The h-p Version of Finite Element Method in R3: Theory and Algorithm

Benqi Guo

This paper gives a precise description of regularities of solutions and its derivatives of all order for elliptic problems on polyhedral domain in the frame of the countably normed spaces with weighted Ck -norms in neighborhoods of vertices, edges and vertex-edges. Under the guidance of the regularity theory the geometric meshes and P-Q distribution (bilinear-linear or linear-uniform) of element degrees are designed accordingly in each of singular neighborhoods. The algorithms combining the geometric mesh and corresponding P-Q distribution of element degree achieve the exponential convergence and e ciency of computation. The performance of the h, p and h-p versions for a benchmark elasticity problem on a polyhedral domain is given and analysed.

Key words: the h-p version, nite element method, ge-

ometric mesh, P-Q distribution, exponential convergence, vertex singularity, edge singularity, vertex-edge singularity.. 35J25.

AMS subject classi cations: 65N30, 65N15, 35B65,

1 Introduction
The h-p version, its theory and algorithm, is a new development of the nite element method (FEM) in 1980's and 1990's. It was originated in and oriented to the structural mechanical problems on nonsmooth domains in R2
Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Manitoba, Canada R3T 2N2 (
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and R3, but now its use has been expanded to many other elds such as uid mechanics, thermal analysis, electronic engineering, etc.. The methodology developed in the past decades has signi cantly in uenced the theory and algorithm of FEM, the practices of engineering and scienti c computationm and the industry of commercial FEM codes, such as MSC/PROBE, PHLEX, MECHANICAL, STREE CHECK, and research code STRIPE (see 34,35,39]). The h-p version has been one of the most su cient achievements of FEM's history since 1970's. It is well known that the singularities of solutions for problems on nonsmooth domains may occur at the vertices and edges, which severely a ect the e ectiveness and e ciency of nite element solutions. The h-version, which reduces the element size h, and the p-version, which increase the element degree p, may not be able to achieve the desired accuracy in practical engineering range. Then the h-p version is the only reliable nite element approach which is able to provide e ective and e cient algorithms. It reduces the element size h and increase the element degree p simutaneously and selectively in order to achieve the optimal rate of convergence and the e ciency of computations. The h-p version of FEM in R2 was introduced in 1980's (see 2,25,26]) and has been well developed since then. It was originated in and oriented to the structure mechanical problems on nonsmooth domains. Under the guidance of the regularity theory in the frame of countably normed spaces for the problems on nonsmooth domains (see 3,4,27,28]), the geometric mesh and the P-distribution of element degrees are properly designed, which leads to the exponenetial rate of convergence with respect to cubic root of the number of degree of freedom. The exponenetial convergence has been seen in numerous computations by using commercial and research codes mentioned above. The theory and algorithms have been generalized from elliptic boundary value problems to interface problems, eigenvalue problems, highorder problems, parabolic and hyperbolic problems (see 5,7,13,16,19,29,31,38,40]). Thus the h-p version in R2 has already been well established in 1980's. For survey of the 1

3. . m 2 M = f1. 2. the geometric meshes are designed di erently in the neiborhoods of vertices.11].1. v) = F(v). where ?0 = i2D ?i and ?1 = i2N ?i where D is a subset of I and N = InD.21. ICOSAHOM 95 subset of L such that Lm = fij 2 L j Am 2 ?i \ ?j = ij g. the parallel and iterative solvers for large-scale systems resulted from the h-p nite element discretization.20. 8v 2 H0 ( ) (2:2) 1 1 where B(u. j 2 L. and uN be the nite element solution in SN satisfying B(uN . 8v 2 SN : (2:3) R Fig. 2. v) = ru rvdx on H0 ( ) H0 ( ) and R R 1 F(v) = fvdx + gvdS on H0 ( ). ?1 1 Let SN H0 ( ) be a properly selected piecewise polynomial subspace. We assume that f and g are analytic on and ?1 respectively. Polyhedral Domain Let be a polyhedral domain in R3 shown in Fig 2. First of all. . the approximation theory of the h-p version. 1 There exists a unique (weak) solution u(x) 2 H0 ( ) satisfying the variational equation 1 B(u. but the regularity and approximation results and the algorithms presented in this paper are applicable to general elliptic problems with piecewise analytic data (see 9. etc.23. 2. and the selection of the subspace SN which must re ect exactly the natures of the regularity of the solution. a linear or uniform Q-distribution of polynomials of one variable (in the direction of edges) have to be adopted in edge-neiborhoods and vertex-edge neighborhoods in orfer to obtain the e ciency of computations. the accuracy of the nite element solution depends solely on the preciseness of the description of the regularity of the solution. i 2 I = f1. (2:1) : u j = g. then the singularity of the solution is caused solely by the unsmooth domain.23.24]). 2..12.2 h-p version in R2 we refer to 8. Let Im be a subset fj 2 I j Am 2 ?j g of I for m 2 M. v) = F(v). 91=2 = 2 A Model Problem Λij ωij Γj Αm Γi where = ( 1 . j 2 I . Let L = fij ji. there had been no progress on the approximation theory until the regularity theory in terms of countably normed spaces for elliptic problems on nonsmooth domains in R3 was established in early 1990's (see 20.22. To illustrate e ectively our main ideas. edges and vertex-edges. Secondly. and let Lm denote a There holds the error estimates ku ? uN kH 1 ( ) C vinf ku ? vkH 1 ( ): 2S N (2:4) Therefore. I g be the faces (open). We denote by !ij the interior angle between ?i and ?j for i. on which we introduce . ?i \ ?j = ij g. we consider here the Poisson equation with analytic data except the domain. By ij we denote the edges which are the intersections of ?i and ?j .1. To this end we shall decompose the domain into various subregions. There are several quite di erent features of the h-p version in three dimensional setting from those in two dimensional setting. Am . By H 1 ( ) we denote the usual Sobolev space furnished with norm 8 < X kukH k ( ) = : 0 j j k kD ukL2( ). As a major development of the nite element method. M g be the vertices. 3. implementation. ?1 n . due to the complexity of singularity at vertices and edges.20]). in theory and practices. < ? u=f uj?0 = 0. Although the computation and implementation of the hp version in R3 was started in later 1980's (see 1.22.24]). . the h-p version of FEM in R3 involves the regularity theory of PDE on nonsmooth domain. applications to structural mechanics and engineering computation. 3) and D u = ux1 1 x2 2 x3 3 and 1 H0 ( ) = u 2 H k ( ) j uj?0 = 0 . and let ?i . in addition to the bilinear or linear P-distribution of element degrees. We now consider a problem on the polyhedral domain 8 in . approximation and algorithm. This paper will focus on the regularity.

