# Electromagnetic Fields and Waves

Magdy F. Iskander
University of Hawaii at Manoa

WAVEIAN,D

CONTENTS

PREFACE

ix

CHAPTiER

1
1

VECTOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS

IN INTEGRAL FORM
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10

Introduction 1 Vector Algebra 2 Coordinate Systems 8 Vector Representation in Various Coordinate Systems 16 Vector Coordinate Transformation 19 Electric and Magnetic Fields 26 Vector Integration 45 Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form 58 Displacement Current 70 General Characteristics of Maxwell's Equations 75

Summary

83

Problems 86
iii

iv

Contents

CHAPTER

2
IN DIFFERENTIAL FORM
99

MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2..12 2.13 2.14 2.15'

Introduction 99 Vector Differentiation 100 Gradient of Scalar Function 103 Divergence of Vector Field 110 Divergence Theorem 119 Differential Expressions of Maxwell's Divergence Relations 122 Cud of Vector Field 126 Stokes's, Theorem 135 Ampere's and Faraday's Laws in Point (Differential) Form 139 Summary of Maxwell's Equations in Differential Forms 141 Continuity Equation and Maxwell's Displacement Current Term 147 Wave Equation in Source Free Region 150 Time Harmonic Fields and Their Phasor Representation 151 Uniform Plane Wave Propagation in Free Space 154 Polarization. of Plane Waves 166 Summary 16B Problems 171

CHAPTER

3
179

MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS AND PLANE WAVE PROPAGATION IN MATERIALS
3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3..7 3.8 Introduction 179 Characterization of Materials 180 Conductors and Conduction Currents 181 Dielectric Materials and Their Polarization 183 Gauss's Law for Electric Field in Materials 193 Magnetic Materials and Their Magnetization 195 Ampere's Law and Magnetization Current 203 Maxwell's Equations in Material Regions 208

Contents

v 211
Condition for Electric and

3.9

Boundary Conditions
of Boundary

3.10 Summary

Magnetic Fields 231 3.. n Uniform Plane Wave Propagation in Conductive : Medium 238 3.12 Electromagnetic Power and Poynting Theorem 248
Su.mmary 261 Problems 263

CHAPTER

4
FIELDS 273

STATIC ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC
4.1 Introduction 273

·4.2 Maxwell's Equations for Static Fields 274 4.3 Electrostatic Fields 275 4.4 Evaluation of Electric Field E from Electrostatic Potential q:. 279 4.5 Capacitance 284 4.6 Electrostatic Energy Density 291 4.7 Laplace's and Poisson's Equations 296 4.8 Numerical Solution of Poisson's and Laplace's Equations=Finite Difference Method 300 4;',·9 Numerical Solution of Electrostatic Problems-Method of Moments 313 4..10 Magnetostafic Fiefds and Magnetic Vector Potential 323 4..11 Magnetic Circuits 332 4:.12 Self-Inductance and. Mutual Inductance 344 4.13 Magnetic Energy 350 Summary 356 Problems 358 CHAPTER

5
PLANE WAVE REFLECTION AT PLANE BOUNDARIES

NORMAL ..INCIDENCE AND TRANSMISSION

371

5,1 Introduction 371 5.2. Normal-incidence Plane Wav,e Reflection and Transmission at Plane Boundary between Two Conductive Media 372

vi

Contents

5.3

Normal-incidence Plane Wave Reflection at Perfectly Conducting Plane 378 5.4 Reflection and Transmission at Mu.ltiple Interfaces 3aS 5.. Reflection Coefficient and Total Held Impedance 5 Solution Procedure 390 5.. Graphical Solution Procedure Using the Smith 6 Chart 400 5.7 Quarter- and Half-wavelength Transformers 416 Summary 425 Problems 427

CHAPTER

6
436

OBLIQUE INCIDENCE PLANE WAVE REFLECTION AND TRANSMISSION
6.1 6.2 Plane Wave Propagation at Arbitrary Angle 436 Reflection by Perfect Ccnductor-e-Arbitrary Angle of Incidence 440 6.3 Reflection and Refraction at Plane Interface-between Two Media: Oblique Incidence 450 6.4 Comparison Between Reflection Coefficients fll and r.L for Parallel and Perpendicular Polarizations 458 6.5 Total Reflection at Critical Angle of Incidence 462 6.6 Electromagnetic Spectrum 466 6.7 Application to Optics 467 Summary 471 Problems 473

CHAPTER

7
LINES
479

TRANSMISSION
7.1

Characteristics of Wave Propagation in Transmission Lines 480 7.2 Distributed Circuit Representation of Transmission Lines 482 7.3 Lossless Line 484 7.4 Voltage Reflection Coefficient 487 7.5 Transients on Transmission Line 492

3 8. TM Modes in Rectangular Wave Guides 596 TE Modes in Rectangular Wave Guides 603 Field Configurations in ·WaveGuides 610 Excitation of Various Modes in Wave Guides 613 Energy Flow and Atrenuation in Rectangular Wave Guides 616 Summary 630 Problems 6\$2 CHAITER 9 637 ANTENNAS 9.7 Introduction 591 Guided Modes in Wave Guides 592.Contents vii 7.12 Use of Smith Chart 533 7..5 8.6 8.14 Impedance Matching of Lossless Lines 545 7.15 Voltage Standing-wave ~atio (VSWR) along Transmission Lines 555 7.8 [7.2 Introduction 637 Physical Aspects of Radiation 639 .n on Transmission Lines 507 Time-Domain Reflectometer 509 Sinusoidal Steady-State Analysis of Transmission Lines 516 7.6 7.2 8.7 '7.9 7.10 Reflection Diagram 494 Tandem Connection of Transmission Lines 499 Pulse Propagatio:.4 8.1 9. of Transmission-Line Impedance 539 7.16 Use of VSWR Measurement to Determine Unknown Impedances 562 Summary 573 Problems 5'75 CHAPTER 8 591 WAVE GUIDES 8.1 8.11 Reflections on Transmission Lines with Sinusoidal Excitation 523 7.13 Analytical Expression.

5 9. Atomic.6 Radiation from Short Alternating Basic Antenna Parameters 6. and Submultiples 720 C Trigonometric.4 9. Hyperbolic.viii Contents 9. and Material Constants 727 E Cosine Ci(x) and Sine Si(X) Integrals 732 F Answers to Selected Problems 736 725 INDEX 752 . and Logarithmic Relations D Free-Space.50 Linear Wire Antennas 658 Antenna Arrays 667 Summary 711 Problems 712 Current Element 641 APPENDIXES A Vector Identities and Operations 716 B Units.3 9. Multiples.

waves. and continue to j ix . It is unfortunate. when students take electromagnetics courses they are expected to be excited and prepared. ':". propagation. For example. microwave ovens. and mathematics should always be approached as a way to quantify and characterize. however that the overall emphasis of the subject may be placed on these mathematical relations and their clever manipulation. the physical and exciting phenomena associated with electromagnetic radiation should be foremost. and broadcast stations are encountered in our daily activities. and characterization of materials. medicine.PREFACE Electromagnetic energy has highly diversified applications in communications. they quickly get bogged down with equations and mathematical relations involving vector quantities and soonlose sight of the interesting subject and exciting applications of clcctromagnetics. Instead. however. Integral and differential equations involving vector quantities are important in describing the characteristics and behavior of electromagnetic fields under a wide variety of propagation and interaction conditions. It is true that the mathematical formulation of electromagnetics concepts is essential in quantifying the relationship between the electromagnetic fields and their sources. processing. to gain in-depth knowledge of this important subject. antennas. Practical applications based on electro magnetics technology such as electric power lines. and energy. Instead. It is with this in mind that I have approached the development of this junior-level electrical engineering book on electromagnetic fields and waves. and interactions.'hereare several ways of organizing an introductory book on electromagnetics. Therefore. radar systems. biology. atmospheric sciences. Students in their junior or senior year of electrical engineering are expected to have either academically or in practice encountered applications involving electromagnetic fields. students should be familiar academically with electromagnetics in their introductory physics courses. electromagnetic fields) their radiation. and in high-speed electronics and integrated circuits. One way is to start with the electrostatic and magnetostatic concepts.

and limitations of some of these software tools=-particularly those that use computational techniques and numerical methods. It is with this in mind that we preparedthe introductory material on computational methods in chapter 4. and love are also expressed to my family for patience. Los Angeles. were deeply appreciated. sincere thanks. accuracies. Furthermore. provided me with valuable feedback on the manuscript. I would also like to express my sincere appreciation [0 Ruth Eichers and Holly Cox for their expert efforts. and encourage [he use of computers and software tools to help electromagnetic education. Education (CAEME).Preface xi attempted to stimulate.< to help comprehend concepts. and solve interesting practical applications. accelerate. My gratitude. and it is imperative that students be aware of the capabilities. UT 84112. in typing and preparing the manuscript.NSF/IEEE Center on Computer Applicationsin Electromagnetic of Utah. I would like to conclude by expressing my sincere thanks and appreciation to my students who. and understanding during the completion of this endeavor. educators and students are encouraged to use available software from CAEME:. Iskander . Magdy F. Many educational software packages are now available to educators.. Elliott of University of California. during the years. Comments and suggestions by Professor Robert S. University . deep appreciation. visualize the dynamic-field phenomena. Salt Lake City. sacrifice.

with emphasis on understanding the concepts of electric and magnetic fields because they constitute the basic elements of electromagnetics. These basic vector operations are first defined independent of any coordinate system and then specifically applied to the Cartesian.. Maxwell's equations are simply the mathematical relations that govern the relationships between the electric and magnetic fields.1 INTRODUCTION In this chapter we will first review some simple rules of vector algebra . These relations include the following: 1 . Transformation of vector representation from one coordinate system to another will also be described. cylindrical. Scalar and vector fields win then be defined..CHAPTER 1 VECTOR ANALYSIS AND MAXWELL'S EQUATIONS IN INTEGRAL FO·RM 1. Vector integration will be introduced to pave the way for the introduction of Maxwell's equations in integral form. and their associated charge and current distri bution sources. and spherical coordinate systems.

