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BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES

General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

BUSCALC LECTURE NOTES CHAPTER 2


Yvette Fajardo-Lim
Mathematics Department De La Salle University - Manila

Outline
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Outline
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

General Form
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

The general form of a second degree equation in two variables, x and y , is given by ax 2 + bxy + cy 2 + dx + ey + f = 0 where a, b, c, d, e and f are constants, and at least one of a, b and c is nonzero. The shapes of the corresponding graph of the quadratic equation depend on the values of these constants. The graph could either be a single point, a line, a pair of lines, parabola, ellipse, circle, hyperbola, or no graph at all. These are called the conic sections.

Conic Sections
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Conic Sections
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

The graph of the second degree equation ax 2 + bxy + cy 2 + dx + ey + f = 0 depends on the value of b2 4ac. b2 4ac b2 4ac b2 4ac b2 4ac < 0, b = 0 or a = c < 0, b = 0 and a = c =0 >0 ellipse circle parabola hyperbola

Conic Sections
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example
1 2

The graph of 2x 2 + 2y 2 + 4x 3y 2 = 0 is a circle. The graph of 3x 2 + 27y 2 5x + 7y + 4 = 0 is a parabola. The graph of 2x 2 y 2 2x + 3y 6 = 0 is a hyperbola. The graph of 6x 2 + 2y 2 + 17y + 2 = 0 is an ellipse.

3 4

Conic Sections
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example
1 2

The graph of 2x 2 + 2y 2 + 4x 3y 2 = 0 is a circle. The graph of 3x 2 + 27y 2 5x + 7y + 4 = 0 is a parabola. The graph of 2x 2 y 2 2x + 3y 6 = 0 is a hyperbola. The graph of 6x 2 + 2y 2 + 17y + 2 = 0 is an ellipse.

3 4

Conic Sections
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example
1 2

The graph of 2x 2 + 2y 2 + 4x 3y 2 = 0 is a circle. The graph of 3x 2 + 27y 2 5x + 7y + 4 = 0 is a parabola. The graph of 2x 2 y 2 2x + 3y 6 = 0 is a hyperbola. The graph of 6x 2 + 2y 2 + 17y + 2 = 0 is an ellipse.

3 4

Conic Sections
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example
1 2

The graph of 2x 2 + 2y 2 + 4x 3y 2 = 0 is a circle. The graph of 3x 2 + 27y 2 5x + 7y + 4 = 0 is a parabola. The graph of 2x 2 y 2 2x + 3y 6 = 0 is a hyperbola. The graph of 6x 2 + 2y 2 + 17y + 2 = 0 is an ellipse.

3 4

Conic Sections
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example
1 2

The graph of 2x 2 + 2y 2 + 4x 3y 2 = 0 is a circle. The graph of 3x 2 + 27y 2 5x + 7y + 4 = 0 is a parabola. The graph of 2x 2 y 2 2x + 3y 6 = 0 is a hyperbola. The graph of 6x 2 + 2y 2 + 17y + 2 = 0 is an ellipse.

3 4

Outline
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Parabola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Denition A parabola is the set of points in a plane that are the same distance from a xed line, called the directrix, and a xed point, called the focus, not on the directrix. The midpoint of the perpendicular segment from the focus to the directrix is called the vertex of the parabola. The line that passes through the vertex and focus is called the axis of symmetry.

Parabola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Parabola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

The standard form of the equation of the parabola with vertex at the origin and focus on the line x = 0, is given by x 2 = 4py . In the given gure, the focus lies |p| units away from the vertex, where p = 0 . If p > 0, then the graph of the parabola opens upward and if p < 0, the graph of the parabola opens downward.

Parabola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

If the axis of symmetry is y = 0, the equation is y 2 = 4px. As shown in the gure, the focus also lies |p| units away from the vertex, where p = 0. The parabola opens to the right if p > 0 while if p < 0, the parabola opens to the left.

Parabola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example The graph of x 2 = 8y is shown below. Since p = 2, the parabola opens upward, the focus is at point (0, 2) and the directrix is y = 2 .

