CHARLES DARWIN Charles Robert Darwin FRS (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist.

[I]He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestry, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection. He published his theory with compelling evidence for evolution in his 1859 book On the Origin of Species, overcoming scientific rejection of earlier concepts of transmutation of species.[1][2] By the 1870s the scientific community and much of the general public accepted evolution as a fact. However, many favoured competing explanations and it was not until the emergence of themodern evolutionary synthesis from the 1930s to the 1950s that a broad consensus developed that natural selection was the basic mechanism of evolution. [3][4] In modified form, Darwin's scientific discovery is the unifying theory of the life sciences, explaining the diversity of life.[5][6] Darwin's early interest in nature led him to neglect his medical education at the University of Edinburgh; instead, he helped to investigate marine invertebrates. Studies at the University of Cambridge encouraged his passion for natural science.[7] His five-year voyage on HMS Beagleestablished him as an eminent geologist whose observations and theories supported Charles Lyell's uniformitarian ideas, and publication of his journal of the voyage made him famous as a popular author.[8] Puzzled by the geographical distribution of wildlife and fossils he collected on the voyage, Darwin began detailed investigations and in 1838 conceived his theory of natural selection. [9] Although he discussed his ideas with several naturalists, he needed time for extensive research and his geological work had priority.[10] He was writing up his theory in 1858 when Alfred Russel Wallace sent him an essay which described the same idea, prompting immediate joint publication of both of their theories.[11] Darwin's work established evolutionary descent with modification as the dominant scientific explanation of diversification in nature.[3] In 1871, he examined human evolution and sexual selection in The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex, followed by The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. His research on plants was published in a series of books, and in his final book, he examined earthworms and their effect on soil.[12] In recognition of Darwin's pre-eminence as a scientist, he was honoured by a major ceremonial funeral in Westminster Abbey, where he was buried close to John Herschel and Isaac Newton. [13] Darwin has been described as one of the most influential figures in human history.[14][15]


He qualified MBBS from the school with distinction in 1906. 1932) was an American innovator and entrepreneur who founded the Eastman Kodak Company and invented roll film. the younger Alexander enrolled at St Mary's Hospital Medical School in Paddington.[4] After working in a shipping office for four years. Sarah Marion McElroy of Killala. Fleming had been a private in the London Scottish Regiment of the Volunteer Force since 1900. His elder brother. Tom. County Mayo. the most efficacious life-saving drug in the world. Fleming went to Loudoun Moor School and Darvel School. where he became assistant bacteriologist to Sir Almroth Wright. including syphilis. and earned a two-year scholarship to Kilmarnock Academy before moving to London. helping to . and stated: It was a discovery that would change the course of history. The captain of the club.Sir Alexander Fleming FRSE FRS FRCS(Eng) (6 August 1881 – 11 March 1955) was a Scottish biologist and pharmacologist. and so in 1903. where he was elected Professor of Bacteriology of the University of London in 1928. immunology. By the middle of the century. where he attended the Royal Polytechnic Institution. When it was finally recognized for what it was. He gained a BSc with Gold Medal in 1908. Fleming married a trained nurse. the twenty-year-old Fleming inherited some money from an uncle. wishing to retain Fleming in the team suggested that he join the research department at St Mary's. He was 59 at the time of his second marriage. His best-known discoveries are the discovery of the enzyme lysozyme in 1923 and the antibiotic substance penicillin from the mouldPenicillium notatum in 1928. and was Mentioned in Dispatches. churning out synthetic penicillins that would conquer some of mankind's most ancient scourges. and died when Alexander (known as Alec) was seven. and chemotherapy. Time magazine named Fleming one of the 100 Most Important People of the 20th Century for his discovery[2] of penicillin. Hugh Fleming had four surviving children from his first marriage. The active ingredient in that mould. was already a physician and suggested to his younger sibling that he follow the same career. [1] and had been a member of the rifle club at the medical school. penicillin would alter forever the treatment of bacterial infections. He and many of his colleagues worked in battlefield hospitals at the Western Front in France. Fleming's discovery had spawned a huge pharmaceutical industry. Fleming served throughout World War I as a captain in the Royal Army Medical Corps. and became a lecturer at St Mary's until 1914. gangrene and tuberculosis Fleming was born on 6 August 1881 at Lochfield. a pioneer in vaccine therapy and immunology. In 1918 he returned to St Mary's Hospital. in Ayrshire. On 23 December 1915. Ireland. for which he shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1945 with Howard Florey and Ernst Boris Chain. turned out to be an infection-fighting agent of enormous potency. which Fleming named penicillin.[1] In 1999. 1854 – March 14. the daughter of a neighbouring farmer. GEORGE EASTMAN KODAK George Eastman (July 12. He was the third of the four children of farmer Hugh Fleming (1816–1888) from his second marriage to Grace Stirling Morton (1848–1928). He wrote many articles on bacteriology. John Fleming. a farm near Darvel. Scotland.