. Unit Vector: A unit vector in a given direction direction with magnitude equal to unity. which are the bases of our study .1 Vector representation by an arrow. and a. The length of the ar- ___ A . Ampere's A brief description will also be given. A is a vector along the x axis. axis. a vector is represented as shown in Figure L 1 by a straight line with an arrowhead pointing in the direction of the vector and of length proportional to the magnitude of the vector. of the quantity (e. etc. force field. 2..-~ 2 row is proportional to the magnitude of the vector. g size of a class. temperature. Gauss's law for the magnetic law.2 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form Chap. This class of physical quantities cannot be described by one number only (e. 3" is a vector along the described In Figure 1. are quantities.. velocity of a car or a tornado. of the experimental evidence that led to Maxwell's hypothesis field.2 VECTOR ALGEBRA Familiarity with some of the mathematical rules of the vector calculus certainly in simplifying the development of the electromagnetic fields theory. Graphically. any vector can be represented as a product of a unit vector in the direction the vector with the magnitude of the vector A= IAJax Figure 1. 1. 3. Let us first distinguish between scalar and vector quantities... and the direction of the vector is indicated the direction of the arrow. Gauss's law for the electric field. by 1- .2. Vector: Is a physical quantity that can only be specified if both magnitude and direction of the quantity are given. Faraday's 4." helps simply vector vector Scalar: Is a physical quantity completely specified by a single number describing the magnitude.). . This is because the electric and magnetic fields. 1 1.. . etc. the matter that makes it useful for us to start with reviewing our algebra...). circuital law. is a unit vector along the x A = JAr of Hence.g. mass. humidity.

3 c/ //' 40. subtractions. it is fairly simple to show that (A + B) + D=A + (8 + D) Because the negative of a vector is defined as a vector with the same magnitude but opposite direction.2 Fjgure 1. The addition of two vectors.d Subtraction Four possible types of vector algebraic operations exist.1 represents a vector quantity where its magnitude equals the distance between the end points 1 and 2. the displacement of a point from location 1 to location 2 in Figure 1. 1. C=A+B Based' on similar reasoning. and the vector direction is along the straight line connecting 1 to 2.rantities.3.2 Vector Algebra z 3 v Figure 1. The total displacement between 1 and 3 is described by the vector C. 1. and vector products. In other words.Sec. vector A represents the vector displacement between 1 and 2. For example. we will discuss these operations in more detail. In Figure 1. The displacement of a point for a certain distance along a straight line is a good illustration of a physical vector quantity. scalar. In the following two sections. results from two consecutive displacements. can be described as the net displacement that.1 Vector Addition an. Hence./ /' . whereas the vector B represents the vector displacement between 2 and 3.art with the process of adding and subtracting vector q.2.2 A unit vector ax along the direction of the vector A. which is the sum of the individual displacements A and B. Let us st.3 The vector addition of two displacements. the subtraction of two vectors can be thought of as the summation of one vector and the negative of the other... ~ A . therefore. vector subtraction can be easily defined in terms of vector addition. This includes vector additions.

a vector force F.4 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form Chap. The name "scalar product" emerged from the fact that the result of this multiplication process is a scalar quantity . 1 Figure 1. .. Force F is applied to move the mass m from location 1 to 2.5.2. In the following sections.4 illustrates the process of vector subtraction where it is shown that a vector . Scalar (dot) product of two vectors. of multiplications are commonly encountered in physical problems and hence are given special shorthand notations. The scalar product of F and r is related to the work required to achieve this motion. These are the scalar (dot) product and the vector (cross) product.To appreciate the physical reasoning behind the scalar product of two vectors. hence W= IFI cos o Irl Figure 1. which further complicates the procedure. This workW is actually equal to the component of the force along the direction of motion multiplied by the distance between 1 and 2. Figure 1.2 Vector Multiplication The process of vector multiplication is more involved than the simple multiplication of scalar quantities. these two vector product procedures will be explained in more detail. A + (-8). To move this object from location 1 to location 2. It is required to calcula te the work done in movi ng m from location 1 to 2. is appl ied as shown in Figure 1. which makes an angle 0'.5 Explanation of the scalar product in terms of a physical problem. Two kinds. The directions of the vectors are involved in the multiplication process. performed as the addition of one veetor to the negative of the other. let us assume an object of mass m placed on a rough surface s .B was first obtained and then added to the vector A to provide the resultant vector 1. with respect to the displacement vector r.4 Vector subtraction.

. The scalar or dot product of two vectors A and B is therefore equal to the product of the magnitudes of A and B! and the cosine of the angle between them. such as the work W.hrough the mathematical substitution and recognizing that the angle a between the two perpendicular vectors is TI/2 and that cos 1'1'/2 = O. This can be seen by simply noting that the projection of one vector along the other that is perpendicular to it is zero.IBI multiplied by the projection of A along B (i . 1.6. The direction of the vector product is obtained by-the right-hand rule rotating the first vector A to coincide: with the second vector B in the B I B I cos 0' {al (b) Figure 1.6b) :::..e.. The dot product can therefore be expressed as A·B = IAIIBI cos a = IA I multiplied by the projection of B along A (i. perpendicular to A and B or equivalently perpendicular to the plane containing A and B. It is represented by a dot between A and B. Thus. Based on this interpretation. :IAI cos etas shown in Figure 1. The distributive property for the dot product of the sum of two vectors with a third vector is: A·(B + C) = A·B + A'C FIgure 1. Such an observation is usually more useful than going t. which led to identifying them by the shorthand notation of the dot product. For example.. The vector or cross product of two vectors A and B is a vector. Vector (cross) product of two vectors.5 may be expressed in the form W = F·r. which are calculated by multiplying the magnitudes of two vectors and the cosine of the angle between them.e. A·B.6 Dot product of t"\VO vectors... the desired work in Figure 1. it may be emphasized that the dot product of two perpendicular vectors is zero..6a). .7 illustrates that the projection of B individual projections of Band C onto A.Sec. IHI coso as shown in Figure 1.. The dot product operation can also be interpreted as the multiplication of the magnitude of one vector by the scalar obtained by projecting the second vector onto the first vector as shown in Figure 1. +C onto A is equal to the sum of the ..2 Vector Algebra 5 Scalar quantities. IAIIBI cos IX = AB cos« where a is the angle between A and B. are encountered in many other physical problems.

AI x IBll A (a) ~b) Figure ].. 1 ~ I I I I I I ..-------II~_ _J A I Figure 1..8 The cross product of two vectors A and B.I.8 shows the magnitude and direction of vector C.Area of the parallelogram ""AB sin ~ = lei = I. .6 Vector AnalysIs and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form I I Chap.. -... which resulted from the cross product of A and B C = A x B == AB sin a a... The direction of C is obtained according to the right-hand rule shown in b. The magnitude of the cross product of two vectors is obtained by multiplying the magnitudes of the two individual vectors and sine of the angle between them. Figure 1..8a).. The magnitude of the resultant vector C is Ie! ~ !A!lB[ sin u. prop- shortest way (through the angle O! of Figure 1.7 The distributive erty for the dot product.

9 Physical illustration of the cross product of two vectors. the shorthand notation of the cross product of two vectors A and B is simply a vector with its magnitude equal to IAIIBI sin O!. if we imagine the presence of a screw at 0 it can be seen that such a screw will proceed in the direction out of the plane of the paper as a result of the rotation. To illustrate the importance of the cross product in physical problems. The magnitude of the moment IMI is therefore given by e IMI = IFI sin 0: Irl Figure 1. however. is a unit vector perpendicular to A and B and in the direction indicated by the right-hand rule shown in Figure L8b. From Figure 1. . Hence. M = r x F.) and the direction of M is indicated by the right-hand rule from r to F as explained earlier. does not provide a complete description of the amount and direction of rotation of the lever.9. it may be seen from Figure 1.e.Sec. I FI sin i). Therefore.9 that for the indicated direction of the force F the .8b. where a is the angle between A and B. a complete description of the moment M (i. A force F is applied to the lever at point a as shown in Figure 1.f--~------~ a Figure 1. 1. such as the moment in our case. and the direction of the resultant vector is obtained according to the right-hand rule shown in Figure 1. + I I I I F I cos a F . Therefore..~I sin 0'.9. The magnitude and direction of the moment M is related to the cross product of the force vector F and the distance vector r'. The magnitude of the moment. To obtain the direction of the moment.9 shows that in certain physical problems parameters of interest. The other component of F in the direction of r does not contribute to the rotation of the lever around O.2 Vector Algebra 7 where a.rotation of the lever will be in the counterclockwise direction. magnitude and direction) is given by l M= rx F in which case the magnitude of M is obtained by multiplying the magnitudes of rand F by the 'sine of the angle 0'. it may be seen that such a direction is the same as that obtained according to the right-hand rule when applied to the vectors rand F in the sequence from r to F. The direction to which a screw proceeds as a result of the rotation is taken to be the direction of the moment M. 'It is required to calculate the moment M of the force F around the pivot O. it is clear that the moment M is actually related to the component of F perpendicular to r-that is. are obtained by multiplying the magnitudesof two vectors by the sine of the angle between them. An indication of the direction of the moment is still required. From Figure 1.. I.9. let UlS consider the lever that is free to rotate around a pivot O.

