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INTERNATIONALJOURNALOFCIVILANDSTRUCTURALENGINEERING Volume1,No 3,2010

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ComparisonofWindowsmadewithdifferenttypeofMaterialsAcase study
SathishKumar.R NationalInstituteofConstructionManagementandResearchHyderabad kumar.sathish100@gmail.com ABSTRACT Windowsareone of the important components of building for ventilation. Windows areof various type depending up on materials, purpose and opening types. Wooden windows are traditional type and used widely. They are easily available and made in various sizes and shapes. Aluminum power coated windows are light weight and fabricated as per requirements.Itisavailableinallsizesandtypes.Costofaluminumwindowdependsupon the section size and thickness used for the window. Aluminum window are not energy efficientandnotsoundresistancebutitislightweight,lowcost,rustproof,andrequiredless maintainsandpainting.Aluminumwindowsarecommonlyrecommendedforbuildingwhere high degree of elegance is required. UPVC windows are the un plasticized polyvinyl chloride. Nowadays UPVC windows arebecomingmorepopularly usedbecauseof high energyefficient,excellentappearanceandsmoothsurface.Buttheyarecostlyascompareto woodenand aluminum and theyare not that flexible in design and execution .A case study wasalsodonetoseethesuitabilityandeconomyofallthesethreetypesofwindowsandit was found that the aluminum window was best suited for construction, as it has low cost, easilyavailable&candemoldedinanyshape&size.Alsoithashighdegreeofeleganceand goodappearancewhenpowdercoated. Key words: Powder coated Aluminium windows, UPVC windows, Wooden windows, methacrylates,compounding,weatherability 1.Introduction Windows are generally provided to give light & ventilation to interior parts of building. Whenwindowsareprovidedforthepurposeoflightonly,asincaseofstorageroom,show roomsetc.theymaybefixedsothattheycannotbeopened.Butwhenwindowsareprovided forlight&ventilation,someoralltheportionofwindowmustbeopen.Thiscanbeachieved by providing suitable height at top, bottom or sides. Size of window depends on the dimensionsoftheroom,directionandspeedofthewind,obstructiontolightbyneighboring buildingsandtrees,drybulbtemperature,relativehumidity,climaticconditionsoftheregion, etc. 2.Woodenwindows 2.1Introduction Wood is an organic material, a natural composite of cellulose fibers (which are strong in tension)embeddedinamatrixofligninwhichresistscompression.Peoplehaveusedwood for millennium for many purposes, primarily as a fuel or as a construction material for makinghouses,tools,weapons,furniture,packaging,artworks,and paper.Woodisanatural readily available material. Wood is divided into two groups, softwoods and hardwoods dependingonthetypeoftreefromwhichitcame.Hardwoodscomefromdeciduoustrees

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thatistreethatlosetheirleaveseveryautumn.Coniferoustreesthatstaygreenallyearround isthesourceofsoftwoods.Ingeneralhardwoodsasthenamesuggestareharderandheavier thansoftwoods,thereareexceptionsthough. 2.2Quality (Reference:CodeNo.IS:8831981(Revised)) 2.2.1Firstclasswood Wellseasoned. Uniformcolor. Free from cracks, dead knots, shakes, sapwood, etc. No individual hard and sound knotismorethansixsq.cminsizeandtheaggregateareaofallsuchknotsshouldnot exceedonepercentoftheareaofthepiece. Closegrained,havingnotlessthantwogrowthringspercmwidthincrosssection. Incaseofdeodar,thewoodisreasonably straightgrainedandhasfourgrowthrings per cmwidthincrosssection. 2.2.2Secondclasswood Wellseasoned. Freefromcracks,deadknots,shakes,sapwood,etc. Noindividualhardandsoundknotismorethan15sq.cminsizeandtheaggregate areaofallsuchknotsshouldnotexceedtwopercentoftheareaofthepiece Fairly closegrained, having not less than two growth rings per cm width in cross section. Indeodar,tracesofsapwoodmaybeallowed.Fairlyuniformcolourandreasonably straightgrainsattherateofthreegrowthringspercmwidthincrosssectionshould bepresent. 2.2.3Naturallyoccurringcharacteristics Knots,checks,cracks,splitsandshakes Slope/steepnessofgrain Closenessofgrain Moisturecontent Sapwood

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Table1:Followingaresomemarketratesoftimberavailableinmarket SrNo. 1 2 3 4 5 TypeofWood/Timber Siligurisal Malayasiasal 1stclassteak 2ndclassteak Gamari RateperCubic Feet Rs.650/to700/ Rs.600/to650/ Rs.1800/to 2000/ Rs.1200/to 1500/ Rs.650/to700/ Forfurniture. Fordoors/windows.