st) < .k . ?j ?1 ij = 2!ij ij 1 ? ij . `=1 i denote an element in the i-th layer and the k-th level with 1 j J(i. By i. st) = 0. ` = 1. 0.j.1. x3)kC0 (I ) Cd3 3! (3:2) neccessary be small and will not be reduced when further re ning the mesh.C2 ij (U) with ij 2 (0. 1) and any . For a precise description of the geometric mesh Un we refer to 6. st) c3 n?i for 1 < i n. 1). ( st) into K levels along the edge with a uniform height H. The element i.1 The (weak) solution u(x) of (2. 1) satisfying ularity of the solution and its derivatives of all orders. 2 (0. 1 k ω12 Γ2 K. x3 2 I = (a+ =2. Edge-Neighborhood U . or pentahedral. For the proof of the theorem we refer to 23]. and properly design the geometric mesh and P-Q distribution of the element degrees to achieve the exponential rate of ( convergence.2. l = 1. 1) are selected such that U . 1 i n. 0.1. d = (d1. k: A typical geometric mesh Un is shown in Fig 3. the δ/2 the geometric mesh Un = f i. j.2) 2 where c` .k are hexahedral. x3) j a < x3 < bg lies on the x3-axis. k) J (uniformly bounded with respect to i X3 and k). d3) and d = edge we divide U into n geometric layers. otherwise: !ij (3:3) 2 3 Regularity and Approximation in Neighborhoods of Edges We assume that the edge st = fx = (0. 3. k: X1 (3:4) Fig. .j. dist( 1. according to the distance to the Hereafter ! = 3=1 ` !. k)g over the neighborhood U satisfying Λ 12 Γ1 A4 X2 Cd ! (3:1) δ/2 h1 = h2 = c n?i .k we ` 3 d i . ( st) \ ?` = for ` 2 I and ` 6= s. h3 = H 1. and introduce a neighnorhood of the edge st shown in Fig.j. U = U . 2. By C2 ij (U) we denote a countably normed space with weighted Ck -norm which is a set of continuous functions u(x) on U such that for a real number ij 2 (0. and all j. or tetrahedral. Then. To achieve the best approximation by a piecewise polynomial we have to de ne mesh and element degrees accordingly. with hl denoting the dimensions in the xl A2 ε directions. 2.j. c2 n?i dist( i. which is not kuX3 3 (0. Select a mesh factor 2 (0. In the edge-neiborhood the solution behaves very di erently in the direction parallel to the edge and the directions perpendicular to the edge. 3 are some constants indenpendent of i. x3))k 0 C (U) 3 First we divide the neighborhood U = U . Note that the space C2 ij (U) is an anisotropic space which the solution belong to. kr(x)( ij + and 1+ 2 ?1)D (u(x) ? u(0. ( st) = fx 2 j 0 < r(x) = dist(x.k.k . t. if ?i ?0. 3. 0.j. C 1 and d` 1 are independent of . d2. 3.9. 1 j J(i.20]. ( st ) Theorem 3.The h-p Version of FEM in R3 3 the countable normed spaces to precisely describe the reg. b ? =2)g where .

