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WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

CHAPTER 9

: MANUFACTURED SUBSTANCES IN INDUSTRY

A : SULPHURIC ACID
Learning Outcomes You should be able to: list uses of sulphuric acid explain industrial process in the manufacture of sulphuric acid explain that sulphur dioxide causes environmental pollution.

Activity 1 : SULPHURIC ACID 1. Sulphuric acid is manufactured through the .Process . 2. Contact Process consists of three stages: (Complete the table below)

Stage 1

Preparation of (a) gas Chemical equation : S + O2 SO2

Conversion of sulphur dioxide to sulphur trioxide Stage 2 Chemical equation Catalyst Temperature Pressure : (b). + .. : (c).. : (d).. oC : (e).. atm .

Production of sulphuric acid Stage 3 Chemical equation : (f) + H2SO4 (g). + H2O .. .

3.

State six uses of sulphuric acid. i).. ii).. iii).. .. iv). v) vi). ..

4.

.gas from the burning of product manufactured 1

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

from sulphuric acid can cause disease and rain. 5. Figure 1 below shows the waste product from a factory which affect the quality of the environment.

Figure 1 a) By referring to the Figure 1 above, state the following, i) ii) Types of waste products and their sources. How acid rain is formed and its effect. Formation of acid rain:. . Effects on environment:..

iii) How does the toxic waste affect the environment and its effect .. .

B : AMMONIA
Learning Outcomes

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

You should be able to: list uses of ammonia state the properties of ammonia explain the industrial process in the manufacture of ammonia design an activity to prepare ammonium fertilizer.

Activity 2 : AMMONIA 1. Ammonia is manufactured through the Haber Process by combining gas and .gas. 2. (i). The reaction can be represented by the chemical equation (ii) State the condition necessary to produce ammonia. Catalyst : (a) ..

Temperature : (b) . Pressure : (c)

Ratio N2 :H2 : (d) 3. The following statements refer to the uses of ammonia. Fill in the blank with the correct words. (a) To manufacture .. such as ammonium sulphate and nitrate. The chemical equation for producing ammonium sulphate is given by .. (b) Ammonia is used as raw material to produce . in the Ostwald Process. (c) Ammonia is also used as an alkali to prevent the of latex. 4. Listed below are three properties of ammonia. Fill in the blank according to the aspect given. (a) Colour: Ammonia is a.. gas. (b) Solubility: Ammonia is veryin water. (a) Smell : Ammonia has a smell. (b) Ammonia dissolves in water to produce an . solution. ammonium

5.

Ammonium fertiliser can be prepared in the laboratory by adding ammonia solution and certain acids as shown in the table below. Neutralisation reactions Alkali Acid Name of ammonium salt (fertiliser)

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

Aqueous ammonia Aqueous ammonia Aqueous ammonia (i)

Phosphoric acid

Ammonium phosphate Formula:.. Ammonium nitrate Formula:.. Ammonium sulphate (c ) Formula:.

Nitric acid

Sulphuric acid

Calculate the percentage of nitrogen found in each of the ammonium fertilisers. [Relative atomic mass: H = 1; N = 14; O = 16; P = 31; S = 32]

(ii) From the calculations in (b)(ii), deduce the type of ammonium compound that is most suitable for use as a nitrogenous fertiliser. Give reasons for your answer. .

C : ALLOY
Learning Outcomes You should be able to: relate the arrangement of atoms in metals to their ductile and malleable properties state the meaning of alloy state the aim of making alloys list examples of alloys list compositions and properties of alloys relate the arrangement of atoms in alloys to their strength and hardness relate properties of alloys to their uses.

Activity 4: ALLOY 1. What is alloy? Alloy is a .......................of a pure metal with...................................in......................quantities

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

Figure 2 2. A pure metals contains atoms of the same size arranged in a regular and orderly manner. Pure metal are .. and . because the layers of atomwhen external force is applied on them. 3. In an alloy, the foreign metal atoms . ...arrangement of metal atoms and the layers of metal atoms are prevented from ......over each other easily. 4. Complete the sequences by drawing the arrangement of atoms in the box below.