all the previously indicated definitions of the dot product.8a is given by C= IAIIBI sin Iia" = A x B.. it is useful to note that the cross product of two vectors that are in the same direction (i. 1. y = 0. A) by the component of the other perpendicular to it.8b) it is rather straightforward to see that B x A == +C = -A x B which means that the ordering of the vectors in the cross product is an important consideration because the cross product does not obey a commutative law. the three reference surfaces (planes in this case) are obtained by letting x be equal to a constant value. For example. whereas for the cylindrical and spherical coordinate systems these independent variables are (p.~).nate system).8 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integral' Form Chap . cylindrical. and the magnitude and direction of a vector. and spherical coordinate systems.L is the vector component of B perpendicular to A. the vector C in Figure 1.g. and so forth are presented in graphical and general terms...10a. is important to describe uniquely the position of a point in space. In the Cartesian coordinate system these independent variables are (x. z ). respectively. we win restrict our discussion to the three simplest ones--namely the so-called Cartesian. these mutually orthogonal planes will intersect at a point denoted by (x"y. El. in the Cartesian coordinate system. This may be seen by either noting that the angle a between two parallel vectors is zero and hence sin a = O~or by recognizing that for parallel vectors the component of one vector perpendicular to the other is zero. Zl) as shown in Figure 1. For example.. y be equal to a constant value y!. however. Based on this observation. j_ where B. The point of intersection of the three reference planes for which x = 0.e. cross product. each of the three coordinate systems is specified in terms of three independent variables.10b.3 COORDINATE SYSTEMS The vectors and the vector relations given in the previous sections are not defined with respect to any particular coordinate system. After establishing the three reference surfaces in each j . <j"Jj z ) and (r. From the right-hand rule of Figure 1.L ~ IAIIB i a. The usefulness of such observations will be clarified in later discussions. and z equal to ZI' As a result. Having a certain reference system (known as the coordi. This observation simply indicates that the cross product of two vectors involves the multiplication of one vector (e. 1 Another physical interpretation of the cross product can be made in terms of the vector projections. In each coordinate system. and Z = 0 defines the origin of the coordinate system as shown in Figure 1. parallel vectors) is zero. y. To start with. say Xl. Expressions for transforming a vector representation from one coordinate system to another will be derived and the previously defined vector algebraic relations will be given in these three coordinate systems. Hence. we also set up three mutually orthogonal reference surfaces by letting each of the independent variables be equal to a constant. Although several coordinate systems are available.

. of coordinates (x'J y ~z) and move to another closely placed point P2 of coordinates (x + dx . and volume in the Cartesian coordinate system. y . anda.. are mutually orthogonal. The base vectors ax. the point (Xh Yl.. To obtain expressions for elements of length. z).3 Coordinate Systems X"'O z 9 z \ z=o v '" constant= y. in the Cartesian coordinate system) a vector A should be represented in terms of its components A x . we define three mutually orthogonal unit vectors. Similarly the base vectors By and a. ZI) is generated at the intersection of x = XI plane witb tile y = Yl and Z = ZI planes. 0 a. For example.. and a. Y = Yb and z = z •. 1. planes. Any vector is represented in a coordinate system in terms of its . y y x (a) !b) Figure 1.Y I. 1. y + . and the threebase vectors are ax.. are oriented perpendicular to the y = constant and z ~ constant planes.lOb is orien ted perpendicular to the x = constant plane and is in the direction of increasingx.components along the base vectors of that system. the three independent variables in the Cartesian coordinate system are (x.. and each is perpendicular to a reference plane. called the base vectors.. the base vector ax shown in Figure 1.. The base vectors are mutually orthogonal.1 Cartesian Coordinate System As indicated earlier. will be described in the following X1 sections. let us start from an arbitrarily located point P. For example.10 The Cartesian coordinate system. and each points in the direction of increase of an independent variable. respectively.See. OJ 0.Az along the unit (base) vectors a 3..Ay. (a) The point (x i . (bjThe origin is the point-of intersection of x . 'cQDrdinate system. The location of a point in this coordinate system is obtained by locating the point of intersection of the three reference planes . z~) is the point of intersection of the three reference planes x = Xl.For example.... and z . The directions of these base vectors are chosen such that each base vector is perpendicular to a reference surface and oriented in the direction of increasing the Independent variable.Y ...3. ay.. surface...n and 8z• These) as well as other characteristics of the three coordinate systems.

between PI and P2! conversely. Actually the subscripts are not necessary to include in this case but are here just to emphasize thatds.12 and that . and dz along the at unit vector.1. volume in the Cartesian coordinate system. as shown in Figure 1. and. by dy . The element of volume. should be expressed. It should be noted that the three coordinate axes x. and z are oriented with respect to each other according to the right-hand rule as shown in Figure 1. d. = = dy dz e. surface. From Figure 1. + dy ay + dz a. like any other vector.1 L Thus. and from z to z + dz. where each element of area is specified by a unit vector perpendicular to it. along the ax base vector.Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form z Chap. Regarding the elements of area. dy along the 8y .11. it is important to emphasize that each element of area should be accompanied by a unit vector specifying its orientation in the coordinate system. ds. = dxdy a. as shown in Figure 1. generated from these incremental changes in the independent variables is given.11 The elements of length. de may be expressed as de = dx ax + dy 3y + dzn. ds. we basically changed the values of the independent variables from x to x + dx . in terms of its components along the three mutually orthogonal base vectors. 1 y x df '= dx a. y. it is not sufficient to indicate an element of area ds. in moving from P1 to Pz.11. y to y + dy . Therefore. (subscript x) is an element of area in the a. For example. Z dv =: + dz) dx dy dz The vector element of length.x dz 8y ds. it can be shown that de has a component. dv . = dv dz aM' dsv =: dx dz dv= dx dv ds ill" dsz sa dx dyaz Figure . As a result. we can specify three elements of areas in the Cartesian coordinate system as ds. de. dx . equal to dy dz because it leaves the orientation or the direction of this element of area unspecified. direction and so on.

values of the independent variables are all equal to zero.~ normal to the <p = constant plane. a".z) v x Figure 1.Sec. a. are also shown in Figure 1.. p = constant.B Coordinate Systems 11 Figure 1. a subject that we win fuHy explore when we describe the other coordinate systems . and a. 1. and z : The three reference surfaces are 3! cylindrical surface generated by letting p = constant = Ph and two plane surfaces obtained from ~ = constant = 4>1 and z= constant = Zl' These three reference planes intersect at the coordinate point (p II <1>1. <P. and a.1..12 The coordinate axes in the Cartesian coordinate system are mutually orthogonal and the rotation from two of them toward the third axis follows the right-hand rule. The three base vectors 3p. is perpendicular to the plane z z ""constant a~) Ip. a.13 where it is clear that these vectors are oriented perpendicular to the reference surfaces-e-that is ~ 3p is perpendicular to the p = constant cylindrical surface. 3oi>j and a. ¢. do not change their directions atvarious points in the coordinate system. the base vectors ax.13 shows the reference surfaces in the cylindrical coordinate system. the directions ofthe base vectors in the Cartesian coordinate system are always the same at al! points. z}. The three reference planes intersect at the point (p. In other words. is normal to the z = constant plane.13 The cylindrical coordi nate system.3. '" p= constant .Z I)' The' origin of the coordinate system is the point of the intersection of the three reference planes for which itrhe. and the three base vectors are all normal to the cylindrical surface. Figure 1. <1>.2 Cylindrical Coordinate System In this coordinate system the three independent variables are p.

vectors point in the direction of the increase in the independent variables. With this < j . This particular point win be further clarified in the section on the vector representation in the various coordinate systems For now. For example! we note that the base. <l> + d<j>.15.p.. that we make sure that the vectors are expressed with respect to the same base vectors at a specific point. cf> = 'fr/2.14 The base vectors in the cylindrical coordinate system change directions at the various points. we multiplied d4> by p. Before we can calculate the volume of dv . however it should be noted that the incremental changes in the independent variables dp and dz are actually changes in elements of length. unlike the base vectors in the Cartesian coordinate system. we make incremental changes in the independent variables from p.15< In other words. Which is called the metric coefficient to transform the change in the angle d<l> to change in the linear dimension df. and z to p + dp. and z + dz .. in the cylindrical coordinate system. The base vectors at point 1 are api' 3.. by BpI = -a<l>~' 3<1>1 = 3pi' and 3zl = aZ2 where apI' a(h.12 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in ilntegral Form z Chap. Therefore. 1 v az~ . is perpendicular to the z = constant plane-and that all the base .P to a change in element of length. and 3zt are the base vectors at point 1~whereas ap21 3<1>2) and 3Z2 are the base vectors at point 2. the base vectors in the cylindrical coordinate system do not maintain their same directions at the various points. 4>. various values of p. To transform the incremental change in c. surface.vectors at a point 1 along the x axis. I .14.j>2' and aZ2 are the base vectors at point 2. that is. . it may be seen that.l' whereas 8f'l' a. let us focus our atten tion on generating elements of length. d4> must be multiplied by p and the corresponding change in the linear dimension will be de <I> "" pd<t>'I' as shown in Figure a 1. To generate an element of volume in the cylindrical coordinate system. such as addition of two vectors. This results in generating an element of volume dv as shown in Figure 1. that iS1 ~ = O~are related to those at a point 2 along the y axis. and a". From Figure 1.1". whereas the incremental change d<p is just a change in angle and not in length. and volume ill the cylindrical coordinate system.14 shows the directions of the base vectors at various points-that is.. . it is very important before we perform any vector operation in this coordinate system. \$ = constant. c:!J1 and z . and a. figure 1.. ap Figure 1.