Am) < g 4 Regularity and Approximation in Neighborhoods of VertexEdges . st ) ln(1= > (1 ?ln(1=F ) ) (3:7) H (1 ? 1? where FH = 0 min1 (1 + )1+ ( dH) . Then a neighborhood i ) O (Am ) of the vertex Am is de ned by there exists (x) 2 S P. Remark 3.4). k)g and a uniform Q-distribution fqi.j. because this combination re ect exactly the nature of singularity of the solution in the edge-neighborhood U. 1 i n. k (3:5) and qi. 0. with pi.2. x3) e ectively. If a uniform P -distribution with pi.Q (Un) = f (x) j (x)j i. An alternative approach to use of high-degree 2(x3 ) is uniform re nement in the x3-direction when the meshes are geometrically re ned in the x1 -x2 plane.1 (Un) such that (3:8) ku ? (x)kH 1 (U) ce?bstN 1=4 O (Am ) = fx 2 j 0 < (x) = dist(x. and it can be ignored comparing the cost of computations for those polynomials 1(x). Hereafter a] denotes the smallest positive integer a. the cost of computation for these polynomials 2(x) in x3 direction is very minor. A linear P-distribution fpi. Theorem 3.k = i] for all i.1 (Un ). 1 k K. j. d = max di .k = n] is used to approximate u(0.j.k.j. associated with meshes which is not re ned geometrically along the edge. bst depends on .5)-(3.2 The design of long element i. 3.j. the exponenetial convergence may hold but with much smaller bst in (3. and 2(x3 ) is a polynomial of degree qi. The Let Am be located in the origin. 1 j J(i. Although the degree of 2(x3) is higher than the degree of 1(x). For the proof of the theorem we refer to 9]. 1 k K.Q. 1 i n.6) with the degree factor satisfying Remark 3.8).1 (Un ) = S P.j. 1(x) is a polynomial of degreepi.Q (Un) \ H 1(U).j.k. k (3:6) where > 0 is a degree factor. Then the combination of the geometric mesh and linear-uniform distribution of element degrees leads to the exponential convergence.k .Q. and let Un be the geometric mesh de ned by (3.j. which will severely a ect the e ciency of the computation of nite element solution. and P -Q distribution be a linear-uniform distribution de ned by (3.2 Let u 2 C2 st (U). is never able to reach the exponential convergence and computational e ciency.4 X1 X2 ICOSAHOM 95 where N = O(n4) is the number of the degree of freedom of S P.k near the edge re ect the fact that the solution is analytic along the edge.j.k = qi.k = n] for all i. k)g should be associated with the geometric mesh U .j. but it will a ect the computational e ciency and signi cantly increase the cost of computation.k in x3 g and S P.k = n] is associated with the geometric meshes. 1 Λ 12 0 1 X3 σ3 σ2 σ −1 Fig. 1 j n J(i.k = 1(x1 ) 2(x3 ).j. The polynomial 2 (x3) of high degree qi.Q. Algorithms. j. Geometric Mesh Un We now de ne nite element space over the geometric mesh Un S P.j. and st but not on N .1 Algorithms combining the geometric mesh and linear-uniform distribution of element degree achieve the optimal convergence and the best e ciency of computations.

st) analytic.1. The spaces C2 m. is an anisotropic space which the solution u(x) belongs (x)D (u(x) ? u(0. < 1 such that V .st (x) = (x) m +j j?1=2 sin( (x)) for I = (0. st 6= mesh and distribution of element degrees. ) and 3 0 ?1 and m > 1=2 ? m . like the spaces C2 st (U).st = ( m .The h-p Version of FEM in R3 X3 Λ 13 δ 5 kl. Λ 12 ) .2 with m. note that u(0. ( (V). x3))kC 0 (V) cd ! ij + 1 + 2 Fig. 0. which is a set of continuous functions u(x) on V such that for a pair of real number m.2) belongs edge neighborhood shown in Fig 4. ( . which is a portion of the unit sphere subtended by an in nite cone which coincides with in the neighborhood O (Am ). 4. 2 Γ1 A1 σ For the proof of the theorem we refer to 24]. The solution behaves in this neighborhood very di erently in X1 the direction of the edge and in the direction perpendicular to the edge. x3) is no longer (V) with weighted Ck -norms. (V) with st 2 (0. 1) satisfying (3. st 2 Lm lies in the positive x3-direction. . Vertex-Edge Neighborhood V . Furthermore. 0. 0 < . st). We further decompose O (Am ) = into an inner neighborhood and several neighborhoods of vertex-edge. 0 < m < 1=2. 0. Vertex-Neighborhood O (Am ) k (x) m + 3 ?1=2(u(0. ) is the spherical coordinate with respect to Am and st. Vδ. x3)?u(0. 0 < st < 1 and for any .1 The (weak) solution u(x) of (2. 0. (Am . it belongs to a countably normed space where is the angle between st and radical from Am on an interval I = (0.σ (A1.2 m. 1 q1 + 4 (m) ? 1 m=2 1 (4:3) Γ2 X2 ( where 1m) is the smallest positive eigenvalue of the Laplace-beltramioperator on the polygon S .3) and m 2 V = V . This features of the regularity (the origin) to x. 0 < < g (0. (Am .l) = Am for any st 2 Lm and kl 2 Lm . Γ3 Γ1 Γ2 Λ 23 A1 k . Similarly we introduce a countably normed space C2 m. 4. Lk.1). 0))x3 3 kC 0 (I ) cd3 3 3 !: (4:2) where 2 (0.2. and introduce a vertexTheorem 4. To this end we assume the edge st. 1) is selected such that O (Am ) \ ?l = for l 2 Im (see Fig 4.2 to C2 m. (Am . ij ) = fx 2 O (Am ). ). 1=2) satisfying X3 ω12 Λ 12 δ Λ 12 . st) \ of solution must be fully considered when we design the V .

