2

CHAPTER
Trigonometry
Introduction
The word trigonometry comes
from two Greek words—trigon
(triangle) and metron (measure).
So, trigonometry is the study of the
relationship between the angles
and side lengths in a triangle.
Pythagoras’ theorem gives
us information relating to the
relationship between the side
lengths of a right-angled triangle.
Trigonometry gives us
information relating to the
relationship between the angles
and side lengths in a triangle.
Trigonometry is used in science,
engineering and, particularly, in
surveying where distances need to
be calculated in inaccessible terrain.
We will start by considering
relationships in right-angled
triangles; however there are similar
relationships in non-right-angled
triangles.
W A R M U P
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1 Thetriangleshownis
bestdescribedas:
A isosceles
B scalene
C right-angled
D obtuse
2 Thevalueofxinthediagramis:
A 2.65cm
B 4cm
C 5cm
D 7cm
3 Thevalueofa,correcttoonedecimal
place,is:
A 16.3cm
B 10.3cm
C 4.7cm
D 2.2cm
4 Inthetriangle
shown,ABCis:
A 37°
B 43°
C 45°
D 53°
5 Whichoneofthefollowingstatementsis
true?
A Eachoftheanglesinanequilateral
triangleis60°.
B Allsidesofanisoscelestriangleare
equalinlength.
C Thelinejoiningthevertexofan
equilateraltriangletothemidpoint
ofthebasemakesanangleof60°
withthebase.
D Thediagonalsofarectanglealways
intersectatrightangles.
6 Findthevalueofx,
correcttoone
decimalplace.
7 Findthevalueofh
correcttoone
decimalplace.
8 FindABC.
9 FindBAC.
10 Findthevalueofd,correct
toonedecimalplace.
T R I G O N O M E T R Y
x
4 cm
3 cm
>
13.ó cm
8.º cm
C A
B
37°
Ý
x°ÎÊV“
Ç°ÓÊV“
12.6 cm 12.6 cm
h
10.8 cm

Ón
A
B
C
138°
£ÎÊV“
™ÊV“
`
trigonometry
45
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2A  Labelling right-angled triangles
Aright-angled triangleisatrianglewhereoneoftheanglesis90°.Theothertwoanglesin
thetrianglearecomplementary,thatis:theyaddto90°.
Oneoftheimportantthingstoconsideristhenamingofthesidesin
thetriangle.
Thelongestsideofthetriangleisoppositetheright-angleandis
calledthehypotenuse.
Theothersidesofthetrianglearelabelledrelativetooneoftheotheranglesinthe
triangle.TheangleisoftendenotedbyaGreekletter,suchastheta(),alpha()orbeta().
Thenamesfortheothertwosidesofthetriangleareadjacentandopposite.
Thediagramontherightshowsacorrectlylabelledtriangle.
Hyporenuse
Òpposire
Ad|ocenr
Q
Þ«œÌi˜ÕÃi
The adjacent side is the side next to the given angle. The opposite
side is, as the name suggests, opposite the angle.
E X A M P L E S
ExamplE A1
label the sides of the triangle shown with the words Hypotenuse,
Adjacent and Opposite, relative to the angle .
N e e d
t o d o

1 label the hypotenuse.
2 look for the angle, .
3 Find the side next to the angle 
and label it Adjacent.
4 Find the side opposite the angle 
and label it Opposite.

N e e d
t o k n o w
• The longest side
of a right-angled
triangle is called the
hypotenuse.
• The side next to the
angle  is called the
adjacent side.
• The side opposite
the angle  is called
the opposite side.
Hypotenuse
Opposite
Adjacent
C
A B
θ
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ExamplE A2
label the sides of the triangle shown with the
words Hypotenuse, Adjacent and Opposite
relative to the angle .
N e e d
t o d o

Follow Example 1.
1 label the hypotenuse.
2 look for the angle, .
3 Find the side next to the angle 
and label it Adjacent.
4 Find the side opposite the angle 
and label it Opposite.
ExamplE A3
label the hypotenuse and opposite side and the
angle , where necessary, in the following right-angled triangle.
N e e d
t o d o

1 label the hypotenuse.
2 label the angle, , next to the
adjacent side.
3 label the opposite side.
N e e d
t o k n o w
• Hypotenuse—
longest side
• adjacent—next to
the angle
• Opposite—
opposite the angle.