with a rapid growth in industry. New York. The company also manufactured the flexible transparent film. and a major gift in the early 1900s to the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Sr. described as one of the first "boomtowns" in the United States.[5] It opened this campus in 1916 ELIAS HOWE Elias Howe. the first camera designed specifically for roll film.Massachusetts. Roll film was also the basis for the invention of motion picture film in 1888 by the world's first filmmakers Eadward Muybridge and Louis Le Prince. Ellen Maria and Katie. The young Eastman left school early and started working. In 1884. which proved vital to the subsequent development of the motion picture industry. It was one of the first firms to mass-produce standardized photography equipment. in Rochester. Howe spent his childhood and early adult years in Massachusetts . contributing to the construction of MIT's second campus on the Charles River. Howe was born on July 9. at the 10-acre farm which his parents bought in 1849. He had two older sisters. which enabled the construction of buildings on its second campus by the Charles River. the Eastman Commercial College in the early 1840s in Rochester. he had been tinkering at home to develop it.000 gift in 1901 to the Mechanics Institute. the family gave up the farm and moved to Rochester in 1860. New York. He started his philanthropy early.[3] His father had started a business school.[2] He was largely self-educated.[3] Her second daughter Katie had contracted polio when young and died in late 1870. and donating to Tuskegee and Hampton universities. Thomas Edison. and schools of dentistry and medicine at the University of Rochester. and a few years later by their followers Léon Bouly. In 1888 he perfected the Kodak camera. To survive and afford George's schooling. his mother took in boarders. 1867) was an American inventor and sewing machine pioneer.bringphotography to the mainstream.[4] As his father's health started deteriorating. although he attended a private school in Rochester after the age of eight. the youngest child. now operated as the International Museum of Photography and Film. sharing the income from his business to establish educational and health institutions. New York to George Washington Eastman and Maria Eastman (née Kilbourn). he established the Eastman Kodak Company. and Polly (Bemis) Howe in Spencer. (July 9. 1819 to Dr. Elias Howe. Eastman patented the first film in roll form to prove practicable. Jr. has been designated a National Historic Landmark Eastman was born in Waterville. He was a major philanthropist. the Lumière Brothers and Georges Méliès. [3] His father died of a brain disorder in May 1862. The George Eastman House. In 1892. he provided funds for clinics in London and other European cities to serve low-income residents. establishing the Eastman School of Music. 1819 – October 3. Notable among his contributions were a $625. In addition. devised by Eastman in 1889. now Rochester Institute of Technology.

Simon Ames Howe. She was the first person honored with twoNobel Prizes[1]—in physics and chemistry. a shuttle operating beneath the cloth to form the lock stitch. Massachusetts to work as a mechanic with carding machinery. and in 1995 became the first woman to be entombed on her own merits in the Panthéonin Paris. Amasa was able to sell his first machine for £250 to William Thomas of Cheapside. MARIE CURIE Marie Skłodowska-Curie (7 November 1867 – 4 July 1934) was a physicist and chemistfamous for her pioneering research on radioactivity.[5] Despite his efforts to sell his machine. died in Cambridge. he apprenticed in the shop of Ari Davis. who owned a factory for the manufacture of corsets. a master mechanic in Cambridge who specialized in the manufacture and repair of chronometers and other precision instruments. in one case at least 80 of them. After mill closings due to the Panic of 1837. he moved to Cambridge.[2] They had three children: Jane Robinson Howe. other entrepreneurs began manufacturing sewing machines. His wife Elizabeth. umbrellas and valises.[2] . Massachusetts shortly after his return in 1849.[3] However. He won the dispute and earned considerable royalties from Singer and others for sales of his invention. Howe returned nearly penniless to the United States. London. Elias and his family joined Amasa in London in 1848. daughter of Simon Ames and Jane B. to July 19. His machine contained the three essential features common to most modern machines: a needle with the eye at the point.[4] Despite securing his patent.750) for a sewing machine using a lockstitch design. Contrary to popular belief. and Julia Maria Howe. who preceded Elias back to the United States. so his elder brother Amasa Bemis Howe traveled to England in October 1846 to seek financing. in which Howe served during the Civil War as a private in Company D and regimental postmaster from August 14. He married Elizabeth Jennings Ames. Howe contributed much of the money he earned to the equip the 17th Connecticut Volunteer Infantry Regiment of the Union Army during the Civil War.S.where he apprenticed in a textile factory in Lowell beginning in 1835. one as early as 1790. and an automatic feed. and some had even patented their designs and produced working machines.[1] It was in the employ of Davis that Howe seized upon the idea of the sewing machine. and on September 10. Ames on 3 Mar 1841 in Cambridge. 1862. Beginning in 1838. Patent 4. apprenticing along with his cousin Nathaniel P. he was awarded the first United States patent (U. Howe was not the first to conceive of the idea of a sewing machine. Howe had considerable difficulty finding investors in the United States to finance production of his invention. 1846. Howe originated significant refinements to the design concepts of his predecessors. Many other people had formulated the idea of such a machine before him. Banks. 1865. She was the first female professor at the University of Paris. but after business disputes with Thomas and failing health of his wife. Howe was forced to defend his patent in a court case that lasted from 1849 to 1854 because he found that Isaac Singerwith cooperation from Walter Hunt had perfected a facsimile of his machine and was selling it with the same lockstitch that Howe had invented and patented.