+ Pure metal 5. Another pure metal alloy

Three aims of alloying a pure metal are : a. to increase the . and .. of metal. b. to prevent or rusting. c. to improve the . of metal surface.

6.

Examples of alloy. (Complete the table below) Alloy Composition Properties Uses

(i)

99% Iron 1% (ii)..

Hard

Bridges, vehicles, heavy machinery framework

(iii)

97% (iv) 3% lead and antimony

Hard and shiny

Decorative ornaments, souvenirs

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

90% (v) Bronze 10% tin

Hard and shiny

Decorative ornaments , art crafts

Brass

70% Copper 30% (vi)

Hard and shiny

Decorative ornaments, musical instrument

Magnalium

70% Aluminium 30% (vii)

Hard and light

(viii)

D : POLYMERS
Learning Outcomes You should be able to: state the meaning of polymers list naturally occurring polymers list synthetic polymers and their uses identify the monomers in the synthetic polymers justify uses of synthetic polymers in daily life.

Activity 5: POLYMERS Fill in the blanks below. 1. Polymers are .... made up of many smaller and identical separating unit called .. 2. is the process by which the monomers are joined together to form a big molecule known as the polymer. 3. Give at least two examples of:naturally occurring polymers and at least two examples of synthetic polymers.

Naturally occurring polymers

Synthetic polymers

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

4.

Match the synthetic polymers with their respective monomer

Synthetic Polymer

Monomer

Polyethylene Polypropylene Polyvinylchloride Polystyrene Perspex Teflon

Phenylethene Chloroethene Ethene Propene Tetrafluoroethene Methylmethacrylate

6. Complete the table.

Synthetic Polymer
Polyethylene Polypropylene Polyvinylchloride Polystyrene Perspex Teflon

Uses

E : GLASS AND CERAMICS


Learning Outcomes You should be able to: list uses of glass list uses of ceramics list types of glass and their properties state properties of ceramics.

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

Activity 6: GLASS AND CERAMIC Fill in the blanks below. 1. 2. Main composition of glass is , (SiO2). Complete the table below. Type of glass (a) Silica 99% Boron oxide 1% Chemical composition Properties Very high softening point (1700oC). Transparent to ultra violet and infra red light. Difficult to be made into different shapes. Does not crack with sudden temperature change. Very resistant to chemical attack. Low softening point (700oC). Breaks easily. Cracks easily with sudden temperature changes. Less resistant to chemical attack. Easy to make into different shapes. Examples of uses Mirrors, Lenses, Laboratory glass wares.

(b)

Silica 70% Sodium oxide 15% Calcium oxide 10% Others 5%

Bottles, Window, Light bulb, Bowl

Silica 80% High softening points(800oC). Laboratory Boron oxide Does not crack easily with apparatus, 15% sudden temperature change. Cooking Sodium Transparent to ultra violet light. utensils, . oxide 3% Very resistant to chemical attack. Electrical Aluminium tubes. oxide 1% (d) Silica 55% Low softening point (600oC). Decorative Lead oxide High density. items, 30% High refractive index. Crystal Potassium Reflects light rays and appears glass .. oxide 10% shiny. wares, Sodium Lens, oxide 3% Prisms Alimunium Chandeliers oxide 2% 3. are made from clay that is dried and then baked in a kiln at high (c) temperatures. 4. The main constituent of clay is .. . (aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide). 5 ... ...consists of hydrated aluminosilicate crystals. (High quality white clay) 6. Complete the table. Composition Properties 8 Examples of uses

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

Construction materials, Aluminosilicate (aluminium oxide and silicon dioxide) (i) very hard and strong but brittle (ii). (iii). (iv). (v).. Tableware, Insulators in electric equipments, Refractories. Flowerpots

Activity 7 1. Compare and contrast between glass and ceramic. Glass Ceramic

(a) Main components: .. (c) 4 types of glass: . . (d)Improved Glass:

(b) Main components: ... (e) 4 examples of ceramics: .. ... .. .. (f) Improved Ceramics:

...................... .. (g) 4 common Properties of glass and ceramic (i) very hard and strong but brittle (ii) (iii) (iv).