Hypotenuse
Opposite
Adjacent
C
A
B
θ
N e e d
t o k n o w
The adjacent side is
next to the angle, .
`>Vi˜Ì

Hyporenuse
Òpposire
Ad|ocenr
Q
trigonometry
47
Exercise 2A
1 Labelthediagramswiththewords:Hypotenuse,AdjacentandOppositeinthe
followingright-angledtriangles.
a b
c d
e f
g h
i j
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
Q
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2 Labelthehypotenuse,adjacentandoppositesidesandtheangle,wherenecessary,in
thefollowingright-angledtriangles.
a b c
d e f
3 Labelthehypotenuse,adjacentandoppositesidesandtheangle,wherenecessary,in
eachofthefollowing.
a b c
d e f
Hint:Youwillneedto Hint:Youwillneedto
addaconstructionline. addaconstructionline.
`>Vi˜Ì
"««œÃˆÌi
"««œÃˆÌi
`>Vi˜Ì
"««œÃˆÌi
`>Vi˜Ì
θ
Hypotenuse
θ
Adjacent
Opposite
θ
Hypotenuse
θ
trigonometry
49
2B  Sine, cosine and tangent
Intrigonometry,theratiosofthesidesinright-angledtrianglesaresignifcant.
Therearethreeratiosinparticularwhichwewillconsider;eachofwhichhasaspecial
name.
Inallright-angledtrianglestheratioof:
a theoppositesidetothehypotenuseiscalledthesineratio.
sin 5
Opposite

___________

Hypotenuse

sin 5
O
 
__
 
H
 
b theadjacentsidetothehypotenuse
iscalledthecosineratio.
cos 5
Adjacent

___________

Hypotenuse

cos 5
A
 
__

H
 
c theoppositesidetotheadjacentsideiscalledthetangentratio.
tan 5
Opposite

_________

Adjacent

tan 5
O
 
__

A
  
Òpposire Hyporenuse
Q
Hyporenuse
Ad|ocenr
Q
Opposite
Adjacent
θ
It can be helpful to remember these relationships as:
SOH Sine is the Opposite side divided by the Hypotenuse
CAH Cosine is the Adjacent side divided by the Hypotenuse
TOA Tangent is the Opposite side divided by the Adjacent side
These ratios are commonly abbreviated to SIN, COS and TAN.
Trigonomic
ratios
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E X A M P L E S
ExamplE B1
label the sides in the triangle and then determine which
relationship can be used.
N e e d
t o d o

a The triangle is right-
angled.
b label the sides of the
triangle.
c We have the adjacent
(A) side and the
Hypotenuse (H),
therefore we need to use
cosine.
cos  2
A
 
__
 
H
 
ExamplE B2
label the sides in the triangle and then determine which
relationship can be used.
N e e d
t o d o

a Check that the triangle is
right-angled.
b label the sides of the
triangle.
c We have the opposite
(O) side and the adjacent
(A) sides, therefore we
need to use tangent.
tan  5
O
 
__
 
A
 
N e e d
t o k n o w
a Is the triangle
a right-angled
triangle?
b What are the names
of the sides relative
to the angle?
c Which relationship
connects these
sides: sine, cosine
or tangent?
N e e d
t o k n o w
SOH CaH TOa
Hypotenuse
Adjacent
θ
Adjacent
Opposite
θ
trigonometry
51
Exercise 2B
1 Labelthesidesinthetriangleortheangleandthendeterminewhichrelationshipcan
beused.
a b c
d e f
g h i
j k l
m n
Q
`>Vi˜Ì
Q
Q
"««œÃˆÌi
Q
Q
`>Vi˜Ì
Q
`>Vi˜Ì
"««œÃˆÌi
Q
Q
`>Vi˜Ì
Q
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2 Fromthediagram,writeatrigonometricratioforeachofthefollowing:
a sin
b tan
c cos
Whatdoyounoticeaboutthe
valuesofsinandcos?
3 Writeatrigonometricratioforeachofthefollowing:
a cos
b sin
c tan
Whatdoyounoticeaboutthe
valuesofcosandsin?
2C Finding ratios with a calculator
Foreachanglethereisaspecifcvalueforsine,cosineandtangent.Sofar,wehaveused
theratiosofthesidesofthetriangletodeterminethisvalue.Anotheralternativeistousea
scientifcorgraphicscalculator.
Thefollowingexampleshowshowthevalueofsin(35°)canbefoundusingagraphic
calculator.
1 Ensurethatthecalculatorisindegreemode(DEG).
Pressthezbuttonandusethearrowkeysto
highlightDEGREEthenpressÍ.
2 Pressthefollowingkeys:˜Â·Í
So,correcttofourdecimalplaces,sin(35°)50.5736
b
c
a
θ
α
n
p
m
β
α
trigonometry
53
Exercise 2C
1 Useyourcalculatortofndthevalueofthefollowing,correcttofourdecimalplaces.
a sin(35°) b cos(57°) c tan(42°) d cos(22°)
e sin(35°18) f cos(32°54) g tan(28°42) h sin(49°3)
i cos(85°7) j tan(13°45)
E X A M P L E S
ExamplE C1
Use your calculator to fnd sin(58°) correct to four decimal places.
N e e d
t o d o