Netherlands. and considered to be the first microbiologist. the world's first studies were conducted into the treatment of neoplasms. 1723) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist from Delft. October 24. He is best known for his work on the improvement of the microscopeand for his contributions towards the establishment of microbiology. and the only person to win in multiple sciences.Frédéric Joliot-Curie.[5] In 1932. She shared her 1903 Nobel Prize in Physics with her husband Pierre Curie and with the physicist Henri Becquerel. She was the sole winner of the 1911Nobel Prize in Chemistry. or Theunis. She founded the Curie Institutes in Paris and Warsaw. Using his handcrafted microscopes. Under her direction. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology". which she first isolated in 1898 – after her native country. Her achievements included a theory of radioactivity (a term that she coined[3]).[1] English pronunciation: /ˈleɪvənhʊk/. In 1891. Warsaw. and which we now refer to as micro-organisms. inEnglish. He was . the only woman to date to win in two fields. using radioactive isotopes. Curie died in 1934 of aplastic anemia brought on by her years of exposure to radiation. headed by her physician-sister Bronisława.[6] ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek (in Dutch also Anthonie. 1632 – August 26. she founded a Radium Institute (now the Maria Skłodowska–Curie Institute of Oncology) in her home town. Skłodowska-Curie (she used both surnames) never lost her sense of Polish identity.[4] During World War I she became a member of the Committee for a Free Poland (Komitet Wolnej Polski). where she earned her higher degrees and conducted her subsequent scientific work. which remain major centres of medical research today. she followed her older sister Bronisława to study in Paris. She studied at Warsaw's clandestine Floating Universityand began her practical scientific training in Warsaw. Antony or Anton.She was born Maria Salomea Skłodowska (IPA: 'marja salɔ'mɛa skwɔ'dɔfska) in Warsaw. Her daughter Irène Joliot-Curie and son-in-law. and the discovery of two elements. Dutch: [ˈleːʋənˌhuːk] ( listen). in what was then the Kingdom of Poland. While an actively loyal French citizen. She named the first chemical element that she discovered – polonium. which he originally referred to as animalcules. he was the first to observe and describe single-celled organisms. aged 24. Skłodowska-Curie was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize. polonium and radium. Antoni. She taught her daughters the Polish language and took them on visits to Poland. would similarly share a Nobel Prize. techniques for isolating radioactive isotopes.

