NumberOfNodes N=str2num(get(hh.'Tag'.% The Number of connections for each step NumofCircles=sum/2 % find the number of circles NumberofWavelength=sum/2 % find the number of wavelengths NumberofADMs=sum % find the number of ADMs 88 .

2)=i+s.'Tag'.2) is the % source node and segment(k. % write the content to the textfield % Find the Object pause.num2str(NumberofADMs)).'String'.num2str(NumberofWavelength)). segment(k.hh=findobj(0. end function segment= InsideLoop(i.'NumberofADMs').3)=i+s.1) is the number of the connection . % write the content to the textfield hh=findobj(0.1)=k. % write the content to the textfield hh=findobj(0.N) %% This algorithm combine to connection each loop of s in a matrix of size % kx3 segment(k.num2str(NumofCircles)).1)=k. % Find the Object Numberofcircles set(hh.'Numberofcircles'). segment(k. for s=1:N-i. segment(k.'NumberofWavelength'). segment(k.3) is the distination node k=1. k=k+1. k=k+1. % Find the Object NumberofADMs set(hh. segment(k. end 89 .'String'.3)=i.segment(k.'String'.'Tag'. segment(k. NumberofWavelength set(hh.'Tag'.2)=i.

segment1(k. 90 . segment1(k.2)=i.% Find the Object NumberOfBiNodes N=str2num(get(hh. segment1(k. for i=1:(N-2)/4+1 %special case for s=N/2 where 2 connections only are combined. segment1(k. NumberofWavelength=0.2)=i+N/2. segment1(k.'NumberOfBiNodes'). segment1(k.1)=k. k=k+1.1)=k.'String')).3)=i.'Tag'.################################################################## Algorithm 3 code function Algorithm3() % This algorithm construct clockwise circles in bidirectional rings for % uniform traffic (even N) --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------global NumofCircles NumberofADMs hh=findobj(0. NumofCircles=0. k=k+1.3)=i+N/2. % read the content of the textfield to N figure k=1.

'Tag'. segment2(k.'Tag'.segment1.'String'.num2str(NumberofWavelength)). pause hh=findobj(0. k=1 for i=1:(N-2)/4 +1 segment2(k.1)=k.'k') NumofCircles=NumofCircles+1.'String'.3)=i+N/4. set(hh. segment2(k.4)==0 % if rim(N.2)=i+N/4. segment2(k.'NumberofBiWavelength'). k=k+1. k=k+1. segment2(k.4)==0.1)=k. set(hh. segment2(k. 91 .3)=i+N/2. 4 clockwise connections are combined. hh=findobj(0.RahalnetworkDrawing1(N.num2str(NumofCircles)).2)=i.'NumberofBicircles'). NumberofWavelength=NumberofWavelength+1. end NumofCircles ****************************************************************** if mod(N.

1)=k. set(hh.'String'.3)=i+(3*N/4).3)=i.'NumberofBiADMs').'NumberofBiWavelength').num2str(NumberofWavelength)).2)=i+(3*N/4). pause hh=findobj(0. k=k+1.segment2. RahalnetworkDrawing1(N.'String'. segment2(k. NumberofWavelength=NumberofWavelength+1.num2str(NumofCircles)). set(hh. k=k+1.'String'.'b') NumofCircles=NumofCircles+1.'Tag'.segment2(k.'NumberofBicircles'). end end NumofCircles ****************************************************************** ** 92 . hh=findobj(0.num2str(NumberofADMs)). segment2(k. segment2(k.1)=k. segment2(k. hh=findobj(0. segment2(k.2)=i+N/2.'Tag'.'Tag'. set(hh.

1)=k. segment(k.2)=i+N/2+s. segment(k. segment(k.N). segment(k.3)=mod(i+N/2+s.%if it is larger than N we take the modulus end k=k+1. end 93 . k=k+1.3)=i+N/2+s.3)=i+N/2.2)=mod(i+N/2+s. else segment(k. % in the case we have i+N/2+s larger then N the node number will % out of the range so we check this condition if (i+N/2+s<=N) % if it is smaller or equal we continue as normal segment(k.N).1)=k. else segment(k.k=1 for i=1:N/2 for s=1:(N-2)/4 segment(k. segment(k. segment(k. if (i+N/2+s<=N) segment(k. segment(k.3)=i+s.2)=i.1)=k.1)=k.2)=i+N/2. k=k+1.2)=i+s. segment(k.