1 Ensure your calculator is
in degree (DEG) mode.
2 press the z button
and use the arrow keys
to highlight Degree, then
press Í.
sin(58°)50.8480
ExamplE C1
Use your calculator to fnd cos(24°36')correct to four
decimal places.
N e e d
t o d o

1 Ensure your calculator is
in degree (DEG) mode.
press the ™ button
and then Á¶. To enter
the degrees symbol use
y; . To enter
the minutes symbol
use y;Á.
The complete set of
keystrokes required is:
™Á¶y;
¸y;ÁÍ
N e e d
t o k n o w
Use the steps on the
previous page.
N e e d
t o k n o w
Use the steps in the
previous example—
this time cos.
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2 Completethefollowingtable,givingyouranswerscorrecttofourdecimalplaces.
Angle sin cos
10° 0.1736
20°
30° 0.8660
40° 0.6428
50°
60° 0.5
70° 0.9397
80°
90° 0
3 Completethefollowingstatements.
a sin(10°)5cos( ) b cos(70°)5sin( ) c sin(50°)5cos( )
d cos(30°)5sin( ) e cos(80°)5sin( ) f sin(60°)5cos( )
g cos(20°)5sin( ) h sin(35°)5cos( ) i cos(8°)5sin( )
j cos(56°)5sin( ) k sin(62°)5cos( ) l cos(27°)5sin( )
m Explainhowtofndthevalueofsin(46°)intermsofcosine.
n Explainhowtofndthevalueofcos(39°)intermsofsine.
4 Completethefollowingstatements.
a sin(28.4°)5cos( ) b cos(65.3°)5sin( ) c sin(47.8°)5cos( )
d cos(42°17)5sin( ) e cos(67°25)5sin( ) f sin(24°6)5cos( )
2D  Finding side lengths
Whentryingtofndthesidelengthsinaright-angledtriangleusingtrigonometrythereare
twodifferentcombinationsthatcanoccur:
a theunknownsidelengthisinthenumerator
b theunknownsidelengthisinthedenominator.
Themethodusedtosolvetheequationfortheunknownisthemajorskillrequired.
Forexamplewhentheunknownisinthenumerator:
sin(24°)5
a
 
_____

12.6

  a512.6sin(24°)
55.12
Homework
Sheet 2.1
trigonometry
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Whentheunknownisinthedenominator:
cos(42°)5
7.9

___

b
 
 bcos(42°)57.9
b5
7.9

________

cos(42°)

510.63
E X A M P L E S
ExamplE D1
Find the length of the unknown side, correct to two decimal places.
N e e d
t o d o

a label the sides of the
triangle relative to the
angle.
b as we have the opposite
side (O) and the
hypotenuse (H), we need
to use the sine ratio.
c sin(25°) 5
h
 
__

3

Solving for h gives:
h 5 3 sin(25°)
5 1.27 cm
The following steps should always be undertaken when solving problems.
1 Draw a diagram.
2 Identify the angle and label the sides of the triangle (opposite, adjacent or hypotenuse)
relative to this angle.
3 Consider the sides involved and write out the expression for the appropriate ratio. Use
the memory device SOH CAH TOA to help you.
4 Substitute the corresponding values into the ratio.
5 Solve the equation to fnd the unknown side length.
h
25°
3 cm
Hypotenuse
Opposite
h
25°
3 cm
N e e d
t o k n o w
a Which sides of
the triangle are
involved?
b What is the
appropriate ratio?
c Which method is
required to fnd the
unknown?
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ExamplE D2
Find the length of the unknown side, correct to two decimal places.
N e e d
t o d o

a label the sides of the triangle
relative to the angle.
b as we have the adjacent side (A)
and the hypotenuse (H), we
need to use the cosine ratio.
c cos(55°) 5
x
 
____

15.4

Solving for x gives:
x 5 15.4 cos(55°)
5 8.83 cm
ExamplE D3
Use trigonometry to fnd the length of the unknown side,
correct to two decimal places.
N e e d
t o d o

a label the sides of the triangle
relative to the angle.
b as we have the opposite side (O)
and the adjacent side (A),
we need to use the tangent ratio.
c tan(35°) 5
19.7

____

m
 
Solving for m, gives:
    m 5
19.7

_______

tan(35°)