Parabola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example The graph of y 2 = 16x is shown below. Since p = 4, the parabola opens to the left, the focus is at point (4, 0) and the directrix is x = 4 .

Parabola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

The standard form of the equation of the parabola with vertex at (h, k ), is given by (x h)2 = 4p(y k ) if the focus lies on the axis of symmetry x = h. The focus is at (h, k + p) and the directrix is the line y = k p.

Parabola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example Given (x 2)2 = 2(y + 3), the squared variable is x, hence the axis of symmetry is vertical. The vertex of the parabola is at (2, 3) with the axis of symmetry x = 2. Solving for p, 1 we have p = . Since p > 0, the parabola opens upward. 2 1 Locating the point further up from the vertex gives the 2 1 5 and going points further down will focus at 2, 2 2 7 determine the directrix as y = . 2

Parabola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

(x 2)2 = 2(y + 3)

Parabola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

The standard form of the equation of the parabola with vertex at (h, k ), is given by (y h)2 = 4p(x k ) if the focus lies on the axis of symmetry y = k . The focus is at (h + p, k ) with directrix x = h p.

Parabola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example Given y 2 + 6y + 8x = 25, by completing the square, the equation in standard form is (y + 3)2 = 8(x + 2). The squared variable is y , hence the axis of symmetry is horizontal. The vertex of the parabola is at (2, 3) with the axis of symmetry y = 3. Solving for p, we have p = 2 which locates the focus 2 points to the left of the vertex at point (4, 3). Since p < 0, the parabola opens to the left. Counting 2 points to the right of the vertex, we obtain the equation of the directrix as x = 0.

Parabola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

y 2 + 6y + 8x = 25

Parabola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example Given the parabola with vertex (2, 1) and focus (5, 1), the standard form of its equation is (y 1)2 = 12(x 2).

Outline
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Denition An ellipse is the set of all points in a plane such that the sum the distances from any point on the ellipse to two other xed points, the foci (plural of focus), is a positive constant. The midpoint of the segment between the foci is called the center of the ellipse. The line through the foci determines two points of the ellipse called the vertices of the ellipse. The segment from the vertices is called the major axis of the ellipse and the segment perpendicular to the major axis and incident with the ellipse is called the minor axis of the ellipse.

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

If the values of a and b are known, the location of the foci may be obtained using the equation c 2 = a2 b2 .

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

The standard form of the equation of an ellipse with center at the origin is given by x2 y2 + = 1, a > b > 0 a2 b 2 if the major axis is horizontal and x2 y2 + = 1, a > b > 0 b 2 a2 if the major axis is vertical.

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example x2 y2 + = 1, we have a2 = 9 and b2 = 4. The larger 4 9 denominator is with the y variable. Hence, the major axis lies along the y -axis. The vertices are at points (0, 3) and (0, 3) and the endpoints of the minor axis are at points (2, 0) and (2, 0). The length of the major axis and the length of the minor axis are 2a = 6 and 2b = 4, respectively. The value of c is obtained as c = 5 ; the foci are at points (0, 5) and (0, 5). Given

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

x2 y2 + =1 4 9

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example x2 y2 + =1 25 4 obtained by dividing both sides of the equation by 100. We have a2 = 25 and b2 = 4. The larger denominator is with the x variable. Hence, the major axis lies along the x-axis. The vertices are at points (5, 0) and (5, 0) and the endpoints of the minor axis are at points (0, 2) and (0, 2). The length of the major axis and the length of the minor axis are 2a = 10 and = 4, respectively. The value of c is obtained as 2b c = 21 ; the foci are at points ( 21, 0) and ( 21, 0). Given 4x 2 + 25y 2 = 100, the standard form is

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

4x 2 + 25y 2 = 100

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

The standard form for an ellipse centered at (h, k ) with its major axis parallel to the x-axis is (x h)2 (y k )2 + = 1, a > b > 0. a2 b2 The vertices are at points (h + a, k ), (h a, k ) while the endpoints of the minor axis are at points (h, k + b), (h, k b). The foci are located at (h + c, k ), (h c, k ) with c 2 = a2 b2 .