Table 2:Rateanalysisfor1.5mx0.9mteakwoodwindowwithtwofully panelshutterof 40mmthick


Sl No Particular NO. Length Breadth Thickness

Qty

RATE

Unit Amount

Teak woodin window frame Fully panned double shutter (40mm) Butt hinges Handle 10cm Tower bolt 25cm (top) Tower bolt 10cm (bottom)

4.8

0.1

0.075

0.036

44143.34 cum 1589.16

1.374

0.774

1.06

1883

sqm 2002.53

4 2

4 2

30 45

Each Each

120 90

20

Each

40

20

Each

40

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Hooks Holdfast (6"0)

2 4

2 4 Total material cost(A)

15 20

Each Each

30 80

Rs3991.69

B Carpenter 1.75 Helper 0.5

Labour 1.75 0.5 250 150 Each Each 437.5 75

Rs512.5
Total labour cost(B)

SudriesorcontigencyandT.&P.etc

1%of total (A+B)

Rs45.04

Profitandoverhead

10%of thetotal( A+B+ C)

Rs454.92

Grand Total

Rs5004.15

3.Powdercoatedaluminumwindows 3.1Introduction AluminumisnowwidelyuseasthefirstchoicefortheconstructionofAluminumDoors& Windows,VentilatorsandFrontWallGlazingatallmajorconstructionsitessuchasHotels, Offices,Complexes,Auditoriums,Hospitals,Showroomsetc.AluminumLaddersarewidely usefordomesticaswellasinindustrialpurposesandisalsousedforvariousoutdoorservices such as street light, multistoried buildings, industrial sheds, loco sheds and auditoriums maintenance 3.2Specification

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3.2.1 CodesandStandards The codes and standards generally applicable to the work of this section are listed herein under: IS: 733 Wrought aluminum and aluminum alloy bars, rods and sections (for generalengineeringpurpose). IS: 1285 Wrought aluminum and aluminum alloy extruded round tube and hollowsections(forgeneralengineeringpurpose). IS:1362Dimensionforscrewthreadforgeneralpurpose. IS: 1761 transparent sheet glass for glazing and framingpurposes. IS: 1948 Aluminum doors, window and ventilators. IS:1949Aluminumwindowsforindustrialbuildings. IS:7088Recommendedpracticeforanodizingaluminumanditsalloys. 3.3Materials Aluminum alloy used in the manufacture of extruded door and window sections shall correspond to IS designation HE9WP of IS: 733. Aluminum alloy hollow section and coupling sections used shall conform to IS designation HV9WP of IS: 1285. They shall conform to dimensions shown in Fig. 5 to IS: 1948 unless otherwise specified in the drawings. Screw threads of machine screws used in the manufacture of aluminum doors, windowandventilatorsshallconformtoIS:1362.Otherthreadsmaybeusedifpermittedby theEngineer. 3.4Fabrication 3.4.1Frames Framesofaluminumdoorsandwindowsshallbeofprofileanddimensionsasshowninthe drawings,Framesshallbesquareandflat,thecornersoftheframesbeingfabricatedtoatrue rightangle.Boththefixedandopeningframesshallbefabricatedoutofsectionswhichhave beencutoflength,miteredandweldedatthecorners.Where hollowsectionsareusedwith welded joints, argonarc welding or flashbutt welding shall be employed (gas welding or blazingshallnotbedone).Subdividingbarsofunitsshallbetentedandrevertedintothe frame.Fabricatealuminumframestoallowforclearancesandshimspacingaroundperimeter of assemblies to enable installation into prepared openings.Provide anchorage devices to securely and solidly attach the frame assembly in place.Accurately and rigidly fit together joints and corners, match components ensuring continuity of line and design. Ensure joints and connections are flush, hairlineand weatherproof. Provide drainroutes andoutlets to exteriorformoistureenteringjointsandconnectionsoccurringwithintheframeconstruction. 3.4.2Shutters Shutter thickness and dimensions of vertical stiles, head and sill shall be as shown in the drawings. Unless otherwise specified, the hinges shall be of anodized aluminum alloy and