5 28.13 cm
N e e d
t o k n o w
a Which sides of
the triangle are
involved?
b What is the
appropriate ratio?
c Which method is
required to fnd the
unknown?
x
55°
15.4 cm
x
55°
15.4 cm
Hypotenuse
Adjacent
m
35°
19.7 cm
N e e d
t o k n o w
a Which sides of
the triangle are
involved?
b What is the
appropriate ratio?
c Which method is
required to fnd the
unknown?
“
35
1º.7 cm
Ad|ocenr
Òpposire
trigonometry
57
Exercise 2D
1 Useanappropriatetrigonometricratiotofndthelengthoftheunknownsideineachof
thefollowing.Giveyouranswerscorrecttoonedecimalplace.
a b c
d e f
2 Useanappropriatetrigonometricratiotofndthelengthoftheunknownsideineachof
thefollowing.Giveyouranswerscorrecttoonedecimalplace.
a b c
d e f
3 Findthelengthoftheunknownsideineachofthefollowing.Giveyouranswerscorrect
toonedecimalplace.
a b c
p
27°
19 m
45.4 cm
x
68° 16.8 mm
n
23°
14.7 cm
b
41°
73.4 mm
a
58°
x
65°
11.6 m
p
18.4 mm
26°
53°
27.6 cm
a
68°
17.8 m
y
72°
19.5 cm
x
38°
41.9 mm
a
29°
35.7 m
x
12.9 cm
a
32°
26.8 cm
x
83°
y
42°
15.8 m
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d e f
4 A9-metreslideataplaygroundmakesanangleof28° with
theground.Howhighabovetheground,correcttoone
decimalplace,isthetopoftheslide?
5 A15.6mfagpoleisattachedtoaguyropethatmakesanangleof
53°withtheground.Whatisthedistancefromtheguyropetothe
baseofthefagpole,correcttoonedecimalplace?
6 Thediagonalbracingstrutonatimbergateis2.4metreslongand
makesanangleof40°withthebaseofthegate.Howwideisthe
gate?
7 Awheelchairrampisinclinedatanangleof15°totheground.
Thetopoftherampis0.9metresabovegroundlevel.Howlong,
correcttoonedecimalplace,istheramp?
8 Davidisinaboatontheocean.Heobservesthatthetop
ofa35-metretallcliffisatanangleof18°fromhiscurrent
position.HowfarisDavidfromthebaseofthecliff,correct
tothenearestmetre?
9 AplaneleavespointAandfiesfor500kmonabearingS35°Wuntil
itreachespointB.ItthenfiesdueEastforxkm,untilitreaches
pointCwhichisdueSouthofpointA.Findthevalueofxcorrectto
thenearestkilometre.
p
24°
31.6 m
18°
61.5 mm
a
63°
55.1 cm
m
Óno
™Ê“
…

£x°Èʓ
`
Ü

Ӱ{ʓ
15°
0.9 m
l
£no
Îxʓ
`
Îxo
xääʎ“
Ý

trigonometry
59
2E  Finding angles using a calculator
Sometimeswearegiventhesine,cosineortangentofanangleandweneedtofndthesize
oftheangle.Thiscanbedoneusingascientifcorgraphiccalculator.
Forexample,ifsin50.5629thenthevalueofcanbefoundusingtheinversesine
functionsin
–1
.
sin50.5629
Therefore5sin
–1
(0.5629)
Theinversesinefunction,sin
–1
,isfoundbypressingthey˜keys.
a Ensurethatthecalculatorisindegreemode(DEG).
b Theanswercanbeconvertedbypressingthe;
buttonasfollows:y;¶
So,sin
–1
(0.5629)535°26’,correcttotwodecimal
places.
However,ifwewanttoexpressouranswerin
degreesandminutesweneedtoconvertthedecimal
answer.ThisisdonebyusingtheDMS(Degrees,
Minutes,Seconds)featureofthecalculator.
Theanswercanbeconvertedbypressingthe
and buttonsasfollows:yÌyŒ¶
So,sin
–1
(0.5629)535°.26,correcttothenearestminute.
• Alternatively, we can do all of this in one step by
pressing the following buttons:
y˜Ë·¸Á®y;¶
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E X A M P L E S
ExamplE E1
sin 50.8539. Use your calculator to fnd , giving your answer correct to two decimal places.
N e e d
t o d o

Ensure your calculator is in
degree (DEG) mode.
y˜Ë©·Â®
5sin
–1
(0.8539)
5 58.64°
ExamplE E2
Find cos
–1
(0.7438), giving your answer in degrees and minutes.
N e e d
t o d o