is given by from dv = dp{pd4»dz = pdpd4>dz is given by The resultant element of length de from PI to Pz de = dp a.15 The elements of length.~'.--. + pd¢ a. + pd<r3q.\ + dz a" dS2 "" pd¢ dp a2 dv "" pdp d¢dz dsp '" pd¢ dz a". = pd~ dz a. I I p x p+dp \0.\$ Spherical Coordinate System In this. = pdpdg. + dz a. volume. These three base vectors are clearly mutually orthogonal.coordinate system the three independent variables are (r ¢) as shown in Figure 1.dp a. e . are perpendicular to the spherical.. and a. ~ '. 1. '" dp dz a(i} .. al1d surface in. 1. ds. not a length and should be multiplied by its metric coefficient p to have the dimension of length . dec(> = pd4> a¢.a.. d4> is :.3'... and a plane surface obtained for c:j:J = constant value. and ~e. e. . = dp dz 3¢ with unit vectors perpendicare given by ds..16a. conical. the cylindrical coordinate system.. 16b. a8.~:r. it is easy to show that the element of volume dv ~ which resulted incremental changes in the independent variables. in mind.. The three base vectors a.Sec. y I . 'J I ~~ I I : I I Figure 1. These three reference surfaces intersect at the coordi nate point P (r. dR. and the plane reference surfaces.4» as shown in Figure 1.3 Coordinate Systems 13 z s +dz T z I -::::-" <. dsq.. respectively.. dz .\ d9. The three reference surfaces are: spherical surface obtained by letting the independent variable r = constant. whereas the resultant elements of area that are associated ular to each of (he areas to emphasize their orientations ds. conical surface obtained for = constant value.

17. they point in the directions of the increase of the independent varia bles. whereas the dement deep associated with the change of the angle <!J by d¢ is given by dt4> = r sin 8 d~. 1 z e = constant I f I I I I I x J ¢~ -- ..hand rule as also shown in Figure 1. e and ~ to r + dr. it is clear that the metric coefficient r sin I}]S basically the projection of r in the x-y plane where the incremental change in the angle ~ occurs. e + d9. and the plane <I> constant The j 0.17. and ~ + d~ as shown in Figure 1.. (a) The three independent variables (r e.16b.1. in this case.. and 34 are mutually orthogonal and follow the right-hand rule. In other words.f.16 The sphericalcoordinate system. The orientation of the base vectors is in accordance to the right. r. From Figure 1. Expressions for the differential elements are obtained by noting that the incremental changes in the independent variables de and d~ are not actual changes in elements of length. = projection of r in the x-y plane x d~ = r sined~ . the incremental element of length dfo which is associated with the/change of the angle €I by de is dee == rde. 4» at point P. . and length are routinely generated by incrementally changing the independent variables from r . To transform the change de into a change in a differential dement of length. surface. but instead are just changes in angles. The differential elements of volume. de must be multiplied by the metric coefficient which is.//... (b) The three reference surfaces are the spherical surface r ""'constant) the conical surface e '=' constant.= three base vectors a" a~.J. dt<!> is therefore obtained from the relation I dt.4 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in lnteqral Form Chap./ -.. y v x {al r = constant (h) Figure 1..

18. The various elements of area are given by sin e de dcp8. Based on the preceding discussion and from Figure 1.r.p:3. and the spherical coordinate systems is given in Figure 1. it is fairlystraightforward to show that the incremental element of volume dv is given by dv = dr(rdfJ)(r = sin e dq. surface. A summary of the base vectors in the Cartesian" cylindrical.) r' sin a dr dts d4> dC. ds.17. the unit vector a. ds. ]S indicated. The element of length de from PI to P2 is de = dr a. 1.Sec. 10 Figure 1. and volume in the spherical coordinate system.17. = r1 + r sin a d4l a.17 The elements of x length. . = r dr de ad> Clearly each element of area is associated with a unit vector perpendicular to it. of tile element of area ds. It should be noted that the base vectors in the spherical coordinate system are similar to those in the cylindrical coordinates insofar as they change their directions at various points in the coordinate system.3 Coordinate Systems 15 z e + d8 \ rsln (J difJ \ y Figure 1. + dea ao + 30 = dray + rda ds. = r sin e dr d4> a.

Therefore in all the vector operations that we will describe in this section. The vector A may then be represented in terms of its components as: A = Ax = ax + Ayay + Az a. a t (Cylindrical system) A A. or that the vectors are originating at different points and their components are a11expressed in terms of a single set of the base vectors at either one of the two origins of the two vectors. components of a vector A are designated by AoAy. For example. We illustrated in the previous sections that in the cylindrical and the spherical coordinate systems the unit vectors generally have different directions at different points. and by A1"l. A and B !expressed in terms of the same base vector. + A. 1.4 VECTOR REPRESENTATION IN THE VARIOUS COORDINATE SYSTEMS A vector quantity is completely specified in any coordinate system if the origin of the vector and its components (pro] ections) in the directions of the three base vectors are known.A~. 3.A.'16 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integ ral Form Chap.z in the Cartesiancoordinate system.A<i>. vectors are originasing from the same point in the coordinate system and are thus expressed in terms of the same base vectors. Let us now consider two vectors. (Cartesian system) A = Ap ap + A.Al in the cylindrical coordinate system. by Ap.paq. + A a 3e + Aq. and "3" an I . it will be assumed that either the. (Spherical system) Let us now consider two vectors AandB that have origins' at the same point in anyone of these coordinate systems. 1 z y v v x Cartesian Cyl ind rical Spherical Figure 1. a. U" U2. It IS important to note that the unit vectors are directed in the same directions at points only in the Cartesian coordinate system. What is important here is that the two vectors are expressed in terms of their components along the same base-vectors.A4>' in the spherical coordinate system.18 The base vectors of the three most commonly used coordinate systems.

1 Which of the Following.~. r = 3. therefore. therefore and The unity value in the dot product is indicated because the magnitudes of these base vectors are unity by definition. which can be written in the form of a determinant: AXB which is an easier form to remember. x O. 1. + Az '02 + A3 U3 + B2 U2 + B3 U3 1 B = B. 2. The vector's addition or subtraction is given by A ± B = (AI ± B1)Ut (3p. The dot product of two vectors with origins at the same points is. aa.e = -90°. because the unit vectors are mutually orthogonal.A2. P = -4.. = 21y "" -4.). an d UJ stand for any set of three unit vectors (ax. 3i<j».AI 83) + u3(A1 B2 . or + (A2 ± 82) 0. + A2B2 + A3B3 H. 3. ay a.. EXAMPLE t.4 Vector Representation in the Various Coordinate Systems 17 A = A I u. B3 A3 coordinate system? 1.z =-1.B1 UJ "2 H3 A2 e.= O". we have the following relations for the cross products and The cross product of two A and B vectors may then be expressed in the form A x B = (Alu1 + A2u2 + A3U3) . X (Bllll + 82Uz + BJU3) = uj(A2 B3 . z = . U.A3 Bz) + uzCA3 B.sets of independent variables (coordinates) define a point in a = IAI . where 111" 02. (a. 314>.4> = O". A·B = (AI Ut = A1Bl + A2 U2 + A3 u3)'(B. because the three base vectors are mutually orthogonal.2 + (A3 ::t B3)U3 Also. . + 82 U2 + BJ U3) Furthermore.ax).Sec. BI) .

2a)' . ---=..2ay . 10 0 a.3v5 • .2 the following two vectors: Find a unit vector normal to the plane coutaining OA = 4a" + lOay OB = 4 ax + 5 a.3'Y25 + 4+ 16 . 0 5 = 50 ax . Solution = ax + 4ay + 3a.. 1 o~ e~ Only the point in (a).3 Show that vectors A other.20 3y - 40 a. For the two vectors given in this example.(5ax . .6 = 0 so that A and n are perpendicular. - 2a. . EXAMPLE 1.20aF = 40azl = Sa. are perpendicular to each The dot product consists of multiplying the magnitude olf one vector by the projection of the second along the direction of tile first. hence.4a... The dot product of two perpendicular vectors is therefore zero.4az) . unit vector is obtained by dividing OA x OB by its magnitude. because p in (b) and e in (c) have to be positive. p ~ 0 and 1T.1. which they are not .. Solution The cross product of two vectors OA and on isa vector quantity whose magnitude is equal to the product of the magnitudes of OA and OB and the sine of the angle between them. and B = 2ax + 3>.. that is.-..' '" a.' _ 50ax 1 - 20ay . and whose direction is perpendicular to the plane containing the two vectors. Hence) OA The required x OB = ax 4 4 a. EXAMPLE 1. .:::::======..8 Vector Analvsts and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form Solution Chap.408:. A·II = 2 + 4 . - 150ax ..

. ~ = :. that is.(3cr + 6) + 3z0J ~ TIa) o "" ao( ~61T For the vector that resulted from the cross product to be zero. Q_ -2'lT -2 relation 13 . b.• changing the . -611' . and z of the cylindrical coordinate system or r .5 Vector Coordinate Transformation 19 EXAMPLE 1.5 VECTOR COORDINATE TRANSFORMATION The vector coordinate transformation is basically a process in which we change a vector representation from one coordinate system to another.. + 3 a. a. 1. = These two values of a and ·13 clearly satisfy the remaining B is therefore given by . g.313 = 0.Sec. each one of its components should be independently zero. AxB=O a. g. + ~act> . Hence. e. Changing the components of the vector from those along the unit vectors of one coordina te system to those along the uni t vectors of the other (e. expressing x . ¢. The vector +6 = 0... This procedure is similar to scalar coordinate transformation with the additional necessity of transforming the individual components of the vector from being along the base vectors of the first coordinate system to' components along the base vectors of the other coordinate system. az - 1 a 'Tr 3 J3 ~6 . Therefore. 1. q.6az and ~ such that the two vectors are parallel. the transformation of a vector representation from one coordinate system to another involves a two-step process which includes the following: a. Changing the independent variables ( e. Y 1 and z of the rectangular coordinate system in terms of p.. = o a.'ITa = O.4' The two vectors A and B are given by A= a.3f3) + a". of the spherical coordinate system) . and 30: :. . B Determine Solution For these two vectors to be parallel the cross product of A and B should be zero. O! + 11 a..