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shall normally be of projecting type. Slot shall be cut in the fixed frame and the hinges insertedinsideandmayberivetedtotheframe.Thefinsforhingesshallbeofstainlesssteel ofnonmagnetictypeofaluminumalloyHR30anodizedandshallbesealedwithoil,waxof lanolin. 3.4.3Fittings Handles, peg stays, towerbolts, locking device, hinges andpivots,floorsprings, automatic dooroperatorsshallbeofthedesignandmakeapprovedbytheEngineer.Doorleafshallbe equippedwithadjustablemechanismlocatedintoprail near lockstylethatwillprovidefor minor clear adjustments after installation. Snap of (Clip on) anodized /powder coated aluminumbeadings and glazing clips shallbeprovided asperdesign and sizeapprovedby theEngineer. 3.4.4Finish Afterfabrication,anyfabricationoil,scratchesandtoolmarksshallberemovedleavingthe surface free from discoloration, blemishes and defects. Aluminum surfaces shall first be given a medium matte finish by caustic soda etching or by mechanical methods. All aluminumglazingshallbeanodizedconformingtoIS:7088tothelightfastshadeapproved by the Engineer. A thick layer of clean transparent lacquer based on methacrylates or cellulose butyrate shall be applied to all aluminum glazing to protect the surface during installation.Thelacquercoatingshallberemovedaftertheinstallationiscompleted.Theunit assembliesshallbeanodized/powdercoatedfinish.Anodizingshallbeminimum15microns thick of mat texture, nondirectional and nonspecular. Anodized surfaces shall be suitably protectedduringtransportation,storageanderection.Powdercoatingifspecifiedshallbenot lessthan50Micron. 3.4.5Receivingandstacking Fabricatedaluminumframesandmembersshallbeindividuallywrappedanddeliveredatsite in crates. The contractors shall receive and unload the same at site with utmost care. The crates shall be opened and the materials carefully examined by the Engineer to detect any damage.Damagedmaterialsshallbeimmediatelyremovedfromthesite.Materialsfoundto be acceptable on inspections shall be repacked in crates and stored safely in a vertical position above ground in a dry area. During the unpacking and repacking operations the contractor shall take all precautions to ensure that the protective coating of the fabricated materialsisnotdamagedatall. 3.4.6Glazing Theglasspanesshallbeofthetypeandthicknessspecifiedintheitem.Theirsizesshallbeas shown in the drawings. The glass panes shall be of quality and make approved by the Engineer.Theyshallhaveproperlysquaredcornersandstraightedges.Damagedordefective glass shall be replaced with new glass at no additional cost. Each piece of glass shall be deliveredwithfactorylabelsintact,indicatingglasstype,qualityandthickness.Labelsshall not be removed until installation has been accepted. Glazing gasket channels and beads of P.V.C.orrubbermustbefurnishedbythedoorandwindowmanufacturertofittheirframes.

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Setting block shall be of neoprene of rubber width and high enough to provide minimum edges clearance for glass. Protect glass from breakages immediately upon installation by applyingsuitablewarningmarkings. 3.4.7Weatherproofing Frameatdoorperimetershallbefittedwithnonporouspolymericweatherstrippinganddoor bottom shall have an adjustable elastomeric weatherstrip. Weather strips shall not bind or prevent door from closing easily and tightly with weather tight contact between metal. Alternatively gaps between frames and supports as well as any gap in the various sections shallberakedoutasdirectedandfilledwithmasticcementofapprovedmakeandcolourto ensurecompletewatertightness.Themasticcementshallbeofsuchcolourandcomposition sothatitwouldnotstainthesupportsandshallreceivepaintwithoutbleeding.Moreover,it shallnotsagorrunandshallnotsethardordryoutunderanyweatherconditions. 3.4.8Finalclearing Protective coating and warning markings shall remain undisturbed until final acceptance. Immediately prior to final inspection, temporary protective covering or coating shall be removedandsurfacesshallbewashedwithasuitablethinnerandleftinafinishedcondition havingapproveduniformappearanceandfreefromallmarksandblemishes. 3.4.9Advantages 1. Airtightness :Awelldesignatedaluminumwindowisperfectlyairtightandsealed fordustandrainwater,whenclosed 2. Appearance:Thefinishedaluminumisgenerallysmooth,havingbrightfinishwhich ishighlyamenabletofurtherfinishingasdemandedbyapplication 3. Ease in fabrication andassembly :As aluminum is comparatively soft and ductile metal,thefabricationofwindowcaneasilycarriedout 4. Handling and transportation cost :As aluminumwindow are very light ,the handling andtransportioncostisverylow 5. High corrosion resistance :The aluminum window has excellentcorrosion resistance anditcanresistweatheringconditionverywell 6. High reflectivity :It does not absorb radiant heat and low absorption helps in maintainingthesurroundingareacoolduringsummerandwarminwinter 7. Highscrapevalue:Thescrapvalueofaluminumwindowisveryhighandasithardly deteriorates,itenjoyhigh 3.4.10Disadvantages 1. 2. 3. 4. Aluminumwindowwilloxidate. Thisoxidationappearsaswhiteresidueandpitting Aluminumcancorrodequicklyifsuitableprecautionsagainstelectrolysisarenottaken Welding of Aluminum requires specialized equipment and training compared to standardweldingofsteel 571