k) J (uniformly bounded with respect to Remark 4. linear distribution of element degrees.1 (Vn ) such that Α ku ? (x)kH 1 (V) ce?bm. st) = c4 n?i.3.6) with and satisfying and qi. 1 V .5) and (4.1 The geometric meshes Vn are re ned both i. j. st). for k > 1 and all i. Then the the solution possesses two di erent types of singularities: edge-singularity and vertex-singularity in the neighborhood geometric mesh Vn = f i.j.Q. k)g satis es orem 4.j. (4:4) Remark 4. k)g should be associated freedom and of the computational cost by 2(x3 ) is very minor and ignorable comparing the total number of degree with the geometric mesh Vn with of freedom and the total cost of computation of the nite (4:5) element solution.k = 1(x) + 2(x3 ). But for practical an angular distance between the element i. n < 10. and P -distribution is bilinear with re(0. 1 j J(i. k) are hexahedral. x2 i. . see 9]. details.j. (Am . 4. σ there exists a (x) 2 S P.j.j. layers according to angular distance to the edge st.. k)g and a linear Q-distribution fqi.j.j. of computation are achieved only by those algorithms usdist( i. For the precise to N 1=4 is possible by select suitable p0 . 3. j.6 X3 Θσ Θσ 1 Λ 12 3 ICOSAHOM 95 Θσ 2 Θ 1 and Γ2 π/6 Γ1 bilinear-linear de ned by (4. 2. the exponential rate with respect geometric mesh Vn is shown in Fig.20]. which have been completely exposed in Thej J(i. Am ) = 0. u(0. 1 k imated e ectively.j. for i > 1 and all k. 4.k 1 i n. Let 2 in and in .k x2 i. Am ) = c3 n?k . l = 1.k and tial convergence and e ciency of computation. x3) can be approxA bilinear P-distribution fpi. and let hl denote the dimensions spect to the layer number i and level number k. p0 = n. For description of geometric mesh on V we refer to 6. in order to achieve the exponen1 (x) is a polynomial of degree pi.2 Asymptotically the exponential rate with rewhere dist ( i. pi. st) = 0. ing a proper combination of geometric meshes and bilineardist( i. 0.k = i + k ? p0] for all N 1=5 (4:9) Fig. st.g. 1) be a mesh factor. and . 1 i n. h3 c2 n?k . elements i. st) = min (x) min sin (x) is spect to N 1=5 is the best approximation result we can prove. Theorem 4.3 The solution along the edge is not ananlytic. metric mesh Vn is de ned as instead. > 0 are the degree factors. Hence. e.k and st.k 1 i n. The corresponding nite element spaces over the geoRemark 4.3. j. over an interval. and S for the polynomials 2 (x3) so that u( (V). dist( i.k located in i-th layer and k-th level with 1 j J(i. we refer to 9]. Then.k . A range of n e.k .k. or pentahedral or tetrahedral.Q (Vn) \ H 1 (V).k . 1 k n. the re ne2 (x3) is a polynomial of degree qi. h2 c1 2n?k?i. The increase of the number of degree of n.j. j. x3) belongs to a countably normed space S P. dist ( 1.k in the xl direction.4) and P -Q distribution be > (1 ? st ) ln(1= ) ln(1=F1) (4:7) σ 1 > (1 ? m ) ln(1= ) (4:8) ln(1=F1) where F1 is the value of FH at H = 1 given in (3.7)..j. 0.j. because of element i. Geometric Mesh Vn The neighborhood V is divided into n geometric level where N = O(n5 ) is the number of degree of freedom.k due to the re nement in two directions.k = k] for all i. but not on N . bm.j.j. m .1.Q.j.1. k (4:6) where p0 0 is a properly selected integer.j.Q (Vn ) = f (x) j (x)j i.1 (Vn ) = S 2 according to the distance to the vertex Am and n geometric depends on . 1 k n.2 Let u 2 C2 m.g.j. The exponential convergence and the e ciency h1 c1 2n?k?i. 1 j J(i.j.9.k in x3g ment in x3-direction has to be carried out geometrically and a linear distribution of element degrees has to be adopted P.k . The For the proof of the theorem. and let Vn be the geometric mesh de ned by (4. k σ2 3 1 .