1 components from those along ax.19a.. In the following sections we shall describe specific transformation of the indepen- dent variables. in the cylindrical coordinate system). y p .5.20 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integral] Form Chap . 1.19a it may be seen that x = pcos ¢. =z p= cJ:> = "'Vx2 + l tan~!(ylx) y = p sin 4> z (the same ill both coordinates) p x (a) Figure ['19a Relation between the independent variables in the Cartesian and cylindrical coordinate sys- tems. From Figure 1. in the Cartesian coordinate system to components along 3p.1 Cartesian-to-Cylindrical Transformation The relation between the independent variables of these two coordinate systems is shown in Figure 1. ay.. . and a. aq" and a. and the vector components from one coordinate system to another.19b The relation 'between the vector components in the rectangular and cylindrical coordinate systems. / ! ! / I x (b) Figure 1.

the negative sign may be considered as a result of the fact that the angle between 3" and 8¢ is (Ti/2 + ~).5." fir' "" COS( 1T/2 . 8). of course.os(n/2 + <j. 'a > from Figure 1... by l At>'=' A..~) . in the cylindrical coordinate systems. of the vector A along the base vectors a".19b is equal to cos ~ because the magnitudes of both ax and a. It should be noted that rl in Figure 1. 8. 'ap = 0.. and a...) . the vector A from the Cartesian coordinate system to the cylindrical one. and A.5 the vector A given in the Cartesian coordinate system by to the form if') the cylindrical coordinate Solution system. in ~..Sec. +sind» The Az component of the vector will.) the cylindrical).20 is simply the projection of r in the x-y plane and ." component is included because the component A. sine + Ay cos ¢ The negative sign of the A.d>.. direction.g. the component of A along a" is given by AI' "" A'a~ = In transforming (A~a~ + Ayay + Aza. ••• 1. the Cartesian) to the other components along the base vectors of the other coordinate system (e . s and a. Sim ilady. 1. Similarly.2 Cartesian-to-Spherical Transformation The relations between the independent variables can be obtained from Figure 1. the Ad>component: rnay be obtained by of the vector compo- == -A.20...< sin ~ is not along the positive ad>direction but instead along the negative 3". A~ is therefore given. EXAMPLE Transform 1.)· ap a..g. remain unchanged between the Cartesian and cylindrical coordinate systems . cos <jl + Ay sin <V which is the same result previously obtained using the projections nents. Alternatively.5 Vector Coordinate Transformation 21 To illustrate the process of changing the components of a vector from being along the base vectors of one coordinate system (e. it is required to obtain the components AI" A<l>. are both equal to unity and th e angle between them is t. The dot product ax' a". From the definition of the dot product. requires calculation of the cosine of the angle between them and c. let us solve the following example.

. by cos o sin B.21.'V (x + y2)1z z = r cos €I Solution The problem can be alternatively stated by considering the vector A.!I ~. ax + Ayay + A~ flz. and (-sin</>./ . coso) along the 3". the radial component Ar of the vector A is given by Ar = Ax cos <p sin 8 + Ay sin ~ sin 11 + Az cos €I (1. sin di sine. 1. which is given in the Cartesian coordinate system A = A. ./ v Figure 1. we will solve the following example. and A. we next find the projections of Ax) An and A2 in the directions of a a and a". cos ~ 'Ir r= Vx 2 + y"2 + Z2 ~--2 = r sin B CQse./ .. sin <I> cos B.. EXAMPLE 1. by (C05<1> ccs s.1) Following a similar procedure. and cos B. 1 z p Ir.20 Relation between the independent variables in the spherical and Cartesian coordinate systems.sin 0 sin r.. These are given./ / .22 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form Chap . ¢) r _~ ~ rll <.P r e = tan.21. and 34> unit vectors in the spherical coordinate system... e.. The relationship between the vector components is illustrated in Figure. = tan-I(y/x) y = rll sin <p ... =sin e) along the a./ . Ay. direction.. Once again.. along the direction a. hence is given by rll = r sin 9. respectively.6 transformation from the Cartesian to the spherical coordi- Derive the vector components nate systems and vice versa. direction. From Figure 1. and it is required to find the vector components A" Ao. x ... it may be seen that the projections of the components Ax. to illustrate expressing the vector components from one coordinate system to another. '" :::J_. are given. li(l.. Hence.. I . Therefore.. respectively.. and A40 along the 8.

= .__"'-. = A. of the Cartesian coordinate system./ / -: // y '" " (1. the vector A in the Cartesian coordinate system is given in terms of its components Ax.A.'5 Vector Coordinate z Transformation 23 A" Av ~ »:> a'l ¢ "" "" __________ )Ii <. sin 4J Ay = A.... Bind A".1 to 1. 1..Aq. and Az• The result in both cases is A... equations 1.6.5) (1. and a. oos <P (1. Aa! and A¢ along the unit vectors ax .1 to 1.. we 'can just solve the set of equations 1. Alternative Procedure. 3y. I .2) (1. + Aa a~ +. Ay.4 to 1.3. sin e sin ¢ -t A~ cos e sin 4> + A~./ . Alternatively.Ad' 3<jo and then find the components of A.J. :. To find the inverse transformation.21 Transformation of the vector components from the Cartesian to the spherical coordinate system...3) Flgure 1. . cos e - Ao sin e Clearly. sin e cos <p + Ao cos 8 cos <P . + A~ao -t A¢>8¢.. Ay.6) and Az = A. and Az given in equations 1. where the components A" A~..4) (1. are given in. a.- . sin 6 A~.A.Sec. sin <p + Ay oos <fl and the vector A expressed in the spherical coordinates system is given by A= AT a.3 simultaneously for A_". we simply start with the vector A given in tile spherical coordinate system by A = A. In the previous sections we described a process for making the vector coordinate transformation by dealing with each of the vector components in the "new" coordinate system and deriving expressions for the contributions . Aij = Ax cose casfl + Ay sin<j> cos e .

ay'3.. sin o . sin <p sin e + Al cos I} which is the same result we obtained that in the previous section. and z in the Cartesian coordinate system.i.... = Ax ax'ae + Ay 3. from known values An the following dot products: From Figure 1. ax Ax to the spherical coordinate An and Al by performing + Aj' ay + Az a. Z COS¢3p + p2 sin o a. AI Ar = Ay cos <p sin e + A.6paz in the Cartesian coordinates... = cos e. let us obtain An Ao. In other words.'a o + At 3z'ae Once again from Figure e. anda. system. This can simply be achieved by taking the dot product of the vector by a unit vector along the desired direction. y. + .21. and Aq..21. For example.. it can be shown Ao sin <I> cos = A'a.:a..7 Express the vector A. = sin o sine. the transformation basically involves finding the projections of the already available vector components along the various base vectors of the desired new coordinate system. in transforming the vector A given by A .1. it is quite clear that ax· a.. ax'ar = cos is given by e sine. In the following. e ~ A~. 1 of the vector components in the "old" coordinate system along the direction of the vector component of interest. Hence. = Ap cos systems. 3y· afj = and a. we obtain A". 'Sa = -sin H. Solution We first change the independent variables from p. 1.24 Vector Analysis and Maxweill's Equ8ti'ons in Integral Form Chap.. <1:>. ::::cos <p cos e. These changes are previously indicated as Next we use the vector component transformation between the two coordinate From the relations given in example 1. Similarly.5. Hence. Aa = Ax cos cjl eos e + Ay sin 4> cO's8 ~ Aj sin (} EXAMPLE 1. and z in the cylindrical coordinate system to x. we present an alternative procedure for finding the vector components along the desired base vectors.

At the point x = 3.... and direction the magnitude x = p cos di. Determine Solution I. 1.Sec .. A=( the vector A is given by: 2- x+y /X2 y2)ax + ( ~xyz X+Y· . the radial distance is p= x2 + y2 = 5 Hence.5.p p B¢ = -Bx sindi + By cos e == -p sin\$ cos \$ + p sin di cos di = 0 B. o= = x cos o +y sin dr = p cos2. . and is given by B = x a. = 0 and. cos o+ + By sin p sin2q..... in vector notation. + (16Vx2 + /)az EXAMPLE 1. for . sine z COs zxy + y2 + xy· Az "'" 16p = 16VXl + / and. Obtain an expression 2.5 Vector Coordinate Transformation 25 Ay . and the vector transformation y = p sin 4> 1.B in cylindrical coordinates... = B..4..... 2 + xy)· a. 1. in vector notation. Y = 4. Ap sin <p + A<j> cos <1>. .8 A vector B lies in the x-y plane.~ cos 4> = xl.. Using the coordinate transformation + yay of B at the point x = 3. 2. <p + p2 sin. we obtain given in example B. Y .

and we say that a field exists in the region if there is a physical phenomenon associated with points in that region. Before studying electromagnetic fields.. In other words.component in the Cartesian coordinate system actually has three components of complicated expressions in the spherical coordinate system A= A. we must first define what is meant by a field .9 Chap... 1 Express the vector A = ~...a<l' This problem emphasizes the importance of choosing the right coordinate fi ts the representation of a given vector . system.. = A. we can talk of the field of any physical quantity as being a description of how the quantity varies from one point to another in the region of the ..A field is associated with a region in: space..26 EXAMPLE Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form 1. r sin sui '+' x2 z .. y .q...8r + Ae a:~ + A.I. A. '¥ -r2 sine cos e cos? <I> It: is rather surprising to see that a simple vector such as A that has only one A . Ar . e '. system that best 1.· cos ~ sin y e = (r sin eCOs 4»2 r cos '.. the Ao and Aop components AI) = A. ... Solution Because the vector A has only an Ax component.r cos <b cos e x :::::yz - 2 cos <I> cos e e _ (r2 sin2 2 e (os<'~ )(r CDS 2 cos EI) cos ¢. .a~ In the spherical coordinate _ x2z.. . cos r sill e sin ~ cos3 <p (r2sln2ecos2<j))(rcose) r =r A+ sin e e sin \$ = -Ax sin4> = = sin . ·C05 4> sm H = r2-------'- e cos c:P Sill . . its component aT in the spherical coordinate system is given by Ar along the base vectors A.' . e sin" e cos e COS3 <I> are given by sin d.6 ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS Basic to our study of electrornagnetics is an understanding of the concept of electric and magnetic fields. s sin o sm .. Similarly. however.