Van Leeuwenhoek did not author any books. Newton . although he did write many letters. An experienced businessman. he could create a very small. By placing the middle of a small rod of soda lime glass in a hot flame. technical insights in the history of science. He studied a broad range of microscopic phenomena. even though this belief conflicted both with his construction of hundreds of microscopes and his habit of building a new microscope whenever he chanced upon an interesting specimen that he wanted to preserve. published in 1687. Van Leeuwenhoek's interest in microscopes and a familiarity with glass processing led to one of the most significant. He therefore allowed others to believe that he was laboriously spending most of his nights and free time grinding increasingly tiny lenses to use in microscopes. lays the foundations for most of classical mechanics. These spheres became the lenses of his microscopes. the scientific community of his time would likely disregard or even forget his role in microscopy. Then. by reinserting the end of one whisker into the flame. who has been "considered by many to be the greatest and most influentialscientist who ever lived. and simultaneously well-hidden. and shared the resulting observations freely with groups such as the English Royal Society. and theologian. high-quality glass sphere.[2][3] Van Leeuwenhoek made good use of the huge lead provided by his method. Van Leeuwenhoek could pull the hot section apart to create two long whiskers of glass. bacteria.[4] Such work firmly established his place in history as one of the first and most important explorers of the microscopic world. SIR ISAAC NEWTON Sir Isaac Newton PRS (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727 [NS: 4 January 1643 – 31 March 1727])[1] was an English physicist. with the smallest spheres providing the highest magnifications. natural philosopher. which dominated the scientific view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. astronomer. Van Leeuwenhoek used samples and measurements to estimate numbers of microorganisms in units of water.also the first to record microscopic observations of muscle fibers. and blood flow in capillaries (small blood vessels). In this work. spermatozoa. One of the first people to discover cells along with Robert Hooke. Newton described universal gravitation and the three laws of motion. Leeuwenhoek realized that if his simple method for creating the critically important lens was revealed."[7] His monograph Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. alchemist. mathematician.

astronomer. to the specific physical laws the work successfully described.[7] the "father of science". inventing an improved military compass and other instruments. developed Newton's method for approximating the roots of a function. 15 February 1564[4] – 8 January 1642). fearing to be accused of refusing holy orders GALILEO GALILEI Galileo Galilei (Italian pronunciation: [ɡaliˈlɛːo ɡaliˈlɛi]. independently. Newton was also highly religious.[7] and "the Father of Modern Science". In mathematics. thus removing the last doubts about heliocentrism and advancing the Scientific Revolution. and philosopher who played a major role in the Scientific Revolution.[6] the "father of modern physics".[8] His contributions to observational astronomy include the telescopic confirmation of the phases of Venus. and contributed to the study of power series. and wrote more on Biblical hermeneutics and occult studies than on science and mathematics. the discovery of the four largest satellites of Jupiter (named the Galilean moons in his honour). Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope[8] and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours that form the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. Newton shares the credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the development ofdifferential and integral calculus. . due. which assisted in setting standards for scientific publication down to the present time. He was an unorthodox Christian. He also demonstrated the generalised binomial theorem.[1][5]was an Italian physicist.showed that the motions of objects on Earth and of celestial bodies are governed by the same set of natural laws. Newton secretly rejected Trinitarianism. and for the style of the work. the subjects he is mainly associated with. Galileo also worked in applied science and technology. His achievements include improvements to the telescope and consequent astronomical observations and support for Copernicanism. and the observation and analysis of sunspots. The Principia is generally considered to be one of the most important scientific books ever written. Galileo has been called the "father of modern observational astronomy". mathematician. by demonstrating the consistency between Kepler's laws of planetary motion and his theory of gravitation.

where about 200 years later his more famous descendant Galileo Galilei was buried too. being appointed Bavarian Army Minister and reorganizing the army.[11][12] It was while Galileo was under house arrest that he wrote one of his finest works. These financial burdens may have contributed to Galileo's early fire to develop inventions that would bring him additional income. Galileo Bonaiuti. his family moved to Florence. a famous lutenist. and in 1784 received a knighthood from King George III.[1] He then was educated in the Camaldolese Monastery at Vallombrosa. on the two sciences now called kinematics and strength of materials. composer.[15] the value of well-measured or quantified experimentation. and. Three of Galileo's five siblings survived infancy. He also served as a Lieutenant-Colonel in the Loyalist forces in America during the American Revolutionary War. who had both supported Galileo up until this point. at that time in the late 14th century. he also drew designs for warships. [9] He was tried by the Inquisition. the Basilica of Santa Croce in Florence. 1814) was an American-born British physicist and inventor whose challenges to established physical theory were part of the 19th century revolution inthermodynamics. in 1791. and music theorist. forced to recant. was made a Count of the Holy Roman Empire .[13] [14] Galileo was born in Pisa (then part of the Duchy of Florence). but he was left with Jacopo Borghini for two years.[1] SIR BENJAMIN THOMPSON Sir Benjamin Thompson. university teacher and politician who lived in Florence from 1370 to 1450. which appeared to attack PopeUrban VIII and thus alienated him and the Jesuits. the first of six children of Vincenzo Galilei. FRS (March 26. an appreciation for a periodic or musical measure of time or rhythm. and they concluded that it could only be supported as a possibility. 1753 – August 21. a physician. After the end of the war he moved to London where his administrative talents were recognized when he was appointed a full Colonel. Michelangelo would also occasionally have to borrow funds from Galileo for support of his musical endeavors and excursions. and spent the rest of his life under house arrest. A prolific designer. Count Rumford (in German: Reichsgraf von Rumford).Galileo's championing of heliocentrism was controversial within his lifetime. Michelangelo was incapable of contributing his fair share for their father's promised dowry's to their brothers-in-law. and the youngest Michelangelo (or Michelagnolo) also became a noted lutenist and composer. When Galileo Galilei was 8. found "vehemently suspect of heresy". and Giulia Ammannati. 35 km southeast of Florence. as well as the illuminative progeny to expect from a marriage of mathematics and experiment. who doubted heliocentrism due to the absence of an observed stellar parallax. the family's surname shifted from Bonaiuti (or Buonaiuti) to Galilei. Galileo Bonaiuti was buried in the same church. when most subscribed to either geocentrism or the Tychonic system. Gaileo became an accomplished lutist himself and would have learned early from his father a healthy skepticism for established authority. Here he summarized the work he had done some forty years earlier. Galileo was named after an ancestor. [9][10] Galileo later defended his views in Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems. Two New Sciences. who would later attempt to seek legal remedies for payments due.[9] He met with opposition from astronomers.[9]The matter was investigated by the Roman Inquisition in 1615. although he contributed to financial burdens during Galileo's young adulthood. not as an established fact. He later moved to Bavaria and entered government service there. Italy.