Λ 13 δ Vδ. the space The algorithms based on the geometric mesh and linear ~ C2 m (O) is an isotropic (V). 1 j J(k)g with a mesh factor 2 (0. (Am .2 Let u 2 C2 m (O) and let O be the geometre ned in one direction. Then there exists tance to the vertex Am we divide O (Am ) into n levels.1.k. A geomet~ ric mesh On = f j. st). re ned in . because the solution behaves equally in all x`-direction and geometric mesh is For the proof of the theorem we refer to 24].σ σ2 ~ Fig. ` = 1.1) and the linear P -distribution be ~ with satisfying (4.a (x) 2 S sions in the x` direction.1 .k = k].σ 1 .. Am ) = 0. dist( j. According to the dis. in .σ A1 Λ 23 σ V (Α1 . Λ ) 12 δ. 1=2) satisfying (4. O = O (Am ) n st2Lm V . Geometric Mesh O ~ We de ne a nite element space over On by ~ S P (On) = f (x) j (x)j j. k n. 2. denoted by j. Λ ) (Α 23 X3 V (Α1 . which is shown in Fig. 5. for all j. 3. st).e. 5.k g ~ ~ ~ and S P.ric mesh de ned by (5. 5.k Λ 12 ~n Λ 12 .element degrees. 1 j J(k) J ku ? (x)kH 1 (O) ce?bm N 1=4 (5:4) ~ (uniformly bounded with respect to k). For the ~ precise description on the geometric mesh over O (Am ) we refer to 6. k (x) m +j j?1=2D (u(x) ? u(0. 1 j J(k)g is needed with pj. Am ) = c2 n?i.1 (O ) such that ~ The elements in the k-th level with h` being the dimen. 1 singularity.k .1. 1) satisfying h1 h2 h3 c1 n?i . Λ 13 Λ23 1 5 Regularity and Approximation in Inner Neighborhoods of Vertices We de ne an inner neighborhood of the vertex Am by excluding all vertex-edge neighborhoods V .3). 0))kC0 (O) cd !: ~ The character of singularity of the solution in the inner (5:1) vertex-neighborhood is also re ected in the designing of In this neighborhood the solution possesses only vertex. 1 k n.9. ` = 1.The h-p Version of FEM in R3 7 are hexahedral. Λ ) 13 δ.1 The (weak) solution of (2. (Am . Only a linear P-distribution fpj. 2. de ned by (5. but behaves equally in the x` -direction. k: (5:3) Theorem 5.20]. the solution is singular in P-distribution achieve the exponential convergence. (5:2) dist( j.k is a polynomial of degree pj. i.2.2) n P. Inner Vertex-Neighborhood O (Am ) ~ The countably normed space C2 m (O) is de ned as a ~ set of continuous functions u(x) on O such that for a real number m 2 (0. or pentahedral or tetrahedral. We assume that Am is located in the origin. the mesh is Theorem 5. for k > 1 and all j: ~ A geometric mesh On is showm in Fig 5.2) belongs to ~ C2 m (O) with m 2 (0. 1=2) and any Fig. . st 2 ~ ~ Lm . 2 where > 0 is the degree factor. Due ~ ~n to this character of the singularity of solution. 3.1 (On ) = S P (On) \ H 1(O).8). 2 (U) and C2 Unlike the space C st m.2.k . 0.