The magnitude of the force depends on the medium.6. The direction of the force is along the line joining the charges. and the force should be in newtons (N) (see Appendix B).Sec.6 Electric and Mag:ne1ic Fields 27 field. a force field known as the electric field is associated with bodies that are charged. 2. .' F = Gmm a ~-~-~Rl I where G is the gravitational constant and a is a unit vector along the straight line joining the two masses. Hence. then Q is measured in coulombs (C). if we consider two point charges Ql and Qz separated by a distance R. but we know of its existence in the sense that objects of given mass are acted on by the gravitational force of the earth. For example. which states that every object of mass m in the universe attracts every other object m with a force that is directly proportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance R between them-that is.1 Coulomb's Law and Electric Field Intensity We are a11familiar with Newton's law of universal gravitation. The equation above simply means that there is a gravitational force of attraction between bodies of given masses and that this force is along the line joining the two masses. . If the international system of units (SI system) is used. 3. The magnitude of the force is proportional to the product of the magnitudes of the charges. R in meters (m). 1. 5. the force is then given by: where k is a proportionality constant and au is a unit vector along the line joining the two charges as indicated by the third observation in the experiment by Coulomb. The magnitude of the force is inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the charges. In the experiments conducted by Coulomb. In a similar manner. Like charges repel. 4. 1. we are familiar with the earth's gravitational field. In this case) the constant of proportionality k will be k = _J_" 41TEo . we do not "see" the field. he showed that for two charged bodies that are very small in size compared with their separation-so that they may be considered as point chafges~the following hold: 1. unlike charges attract.

1 where Eo is called the permittivity of air (vacuum) and has a value measured in farads per meter (Frm). From Coulomb's law. respectively. Figure 1. These two forces with their appropriate directions are given by F"1 = 4Ql Q2 aZI ·1T€o R~ .28 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form Chap. the electric field intensity E is defined as the vector force on a unit positive test charge.854 X 10-12 = -. Eo = 8.. we have The electric field intensity E2 at the location of the test charge owing to the point charge Ql is defined as In general.22.~ where 321 and a12 are unit vectors.1 361i X 10-9 F/m The direction of the force in the above equation should actually be defined in terms of two forces Fl and F2 experienced by Ql and Q2. along the line joining Ql and Q'l as shown in Figure 1. say Q2. Electric Field Intensity. be a small test charge q.22 The electric force between two point charges QI and Q2' . if we let one of the two charges.

Sec. and F == qE Q:! Figure 1.23. . that is.24.23 Direction lines and constant-magnitude surfaces of electric field owing to a point charge.6 Electric and Magnetic Fields E 29 Figure 1. 1.QN as shown in Figure 1. If we have N point charges Qb Q2~' .. the force experienced by a test charger q placed at a point P is the vector sum of the forces experienced by the test charge owing to the individual charges. and its constant magnitude surfaces are spherical surfaces centered at the point charge as shown in Figure 1.24 The total electric field intensity at point P owing to N point charges equals the vector sum of the electric field intensities owing to all of the charges. . The electric field intensity owing to a positive point charge is thus directed everywhere radially away from the point charge.. where 8R is a unit vector along the line joining the point charge Q and the test point wherever it is (the test point in this case is the point at which the value of the electric field intensity E is desired).

2) in air. 1. Solution 1.4.2. -1..9.41f€v(QT)2 QT = OT ~ OQ aQT .. What is the magnitude charge? of the electric field intensity at a distance of] m from the 2.25.0.4Hz z Q:010-9C Q I I I I I I -- " ~- v x Figure 1. A diagram illustrating the locations of the charge and the test point is shown in figure 1.4 .0. -2.. Find the electric field E at the point (0.1. .2 ~ (~l))ay + (-2.\R andits magnitude lEI at N/C R = 1 m is given by lEI "".25 A diagram illustrating the location of a point charge Q and the coordinates of the point T at which the electric field is required.30 EXAMPLE Vector Analysis 1. The electric field intensity is given by IE which is in the radial direction.9..4) is EQ .5.4).2ay .2. 1 A point charge Q = 10-'9 C is located at (. E at (0. 1O~" 471'3~71' x 109 =9 2.10 and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form Chap.(2))az + 2..(-O. -2. = 41TE"R Q.2.9 .5))ax ( = L4a~ + (1. 1.

which we will describe in later sections. is not described in terms of the length of the arrow but instead in terms of the distance between the flux lines.4? . Therefore. It should be emphasized that the reaSOI1for our desire to develop such graphical representation is simply to help us visualize the quantitative properties of an existing field... + 2.148a). the larger the magnitude of the field and a further separation between these flux lines simply indicates a decrease in the magnitude of the field.n Figure 1. respectively. the electric field intensity.Sec. From Figure L26d.. + (2. however.6 Electric and Magnetic Fields 31 flaT = 1. .4i . A widely adopted graphical representation of vector fields is in terms of their flux lines. For a more accurate description of the flux representation of electric fields. 1.0..26a. Eo E has the dimension of charge/area.86az .o K From Coulomb's law.48 . the number of the flux lines emanating from a charge + Q is equal . The magnitude of the field ill this case.2)2 + (4..0. and its magnitude is D . = 41T3'~'IT x 10- X 26. The magnitudes and the directions of these vectors represent the different values of the field (magnitude and direction) at the various points in space. Although the graphical representation in Figure 1.23)' ~ 4. III this procedure. Based oil. This is also true according to Coulomb's law.2963..26d which is due to a point charge Q. the variation of a vector field in space can be graphically illustrated by drawing different vectors at 'furious points in the field region as shown in Figure 1. it is also clear that the magnitude of the electric field is constant (equal distance between flux Iineg) at a fixed distance from the point charge.274ax + 0.094Bx + 0. 1.16 O. if we reexamine our previous representation of the electric field shown i.2 Flux Representation of Vector Field As indicated in earlier sections.= lE. The direction of these arrows (flux lines] is in the direction of the vector field (or tangential to it).' .6. we can clearly see that this field is radially directed away from the point charge (as expected from Coulomb's law) and that the magnitude of this field is decreasing (as judged from the increase in the separation distance between the lines) with the increase in the distance away from the charge. For example. it is a rather poor illustration and might get confusing for fiekis with rapid spatial variation. The closer together the flux lines are.43ay 10-9 IQTI = QT.26a is possible and correct. \I26T6 aQT 9 E =. D has the same direction as E.26b and L26c.4Hz V (1. . let us define a vector quantity D known as the electric flux density. Flux representations of uniform (of the same magnitude) and nonuniform fields are shown in Figures 1. a vector field is represented by arrows of the same length but of different separation between them.. = O. a vector quantity is completely specified in terms of its magnitude and direction. Gauss's law. N/C .

This flux representation ofa vector field will be further used in future discussions. . to the value of the charge in the SI system of units. if flux lines ((t'Iles) E is the total number of = Q (C) in the SI system of units The vector D is therefore equal to D= charge Q . D is an important parameter in our graphical representation of the field simply because it indicates the number of the flux lines per unit area.26 Various graphical representations of fields. 1 (a) (b) (c) Poor representation of vector field F lux representation of uniform field Flux representation of nonuniform field (d) Map of flux lines around the electric charge Q Figure 1. area = -- E area • '1.32 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form Chap. == electric flux d ensrtv ' Hence. . Hence.