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4.UPVCwindows 4.1Introduction PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride Vinyl) is one of the three major thermoplastics Polypropylene (PP), Polyethylene (PE) and PVC being manufactured andused across the globe. Globally, around60%(~21millionmetrictons)ofPVCfindsitswayintoinfrastructureintheformof Water/SWR/ Plumbing/Drainage Pipes, Window & Door Profiles, Prefab Housing, Portal Cabins,FalseCeilings,Wires&Cables,Floorings,Sidings&Claddings,Dockings,Fencing, Cable Trays & Channels, etc. thereby earning the sobriquet of Infrastructure Plastic. To make PVC useful for various applications, additives such as thermal stabilizers, lubricants, processing aids, colorants, UV stabilizers, Plasticizers, fillers, etc. are added to it before processing to ensure good mechanical properties and weatherability. Due to this process, called Compounding, PVC becomes a highly versatile plastic making its processing possiblefortherigidestofproducts(unplasticisedPVC,i.e.UPVC)tothesoftest(FPVC) 4.2WhyUPVCWindows? UPVCWindowsarewidelyusedacrosstheglobe,fromthedesertsofArizonatothecoldest parts of Scandinavia/Russia, from the hot environs of Gulf to the tropics of Malaysia, Thailand as well as very extensively in China, S. Korea, Taiwan, and many more Geographies.InfactEuropeandNorthAmericapredominantlyuseonlyUPVCWindowsin their residential constructions, for both new and replacement. This is due to their good aesthetics, durability, noise proofness, low maintenance requirement, best air & water tightness, and their ability to provide excellent thermal insulation, thereby helping save air conditioning power costs in homes, offices and commercial centers. UPVC Windows come withaveryhighqualitysurfacefinish,softcontouredprofilesandavarietyofstylestomeet the needsofthemostdemandingarchitects,designersandusers.Theenvironmentalbenefit ofusing UPVC Windows insteadof wood andmetal windows is phenomenal. Due to their abilitytoconserveenergythroughouttheirlifetime(fromrawmaterialstagetoinusestage), UPVC Windows are recognized as Green Windows thereby scoring over traditional wood and metal windows. UPVC Windows are the best fit for all weather conditions prevalent across India from salty humid corrosive air of coastal areas to subzero temperatures of LadakhtoheavyrainsofCherrapunjitothehotduststormsofCentralIndiatothecyclonic galewindsofOrissacoasttotheextremelyhotdesertsofTharinRajasthan. 4.3Advantages Do not allow rains to come in due to their double gasketting and water drainage design Idealforrainyandcoastallocations Do not let outside heat in (and viceversa in cold climate) thereby providing inhabitant comfort & saving heating/cooling energy to the extent of 2025% due to insulatingmultichamberedprofileandairtightsealingdesign Provide Sound & Dust insulation , reducing noise to the extent of 2030 decibels thereby providing user comfort Ideal for Schools, Colleges, Canteens & Messes, Hospitals,CommunityCenters,etc