Ensure your calculator is in
degree (DEG) mode.
y™Ë¬¶Â©y
Φ
cos
–1
(0.7438)541°57′
Note that the minutes are
rounded up to 57′ because the
number of seconds is above 30.
ExamplE E3
Determine the value of  in the triangle shown. Give your answer
correct to two decimal places.
N e e d
t o d o

1 label the sides of the triangle relative to the angle.
2 as we have the adjacent side (A) and the hypotenuse (H), we
need to use the cosine ratio.
3 Write the appropriate expression: cos  5
7.5

____

16.8

4 Solving for , gives:
 5 cos
21

(

7.5

____

16.8

)

5 63.48522537
5 63.49 (2 decimal places)
N e e d
t o k n o w
cos 50.7438
Therefore:
5cos
–1
(0.7438)
N e e d
t o k n o w
cos x 5
adj

____

Hyp

Ç°x
£È°n
A
N e e d
t o k n o w
sin 50.8539
Therefore:
5sin
–1
(0.8539)
7.5
1ó.8
Ad|ocenr Ad|ocenr
Hyporenuse Hyporenuse
A
trigonometry
61
Exercise 2E
1 Useyourcalculatortofndtheangleineachofthefollowing.Giveyouranswercorrectto
onedecimalplace.
a sin50.5612 b cos50.7644 c tan50.7016
d sin50.3704 e cos50.2876 f tan51.2023
g sin50.8602 h cos50.1151 i tan50.1747
j sin50.6687
2 Useyourcalculatortofndtheangleineachofthefollowing.Giveyouranswerin
degreesandminutes.
a sin50.2091 b cos50.1432 c tan50.7482
d sin50.5 e cos50.8971 f tan51.4659
g sin50.9729 h cos50.1084 i tan50.1239
j sin50.6875
3 Evaluateeachofthefollowing,correcttothenearestdegree.
a sin
–1
(0.4207) b cos
–1
(0.8853) c tan
–1
(1.4852)
d cos
–1
(0.2011) e sin
–1
(0.6707) f tan
–1
(0.8614)
4 Determinethevalueoftheangleineachofthefollowingtriangles.Giveyouranswers
correcttoonedecimalplace.
a b c
d e f
g h
Homework
Sheet 2.2
15
23
α
12.8
6.5
θ
12.4
8.9
θ
α
64.9
78.3
β
29.6
13.4
θ
16.32
17.43
α
27.2
21.6
θ
22.9
41
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2F  Composite fgures
Sometimesitisnecessarytocalculatelengthsandanglesinmorecomplicatedsituations.
Trigonometrycanbeusedinthesecasestofndtheunknownlengthorangle.Itisimportant
thataright-angledtriangleisidentifedbeforecommencinganycalculations.
E X A M P L E S
ExamplE F1
Find the values of the pronumerals in the triangle shown.
Give your answers correct to one decimal place.
N e e d
t o d o

1 Redraw triangle QRS.
2 The value of a can be
found using the sine ratio:
sin(27°) 5
a
 
____

23.8
a 5 23.8 sin 27
5 10.8
3 The value of c can be found using the cosine ratio:
cos(27°) 5
c
 
____

23.8

c 5 23.8 cos 27
5 21.2
Now that we know the length of side a we can
redraw triangle PQS and then fnd the value of b.
4 The value of b can be found using the tangent ratio.
It is important to use the full value of a, and not the rounded
value from step b, so that b is calculated correctly.
tan(49°) 5
10.8

____

b
   
b 5
10.8

______

tan 49

5 9.4
a
Q
P R
S
b
c
27° 49°
23.8 cm
a
Q
R
S c
27°
23.8 cm
S
10.8 cm
Q
P
b
49°
Graphic Calculator Tip
To store an answer follow the steps.
1 Perform the appropriate calculation.
2 Press the following buttons to store the answer to memory
location A: ¿ƒtÍ
3 To use the stored value press the following buttons:
ƒt
N e e d
t o k n o w
• Triangle QRS has
one side and an
angle already
identifed.
• Once a is found
it can be used to
solve for b.
trigonometry
63
Exercise 2F
1 Findthelengthsoftheunknownsidesinthefollowingdiagrams.Giveyouranswers
correcttoonedecimalplace.
a b c
d e f
g h i
j
2 Findtheunknownanglesinthefollowingdiagrams.Giveyouranswerscorrecttoone
decimalplace.
a b c
d e f
28.7°
a
b
56.4 cm
a
b
47.1 cm
56°27'
L
V
>
23.8 cm
4º 27
b
c
a
17.3 m
57°
23°
«
µ
ÓÓ°£
ÎÇ
xn
m
n
18°
34°
38.1
â
Ý
Þ
{Ó Èä
£x
49°
28°
41.6
c
b
a
r
q
p
49°
21.4
26°
y
x
63°
1.5
23.5
θ
106.3
125.2
α
29.83
52.9
º.2 cm
23.8 cm
12.4 cm
Q
A
θ
α
25.8
12.3
85.9 8.4
28.7
19.6
θ
Q
£{°Îʓ
£Ó°Çʓ
Ó£°xʓ
A
64
oxford mathematics for victoria
2G  Problem-solving using trigonometry
E X A M P L E S
ExamplE G1
a bricklayer uses a 3-metre plank to gain access to a house that is being built. If the plank makes an
angle of 17° with the horizontal ground, how high off the ground is the top of the plank?
N e e d
t o d o

