BEN 1004: LANDMARKS OF CULTURAL DEVELOPMENT

Diploma In Design Foundation 2011/12 Izaak Mifsud 394(M)

. the Venus of Kostenky. The Aurignacian culture witnesses an explosion of rock art.000 BCE onwards) that modern man produced carvings and pictures. including the cave murals at Chauvet. which we can refer to the sensational cave paintings at Lascaux. the Venus of Hohle Fels. The early sculptures known as the Venuses of Tan-Tan is a crude representation of humanoid shapes that some experts doubt whether they are works of art at all. It is not until the Upper Paleolithic (40. Aboriginal Rock Art and much more. the animal carvings.PREHISTORIC ART • The earliest forms of prehistoric art are extremely primitive. The later cultures gave birth to even more sophisticated versions of prehistoric art.

.

and millet. barley. including wheat. There the domestication of plants and animals was probably begun leading to the establishment of settled villages based on the cultivation of cereals. scientists have found these villages evolved into forts surrounded by protective moats. • . The use of stone weapons is especially noted in these later periods and also the competition of more fertile lands which le to fast growing populations which might have also evolved itself into more chances of violence.C. The earliest known development of Neolithic culture was in SW Asia between 8000 B. and 6000 B.NEOLITHIC PERIOD • The Neolithic period is marked by such innovations as the rise of urban civilization or the introduction of metal tools or writing. sheep. In later times though. and pigs. Excavations of farming villages indicate a once peaceful and prosperous life. and the raising of cattle.C. goats.

.

Ancient Egypt is the point where history of western art begins. Despite of the rapid growth and development. since the population of Egypt at that time was all based on soldiers.. but also the expression of artistic genius as a whole The profession in Ancient Egypt was a major factor defining social classes on a pyramid scale.EGYPTIAN CULTURE • The Ancient Egyptian civilization was one of the longest in the west. and builders they were in the bottom row. they were still able to preserve the past and undergo relatively little change through the centuries. beginning in approximately 3000 B.C. Pyramids and Sphinxes are not only symbols of Egypt anymore. • . farmers. Also known as the ‘Social Pyramid’ .

.

Whereas Sculptors created the earliest portraits of individuals and most of the lifesize statues mostly made in copper. and even landscapes.C. The ancient Greek culture that eventually conquered Egypt through the efforts of Alexander the Great and which was in its own right a highly developed culture.C.) One of the most dynamic periods in the development of Egyptian art. plants. and stone. Artists learned to express their culture's worldview during this period by creating their first images and forms that evolved during this period. through keen observation of the natural world. They perfected the art of carving intricate relief decoration and.• The ancient Egyptian peoples prospered under what was one of the longest spanning civilizations in recorded history with a historical record of their achievements dating from approximately 3000 B. Many Architects mastered new techniques which were necessary to build monumental structures in stone.C. produced detailed images of animals. Egypt's Old Kingdom (2649–2150 B. recording the essential elements of their world for eternity in scenes painted and carved on the walls of temples and tombs . continuously referenced Egypt in its literary and historical texts and has provided modern historians with a foundation on which to base further studies. through nearly 300 B.

.

Before Menes Egypt was divided into independent kingdoms but It has always been a country of mysteries and never understood by the ancients. . but it is unsystematic and entirely devoid of style. In the sciences and in the industrial arts the ancient Egyptians were highly professional in their work.• Menes was the first human monarch to reign over all Egypt and was also the founder of Memphis. the mysteries trackless desert and pyramids. Egypt was referred as the gate of Africa due to its ancient wealth and power were enormous and It has always held an important position in world-politics. being without lofty ideas or charms. Its population at this period was more than eight millions. We can compare this Country with the Greek style and age when it comes to art. whereas the Egyptian literature has come down to us.

Sculpture was a powerful form of art with the Greeks and was a sense of artistic expression. and male attitude towards women. The change in gender issues. The political side was less important. and the new prime subject was the way of a better living. who were owned by the free people. without any legal rights. • • . especially nude walking youths. we have several belongings showing the mighty and muscly sculptures.ANCIENT GREECE • Greek Society was mainly broken up between Free people and Slaves. where the human figure was more expressed. Archaic art was a silent witness compared to the one produced during the Hellenistic period. The Archaic period was a growing elevation of individualism and uniqueness. Although many slaves lived closely with their owners. Sometimes the slaves were prisoners of war or bought from foreign slave traders. Poetry and sculpture show an approach during these periods and seeking for attention and a personal feeling within art. Slaves were used as servants and labourers. few were skilled craftsmen and even fewer were paid.

The focus on ethics was a key feature during this period. It dealt with a wide variety of subjects. and also the art focused more on the emotions and feelings of the human figure. This helped the artist express his feelings in the form of art. ethics and metaphysics. • . including political. Socrates and Plato were two famous philosophers. where Plato had a great interest in politics.• The classical Greek was somehow a freedom of expression and celebration of mankind. The Western influence in the Greek philosophy was incorporated in the Roman Empire. aesthetics. Socrates' death was a philosophical reflection and writing for Him.

.

. Philip the King of Macedonia. Alexander’s father. He was an inspiration to Caesar. was also the King of Macedonia and a conqueror of the Persian Empire considered as one of the greatest military geniuses. He defeated the Maedi. inherited the power to rule of Macedonia . and Napoleon. Alexander assembled an army. He spent his childhood watching his father transforming Macedonia into a great military power. born in 356 BC. and as soon as became a colony under Alexander’s will. led it against the rebels. Aristotle was Alexander’s personal tutor in which he helped him in rhetoric and literature and even stimulating his interest in science. an unbeaten state on the battlefields. He renamed it after himself ‘Alhe exandropolis’. which shows that at a young age Alexander was recognized as ‘mighty’. and philosophy. medicine.ALEXANDER THE GREAT • Alexander III the Great.

.

Minoan Crete had an important role in the development of Mycenaean culture. Tiryns. Local workshops produced objects made from pottery and bronze.. jewelry and vases in precious metals. as luxurious objects such as. the Greek mainland enjoyed an era of prosperity centered in such strongholds as Mycenae. Thebes. architects and engineer who designed and built remarkable bridges and fortification walls. Linear B. They were also fierce warriors. . and the withdrawal to more remote refuge settlements.MYCENAEAN CULTURE • The Mycenaean period. which was the first type of Greek language.C. tablets was written the form organized of their feudal system. Late 13 th Century B. Greece witnessed a wave of destruction and the decline of the Mycenaean sites. In the Mycenaean palace. Mycenaean goods were commercially famous and seen as a good mostly from Spain and the Levant. and Athens. mostly in the arts. which they would trade with oil and wine.

He gave allowance to the poor to attend theatrical performances for free. and for this Pericles became an influential statesman for Athens until his death in 429 B. This offered also a lot of job opportunities to the Athenians. this was one of his law statements in which He ordered.. in which he got rid of his political opposition and his political rival. He started his political career in the law courts.C. his father Xanthippus was a military commander for Athens at the battle of Mycale.d the Acropolis and the Parthenon instead the rebuilding of Athens. The money that were saved for The Peloponnesian War were funded to rebui.PERCILES • Pericles.C. He then was also in charge of the military during the Peloponnesian Wars. . born in 495 B. Ephialtes. he helped mostly the people of Athens which maybe this leaded him to gain the majority support.