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example Given 16x 2 + 25y 2 + 32x 150y = 159, by completing the square, the equation in standard form is (x + 1)2 (y 3)2 + = 1. The center of the ellipse is at 25 16 (1, 3) . The larger denominator involves the x variable which implies that the major axis is parallel to the x-axis. We have a = 5 and b = 4. Hence, we can obtain the following: vertices: (4, 3) and (6, 3) endpoints of the minor axis: (1, 7) and (1, 1) foci: (2, 3) and (4, 3)

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

16x 2 + 25y 2 + 32x 150y = 159

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

The standard form for an ellipse centered at (h, k ) with its major axis parallel to the y -axis is (x h)2 (y k )2 + = 1, a > b > 0. b2 a2 The vertices are at points (h, k + a), (h, k a) while the endpoints of the minor axis are at points (h + b, k )(h b, k ). The foci are located at (h, k + c), (h, k c) with c 2 = a2 b 2 .

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example (x 1)2 (y + 2)2 + = 1, the ellipse is centered at 25 36 (1, 2). Since the larger denominator involves the y variable, the major axis is parallel to the y -axis, a = 6 and b = 5. Moreover, we know that the major axis has length 12 and the vertices occur at points which are 6 units in either direction from the center. This implies that the vertices are at points (1, 4) and (1, 8). The minor axis is of length 10 which places the endpoints of the minor axis at points (6, 2) and (4, 2). Solving c we obtain c = 11 and for the foci are at points (1, 2 + 11) and (1, 2 11). Given

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

(x 1)2 (y + 2)2 + =1 25 36

Ellipse
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example The standard form of the equation of the ellipse with foci at (3,5), (3,-5) and with a major axis of length 26 in standard (x 3)2 y2 form is + = 1. 144 169

Outline
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Circle
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Denition A circle is the set of points in a plane that are equidistant from a xed point. The xed point is called the center of the circle, and the distance from the center to any point on the circle is called the radius of the circle. The standard form of the equation of a circle with center at the origin and radius r is given by x 2 + y 2 = r 2 .

Circle
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Denition A circle is the set of points in a plane that are equidistant from a xed point. The xed point is called the center of the circle, and the distance from the center to any point on the circle is called the radius of the circle. The standard form of the equation of a circle with center at the origin and radius r is given by x 2 + y 2 = r 2 .

Circle
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example The graph of x 2 + y 2 = 16 is shown below.

Circle
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

The standard form of the equation of a circle with center at (h, k ) with radius r is (x h)2 + (y k )2 = r 2 .

Circle
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example The center of the graph of (x + 4)2 + (y 3)2 = 25 is at (4, 3) and its radius is 5.

Circle
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example The standard form of x 2 + y 2 8x + 12y = 12 is (x 4)2 + (y + 6)2 = 64 obtained by completing the square.

Circle
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example The standard form the equation of the circle with center at of (2, 5) and radius 5 is (x + 2)2 + (y 5)2 = 5

Outline
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Denition A hyperbola is the set of all points in a plane such that the difference of the distances between these points and two xed points is a constant. The two xed points are the foci of the hyperbola, and the midpoint of the segment joining the foci is the center of the hyperbola.

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Each hyperbola consists of two branches. The line which contains the two foci intersects the hyperbola at two points, called the vertices. The line segment which ends at these vertices is called the transverse axis. The conjugate axis passes through the center of the hyperbola and is perpendicular to the transverse axis.

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

The standard form of the equation of a hyperbola with center at the origin has the following equation x2 y2 =1 a2 b 2 if the transverse axis is along the x-axis. The points (a, 0) and (a, 0) are the vertices with (c, 0) and (c, 0) as its foci. In the hyperbola, c 2 = a2 + b2 .