1 Draw a clear diagram.
2 Determine the appropriate
trigonometric ratio:
sin(17°) 5
h
 
__

3

3 Solve the equation:
h 5 3 sin (17°)
5 0.88 m
ExamplE G2
a 3.2-metre long ladder leans up against a brick wall. If the base of the ladder is 1.7 metres from the
wall, what angle does the ladder make with the ground, correct to the nearest degree?
N e e d
t o d o

1 Draw a clear diagram.
2 Determine the appropriate trigonometric ratio:
sin  5
1.7

___

3.2

3 Solve the equation:
 5 sin
21

(

1.7

___

3.2

)

5 32°5
5 32° (nearest degree)
N e e d
t o k n o w
• The ladder is 3.2 metres
long.
• The base of the ladder is
1.7 metres from the wall.
Note that in this case we
have two side lengths and
need to fnd the angle.
h
3 m
17°
3.2 m
1.7
θ
N e e d
t o k n o w
• The plank is 3
metres long.
• The angle between
the plank and the
ground is 17°.
When solving trigonometry problems it is important to:
• draw an accurate diagram which includes all of the relevant information
• write an appropriate trigonometric ratio
• solve the equation accurately
• write your solution clearly.
trigonometry
65
Constructing an inclinometer
Sometimesitisnecessarytodetermineheightsofobjectswhichcannotbefoundby
directmeasurement;forexample,fndingtheheightofatalltree.Intheseinstancesan
inclinometerandtrigonometrycanbeusedtofndtheunknownheight.
Toconstructaninclinometer:
1 Photocopyandcutouttheprotractoratthebottomofthenextpage.
2 Gluethecutoutprotractorontosomestiffcard.
3 Tapeadrinkingstrawtothetopofthecard,paralleltothebaseoftheprotractor.
4 PierceaholethroughthecardprotractoratthepointmarkedX.
5 Threadoneendofapieceofstringthroughtheholeandtapesecurelyonthebackof
thecard.
6 Attachaweight,suchasafshingsinker,totheotherendofthestring.
Yourcompletedinclinometershouldlooksimilartothediagramoverleaf.
ThesizeofangleAiscarefullyreadoffatpointC,wherethestringintersectstheedgeofthe
protractor.Theangleofelevation,B,canbefoundbysubtractingangleAfrom90°.
ExamplE G3
lusana wants to fnd the height of a tall tree in a park. From a distance
of 30 metres from the base of the tree she measures the angle  using
an inclinometer. Given that lusana is 1.65 metres tall and 526°,
fnd the height of the tree correct to one decimal place.
N e e d
t o d o

1 Draw a clear diagram.
2 Determine the appropriate
trigonometric ratio:
tan(26°) 5
h
 
___

30

3 Solve the equation:
h 5 30 tan (26°)
5 14.63 m
4 To fnd the height of the tree we need to add on lusana’s height.
Tree height 5 14.63 1 1.65
5 16.28
5 16.3 m
So, the height of the tree is 16.3 metres, correct to one decimal place.
26°
30 m
ÓÈ
Îäʓ
£°Èxʓ
…
N e e d
t o k n o w
Identify the key
information from the
question.
• The distance from
the base of the tree
is 30 metres.
• The angle between
the horizontal and
the top of the tree
is 26°.
• The height of
the tree is the
unknown.
66
oxford mathematics for victoria
Using an inclinometer
1 Measurethedistance,d,fromthebaseoftheobjectto
theinclinometer.
2 Usethestrawtosightthetopoftheobject.
3 Waituntiltheweightstopsmovingandthestringisstill
beforereadingofftheangle.Subtractthisanglefrom90°
togettheangleifinclination,.
4 Measuretheheight,h,oftheinclinometerabovethe
ground.
Calculations
1 Determinethevalueofxbyusingtan5
x
 