'Tag'.'NumberofBicircles').segment(k.'NumberofBiADMs').segment. set(hh.'String'.'r') NumofCircles=NumofCircles+1 NumberofWavelength=NumberofWavelength+1 hh=findobj(0. k=k+1. set(hh.num2str(NumberofADMs)).'String'.'Tag'.num2str(NumberofWavelength)). hh=findobj(0.'Tag'. end pause end NumofCircles NumberofADMs=N*(N-1)/2 NumberofWavelength=NumofCircles hh=findobj(0. Algorithm II function ADMLBCallback(NoCircle.num2str(NumofCircles)).NoADMs) 94 .'NumberofBiWavelength').'String'. RahalnetworkDrawing1(N.3)=i. set(hh.

'String')).Wt). FindM(Wt) end ****************************************************************** ***** function FindM(w) % Wt number of wavelengths % DlB: ADMs lower bound % C is the Number of Circles formed % tempC is the number of circles groomed so far % mw is array with the number of circles in each wavelength it is % initialize to zeros.'Tag'.Wt).'String'.global Wt DLB C mw tempC m % take the grooming ratio hh = findobj(0. %tempC=zeros(1.'GroomingText').num2str(Wt)). mw = zeros(1.'WLBText'). C=NoCircle. set(hh. m=str2num(get(hh.'Tag'.Wt) DLB = NoADMs*20. tempC = zeros(1. Wt = ceil(NoCircle/m). % place the lower bound number of Wavelengths in tbe GUI hh = findobj(0.es formed 95 .

the function will enter this block % this for loop is to find the number of circles groomed so far as % the summation of mw(k) with k= w+1 to Wt for k=w+1:Wt % this for loop is to find the sum of the groomed circles tempC(w)=tempC(w)+mw(k).% for the first wavlength we set the bound to the grooming ratio % disp(['The number of circles groomed so far is : '.%to track the program **************************************************** % disp(['this is w : ' num2str(w)]) % pause % ****************************************************************** ****** global Wt C DLB tempC m mw %% block 1 %m=[1 :Wt] % grooming ratio (No of circles per Wavelength) d=zeros(1.num2str(tempC(w))]) U=m . end % disp(['The number of circles groomed so far is : '. if w==Wt % ///// the function will enter this block only in the first call tempC(w)=0.Wt).% Upper bound on the number of circles on a wavelength (?w) assigned %to m where m is the grooming ratio elseif w<Wt %from the second call and so on. % update the upper bound of the circles to be groomed on the 96 .num2str(tempC(w))]) U=mw(w+1).

% we used x instead of mw(w) and then assingned x to it because we % can not use indexed value in the for loop mw(w)=ceil(x) . FindM(w-1) % make a recursive call of the function FindM() end else %% block 3 mw(1)=C-tempC(w). for k=1:Wt % this for loop is to find the sum of d(mw) 97 . disp(['The number of circles groomed so far is : '. % for mw(w) to make a recursive calls of the function FindM() to find % the optimum solution for x=ceil((C-tempC(w))/w):Mmax % loop mw(w)from each minimum value which is (C-tempC)/w to x maximum value Mmax. a= tempC(w)+mw(1).num2str(a)]) tempDLB=0.% wavelength w end %% block 2 if w>1 % we have to determine the upper bound of circles to be groomed on to % wavelength (w) as the minimum of upper bound of the circles groomed on the wavelength (w+1) or (C-tempC-w+1) Mmax=ceil(min([U (C-tempC(w)-w+1)]) ).