in practice the strength of singularity and form of singular functions are unknown.Q ( n ) we denote 0 H . ( st ).1 The (weak) solution of (2. the bilinear-linear P-Q distributions on Vn's.1 ( 0 ) such that H L satisfying (3. 1=2). and the regularity theory in the frame of countably normed spaces is the only theory which is able to guide this computational practice and to lead to the exponential rate of the convergence. and by C2 ( ) we and coarse mesh 0 = f 0.3) and (4. 1). (Am .2) belongs to C2 ( ) with m 2 (0. For the purpose of numerical approximation we prefer to the description in terms of the countably normed spaces with weighted Ck norms. H and the nite element space is de ned by ii) u jO (Am ) 2 C 2m (O (Am )). but not by reducing the element sizes. Hence practically and theoretically the h-p nite element solution are the only e ective and e cient numerical approach for the problems on nonsmooth domains. st)). 5. If the power and forms of leading singular functions are known. 0 's are hexahedral.1. Since the solution u(x) is analytic on 0. by S P.17. st 2 L). Moreover. 1 ` Lg with i) u 2 C0( ). singular neighborhoods. will contain no edges and vertecies of the domain. Select and properly. The regularity theorems in these countably normed spaces and the relations of these spaces have been given in 22].1. the spaces B2 ( ) in weighted Sobolev norms. 37]). r(x) and sin( (x)) (see 14. 1 ` Lg: The elements H ` de ne a countably normed space with weighted Ck . special element can be constructed. 4. where N is the number of degree of freedom. ( st )).3). 2 ICOSAHOM 95 domain is completely described by the local asymptotic expansion of singular functions.32.30. 1=2) and st 2 (0. rithms on whole polyhedral domain.1 and 6. A uniform P-distribution fp` = p. but not on N . and jD u(x)j cd !: and S P. S P ( 0 ) = f (x) j (x)j 0 is a polynomial of degree p` = pg H ` ii) u j 0 2 C1 ( 0).2 The regularity of solution on the polyhedral For the proof of the theorem we refer to 9]. which contains the power of (x).2 The (weak) solution u(x) of (2. there holds H 1 being their dimensions in the x` -directions.36. and let P-Q distribution of element and uniform mesh H degree on n be the union of the linear-uniform P-Q distributions on Un 's. we use a xed with m 2 (0. 6 Regularity and Approximation of the h-p Finite Element Solution on Polyhedral Domain Theorem 6. additional e orts and computations for these information are required (see 12]).1 ( 0 ) = S P ( 0 ) \ H 1( 0 ). mial degree.18.1.1 The regularity results can be given in terms of countably normed spaces with other types of weighted norm and in various coordinate systems. 1). On . b0 is independent of N.33. st ) 2 C 2m. or tetrahedral with h` ` namely. Remark 6. m 2 M. there Theorem 6. p coinciding with the highest degree used in elements in ii) u jU . 2 ku ? (x)kH 1 ( 0 ) ce?b0 N 1=3 (6:1) 2 Remark 6. for (V . Further. the linear P-distribution on On's and the uniform P-distribution on 0 . Let 0 = n m2M O (Am ) n st2L . pentahedral. ~ Let n be the union of all geometric meshes Un . we now have the this region is achieved by uniformly increasing the polynoregularity of the solution on whole polyhedral domain. ~ ii) u jV . for u 2 C2 ( ). 1 ` 3.norm. m 2 M and st 2 (0. H H Note that the accuracy of the nite element solution in Combining Theorem 3. st . and for any kD u(x)kC 0 ( 0) cd ! We neext design the h-p version nite element algoFor the proof we refer to 24].15. 0 is called regular region in which the solution has no singularity and is analytic. but the singular basis functions will distroy the nice band structure of the sti ness matric and deteriorate the condition number.2) is ananlytic on 0.8 where N = O(n4) is the number of degree of freedom. By we denote a multi-index ( m . The algebraic rate of convergence of the conventional nite element solutions may be improved because of the special elements. bm depends on m . ( st) 2 C2 st (U . Vn 0 . and . (Am . st 2 is a polynomial (x) 2 S P. is associated with the mesh 0 . It is well-known that for the analytic function u(x) on 0 .

ce?bN 1=5 1 T=0 B 1 H T=0 F 11 1 y L C A T=0 1 E J Remark 6.2. the traction T1 = T2 = 0. there exists (x) 2 S P.99 t1(s) 120 1890 10130 29800 . if the integer p0 in the bilinear P -distribution is properly selected and the number of layers and levels are not large.4) leads to (6. the traction T1 = T3 = 0. and also as seen in practical computations.56 1/4 21184 297735 8. als whose restrictions on Un . (5.3 Let the geometric mesh n and the P -Q distribution associated with n de ned above. are used with the uniform degree p = 2. as mentioned in Remark 4. the h-p nite element solution.i) On the faces ACNE.Q. respectively.v) On the face GHIJ. is computed by the h.3 Asymptotically the exponential rate with re- z 1 N M (0. p nite element solution uN 2 S P.32 1/3 8937 131744 10. the majority of the number of degree of freedom is concentrated in the neighborhoods of vertex-edges. which together with (2. bm. and N 1=3 in regular region 0 . (4.11) ku ? (x)kH 1 ( ) where b = minfbst. b depends on . AEFB.2) 2 spect to N 1=5 is the best accuracy of nite element solution which we can prove.3. Proof Due to the de nition of S P. In computational practices. We now come to the conclusion of the approximation of the traction T1 = T3 = 0. .9).R % 1 331 6708 20.4) and (6. shown in Fig. . 1=4.Q (Un ). ~ the spaces S H 1 the traction T2 = T3 = 0.Q. p and h-p version of nite element method. T3)=0. solution u(x) of (2. as a total performance. 1=3. the displacement u3 = 0. Hence. Let u = (u1. Table 7. Then the h.Q. the displacement u2 = 0. Although the rate is with respect to N 1=4 in neighborhoods of edges and inner neiborhoods of vertices. T2.Q (Vn ).53 1/2 2648 42679 13. bm. u2. Theorem 6.0) x 1 11 v=0 u=0 11 Fig. 9 ku ? uN kH 1 ( ) ce?bN 1=5 (6:2) where N is the number of degree of freedom of S P:Q.1. b0g depending on .1 ( n ) such that w=o K D G (11.Q ( n) \ H0 ( ).st. iv) On the face KGIL. shown is Fig. iii) On the face NMJHFE. u3) be the displacement and T = (T1 . The follwing boundary conditions are imposed to this problem: Uniform meshes of cubic elements with size h = 1. . . 000 and CPU time t1(s) = 29. Table 7. T2. and S P.1 ( n ) = S P. 7.1 ( n ).1. .1). T2 = T3 = 0. IJLM. the h-p nite element solution converges at the exponential rate with respect to N 1=5. 7. 7. ii) On the face DKLMNC.8). of Elm N kekE. ~ the traction T=(T1 . but not on N . the traction T1 = 1.1 ( n ) and the combination of (3.11. S P. ABDC. S P (On ) and S P ( 0 ).2) exponentially.1 Performance of the h-version (p = 2) h No. 800sec (single processor). On .The h-p Version of FEM in R3 the nite element space over n of piecewise polynomi. 1=2.Q. the displacement u2 = 1.1 shows the relative error in energy norm 9% when h = 1=4 and N 300.1 ( n) converges to the vi) On the face KDBFHG. then the exponential rate with respect to N 1=4 is possibly achieveable.0. Vn and 0 belong to H P. Polyhedral Domain The h-version: 7 Numerical Example A benchmark elasticity problem on a polyhedral domain with the modulus E = 100 and Poisson ratio = 0:3. but not on N. T3) be the traction on the boundary. the displacement u1 = 0.