(h) 2 differences: (i) 9 (ii)

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

F : COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Learning Outcomes You should be able to: describe needs to produce new materials for specific purposes state the meaning of composite materials list examples of composite materials and their components compare and contrast properties of composite materials with those of their original components.

Activity 8: COMPOSITE MATERIALS 1. Composite material is a structural material that is formed by ..........or different substances such as metal, alloys, glass, ceramics and polymers. 2. Give three examples of composite materials. (i).. (ii) (iii). 3. State the purpose of creating composite materials. .. . 4. Photochromic glass is an example of composite material. a) Compare to a normal glass, what is added to a photochromic glass? .. b) State the special feature of a photochromic glass. 5. Complete the table below.

Example (i)

Composition

Properties (ii) 10

Uses

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

Reinforced concrete

... ... (iii) ..

Strong but brittle, Weak in tension

.. .. .. (iv)

Conducting electricity

Superconductors

.. .. (v) .. Low material costs, High transmission capacity, chemical stability, Less susceptible to interference. High tensile strength, Easy to colour, Low in density, Very strong.

Fibre optic

.. .. (vi) ..

Transmit data, voice and image in a digital format.

(vii) .. .. (ix)

Fibre glass

.. .. (viii)

Photochromic glass

.. ... ..

When it is exposed to light, silver chloride is converted silver and darken the glass

.. .. ..

Activity 9 1. (a) Bronze is an alloy of copper. (i) Name the element that is added to copper to form bronze. . (ii) Explain why bronze is harder than pure copper. . .. (iii) Draw and label the arrangement of particles in pure copper and bronze. 11 [2 marks] .[1 mark]

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

Pure copper

Bronze

[2 marks]

(b) Synthetic polymers are widely used in our daily lives. (i) Complete the table with the correct monomers. Polymer Polyvinylchloride Polyethene [2 marks] (ii) State one example of polyvinylchloride commonly used n our daily lives. (c) Glass and ceramic have similar characteristics. (i) State one similar characteristic of glass and ceramic. (ii) What type of glass is used to make laboratory glassware? [1 mark] [1 mark] [1 mark] Monomer

2.

Figure 3 shows the flow chart for the industrial manufacture of sulphuric acid and the production of fertilizer Z.
Sulphur

Sulphur dioxide
Heat Substance Y

V2O5, 1 atm

450oC-500 oC

Concentrated H2SO4

Fertilizer Z

Sulphuric acid
Figure 3

Oleum

Based on Figure 3, answer the following questions. 12

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

(a) Name the process of manufacturing sulphuric acid. [1 mark] (b) Name the substance X. [1 mark] (b) Substance X could react directly with water to form sulphuric acid. Explain why this step is not carried out in the industrial process. [1 mark] (c) Write the chemical equation when oleum reacts with water to form sulphuric acid. .. [1 mark] (d) Name the substance Y and the fertilizer Z. Substance Y: Fertilizer Z :...

The combustion of petrol in the engines of vehicles produce sulphur dioxide. This gas when dissolved in rain water is corrosive. (e) Write a chemical equation when sulphur dioxide reacts with rain water.
.

[1 mark ] 3 A student conducts an experiment to study the hardness of two metallic plates, R and S. He drops a steel ball on R a few times and each time, the diameter of the dent is measured. He repeats the same procedure on the S plate. The reading of the diameter of the dents made on each metallic plates are as follows, Diameter of dent made (mm) I II 13 III Average size

WAJA F4 Chemistry 2010

Chapter 9 : Manufactured Substances in Industry

Plate R S 2.4 3.1 2.3 3.2 2.3 3.2

(a) (b)

Write the average size of the dents made by R and S in the table above. [ 2 marks] What are the differences seen in the two types of metallic plates based on their (i) properties (ii) composition [ 4 marks]

(c)

From the observation made in the given table above, which plate would be made of (i) iron? (ii) steel? [ 2 marks]

(d)

Give two uses of steel. [ 2 marks ]

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