27b. (b) Vector B is in the y direction.. therefore. z variables. A flux representation of B is given in Figure 1. or in other words. = .With these basic rules in mind. To illustrate the uniform magnitude of the vector F. the magnitude of the vector increases with the increase in x Furthermore.a. by increasing the number of flux lines with the increase in x. (a) A = K ax is an x-directed vector with uniform (equal) magnitude everywhere in the Cartesian coordinate system simply because it is independent of the x. of the flux lines is in the direction of the vector field or tangential to 2. the larger the magnitude of the vector field. K p 5. Thisis achieved graphically by drawing more and more flux < . direction. the magnitude of the vector increases with the increase in ~ .6 Electric and Magnetic Fields 33 EXAMPLE 1. 27a. (c) III this case. and its magnitude decreases with the increase in p. A=Kax 2. 3. 1. the smaller the distance between the flux lines will be . This increase in the magni tude of vector C is represented graphically in Figure 1. F = Kap Solution Before we start graphically representing the given vector fields.< direction for negative values of x . and more important is that the magnitude of the vector increases with the increase of x. let us now make the desired flux representations. directed vector. D .. 1.. B"" Kx e.Sec. directed flux lines. Figure L27d illustrates the flux representation of such a vector where it is clear that just by drawing the a. (d) Vector field J) is best graphically illustrated in the cylindrical coordinate system. the vector will be directed in the negative y direction for negative values of x. the vector C is also directed in thea" direction for positive values of x and in the -a. Vector B. The direction it. A t1ux representation of the vector A is given in Figure 1. the distance between these lines increases with the increase in p. let us review (he basic rules of the flux representation of a vector field. It is an a. C = KX~h to illustrate graphically the following vector fields: 4. (e) The flux representation of the vector F is also made in the cylindrical coordinate system because F' is simply in the a.27c by decreasing the distance between the flux lines. thus demonstrating the decrease in the magnitude of the vector D with the increase 111 p. Furthermore.11 Use the flux representation 1. however! the distance between the flux lines should be maintained constant. The distance between the flux lines is inversely proportional to the magnitude of the vector field. The flux lines representing this vector are hence drawn closer as. In other words. y. is not uniform and its magnitude increases with the increase In x.

lines with the increase in p. ( d D = -K P 8p Figure 1. number of flux lines per unit area) almost constant throughout Figure L27e. as shown in Figure L27e" so as to maintain the density of the flux lines (i.27 Flux representation of various vectors.34 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form y y Chap.e.. 1 ~~------~----~x (b) B = Kx ay y --~--~----~r---~--------~X --- (e) C= Kx ax 'J. ••• .

Another type of force is the magnetic force that may be produced by the steady magnetic field of a permanent magnet. we discussed in detail the electric field E and the forces associated with static electric charges .. point P. The experimental law was introduced to describe the force on a small magnet owing to the magnetic flux produced from a long conductor carrying current I. Biot-Savart's Law. which quantifies the magnetic flux density produced by a differential current element. h is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the current element to the point P. It is worth mentioning that the magnetic field produced by time-varying electric fields is just a mathematical discovery made by Maxwell through his attempt to unify the laws of electromagnetism available at that time. that Oersted discovered that a magnet placed near a curren t -carrying wire will align itself perpendicular to the wire. the force F caused by the flux B is given by F= mB This force law is clearly analogous to Coulomb's law for electrostatic field.6 Electric and Magnetic Fields 35 1. We might all be familiar with the magnetic field produced by a permanent magnet that can be recognized through its force of attraction on iron file placed in the neighborhood of the magnet. 2. This simply means that the steady electric currents exert forces on permanent magnets similar to those exerted by permanent magnets on each other.6. Hence. Before going to the next section. 'To quantify the experimental observations by Biot and Savart. the magnitude of the differential length. Fields really p-ossessno physical basis. however. The Biot-Savart law quantifies the magnetic flux density dB produced by a differential current element Ide. In this section we will focus our discussion on the production of magnetic fields by current-carrying conductors. 1. however. Biot and Savartquantified Ampere's observations.Sec. F = QE. or a direct current. Ampere then showed that electric currents also exert forces on each other) and that a magnet can be replaced by an equivalent current with the same result. the electric force is equal to the charge Q multiplied by the electric field intensity E. The fundamental law in this study is Biot-Savart's law. the force dF owing to the magnetic flux dB produced by a differential current element IdC) as shown in Figure 1. If each of the poles of a small magnet has a strength m. This phenomenon has been recognized and reported throughout history. . The hypothesis introduced by Maxwell postulating that time-varying electric fields produce magnetic fields will be discussed in detail later in this chapter. because the physical measurements must always be in terms of the forces that result from these fields. It is proportional to the product of the current. and in me following section we win discuss their findings. an electric field changing with time. As an example of these fields.28) is found to have the followingcharacteristics. It was only in 1820. 1. and the sine of the angle between the current element and the line connecting the current element to the observation.3 Magnetic Field The concept of a field should be familiar by now. In this case.

that is.36 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equatrons in Integral Form Chap. the magnetic flux density is given by dB .12: Let us use Biot-Savarts law to find the magnetic flux density produced bya single turn loop carrying a current L We will limit the calculation to the magnetic field along the axis of the loop. At the element 2.aR is a unit" veetor between the element and the observation. which is symmetrically located with respect to element 1. = mILa Ide x 41i R2 3R where !J. which is located at all angle <P in Figure L29 is given according to Biot-Savart's law by dB! = 1-10Idt" x all".28 The magnetic field intensity at a point P owing to a current element Idt. 2 = lLo Ide a. 3. poin t P. expression of the force may take the form dF = mdB 3R. Hence. EXAMPLE 1. The direction of the force is normal to the plane containing the differential current element and a unit vector from the current element to the observation point P. = 1-10 Idea". a compact . 411" (ai + z~) ill'!. Solution The magnetic field resulting from the current element 1 (Ide j).~x aR1 4'11" (a2 + 22. x 41rR 2.29·. 411" r2 Because the direction of the force dF is perpendicular to Ide and . IdFI = ImdBI = mVal dE sino: . It also follows the right-hand rule from Ide to the line from the filament to P.) . located at the angle ~ + 'iT in Figure 1. 1 11/ I Figure 1.o/4"TI' is the constant of proportionality. The following examples will illustrate the use of Biot-Savart's law in calculating magnetic fields from current carrying conductors.

Determine the magnetic flux density at P. 1.". EXAMPLE 1. From Figure 1. we simply multiply dEz by 2. is obtained by integrating dBz with respect to dB" is independent of <!J. hence. ~dB]I sin e and !dilhl sin 0. that is. hence.. fJ-0 a 2( a2 -t z2y"'2 z 1a2 This result indicates that the direction of the current flow and the direction of the resulting magnetic field are according to the right-hand rule. . it may be seen that the components of dB! and dB2 perpendicular to the z axis cancel and the other components along the z axis.29.13 An infinitely long conducting wire carrying a constant current I and is oriented along the z axis as shown in Figure 1. (aL + Z2) (al + a Z2Y2 .. .30. cp from or B =.29 Magnetic flux density resulting from a current loop.Sec.".". 411 (rl + o to 2. the thumb will point to the direction of the magnetic flux density B.hand are folded in the direction of the current flow. Because Ia2d¢ Z2)3>'l The total magnetic flux density B. When the fingers of the right...6 Electric and Magnetic Fields 37 Element 1 Figure 1. dB • ='"'"" lad¢ 41T (a2 fLo + sin 8 Z2) = ~o Jad<fJ 4.. will add.

we will place P on the z == 0 plane. The wire is oriented along the positive z axis.38 z Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form Chap. 41TrQP The total magnetic field from the current line is obtained by integrating the contributions." I B oj. 2 xaQP 411 rQP Substituting 3iQ'p and noting that a. Rt.IJ-olpdz dB ] a". from all elements along the line. Hence.. which is a distance z from the origin O. Let us consider an incremental current element Idz located at Q. Because the wire is infinitely long and due to symmetry around the wire. we obtain 0.1! I Solution Figure 1. The magnetic field resulting from this current element is given according to Biot-Savart's law by dB . without loss of generality.l" ldz a. the resulting magnetic field should be independent of z and 4l. sin H -~ =a__£_-a~ p rQP ro» where r QP = V Z2 + p2.". The unit vector in the direction joining the incremental current element to the field Pis 3QP = 3~ cos €I . = 2np Wb/rm2 or .Z :0 dz ""(lIp 417 p\ Z2 + p2) 112 z I fl. and a" x a.a. . -.. J. == 3<1>. x a.30 The magnetic flux density II resulting 'from an infinitely long conducting wire.. hence. = ~ = /-Lo I P fro _'"(Z2 + p2?...

resulting.6... The magnetic field cannot be produced from stationary charges and. We do not expect an electric field to exert forces on' uncharged particles (e . With the fingers of the right hand folded in the direction of the flux Jines. therefore.6.. of a charged particle in combined electric and magnetic fields.5 Differences in Effect of Electric and Magnetic Fields on Charged Particles The force exerted by the magnetic field is always perpendicular to the direction in which the particle is moving.in exerting a force on the charged particle.Sec. and is given by a unit vector in the direction v x B. dW = F·de == qv x B'vdt . . IF = Q(E +v x B) I This equation is known as Lorentz force equation. 1. The force is. The force exerted on a charged particle in motion in a magnetic field of flux density B is found experimentally to be the following: 1. and to the sine of the angle between the vectors v and B. We learned in previous sections that the electric field causes forces on charges that may be either stationary or in motion. 1. and hence there win be no interaction. and its solution is required in determining the motion.6 Electric and Magnetic Fields 39 Once again. particles of given masses) simp}y because such particles do not produce electric field.g. therefore. hence. the magnetic field is capable of exerting a force only on moving charges.. Similarly. 2. 1. given by I F == Qv x B ! The force on a moving charge as a result of combined electric and magnetic fields is obtained easily by the superposition of the separate electric and magnetic forces. the flux density B. the thumb indicates the di rection of the current flow.. This force. This is because any charged particle (whether in motion or not) is capable of producing an electric field that interacts with the already existing electric field. does not change the magnitude of the particles velocity because the workdW done on the panicle or the energy delivered to it by the magnetic field is always zero. Hence. we note that the direction of the magnetic-flux lines and the direction of the current producing it obey the right-hand rule. cannot exert any force on stationary charges. This result appears logical because we are considering magnetic fields produced by moving charges (currents) and therefore may exert forces on moving charges... The direction of the force is perpendicular to both v and B. Proportional to the charge Q) its velocity v.4 Lorentz 'Force Equation Let us now determine the forces exerted by the magnetic field on charges.: 0 .