t1^(1/5) ) The mesh factor = 0:15. 7. The Table 7.49 7408 9 72803 2.50 29392 100 x o o log(||e||)(%) x DOF CPU h-p version: Fig. 7. Mesh 3: n1 = 3.84 13337 5 8 97374 1. 7. Table 7. n2 = 2 and p = 7. 337sec: On the other hand.R % t1 (s) 1 4 464 31. n2 = 2. Mesh 7: n1 = 7. namely the meshes are heavily re ned near the vertex A with layer number n1 o x o x and slightly re ned at other vertices with layer number 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 n2 .28 56 4 9328 8.3 Performance of the h-p version (on Mesh 1. The degree p of element uniformly increases from 1 to 10. Uniform Mesh with h = 1 The The p-version: The tensor product meshes with the following combination of n1 and n2 are used: Mesh 1: n1 = 1. 7. n1 = 3.3.84 33 3 5135 19.01 3305 8 52428 2.R % t1 (s) 2 2925 43. Table 7.10 ICOSAHOM 95 better than the h-version.04 481 6 24404 3. and uniform degree p = n1) Mesh(n1 ) p N=DOF kekE. N = 67.n2 with Fig. Mesh 5: n1 = 5. The p-version perform on the geometric mesh much time t1 = 13. 567.11 14860 10 98224 1. Performance of the h-p Version n1 = 2.2. The relative error in energy norm reduces to 1:84% of relative error in energy norm is achieved at 3% when p = 7 and CPU time t1 = 3305sec (single proces.n1 = 5.78 1308 7 36496 3.2. n2 = 2) p N=DOF kekE. = 1:5 2:0.39 1 3 5 15549 5.21 169 5 15549 5. the p-version on . N^(1/5) (resp. but on quasi-uniform mesh.04 481 3 6 24404 3.4. n2 = 1 The nite element solutions of the p-version are com10 puted on various geometric meshes.3. A geometric mesh n1.3. Geometric Mesh n1 . n2 = 2. and the CPU sor).2 Performance of the p-version (on Mesh 3.3 shows that the in Table 7.n2 with n1 = 2. because the singularity of solution near A is severe. The geometric meshes o x o x of tensor product type are used. n2 = 1 is shown in Fig. n2 = 2. The performance Associated with a uniform P-distribution with p = of the p-version on Mesh 3 with n1 = 3 and n2 = 2 is given n1]. the p-version converges only as twice fast as the h-version.84 31842 Fig. We will make more comments later.5.78 1308 5 7 67567 1. n2 = 2.