'Tag'. end % compare the obtained lower bound of ADM (tempDLB) by the pre-set DLB if DLB > tempDLB DLB=tempDLB . break.%***************************************************************** ********* % this blok is to find d(mk) by using unique algorithm for n=mw(k):-1:1 if n*(n-1)/2> mw(k) continue. 98 . break. elseif n*(n-1)/2== mw(k) d(mw(k))=n.% if the obtained is smaller we update the pre-set value mw % just to show on the screen end end % the next to statements is to place the result in the GUI hh=findobj(0.'DLBText'). end end %***************************************************************** ********* tempDLB=tempDLB + d(mw(k)). % GO OUT FROM THE LOOP else d(mw(k))=n+1.

'Tag'.'String'. end *********************************************************** nodesNum=[1:N]'.'MessageText'). MaxRange=str2num(get(hh.'MessageText').'Tag'.'WavelengthText'). hh=findobj(0. 99 .'Tag'. W=str2num(get(hh.%create arry of the number of nodes from 1 to N CenterX=MaxRange/2.'RangeText').'String')). hh=findobj(0.num2str(DLB)).'Wrong Parameters'). set(hh.'').'NodesText'). end --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Drawing Demo codes clc %% Getting data from GUI text field hh=findobj(0.'Tag'.%to place the center of the Network in the Center of the space Range Theta=0. N=str2num(get(hh.'String')).'String')).'String'.set(hh.'Tag'. %% Checking the validity of Data and sending message to user if W<1 || N<2 || MaxRange<=0 hh=findobj(0.'String'. set(hh. exit else hh=findobj(0.

%to store the type of colour % To check the number of ring and assign black and red color % alternatively. nodesY=nodesY'.%to set the position of the node. % Number of wavelength Raduis=MaxRange/3. char str1 .2) str1= 'k'. for i=1:N nodesX(i)=Raduis*cos(Theta)+ CenterX. nodesY(i)=Raduis*sin(Theta)+ CenterY. %to make the radius of the indiviual ring. end ******************************************************************** nodesX=nodesX'. end 100 .%first node in the zero position with angle zero. else str1='r'. Theta=Theta+2*pi/N. figure for j=1:1:W % draw number of circles as the number of wavelength Theta=j*W-W %Raduis=MaxRange/(2+j).CenterY=MaxRange/2.%to place the center of the Network in the Center of the space Range Theta=0. if mod(j.starting from the outer ring.

'g'. nodesY.'k.. hold on grid on segments = [(1:N).c) Connection number a % from Node b to Node c xlabel(' X Range') ylabel('Y Range') title('Salah FYP 1041110956') char str2.'.. 'MarkerSize'.% To store the Background Color of the node str2='g'. [ceil(2:N) 1]]' %Store The connecton % First column is the number of the connection %Second Colomn is the Staring Node %Third Column is the ending Node % Example : %segment(a..plot(nodesX.15).'k'. 'MarkerEdgeColor'. Bypass=input('Enter the Bypass Node: ') for s = 1:N 101 ... 'MarkerFaceColor'.. floor(1:N).. Bypass=0..b..

str )..2:3)').'FontSize'.str2... end plot(nodesX(segments(s.WithoutGrooming'. 'BackgroundColor'. 'EdgeColor'. str2='g'. 102 .nodesY(s).nodesY(segments(s. WithoutGrooming=N. c=['rbgmk']. end hold on end Extra Analysis Code 1 %% Unidirectional Ring clear all clc N=5:1:20.*(N-1).'b'). figure(2) plot(N.14.2:3)')..'ks-') grid on BarAA(:..1)=WithoutGrooming.% if the node is bypassed set the color to white end if (s <= N) text(nodesX(s).if s==Bypass%Check if the Node is bypassed str2='W'.['N' num2str(s)]..

m(j)).s=['o*sdh'].'m = 10'.adm.BarAA) title('Number of Nodes vs Number of ADMs Unidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Number of ADMs') legend('Without Grooming'.s(j)) BarAA(:. circles=adm/2.'m = 10'. end hold on plot(N.j+1)=AA. m=5:5:15 for j=1:length(m) for i=1:length(N) adm=N(i)*(N(i)-1).'Color'. AA(i)=PlottingCallback(circles. end title('Number of Nodes vs Number of ADMs Unidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Number of ADMs') legend('Without Grooming'.'m = 15'.2) grid on ****************************************************************** ***** %% Bidirctional Ring clear all clc 103 .'m = 5'.'m = 5'.'Marker'.AA.2) figure(3) bar(N.c(j).'m = 15'.