(i.7) 1. independent of the direction of motion of the charged particle. exerts a force on the particle that is independent of the direction in which the particle is moving._ +d d'-) a". therefore. 1 Electric field 1. A velocity component along the direction of the electric field can be 'generated. The direction of the force exerted is along the line joining the two charges and is" therefore. The electric field.e. If the particle has an initial velocity v = v a. Some fundamental differences between the electric and magnetic fields are summarized in Table 1. The work done on the charged particle is always equal to zero. Electric field force causes energy transfer between the field and the charged particle. - q ax 0 v-" a. . 3. The magnetic field may. The electric field. Solution From Newton's law and Lorentz force rna where a is the particle's we obtain acceleration. The magnetic flux density is given by B = B" 3z.7 in terms of its components.8) . 2. = qv xB equation (1.14 Consider a particle of mass m and charge q moving in H magnetic field that is oriented in the z direction. causes an energy transfer between the field and the particle.1:1:. deflect the trajectory of the particle's motion but not change the total energy or the total velocity.1.Can be produced Magnetic field by direct current that can be attributed to only moving charges. B {J (1. Can be produced by charged partides moving or stationary. describe the motion of the particle under the influence of the magnetic field.1 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in lnteqral Form COMPARISON BiETWIEENTHE ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS Chap. + dd d: ax ttl a). This is. To enhance our understanding of the electric and magnetic fields and the nature of their interaction with charged particles further. at t = 0). conversely. Expressing m I (d~::. _ Vy 0 ))2 . a. however.40 TABLE 1. The force is always perpendicular to the direction of the velocity of the particle. velocity and hence cannot change the magnitude of the particle velocity. let us solve the following additional examples. ~.. EXAMPLE 1. because the magnetic force is always perpendicular to the.

z = constant.< in equation 1.. field is unknown and it is likely that the magnetic field would deflect the particle's trajectory thus generating other velocity components. 0 (1. With this in mind regarding the com ponent ~f the velocity v~.9a once more with respect to tand substituting equation 1. Theexpressions for v. we will obtain V.9a) (1. Now equating the various components of equation 1. let us solve equations 1.From equation 1.1 and 1. At t = 0..9b fordvyldt. . v = v a..qB.9a and b for the other two components of the velocity 1/. and Vy• Differentiating equation 1.. this component of velocity will continue to be constant and unchanged under the influence of the magnetic field.12) A 1 sin Wo t + A2 cos t To determine Al and A2• let us use the initial.31.( + A .rn =- 1 sinwot Wo - A {oj" 2-___.11) where w" = qB.9b. = V' cos Wo t and field is. we considered all the velocity components in the v x B expression because the velocity of the particle LInder the influence of the magnetic. we obtain Vy in the form Vy - _ -. we obtain d2 v. if the particle has an initial velocity in the direction of the magnetic field (z direction). If. we obtain (l.12.9c) . along the magnetic field.10 is in the form 1/. this component will continue to be zero even after the interaction of the charged particle with the magnetic field.9c it is clear that integrating with respect to time. we obtain A2 = 0 and Al = v.13) If we plot the variation of the particle's velocity as a function of time. Substituting V. and Vy = 0.8..10) A solution of equation 1. therefore. and Vy are therefore given by 'V. conversely. ..1..conditions of the velocity.v sin t a..~ q2 B~ rn--= ---v-. no component of the velocity is initially in the z direction. Hence. 6 Electric and Magnetic Fields 41 Note that although the initial velocity of the particle is in the x direction.'- coslOot) Wo (1. we can easily see that the particle is rotating in the clockwise direction around the magnetic field as shown in Figure 1. dt2 m by or (1. substituting these initial conditions in equations 1. that is. 000 The particle's total velocity in the magnetic v = v cos Wa t a. = AI cos Wo t + A2 sin (oj" t (1.)m and Al and A2 are twa unknown constants to be determined from the initial conditions of the velocity. 1. (1.9b) m dt = dv.Sec..

If the magnetic field is oriented along the positive z axis. ... The radius of the circle in which the particle travels around the magnetic field is This example simply emphasizes the statement made in the previous section that the magnetic field may deflect the particle's trajectory but not change its velocity=-that is. 2 v Figure 1. however. .42 Vector Analysis and Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form Chap. vary as the particle presses around the magnetic field vector in a circular trajectory.2 and by noting that Ivj = v Vcos 2 w" t + sin? w" t =v it is dear that the magnitude of the particle's velocity is always constant and is equal to the.. causes no energy transfer from or to the particle .31." v v 'j! Direction 0 TI" ax -ay -ax 2 3'1T 2 ~ 1T v v v ay Has both ax and 3y 27T ax components From Table 1. initial velocity.ELOCITY COMPONENTS AND DIRECT. Its components. 1 w Qt = :!!.2 V. The angular velocity w'" is called the cyclotron frequency. TABLE 1. the particle moves in a circular path in the clockwise direction. Motion of positively charged particle in a constant magnetic field.ION AS A FUNCTION OF TIME !iJ~ t I.

find the angle O! between the filaments.~ component because E (has only x component) and Bare perpendicular to each other. 0 0 B)' az 0 B~ = -v x B. When the charge velocity at any point along the motion path is v = v. q and B=- ma. q v. from v x B determinant. components. Solution When the velocity has only one component in the x direction. Because the 3" component of the acceleration is zero. Ry v. a. Assuming that the charges are to be located approximately at the centers of the balls. ••• EXAMPLE 1.is therefore the cause of the x component of the acceleration. should be an a" component offorce or consequently an a. the acceleration was found to have two components. Hz To explain further the reason for B to have only an a. + Vx By 3. component of acceleration. each of length {. E= --a-" m a. . We should note that B has no B.) Note: Such a system can be used as a primitive device for measuring charges and potentials and is caned an electroscope. component. let us assume that B has R" and B. there. the observed acceleration is a == ax ax + oj'a)" Find an E and B combination that would generate this acceleration a.15 Fields 43 EXAMPLE A charge q of mass m is injected into a field region containing perpendicular electric and magnetic fields. the force is given by Because v has only one component in the x direction.. a.Sec. By has therefore to be zero .16 Two small balls of masses m have a charge Q each. In the presence of both E and B fields. 1. The electric field force . and are suspended at a common point by thin filaments.>. then the magnetic field force cannot be responsible for the x component of the force. Hence. (Assume a to be small. Now it we assume that B has By and B~ components.6 Electric and Magnetic 1. a.

In the following section we will continue our efforts to pave the way for the introduction of Maxwell's equations. we will introduce the vector integration as a prerequisite to the discussion of Maxwell's equations in integral form . -F~ mg sill _. it may be seen that the equilibrium position will occur when mg sincr:.32. .32 The electroscope./2? Hence.32... the repulsion force will cause them to separate away from each other.12. coso../2 = 1 and sin 0. F~ == 4'IT to Q2 (U' sin cr:.44 Vector Analysis end Maxwell's Equations in Integral Form Chap" 1 0: 2 I . Specifically.J2 = Fe cos a/2 The electric force between the two charged balls.. This is simpl y because this force is responsible for swinging the bans... a ]_ Ct - Q2 211' Eo f: mg 2 ••• In the previous sections we familiarized ourselves with the simple rules of vector algebra and the basic concepts of fields.Ci: a: Fe cos -2 . From Figure 1.k 0: . 2 \ \ 2' \ \ mg mg Figure 1. Thus.: /2. Solution Because the two bails are charged with similar charges. Fe is given by .. the equilibrium equation reduces to ---=~-=-~16'IT Eo Q2 ez mg sin) 002 cos a!2 For small 0. . The two balls win reach the equilibrium position when the force perpendicular to each string becomes zero as shown in Figure 1..

ItA JA(C)de c = tJ. evaluate the scalar quantity A (Ci) at the center of each element. we divide the contour of integration c into N segments..This simply means that in evaluatingJ:A(C)dC. multiply A (ei) by thelength of the element at'.34. The element of length de ill this case is given by pd~ where p = 1 along the given contour c.. f "12 Jo (. we introduce vector integral operations next. .) and add the contributions from all the segments.33. A (£1) is the value of A (£) evaluated at the pointt.00 2: A(ti)AC.34 then . if c is given by the curve shown in Figure 1..../2 11 d\$:..Sec.. s: Circumference ofcirc1e 4 Figure 1.Ci..£ j f de .33 An approximate procedure for calculating a scalar line integral.f/_O }¥ Lim _.. Vector differential operations win be discussed in chapter 2 just before the introduction of Maxwell's equations in differential form.7 VECTOR INTEGRATION of the electromagnetic field quantities and the ability from one coordinate system to another) it is important that we develop a thorough understanding of basic vector integral and differential operations.... it can be shown that the line Integral of the form de is simply the length of the contour c..1 Line Integrals The scalar line integral (C) de (where C is the length of the contour and a and b are the two end points along the path of integration) is defined as the limit of the sum L. The sum of these contributions will eq ual exactl y the tine inte gral of the scalar quan ti ty in the limit when the lengths of these elements !lei approach zero..C) t1el as il£/---7> O.. 2 If we follow the physical reasoning behind the evaluation of the line integral of a scalar quantity as described earlier.7. Besides the vector representation to transform such representation 1. Hence.r=ldc!>:.. i =! J~' A simple example of this line integral is the evaluation of ide where the contour c is given by the curve shown in Figure 1. J c de = oPI. as shown in Figure 1.7 Vector lntaqration 45 1. 1. Therefore.v". J A (. within the segment !!:. In preparation of the introduction of Maxwell's equation in integral form. Hence.