38(1995). it could be an alternative to the h-p version elliptic problems with piecewise analytic data. 7. 7. pp. to appear in Comp.T Petersdor and U. Guo. Comparison between h. and The State of the Art of the h-p Versipon of the Finite Element Method edited by Babuska. J. University of Maryland. Anal.. DOF 100 + * log(||e||)(%) + 10 x x + * + * + + x x x + * h-version p-version h-p version + + * 1 1 10 100 1000 Log(CPU) 1e+04 + * 1e+05 172-203. Part 1: Boundary value problems for linear elliptic equations of second order. and B. Babuska. Mech. Reliable stress and fracture mechanics analysis of complex components using h ? p version of FEM. 224 CPU time t1 = 31.Q. Guo.6 where the relative error v. 7. University of Texas and Dr. 3] I. Meth. B. Fig. 19(1988). Appl. p and h-p versions are shown in Fig.. B. The computation was done by Dr. Guo. e. pp. how to implement the P -Q distribution of element degrees (no existing 3-dimensional code has this feature yet).6. 74 (1989). The paper re ects the joint research with Dr.Q. Acknowledgements 100 + * log(||e||)(%) +x x 10 + * + * + + x + * h-version p-version h-p version x x This work was partially supported by National Science & Engineering Research Council of Canada under grant OGP0046726. B.5 and Fig. Falk. Babuska. N = 98. and what are the optimal mesh factors and degree factors. in the series of Computational Method for Applied Mechanics and Engineering. as predicted by asymptotic analyses.5. Engrg. and B. Babuska. p and h-p versions: Error v.837-861. .R v.1 The computations on this benchmark prob- Fig. Part 2: The trace spaces and applications to the boundary value problems with nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. etc. Approximation properties of the h-p version of the nite element method.. Remark 7. 842.The h-p Version of FEM in R3 11 Mesh 3 needs p = 10. Anderson. Meth. Eng. I. pp. Regularity of the solution of elliptic problems with piecewise analytic data. 7. Comparison between h. Anal. Anal. 763-781.2 The computation of the h-p version in R3 have not been exhaustive enough.g. in R3. 7. SIAM J.s. N 1=5 and t1 are ploted in Fig. parison between the h. Andersson with code STRIPE. Appl. 20(1989). p and h-p versions: Error v.Q. CPU 4] I. element method for problems with non-homogeneous essential boundary conditions. Babuska. Andersson of Aeronautical Institute of Sweden. Int. The h-p version of the nite Mech. B. Remark 7.I.. The h-p version of the nite element method with curved boundary. The practical strategy to achieve the optimal conThe relative error of the h-p version in energy norm vergence and e ciency for engineering applications in R3 kekE.Q. pp. 2] I. 24(1988). + 1 100 + * + * 1e+05 1e+06 1000 1e+04 Log(N) References 1] B. 3%. Regularity of the solution of lem has shown that the h-p nite element solution can achieve the exponential rate in engineering practical range. 5] I. Math.s. Babuska I. I. Guo. B.. Guo. Comp. The com. SIAM J. 6] I. how to generate a geometric mesh. College Park. 1-28.4. N and CPU time are ploted in log-log scales.needs to be developted further. IPST. Remark 7. 1995. Numer. Technical Notes BN-1177. v.g. more experience in computations and implementations are needed. Math. Numer. Babuska of TICAM.s. Meth.Q. Engrg. SIAM J. Babuska.s. e.3 The computation has shown that the pversion on an over-re ned geometric mesh converges to the desired accuracy expotentially before entering the asymptotic phase...

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Math. Los Angeles. 11(1989). Meth. and B. MacNeal Schwendler Appl. Soc. User's manual. and S. Boundary integral equations for mixed Dirichlet. 34] MSC/PROBE. Computational Mechanics Co. preprint. A. High-order Taylor-Galerkin and adaptive h-p methods for second-order hyperbolic systems: Application to elastodynamics. CA... Engrg. 12(1990). Meth. Comput.-S. 1994..11-45.L. Sweden. 57-88. Sci. TX.A. Szabo. Math. (1990). A posteriori error estimation of h-p nite element approximations of frictional contact problem. Engrg. Oden. Meth. Comput. 32] J.Y. Math.185{213. Goldberg. Oden. 37] v. Mech.... T.229{249.G.The h-p Version of FEM in R3 behaviour of elastic elds and boundary integral Mellin techniques near conical points. 1992.187230. On the Coef- Co. 31] C. Regularity of mixed boundary value problems in R3 and and boundary element methods on graded meshes. Methods Appl. I: Regularity of the solutions. pp. pp. M. (1990). Amer. Wendland. Maz`ya. 40] B. 36] v.185{195. pp. Lee and J. Austin. Nicaise. 35] PHLEX User's Manual. Math. Bromma.. Plamenevsii. Petersdor and E. The 113(1994). 38] A. Safjan and J. Kozlov. Petersdor . T. Transl. Appl. Lubuma. 39] STRIPE Users Manual.. 168(1994). The Aeronautical Research Institute of Sweden (FFA). Newumann and transmission conditions. Meth. pp.T. cients in the Asymptotics of Solutions of Elliptic Boundary Value Problems in Domains with Conical points. Mech. The p and h ? p versions of the nite element methods in solid mechanics. 33] V. pp. Stephan. Appl. 103(1993). Comput. 13 30] V. .T. 80(1990). Mech. P. Nachr. and H. 2(1984).. pp. Appl. Engrg. W. Dirichlet problems in polyhedral domains.

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