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DonotRust,Corrode,RotorSwell,areTermiteproof,neednoPainting Design flexibility and versatility Any shape, form and size can be made can be customized Stylish , elegant and aesthetically pleasing Available in a choice of colours,printedpatterns,laminates andcolourcoordinatedgrilles(white isthebest suitedcolourforIndianweatherconditions) 4.4Disadvantage Replacementcostishigh. TheprocessthatisrequiredtomakeUPVCsishighlytoxicandthisinturnleadsto toxicbyproducts. ProblemrelatedtoUPVCwindowsdisposalattheendoftheirusefullife. UPVCwindowsdiscolorbytheactionofweather,soperiodicpaintingisrequired Very bad weather or severe extremes of weather can cause cracking, expanding or warpingtoyourdoubleglazing. 4.5Sizesavailable Itisavailableallsizesfrom300mmto2400mmasperrequirements. 5.Casestudy NameofProject ResidentColony,RC4, NearIIM,Rau,AgraBombayroad, Indore,MP. TypeofProjectResidentialApartment,GF+5. 5.1Introduction AluminiumpowdercoatedwindowswereusedforaresidentialbuildingG+5flooratvarious locations,such as kitchen,bedrooms, hall and ventilatorsfortoilets blocks. The aluminum sliding window were made up of Z section of various sizes, 1500mm X1200mm three track, 1200mm X1200mm two tracks, 1100mm X 1000 mm two tracks and ventilator glazedofsize700mmX900mm.Theglazedwindowswerehavingthefloatglassthickness of5mm with aluminum frame. All frames were fixed with 50mm longscrews to the wall. TheratesforglazedwindowwasRs180/ persqftfortwotracksand205/ persqftforthree tracks windows and Rs 155/ per sqft for ventilators .The properties and rates were than comparedwithwoodenwindowsandUPVCwindowsandthesameismentionedbelow.

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Table 3:Comparison ofwindows Sr. Propertiesof No. window Energy Consumption Conveniencein Installation Usage Doesheatorcold transmitthrough thematerial Isitcoolallyear? Willitrequire paintingorother maintainace Willscratches showasa differentcolour underthepaint Doessoapand watercleaning makematerial looknewagain Aesthetics UPVCwindow LowEmbodied energy,Low energy consumption duringextrusion Easy Never Onlyifkeptdry Onlyifkeptdry Yesifscratched Aluminiumwindow LowEnergy consumptionsimilarto PVC Fair Yes Yes No Yesifscratched Woodenwindow HighEmbodied energy,7.5times highenergy consumption duringextrusion Fair Yes Yes No Yes

2 3 4 5 6

Yes

Yes

Yes

8 9

No Good Upto99%after separationfrom Hardwareand reinforcement 50100years.PVC windowsarein marketsince50 years Rs.500/to700/ forfixedandRs 800to900for sliding

No Good Recyclingdifficultas profilesaretreatedwith paint,siliconand variousprotection coatings Havetobepainted& maintained Rs150/ to300/ per sqftasperno.oftrack, sizeandthicknessand type(slidingorfixed window)ofaluminum section.

No Poor Separationof aluminumand plasticparts difficult 40Yearswith adequatesurface coatings

10

WasteDisposal

11

LifeTime

12

CostPersqft

Rs.300 400/ sq.ft.

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6.Conclusion Thealuminumwindowisbestsuitedforconstruction,asithaslowcost,easilyavailable & candemoldedinanyshape&size.Alsoithashighdegreeofeleganceandgoodappearance whenpowdercoated.Itislightinweight&havinghighscrapvalueascomparedtowooden andUPVCwindows 7.References 1. S C Rangwala, (2007). Building Construction, 25th Edition, Charotar PublishingHouse,pp309347. 2. M.Chakraborty.(2001).Estimating,Costing,Specification&ValuationInCivil Engineering,15th Edition,S.C.RangwalaPublishers,pp300312.
th 3. KennethGBudinski.(2001).EngineeringMaterials,5 Edition,PrenticeHall ofIndia,pp 119144. th 4. Late P.T. Joglekar. (2008). Practical Information for Quantity surveyors, 5 Edition,VidyarthiGrihaPrakashan,pp 2223. th 5. JacksonandDhir.(1992)CivilEngineeringMaterials,4 Edition,.Macmillan Publishers,pp368379. th 6. IvorHSeeley.(1995).BuildingTechnology,5 Ed.MacmillanPublishers.160 178

7. Sudeep Mantri . (2004). Practical Building Construction and its Management, SatyaPrakashamPublishers,pp 430493. 8. MMGoyal.(2006).HandBookofBuildingConstruction,Vol1,SaurabGoyal Publishers,pp613669. 9. M M Goyal. (2006). Hand Book of Building Construction, Vol11. Saurab GoyalPublishers,pp 115219. 10.Donald Watson. (2009). Time Saver Standards for Building Materials. Edition.2009, TataMcGrawHillPublishers, B1.51.
nd 11.Sustainable development, http:// www.lafargeindia.com/ ,accessed on 22 November2010.

12.FenestaUPVCWindowsandUPVCDoors,http://www.fenesta.com,accessed th on24 November2010 13.Environmentally safe insulation leader: UPVC windows, http:// www.Ezine th articles.com,accessedon04 December2010

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