j+1)=AA.2) figure(5) bar(N. figure(4) plot(N.2)==0 circles=ceil(N(i)^2/8).'Marker'.'ks-') grid on BarAA(:.AA.BarAA) 104 . for j=1:length(m) for i=1:length(N) adm=N(i)*(N(i)-1)/2.s(j)) BarAA(:. end title('Number of Nodes vs Number of ADMs Bidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Number of ADMs') legend('Without Grooming'.'m = 5'.'m = 15'.c(j). end hold on plot(N. s=['o*sdh'].N=5:1:20.1)=WithoutGrooming.'m = 10'.adm. WithoutGrooming=N. m=5:5:15.WithoutGrooming'.'Color'. c=['rbgmk']. if mod(N(i).m(j)). else circles=ceil((N(i)^2-1)/8).*(N-1)/2. end AA(i)=PlottingCallback(circles.

end 105 .j)=Saving. WLB=N(i)*(N(i)-1)/2/m(j). WithoutGrooming(i)=N(i)*WLB. end AA Saving= (WithoutGrooming-AA).'Marker'.title('Number of Nodes vs Number of ADMs Bidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Number of ADMs') legend('Without Grooming'. s=['o*sdh'].c(j).adm.'m = 10'.'m = 5'. circles=adm/2.2) grid on Analysis code 2 %% Unidirctional Ring Saving Percentage Plotting clear all close all clc N=2:1:25. 'Color'. AA(i)=PlottingCallback(circles.m(j)). figure(2) m=2:4:18 for j=1:length(m) for i=1:length(N) adm=N(i)*(N(i)-1).Saving./WithoutGrooming hold on plot(N. c=['rbgmk'].s(j)) BarSaving(:.'m = 15'.

2) grid on % gtext('Note this divergence!') figure(3) bar(BarSaving) title('Saving Percentage vs Number of ADMs Bidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Saving Percentage') axis ([ 0 25 0 1]) legend('m = 2'.^2). 106 .'m = 14'.2) grid on **************************************************************** %% Bidirctional Ring Saving Percentage Plotting clear all clc N=2:1:25.'m = 6'.'m = 6'. % WithoutGrooming=(N.'m = 10'. m=2:4:18 for j=1:length(m) for i=1:length(N) WLB=(N(i)^2)/8.title('Saving Percentage vs Number of ADMs Unidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Saving Percentage') axis ([ 0 25 0 1]) legend('m = 2'.'m = 18'. % WithoutGrooming=N.*(N-1).'m = 10'.'m = 18'.'m = 14'. figure(4) c=['rbgmk']. s=['o*sdh'].

m(j)).'m = 10'.s(j)) BarSaving(:.'m = 10'. end Saving=(WithoutGrooming-m(j)*AA*2).'m = 6'.'Marker'.'m = 6'.2)==0 circles=ceil((N(i)^2/8)).'m = 14'.'m = 18'.'m = 14'.c(j).Saving.adm=N(i)*(N(i)-1). 'Color'.2) grid on 107 . end title('Saving Percentage vs Number of ADMs Bidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Saving Percentage') axis ([ 0 25 0 1]) legend('m = 2'.j)=Saving.'m = 18'./WithoutGrooming hold on plot(N.adm. else circles=ceil(((N(i)^2-1)/8)) end AA(i)=PlottingCallback(circles.2) grid on figure(5) bar(BarSaving) title('Saving Percentage vs Number of ADMs Bidirctional') xlabel('Number of Nodes') ylabel('Saving Percentage') axis ([ 0 25 0 1]) legend('m = 2'. if mod(N(i). WithoutGrooming(i)=N(i)*WLB. % circles=adm/2.

108 .

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