__

d
 
Thereforex5dtan
2 Determinetheheight,H,oftheobjectbyadding
xandh.
Forexample,giventhat537°,d540m,h51.6m:
tan(37°)5
x
 
___

40

    x530.1m
    H530.111.6
531.7m
θ
d
x
H
h
x
H
37°
40 m
1.6 m
näo
™äo
£ääo
££äo
£Óäo
£Îäo
£{äo
£xäo
£Èäo
£Çäo
£näo
Çäo
Èäo
xäo
{äo
Îäo
Óäo
£äo
äo
Straw
Weight
A
B
C
X
Line of sight
trigonometry
67
Exercise 2G
1 Aladder3.6metreslongleansupagainstawall.Iftheladdermakesan
angleof27°withtheground,howfarfromthewallisthebaseofthe
ladder?
2 Jennynoticesthatfromhercampsitetheanglebetween
thegroundandthetopofalookouttoweris32°.Ifthe
campsiteis75metresfromthebaseofalookouttower,
howhighisthetower?
3 Acarpenterwantstobuildaroofthatispitchedat22°,asshown
inthediagram.HowlongisthebeamAB?
4 Agirlfiesakiteonastringthat
is92.5metreslong.Findthe
anglethatthestringmakeswith
theverticalwhenitis45metres
abovetheground.Giveyour
answercorrecttoonedecimal
place.
5 Whatistheheightofafagpolewhichisheldverticallyby13metre
supports,ifeachsupportmakesanangleof72°withtheground?
6 Ayachtraceisdesignedaroundatriangularcourseasshowninthe
diagram.Findthetotallengthofthecourse.
7 Davidis1.85metrestall
andcastsashadow2.43
metreslong.Findthe
anglethatthesunmakes
withtheground.
8 Zacharywantstofndtheheightofatalltreeinapark.Fromadistanceof
50metresfromthebaseofthetreehemeasurestheangleusingan
inclinometer.GiventhatZacharyis1.82metrestalland518°,
fndtheheightofthetreecorrecttoonedecimalplace.
x
3.6 m
27°
75 m
h
32°
12.8 m
B
C A
22° 22°
{xʓ
A
™Ó°xʓ
h
72°
13 m
C
A
28° 3.9 km
θ
2.43 m
1.85 m
18°
50 m
68
oxford mathematics for victoria
9 Twobuildingsare80mand45mhighrespectively.Theangle
measuredfromthetopofthetallerbuildingdowntotheshorter
buildingis16°,asshowninthediagram.Findthehorizontal
distancebetweenthebuildings,correcttothenearest
metre.
10 Ivanisfyingakiteona65-metre
string.Thestringisheldataheight
of1.2metresandmakesanangleof
49°withtheground.Findtheheight
ofthekiteabovethegroundcorrect
toonedecimalplace.
11 Alighthouseisbuiltatthetopofacliff.Fromadistanceof
1.8kilometrestheanglesofelevationofthebottomandtop
ofthelighthouseare12.4°and15.2°respectively.Findthe
heightofthelighthousecorrecttothenearestmetre.
12 Arooftrusshasdimensionsas
indicatedinthediagram.Findthe
valueofthepronumerals.
13 Anorienteeringcourse,ABCD,isdesignedinarectangularpaddockaccordingtothe
planshowinthediagram.
a FindthelengthsAB,BC,CDandDA,correct
toonedecimalplace.
b Hence,fndthelengthofthecoursecorrect
tothenearestmetre.
45 m
80 m
d
16°
65 m
49°
1.2 m
1.8 |m
15.2
12.4
θ α
8.7m
4 m
2.5 m
x
y
nxʓ
{Çʓ
ÓÓ
În
Ó{

Homework
Sheet 2.3
trigonometry
69
Language
Adjacent
Thesidenexttothegivenangle.
Angle of Depression
Theanglemeasured
fromthehorizontal
downtothelineof
sight.
Angle of Elevation
Theanglemeasured
fromthehorizontalup
tothelineofsight.
Cosine
Theratioofadjacentsidetohypotenuseina
right-angledtriangle.
Hypotenuse
Thelongestsideofaright-angledtriangle.
Inclinometer
Adeviceusedtomeasureanglesinaverticalplane.
Opposite
Thesideoppositethegivenangle.
Orienteering
Asportwherecompetitorscompletea
coursewiththeaidofamapandacompass.
Right-angled triangle
Atriangleinwhichoneoftheanglesis90°.
Sine
Theratioofoppositesidetohypotenuseina
right-angledtriangle.
Tangent
Theratioofoppositesidetoadjacentsideina
right-angledtriangle.
Trigonometry
Thestudyoftherelationshipbetweentheangles
andsidelengthsinatriangle.
Angle ol elevorion
Horizonrol
L
i
n
e

o
l

s
i
g
|
r
Angle ol depression
Horizonrol
L
i
n
e

o
l

s
i
g
|
r
right-angled triangles
● The sides are labelled relative to the angle.
● The longest side is called the hypotenuse.
● The adjacent side is the side next to the angle.
● The opposite side is opposite the angle.
three ratios to find unknown angles or side
lengths
sin  5
Opposite