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

If the transverse axis is along the y -axis, the equation is given by y2 x2 = 1. a2 b 2 The vertices in this case are (0, a) and (0, a) with foci at (0, c) and (0, c). In both cases, the length of the transverse axis is 2a.

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

As points on a hyperbola get farther from its center, they get closer and closer to two lines called asymptote lines. The asymptote lines are used as guidelines in sketching the graph of a hyperbola. To graph the asymptote lines, form a rectangle by using the points (a, b), (a, b), (a, b), and (a, b) as the corners and draw its diagonals as extended lines.

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

x2 y2 =1 a2 b 2

y2 x2 =1 a2 b 2

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

For the hyperbola centered at (0, 0) whose transverse axis is along the x-axis, the equation of the asymptote lines are b y = x. a If the transverse axis is along the y -axis, the asymptote lines have equations a y = x. b

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example x2 y2 = 1, it follows that a = 3 and b = 4. The 16 9 points (3, 0) and (3, 0) are the vertices. Using c 2 = a2 + b2 , the value of c is obtained as 5. The foci are located at (5, 0) and (5, 0). The equation of the asymptote 4 4 lines are y = x and y = x 3 3 Given

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

x2 y2 =1 16 9

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example y2 x2 = 1, the transverse axis is along the y -axis 16 9 since the positive term contains the y variable with center at the origin. It follows that a = 4 and b = 3. The points (0, 4) and (0, 4) are the vertices and the points (0, 5) and (0, 5) are the foci since the value of c is still 5. The 4 4 equation of the asymptote lines are y = x and y = x 3 3 Given

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

y2 x2 =1 16 9

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

The standard form of the equation of the hyperbola with center at (h, k ) is (x h)2 (y k )2 = 1. a2 b2 if the transverse axis is horizontal. The vertices are at points (h + a, k ), (h a, k ) while the foci are located at (h + c, k ), (h c, k ). The asymptote lines are drawn using rectangle with points (h + a, k + b), (h a, k b), (h a, k + b), and (h + a, k b) as its corners if the transverse axis is horizontal. The equation of the asymptote lines are b y = k (x h). a .

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

The standard form of the equation of the hyperbola with center at (h, k ) is (x h)2 (y k )2 = 1. a2 b2 if the transverse axis is horizontal. The vertices are at points (h + a, k ), (h a, k ) while the foci are located at (h + c, k ), (h c, k ). The asymptote lines are drawn using rectangle with points (h + a, k + b), (h a, k b), (h a, k + b), and (h + a, k b) as its corners if the transverse axis is horizontal. The equation of the asymptote lines are b y = k (x h). a .

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example (x 3)2 (y + 4)2 = 1, the center of the hyperbola 25 36 is at (3, 4) with a = 5 and b = 6. Since the positive term contains the x variable, the transverse axis is horizontal. The vertices are at points (8, 4), (2, 4). Solving for c, we obtain c = 61. foci are located at The (3 + 61, 4), (3 61, 4). The equation of the 6x 38 6x 2 and y = x asymptote lines are y = 5 5 Given

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

(x 3)2 (y + 4)2 =1 25 36

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example Given y 2 4x 2 6y 8x 11 = 0, the standard form obtained by completing the square is (y 3)2 (x + 1)2 = 1. The center of the hyperbola is at 16 4 (1, 3) with a = 4 and b = 2. The positive term contains the y variable which means that the transverse axis is vertical. The vertices are at points (1, 7), (1, 1). Since c = 20. The foci are located at (1, 3 + 20), (1, 3 20). The equation of the asymptote lines are y = 2x + 5 and y = 2x + 1

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

y 2 4x 2 6y 8x 11 = 0

Hyperbola
BUSCALC Yvette Fajardo-Lim QUADRATIC EQUATIONS IN TWO VARIABLES
General Form Parabola Ellipse Circle Hyperbola

Example The equation of the hyperbola with foci at (2, 8), (2, 0) and (y 4)2 (x 2)2 = 1. with transverse axis of length 6 is . 9 7