to a doctor in Woburn. although he sometimes walked to Cambridge with the older Loammi Baldwin to attend lectures by Professor John Winthrop of Harvard College. charmed and married a rich and well-connected heiress named Sarah Rolfe (nee Walker). her father was minister and her late husband left her property at Concord. abandoning his wife. He met. his birthplace is preserved as a museum. forever. and through his wife's influence with the governor. They moved to Portsmouth. and was opposed to the rebels. Thompson excelled at his trade. he conducted experiments concerning the force ofgunpowder. Later that year. A year later. Volta was born in Como. a device that produced a static electric charge. At the age of 13 he was apprenticed to John Appleton. and coming in contact with refined and well educated people for the first time. to whom he gave valuable information about the American forces. He fled to the British lines. Thompson was a man of property and standing in New England. he worked for a few months for a Boston shopkeeper and then apprenticed himself briefly. he already had a reputation as a scientist. Thompson conducted experiments concerning the nature of heatand began to correspond with Loammi Baldwin and others about them. 1753. when he moved to London at the conclusion of the war. While working with the British armies in America. His promotion of it was so extensive that he is . in 1781. the results of which were widely acclaimed when eventually published. Italy on February 18. as it turned out. 1745. Massachusetts. adopted many of their characteristics. ALLESANDRO VOLTA Count Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Gerolamo Umberto Volta (18 February 1745 – 5 March 1827) was an Italian[1] [2] physicist known especially for the invention of thebattery in the 1800s. he improved and popularized the electrophorus. He was educated mainly at the village school. New Hampshire. and unsuccessfully. He was active in recruiting loyalists to fight the rebels. This earned him the enmity of the popular party. he became a physics professor at the Royal School in Como. Thompson's prospects were dim in 1772 but in that year they changed abruptly. Thompson was welcomed by the British. in thePhilosophical Transactions of the Royal Society. In 1774. While recuperating in Woburn in 1769 from an injury.Thompson was born in rural Woburn.[1] Thus. was appointed a major in a New Hampshire Militia. a merchant of nearby Salem. including an interest in science. then called Rumford. When the American Revolution began. and a mob attacked Thompson's house. on March 26. and became an advisor to bothGeneral Gage and Lord George Germain.

they are proportional. In 1794. developing separate means to study both electrical potential (V) and charge (Q). Volta married an aristocratic lady also from Como. He discovered methane by collecting the gas from marshes. a chair he occupied for almost 25 years. Volta also studied what we now call electrical capacitance. Volta studied the chemistry of gases. and likely for this work the unit of electrical potential has been named the volt.[3] In the years between 1776-77. even though a machine operating in the same principle was described in 1762 by Swedish professor Johan Wilcke. This may be called Volta's Law of capacitance. and discovering that for a given object.often credited with its invention.[ . Flaminio and Zanino. Teresa Peregrini. He devised experiments such as the ignition of methane by an electric spark in a closed vessel. with whom he raised three sons: Giovanni. In 1779 he became professor of experimental physics at the University of Pavia.

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