__________

Hypotenuse

sin  5
O
 
__

H
 
SOH
cos  5
Adjacent

_________

Hypoenuse

cos  5
A
 
__
 
H
 
CAH
tan  5
Opposite

_______

Adjacent

tan  5
O
 
__
 
A
 
TOA
steps for solving trigonometry problems
● Draw a diagram.
● Identify the angle and label the sides of the
triangle (opposite, adjacent or hypotenuse)
relative to this angle.
● Consider the sides involved and write out the
expression for the appropriate ratio. Use the
memory device SOH CAH TOA to help you.
● Substitute the corresponding values into the ratio.
● Solve the equation to fnd the unknown side
length.
S K I L L S A N D C O N C E P T S
Hypotenuse
Opposite
Adjacent
θ
Adjacent
Opposite
θ
Adjacent
Hypotenuse
θ
Hypotenuse
Opposite
θ
70
oxford mathematics for victoria
1 Labelthesidesofthetriangleshown
withthewordsHypotenuse,Adjacent
andOppositeand,wherenecessary,the
angle.
a
b
c
d
2 Writeappropriatetrigonometricratios
foreachofthefollowingtriangles.
a
b
c
3 Useyourcalculatortofndthevalueof
thefollowing,correcttofourdecimal
places.
a cos(43°)
b sin(60°)
c sin(22°14)
d tan(78°6)
4 Completethefollowingstatements.
a sin(68°)5cos( )
b cos(12°)5sin( )
c cos(61°)5sin( )
d sin(27°)5cos( )
Chapter review
Q

`>Vi˜Ì

"««œÃˆÌi
13
8
α
22
17
θ
21.5
27.9
β
trigonometry
71
5 Findthevalueofthepronumeralineach
ofthefollowing.Giveanswerscorrectto
onedecimalplace.
a
b
c
d
6 A4.6-metreladderleansagainsta
verticalwallandmakesanangleof52°
withtheground.Howfarupthewall
doestheladderreach?
7 Thediagonalbracingstrutonagate
makesanangleof65°withthebaseof
thegate.Ifthegateis1.8metrestall
howwideisit?
8 Findthesizeoftheangleineachofthe
following.Giveyouranswerscorrectto
onedecimalplace.
a sin50.4659
b cos50.9761
c tan52.1307
d sin50.7841
9 Evaluatethefollowing,givingyour
answerindegreesandminutes.
a cos
–1
(0.8751)
b tan
–1
(0.6502)
c sin
–1
(0.1473)
d cos
–1
(0.7495)
10 Determinethevalueoftheangleineach
ofthefollowingtriangles.Giveyour
answerscorrecttoonedecimalplace.
a
b
11 A3.9metreladderleansupagainsta
brickwall.Ifthebaseoftheladderis
1.5metresfromthewall,whatangle
doestheladdermakewiththeground,
correcttothenearestdegree?
ÇÊV“
>
ÎÇo
L
£È°ÓÊV“
xno
V
{£o
£x°Îʓ
`
xÎon¿
Îxʓ
w
1.8 m
65°
Ó{°n
£Ç°™
β
15.4
28.3
72
oxford mathematics for victoria
12 Ayachtraceisdesignedarounda
triangularcourseasshowninthe
diagram.Findthetotallengthofthe
course,correcttotwodecimalplaces.
13 Twobuildingsare68mand25mhigh
respectively.Theanglemeasuredfrom
thetopofthetallerbuildingdowntothe
shorterbuildingis27°,asshowninthe
diagram.Findthehorizontaldistance
betweenthebuildingscorrecttothe
nearestmetre.
14 Alighthouseisbuiltatthetopofacliff.
Fromadistanceof1.4kilometresthe
angleofelevationofthebottomofthe
lighthouseis7.4°.Findtheangleof
elevation,,ofthetopofthelighthouse
giventhatthelighthouseis75metres
tall.
Q
1.4 |m
7.4°
75 m
68 m
25 m
d
27°
ÎÈo
£°Çʎ“

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